James Creek Suspension Bridge, Pennsylvania.
James Finlay, 1801.
Bridge demolished 1833.
The first modern suspension bridge.
It used wroughtiron cables.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Dryburgh
Bridge, River Tweed.
Opened1817. Collapsed 1818.
Union Bridge, River Tweed, 1820.
The oldest suspension bridge still
carrying traffic.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Menai
Suspension Bridge
Thomas Telford, Completed 1826
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Clifton Suspension Bridge
I K Brunel, Completed1864.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Two cables
support one
deck.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
BROOKLYN BRIDGE
John Augustus Roebling,1883.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Four cables, two decks.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
A light walkway is suspended between the two decks of the Brooklyn Bridge.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Golden Gate Suspension Bridge
Irving Morrow, Charle
Alton Ellis, Leon Moissieff, 1937.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
Leon Moissieff. Opened1940.
PC LT
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
New Tacoma Narrows Bridge (Background: Mt Rainier)
Charles E Andrew and Dexter R Smith,1950
Map
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
A second bridge at Tacoma Narrows was built in 2007.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Severn Bridge
William Brown, 1966
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Brown designed the Severn Bridge to avoid
the problems of the Tacoma Bridge. It has
a slender, aerodynamic deck.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Humber Bridge
John Hyatt, Douglas Strachan
and others, 1981.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
THE TOP TEN SUSPENSION BRIDGES
Suspension bridge are typically ranked by the length of their main span.
AkashiKaikyo Bridge
(Japan) 1991
m 1998
Xihoumen Bridge
(China) 1650
m 2007
Great Belt Bridge
(Denmark) 1624
m 1998
Runyang Bridge
(China)
1490
m 2005
Humber Bridge
(England) 1410
m
1981
(The longest span from 1981 until 1998.)
Jiangyin Suspension Bridge
(China)
1385
m
1997
Tsing Ma Bridge
(Hong Kong),
1377
m
1997
(Longest span with both road and metro.)
VerrazanoNarrows Bridge
(USA) 1
298 m 1964
(The longest span from 1964 until 1981.)
Golden Gate Bridge
(USA)
1280
m 1937
(The longest span from 1937 until 1964.)
Yangluo Bridge
(China)
1280
m
2007
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Millenium
Bridge 2000
Arup, Foster and Partners
LT
PC
Synchronous Lateral Excitation
http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~den/ICSV9_06.htm
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Dampers on Millenium
Bridge to prevent synchronous lateral excitation.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The first person to study the physics and mathematics of the
suspension bridge was Galileo.
Galileo Galilei
1564 
1642
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGE: FORCES
Tension at O.
y
T
T
o
W
Deck
0
P
Section of deck supported by
cables segment OP. Length = x.
Cable
Weight of red
section of deck.
Tension at P.
Section of cable between O and P.
P has horizontal coordinate x.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
W
T
o
T
The three forces T
0
, T
and Ware in equilibrium.
They form a triangle of forces with tan
= W / T
o
.
T is tangential to the chain at P.
y
T
P
y
T
P
y
T
P
y
T
P
y
T
P
y
T
P
y
T
P
y
T
P
y
T
P
y
P
y
T
T
o
0
P
W
x
x
T
o
T
W
W
x
The triangle of forces is similar to the differential
triangle at P.
They both have gradient tan
= W / T
o
.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
has the dimensions of mass/length: m.l
1
g
has the dimensions of acceleration: l.t
2
T
o
has the dimensions of force: m.l.t
2
Thus k
has the dimensions of length
1
: l
1
length mass / =
xg W =
x = horizontal distance from the point O.
kx
dx
dy
=
T
o
T
W
x
y
x
y
Gradient
o
o
=
O
T
W
Gradient =
O
T
W
x
y
=
o
o
O
T
xg
x
y
o
o
=
kx
x
y
=
o
o
In the limit:
O
T
g
k
=
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Since y = 0 when x = 0 C must = 0
k has the dimensions of length
1
.
x
has the dimensions of length.
Thus:
y has the dimensions of length.
THE EQUATION FOR THE CHAINCURVE OF A SUSPENSION BRIDGE
kx
dx
dy
=
}
= dx kx y .
C
kx
y + =
2
2
A Parabola
2
2
kx
y =
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
T
o
T
xg
( )
2 2
2
O
T x g T + =
Tension in the Cable
The tension in the cable is greatest at the towers.
The tension in the cable is a minimum at the lowest point and =
T
o
.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
BRASSIERES:
An Engineering Miracle
From Science and Mechanics, February, 1964
By Edward Nanas
There is more to brassiere design than meets the eye. In many respects, the challenge of
enclosing and supporting a semisolid mass of variable volume and shape, plus its adjacent
mirror image 
together they equal the female bosom 
involves a design effort comparable to that
