You are on page 1of 106

SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN

CATENARIES, PARABOLAS AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES


DAVID GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
A Brief, Pictorial History of Suspension Bridges.
Famous Examples
Problems and Solutions.
Galileo
The Equations for the Chain Curve of a Suspension Bridge.
The Equation for a Hanging Chain. Parabola or Catenary?
The Catenary

and Jakob

Bernoullis Challenge.
Leibniz
Hugens
Bernoulli
The Methods for Deriving the Equation for the Catenary.
Calculus.
Differential Equation.
The Calculus of Variations.
The Relationship Between the Parabola and the Catenary.
The Inverted Parabola.
Arch Bridges
The Inverted Catenary.
Arches
Can Catenaries Help You to Cycle with Square Wheels?
TALK CONTENTS
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
A Suspended-deck Suspension Bridge
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The remains of the Maya Bridge at Yaxchilan, Mexican/Guatemalan border.
The earliest known suspension-deck suspension bridge. 100m in three spans. 7
th

Century.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Faust Vrani
In 1595 the Croation

bishop Faust Vrani

designed a
suspension bridge, but it was never constructed.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN


James Creek Suspension Bridge, Pennsylvania.


James Finlay, 1801.


Bridge demolished 1833.


The first modern suspension bridge.
It used wrought-iron cables.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Dryburgh

Bridge, River Tweed.
Opened1817. Collapsed 1818.
Union Bridge, River Tweed, 1820.
The oldest suspension bridge still
carrying traffic.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Menai

Suspension Bridge
Thomas Telford, Completed 1826
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Clifton Suspension Bridge
I K Brunel, Completed1864.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Two cables
support one
deck.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
BROOKLYN BRIDGE
John Augustus Roebling,1883.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Four cables, two decks.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
A light walkway is suspended between the two decks of the Brooklyn Bridge.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Golden Gate Suspension Bridge
Irving Morrow, Charle

Alton Ellis, Leon Moissieff, 1937.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
Leon Moissieff. Opened1940.
PC LT
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
New Tacoma Narrows Bridge (Background: Mt Rainier)
Charles E Andrew and Dexter R Smith,1950
Map
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
A second bridge at Tacoma Narrows was built in 2007.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Severn Bridge
William Brown, 1966
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Brown designed the Severn Bridge to avoid
the problems of the Tacoma Bridge. It has
a slender, aerodynamic deck.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Humber Bridge
John Hyatt, Douglas Strachan

and others, 1981.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
THE TOP TEN SUSPENSION BRIDGES
Suspension bridge are typically ranked by the length of their main span.
Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge

(Japan) 1991

m 1998
Xihoumen Bridge

(China) 1650

m 2007
Great Belt Bridge

(Denmark) 1624

m 1998
Runyang Bridge

(China)

1490

m 2005
Humber Bridge

(England) 1410

m

1981

(The longest span from 1981 until 1998.)
Jiangyin Suspension Bridge

(China)

1385

m

1997
Tsing Ma Bridge

(Hong Kong),

1377

m

1997

(Longest span with both road and metro.)
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge

(USA) 1

298 m 1964
(The longest span from 1964 until 1981.)
Golden Gate Bridge

(USA)

1280

m 1937

(The longest span from 1937 until 1964.)
Yangluo Bridge

(China)

1280

m

2007
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Millenium

Bridge 2000
Arup, Foster and Partners
LT
PC
Synchronous Lateral Excitation
http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~den/ICSV9_06.htm
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Dampers on Millenium

Bridge to prevent synchronous lateral excitation.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The first person to study the physics and mathematics of the
suspension bridge was Galileo.
Galileo Galilei
1564 -

1642
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGE: FORCES
Tension at O.
y
T
T
o
W
Deck
0
P
Section of deck supported by
cables segment OP. Length = x.

Cable
Weight of red
section of deck.
Tension at P.
Section of cable between O and P.
P has horizontal coordinate x.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
W
T
o
T
The three forces T
0

, T

and Ware in equilibrium.
They form a triangle of forces with tan

= W / T
o

.
T is tangential to the chain at P.
y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
P
y
T
T
o
0
P
W
x
x
T
o
T
W

SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN


y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
T
P

y
P
y
T
T
o
0
P
W
x
x
T
o
T

W
x


The triangle of forces is similar to the differential

triangle at P.
They both have gradient tan

= W / T
o

.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN


has the dimensions of mass/length: m.l
-1
g

has the dimensions of acceleration: l.t

-2
T
o

has the dimensions of force: m.l.t

-2
Thus k

has the dimensions of length
-1
: l
-1
length mass / =
xg W =
x = horizontal distance from the point O.
kx
dx
dy
=
T
o
T

W
x

y
x
y
Gradient
o
o
=
O
T
W
Gradient =
O
T
W
x
y
=
o
o
O
T
xg
x
y
o
o
=
kx
x
y
=
o
o
In the limit:
O
T
g
k

=
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Since y = 0 when x = 0 C must = 0
k has the dimensions of length
-1
.
x

has the dimensions of length.
Thus:
y has the dimensions of length.
THE EQUATION FOR THE CHAIN-CURVE OF A SUSPENSION BRIDGE
kx
dx
dy
=
}
= dx kx y .
C
kx
y + =
2
2
A Parabola
2
2
kx
y =
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
T
o
T

xg
( )
2 2
2
O
T x g T + =
Tension in the Cable
The tension in the cable is greatest at the towers.
The tension in the cable is a minimum at the lowest point and =

T
o

.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
BRASSIERES:
An Engineering Miracle
From Science and Mechanics, February, 1964
By Edward Nanas
There is more to brassiere design than meets the eye. In many respects, the challenge of
enclosing and supporting a semi-solid mass of variable volume and shape, plus its adjacent
mirror image -

together they equal the female bosom -

involves a design effort comparable to that
of building a bridge or a cantilevered skyscraper.
http://www.firstpr.com.au/show-and-tell/corsetry-1/nanas/engineer.html
Other Applications of Suspension-bridge Technology
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
THE CATENARY
Catenary, Alysoid, Chainette.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
A spiders web: multiple catenaries.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Simple suspension bridges
or rope bridges are catenaries,
not

parabolas.
Sderskr

Bridge, Finland.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Galileo believed that a catenary

had the equation of a parabola.


He had studied the parabola in various contexts and was the first

to state that a projectile would follow the path of a parabola.


In 1669 a posthumous publication by Joachim Jungius proved that

the function describing a catenary

could not be algebraic and could

not therefore be a parabola.
Joachim Jungius
1587

1657.
GALILEO AND THE CATENARY
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
In 1690 Jakob

Bernoulli issued a challenge to Leibniz, Christiaan

Huygens
and Johann Bernoulli to derived the equation for the catenary.
The solutions were presented in 1691.
Newton also solved the
problem: anonymously.
The Age of Big Hair.
THE JAKOB BERNOULLI CHALLENGE.
Gottfried Leibniz Christiaan

Huygens
Johann Bernoulli
Jakob

Bernoulli
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Several generations of

mathematical geniuses.


Jakob


Johann (I)


Daniel


Nicolaus

(II)


Johann (II)


Johann (III)
Nicolaus

(III)
The Bernoulli Family Tree
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Jakob

Bernoulli

(1654-1705)
First studied to be a minister.


Studied at Basel University.


Received degree in theology.
Fascinated by mathematics.


Furthered the calculus he had
learned from Leibniz.


Studied catenaries.


Worked on the design of bridges.


Studied the brachistochrone
problem with Johann.


Was a professor at Basel until

his death.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
THE SOLUTIONS TO THE BERNOULLI CHALLENGE.


Leibniz used calculus, but did not show his method.
Johann Bernoulli used the calculus of variations.
This involves finding the shape which minimizes

the potential energy of the system.


Huygens used a complicated geometric proof.
A solution using differential equations can also used.
In 1691, when the derivation of the equation for the catenary

was

published, the Jesuit priest Ignace Gaston Paradies published a

text-book on forces and geometry which included the derivation of

the equations for the suspension-bridge cable and the catenary.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
y
T
T
o
0
P

Cable
Tension at O.
Tension at P.
Tsin
Tcos
W = sg
s
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
sg
T
o
T
The three forces T
0

, T and sg

are in equilibrium.
They form a triangle of forces with tan

= sg

/ T
o

.