of building a bridge or a cantilevered skyscraper.
http://www.firstpr.com.au/showandtell/corsetry1/nanas/engineer.html
Other Applications of Suspensionbridge Technology
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
THE CATENARY
Catenary, Alysoid, Chainette.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
A spiders web: multiple catenaries.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Simple suspension bridges
or rope bridges are catenaries,
not
parabolas.
Sderskr
Bridge, Finland.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Galileo believed that a catenary
had the equation of a parabola.
He had studied the parabola in various contexts and was the first
to state that a projectile would follow the path of a parabola.
In 1669 a posthumous publication by Joachim Jungius proved that
the function describing a catenary
could not be algebraic and could
not therefore be a parabola.
Joachim Jungius
1587
1657.
GALILEO AND THE CATENARY
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
In 1690 Jakob
Bernoulli issued a challenge to Leibniz, Christiaan
Huygens
and Johann Bernoulli to derived the equation for the catenary.
The solutions were presented in 1691.
Newton also solved the
problem: anonymously.
The Age of Big Hair.
THE JAKOB BERNOULLI CHALLENGE.
Gottfried Leibniz Christiaan
Huygens
Johann Bernoulli
Jakob
Bernoulli
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Several generations of
mathematical geniuses.
Jakob
Johann (I)
Daniel
Nicolaus
(II)
Johann (II)
Johann (III)
Nicolaus
(III)
The Bernoulli Family Tree
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Jakob
Bernoulli
(16541705)
First studied to be a minister.
Studied at Basel University.
Received degree in theology.
Fascinated by mathematics.
Furthered the calculus he had
learned from Leibniz.
Studied catenaries.
Worked on the design of bridges.
Studied the brachistochrone
problem with Johann.
Was a professor at Basel until
his death.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
THE SOLUTIONS TO THE BERNOULLI CHALLENGE.
Leibniz used calculus, but did not show his method.
Johann Bernoulli used the calculus of variations.
This involves finding the shape which minimizes
the potential energy of the system.
Huygens used a complicated geometric proof.
A solution using differential equations can also used.
In 1691, when the derivation of the equation for the catenary
was
published, the Jesuit priest Ignace Gaston Paradies published a
textbook on forces and geometry which included the derivation of
the equations for the suspensionbridge cable and the catenary.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
y
T
T
o
0
P
Cable
Tension at O.
Tension at P.
Tsin
Tcos
W = sg
s
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
sg
T
o
T
The three forces T
0
, T and sg
are in equilibrium.
They form a triangle of forces with tan
= sg
/ T
o
.
Since T is tangential to the curve formed by the chain
tan
is equal to the gradient at the point P.
Gradient = sg
/ T
o
.
T
o
T
sg
y
T
T
o
0
P
Cable
Tension at O.
Tension at P.
Tsin
Tcos
W = sg
s
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
O
T
sg
u = tan
u
tan
g
T
s
O
=
g
T
k
O
=
u tan k s =
Derivation of the Catenary
Equation Method 1
We have shown:
Define:
T
o
has the dimension of force: m.l.t
2
has the dimension of mass/length: m.l
1
g
has the dimension of acceleration: l.t
2
Thus:
k has the units of length: l
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Consider the differential triangle.
In the limit s
approaches the value
of the hypotenuse.
S
x
y
sg
u cos =
ds
dx
Derivation of the Catenary
Equation Method 1
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Derivation of the Catenary
Equation Method 1
u
u
2
sec k
d
ds
=
u u d
ds
ds
dx
d
dx
=
u cos =
ds
dx
S
x
y
u u u
u
sec cos . sec .
2
k k
d
dx
= = u
u
sec k
d
dx
=
u tan k s =
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Derivation of the Catenary
Equation Method 1
u u d
ds
ds
dy
d
dy
= u sin =
ds
dy
u u
u
sin . sec
2
k
d
dy
=
S
x
y
u u
u
tan . sec k
d
dy
=
u
u
2
sec k
d
ds
=
u tan k s =
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Derivation of the Catenary
Equation Method 1
0 , 0 = = u x
C k + + = 0 1 ln . 0 0 = C
u u tan sec ln . + = k x
Deriv
Parametric equation of the catenary
(1)
u
u
sec k
d
dx
=
y
T
0
P
x
sec . x dx k d u u = =
} }
.lnsec tan x k C u u = + +
Separate variables and integrate
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
u u
u
tan . sec k
d
dy
=
Derivation of the Catenary
Equation Method 1
} }
= = u u u d k dy y . tan . sec
C k y + = u sec
We have not defined where the axis y = 0 is.
Define C = 0.
Thus when
= 0 y = k.
u sec k y =
Parametric equation of the catenary
(2)
x
}
k
Separate variables and integrate
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
u u tan sec ln . + = k x
u sec k y =
Derivation of the Catenary
Equation Method 1
We now have the two parametric equations for the catenary.
We need to eliminate
to obtain the cartesian
xy
equation.
k
y
= u sec
u u
2 2
sec tan 1 = +
1 ln .
2