Since T is tangential to the curve formed by the chain

tan

is equal to the gradient at the point P.
Gradient = sg

/ T
o

.
T
o
T

sg
y
T
T
o
0
P

Cable
Tension at O.
Tension at P.
Tsin
Tcos
W = sg
s
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
O
T
sg
u = tan
u

tan
g
T
s
O
=
g
T
k
O

=
u tan k s =
Derivation of the Catenary

Equation Method 1
We have shown:
Define:
T
o

has the dimension of force: m.l.t
-2


has the dimension of mass/length: m.l
-1
g

has the dimension of acceleration: l.t
-2
Thus:
k has the units of length: l
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Consider the differential triangle.
In the limit s

approaches the value

of the hypotenuse.
S
x
y

The above triangle is similar to the



triangle of forces.
T
o
T

sg
u cos =
ds
dx
Derivation of the Catenary

Equation Method 1
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Derivation of the Catenary

Equation Method 1
u
u
2
sec k
d
ds
=
u u d
ds
ds
dx
d
dx
=
u cos =
ds
dx
S
x
y

u u u
u
sec cos . sec .
2
k k
d
dx
= = u
u
sec k
d
dx
=
u tan k s =
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Derivation of the Catenary

Equation Method 1
u u d
ds
ds
dy
d
dy
= u sin =
ds
dy
u u
u
sin . sec
2
k
d
dy
=
S
x
y

u u
u
tan . sec k
d
dy
=
u
u
2
sec k
d
ds
=
u tan k s =
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Derivation of the Catenary

Equation Method 1
0 , 0 = = u x
C k + + = 0 1 ln . 0 0 = C
u u tan sec ln . + = k x
Deriv
Parametric equation of the catenary

(1)
u
u
sec k
d
dx
=
y
T
0
P

x
sec . x dx k d u u = =
} }
.lnsec tan x k C u u = + +
Separate variables and integrate
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
u u
u
tan . sec k
d
dy
=
Derivation of the Catenary

Equation Method 1
} }
= = u u u d k dy y . tan . sec
C k y + = u sec
We have not defined where the axis y = 0 is.
Define C = 0.
Thus when

= 0 y = k.
u sec k y =
Parametric equation of the catenary

(2)
x
}
k
Separate variables and integrate
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
u u tan sec ln . + = k x
u sec k y =
Derivation of the Catenary

Equation Method 1
We now have the two parametric equations for the catenary.
We need to eliminate

to obtain the cartesian

x-y

equation.
k
y
= u sec
u u
2 2
sec tan 1 = +
1 ln .
2

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
k
y
k
y
k x
(1) (2)
From (2):
(3)
1 sec tan
2
= u u
From (1), (3) and (4):
(4)
Recall the identity: 1 ln cosh
2 1
+ =

u u u
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Derivation of the Catenary

Equation Method 1
1 ln .
2

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
k
y
k
y
k x
1 ln cosh
2 1
+ =

u u u
|
.
|

\
|
=

k
y
k x
1
cosh
k
y
k
x
=
|
.
|

\
|
cosh
|
.
|

\
|
=
k
x
k y cosh
Jungius

was correct. The catenary

is not

described

by an algebraic function; and is thus not a parabola.
Rearranging and taking the

cosh function of both sides

of the equation gives:
If x has the dimensions of length:
x/k

is dimensionless.
y

has the dimensions of length.
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
u tan k s =
S
x
y

We have previously shown:


The Derivation of the Catenary

by Differential Equations.
u tan =
dx
dy
dx
dy
k s . =
2
2
.
dx
y d
k
dx
ds
=
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
S
x
y

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
dy dx ds + =
The Derivation of the Catenary

by Differential Equations.
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
dx
dy
dx
ds
2
2
.
dx
y d
k
dx
ds
=
We have just shown:
2
2
2
1 .
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
dx
dy
dx
y d
k
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2
2
2
1 .
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
dx
dy
dx
y d
k
The Derivation of the Catenary

by Differential Equations.
dx
dy
y = '
( )
( )
2
' 1
'
. y
dx
dy
k + =
(1)
Let:
From (1) and (2):
Separate variables
( ) ( )
k
dx
y y d . ' 1 '
2
+ =
( )
( )
2
' 1
'
y
y d
k
dx
+
=
( )
( )
} }
+
=
2
' 1
'
y
y d
k
dx
(2)
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
( )
( )
} }
+
=
2
' 1
'
y
y d
k
dx
Recall the standard integral:
}