.

\

+ =
k
y
k
y
k x
(1) (2)
From (2):
(3)
1 sec tan
2
= u u
From (1), (3) and (4):
(4)
Recall the identity: 1 ln cosh
2 1
+ =
u u u
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Derivation of the Catenary
Equation Method 1
1 ln .
2

.

\

+ =
k
y
k
y
k x
1 ln cosh
2 1
+ =
u u u

.

\

=
k
y
k x
1
cosh
k
y
k
x
=

.

\

cosh

.

\

=
k
x
k y cosh
Jungius
was correct. The catenary
is not
described
by an algebraic function; and is thus not a parabola.
Rearranging and taking the
cosh function of both sides
of the equation gives:
If x has the dimensions of length:
x/k
is dimensionless.
y
has the dimensions of length.
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
u tan k s =
S
x
y
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
dy dx ds + =
The Derivation of the Catenary
by Differential Equations.
2
1

.

\

+ =
dx
dy
dx
ds
2
2
.
dx
y d
k
dx
ds
=
We have just shown:
2
2
2
1 .

.

\

+ =
dx
dy
dx
y d
k
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2
2
2
1 .

.

\

+ =
dx
dy
dx
y d
k
The Derivation of the Catenary
by Differential Equations.
dx
dy
y = '
( )
( )
2
' 1
'
. y
dx
dy
k + =
(1)
Let:
From (1) and (2):
Separate variables
( ) ( )
k
dx
y y d . ' 1 '
2
+ =
( )
( )
2
' 1
'
y
y d
k
dx
+
=
( )
( )
} }
+
=
2
' 1
'
y
y d
k
dx
(2)
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
( )
( )
} }
+
=
2
' 1
'
y
y d
k
dx
Recall the standard integral:
}
=
+
u
u
du
1
2
sinh
1
( ) ' sinh y
k
x
=

.

\

Take sinh function of both sides:

.

\

=
k
x
dx
dy
sinh
} }

.

\

= dx
k
x
dy . sinh
C
k
x
k y +

.

\

= cosh

.

\

=
k
x
k y cosh
Once again we can define the
coordinate axes so that C = 0.
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
( ) C y
k
x
+ =
' sinh
1
0 = x
0 '= y
0 = C
When
Thus:
( ) ' sinh
1
y
k
x
=
Separate the variables
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Relationship Between
the Parabola and the Catenary
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2.cosh 2
2
x
y
 
=

\ .
2
2
x
y =
A Comparison of a Parabola and a Catenary
O
n
l
i
n
e
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
p
l
o
t
t
e
r
:
h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
m
a
t
h
e

f
a
.
d
e
/
e
n
#
a
n
c
h
o
r
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Relationship Between the Parabola and the Catenary.
The MacLaurin
Series for a Catenary
k
x
k cosh
=
0
2
2
)! 2 .(
cosh
n k
x
k
x
n
n
........
)! 2 .(
........
! 6 . ! 4 . ! 2 .
1 cosh
2
2
6
6
4
4
2
2
n k
x
k
x
k
x
k
x
k
x
n
n
+ + + =
........)
)! 2 .(
........
! 6 . ! 4 . ! 2 .
1 ( cosh
2
2
6
6
4
4
2
2
n k
x
k
x
k
x
k
x
k
k
x
k
n
n
+ + + =
........)
)! 2 .(
........
! 6 . ! 4 . ! 2 .
cosh
1 2
2
5
6
3
4 2
n k
x
k
x
k
x
k
x
k
k
x
k
n
n
+ + + =
k
k
x
k
x
k + ~
2
cosh
2
If k is >1 the catenary
can be approximated
by a parabolic function for small values of x.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2.cosh
2
x
y
 
=

\ .
2
2
4
x
y = +
If k is >1 the catenary
can be approximated by a parabolic function for small values of
x.
(k = 2)
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Relationship Between the Parabola and the Catenary
If the parabola y = x
2
is rolled along the xaxis the locus
of its focus is the catenary:
x y 4 cosh
4
1
=
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge
Parabola and Catenary
During the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge
it was possible at one stage to contrast a laden
and an unladen cable: a parabola and a catenary.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Inverted Parabolas and Catenaries
Arch Bridges
Freestanding Arches
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The New River Gorge Bridge, Virginia.
A supporteddeck bridge.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Tyne Bridge
A compressionarch suspendeddeck bridge
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
C
O
W
C
x
y
C
O
W = xg
C
SUPPORTED ARCH BRIDGE
The forces acting on a section of the arch are compressive.
An analysis of the triangle of forces leads once again to a parabola.
The arch is rigid. I does not assume the shape of an inverted parabola.
It should be constructed as an inverted parabola if it is to have a uniform
deck supported at regular intervals.
The triangle of forces acting on a segment is analogous to that
for a suspension bridge.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
THE INVERTED CATENARY
The inverted catenary
is the ideal curve for
an arch which supports only its own weight.
It is the minimum energy structure.
The forces are primarily of compression.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
St Louis Gateway Arch,
Eero
Saarinen, Completed 1965.
.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
St Louis Gateway Arch
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
This formula is inscribed on the arch.
Thus when x = 0 and y is at a maximum
y = 630 ft.
This also gives a separation of 630 ft
for the bases.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
TaqiKisra, Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia / Irak
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Casa Mil, Barcelona.
Antoni
Gaud
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Casa Mil, Barcelona.
Antoni
Gaud
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Casa Mil, Barcelona.
Antoni
Gaud
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Can you ride
a cycle with
square wheels?
http://www.maa.org/mathland/mathtrek_04_05_04.html
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
For the rolling square the shape of the road is a series
of inverted, truncated catenary
curves.
PC LT
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
For regular nsided polygonal wheels the curve of the road
is made from inverted catenaries with the equation:
y = 
Rcot(t/n).cosh(x/A)
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
In practice a triangular wheel would get stuck.
The vertices puncture the road.
Road
Bottom of triangular wheel
Spoke
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
www.exploratorium.edu/texnet/exhibits/motion/square.../square_cbk.pdf
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
www.maa.org/pubs/mathmag.html
(General study on roads
and noncircular wheels.)
www.macalester.edu/mathcs/documents/catenaries.pdf
(Uses two coordinate systems: polar and cartesian.)
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=6322
(Method using several differential equations.)
http://www.snc.edu/math/squarewheelbike.html
Follow hypertext link on the website mathematics.
(Uses standard geometry and calculus: but long.)
See: Wikipedia
page on Roulette (curve).
(Generates the catenary
road as a roulette in the complex plane.)
Proving that the locus of the centre of a square as it
rolls over an inverted catenaries is a straight line.
There are several, diverse proofs. Some are long and complicated.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Consider the square resting
on a vertex and symmetrically
poised between two of the
humps.
We want the centre of the
circle to remain on the line
y = a2 as the square rolls
along the road.
2a
Road, y = f(x)
a2
Y = a2
x
y
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2a
Road, y = f(x)
y = a2
x
y
A
B
C
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2a
Road, y = f(x)
y = a2
x
y
A
B
C
a
y
a.sec
.sec 2 a y a u + =
tan
dy
dx
u =
Appendix
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
.sec 2 a y a u + =
tan
dy
dx
u =
sec 2
y
a
u =
2 2
1 tan sec u u + =
2
2
1 sec
dy
dx
u
 
+ =

\ .
sec u u =
(1)
(2)
Let:
2
2
1
dy
u
dx
 
+ =

\ .
(3)
(4)
From (2) and (3):
2
1
dy
u
dx
=
2
y
u
a
=
From (1) and (3):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2
1
dy
u
dx
=
2
y
u
a
=
1 du
dy a
=
du du dy
dx dy dx
=
2
1
1
du
u
dx a
=
2
1
1
du
dx
a
u
=
Separate variables.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2
1
1
du
dx
a
u
=
2
1
1
du
dx
a
u
=
} }
1
cosh
x
C u
a
+ =
cosh
x
u C
a
 
=

\ .
2 cosh
y x
C
a a
 
=

\ .
2 .cosh
x
y a a C
a
 
=

\ .
2
y
u
a
=
0
0 2 .cosh a a C
a
 
=

\ .
( )
2 cosh C =
1
cosh 2 C
=
1
2 cosh cosh 2
x
y a a
a
 
=

\ .
Take cosh function of both sides.
When x = 0 y = f(x) = 0. Therefore:
The equation of the road.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Plots of the Inverted Catenary
Road
and Related Functions.
cosh( ) y x =
( )
1
cosh cosh 2 y x
=
( )
1
2 cosh cosh 2 y x
=
1
2 cosh cosh 2
x
y a a
a
 
=

\ .
(Road equationtion
with a = 1)
Road equation
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
1
2 cosh cosh 2
x
y a a
a
 
=

\ .
Solve for y = 0 and dy/dx
= 0
(0,0)
( )
1
.cosh 2, 2 a a a
y
x
(0.8814, 0.4142)
(1.7627, 0)
(Values when a = 1)
( )
1
2 .cosh 2,0 a
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
PC PC
LT LT
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Proof that the Arc Length of the Inverted Catenaries is
Equal to the Length of a Side of the Square: i.e. 2a.
2
1 .
dx
s dy
dy
 
= +

\ .
}
tan
dy
dx
u = cot
dx
dy
u =
2
1 cot . s dy u = +
}
(1)
(2) (3)
From (1) and (3):
cos . s ec dy u =
}
.sec 2 a y a u + =
2 sec y a a u =
sec .tan
dy
a
d
u u
u
=
.cos .sec .tan . s a ec d u u u u =
}
(4)
(5)
From (4) and (5):
2
.sec . s a d u u =
}
APPENDIX 1
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2a
a2
x
y
45
o
45
o
135
o
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2
.sec . s a d u u =
}
2
1
2
.sec . s a d
u
u
u u =
}
2
1
tan s a C
u
u
u = +
1
45
o
u =
2
135
o
u =
tan45 1 =
tan135 1 =
( )
1 1 2 s a a = =
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
APPENDIX 2
TNB
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
APPENDIX 3
Conversion of FLV (e.g. Youtube) files to downloadable files (e.g. MP4).
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
APPENDIX 4
http://www.mathefa.de/en
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
1
cosh y x
=
cosh x y =
cosh sinh
y
y y e + =
2 2
cosh sinh 1 y y =
2
cosh cosh 1
y
e y y = +
2
1
y
e x x = +
2
ln 1 y x x = +
1 2
cosh ln 1 x x x
= +
1 2
cosh ln 1 x x x
= +
APPENDIX 5
cosh
2
x x
e e
x
+
=
sinh
2
x x
e e
x
=
2 2
cosh sinh 1 x x = cosh sinh
x
x x e + =