=
+
u
u
du
1
2
sinh
1
( ) ' sinh y
k
x
=
|
.
|

\
|
Take sinh function of both sides:
|
.
|

\
|
=
k
x
dx
dy
sinh
} }
|
.
|

\
|
= dx
k
x
dy . sinh
C
k
x
k y +
|
.
|

\
|
= cosh
|
.
|

\
|
=
k
x
k y cosh
Once again we can define the

coordinate axes so that C = 0.
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2):
( ) C y
k
x
+ =

' sinh
1
0 = x
0 '= y
0 = C
When
Thus:
( ) ' sinh
1
y
k
x

=
Separate the variables
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Relationship Between

the Parabola and the Catenary
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2.cosh 2
2
x
y
| |
=
|
\ .
2
2
x
y =
A Comparison of a Parabola and a Catenary
O
n
l
i
n
e

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

p
l
o
t
t
e
r
:

h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
m
a
t
h
e
-
f
a
.
d
e
/
e
n
#
a
n
c
h
o
r
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Relationship Between the Parabola and the Catenary.
The MacLaurin

Series for a Catenary
k
x
k cosh

=
0
2
2
)! 2 .(
cosh
n k
x
k
x
n
n
........
)! 2 .(
........
! 6 . ! 4 . ! 2 .
1 cosh
2
2
6
6
4
4
2
2
n k
x
k
x
k
x
k
x
k
x
n
n
+ + + =
........)
)! 2 .(
........
! 6 . ! 4 . ! 2 .
1 ( cosh
2
2
6
6
4
4
2
2
n k
x
k
x
k
x
k
x
k
k
x
k
n
n
+ + + =
........)
)! 2 .(
........
! 6 . ! 4 . ! 2 .
cosh
1 2
2
5
6
3
4 2
n k
x
k
x
k
x
k
x
k
k
x
k
n
n

+ + + =
k
k
x
k
x
k + ~
2
cosh
2
If k is >1 the catenary

can be approximated

by a parabolic function for small values of x.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2.cosh
2
x
y
| |
=
|
\ .
2
2
4
x
y = +
If k is >1 the catenary

can be approximated by a parabolic function for small values of

x.
(k = 2)
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Relationship Between the Parabola and the Catenary
If the parabola y = x
2

is rolled along the x-axis the locus
of its focus is the catenary:
x y 4 cosh
4
1
=
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge
Parabola and Catenary
During the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge

it was possible at one stage to contrast a laden

and an un-laden cable: a parabola and a catenary.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Inverted Parabolas and Catenaries
Arch Bridges
Free-standing Arches
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The New River Gorge Bridge, Virginia.
A supported-deck bridge.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
The Tyne Bridge
A compression-arch suspended-deck bridge
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
C
O
W
C

x
y
C
O
W = xg
C
SUPPORTED ARCH BRIDGE
The forces acting on a section of the arch are compressive.
An analysis of the triangle of forces leads once again to a parabola.
The arch is rigid. I does not assume the shape of an inverted parabola.


It should be constructed as an inverted parabola if it is to have a uniform

deck supported at regular intervals.
The triangle of forces acting on a segment is analogous to that

for a suspension bridge.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
THE INVERTED CATENARY


The inverted catenary

is the ideal curve for

an arch which supports only its own weight.


It is the minimum energy structure.
The forces are primarily of compression.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
St Louis Gateway Arch,
Eero

Saarinen, Completed 1965.
.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
St Louis Gateway Arch
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
This formula is inscribed on the arch.
Thus when x = 0 and y is at a maximum
y = 630 ft.
This also gives a separation of 630 ft

for the bases.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Taqi-Kisra, Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia / Irak
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Casa Mil, Barcelona.
Antoni

Gaud
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Casa Mil, Barcelona.
Antoni

Gaud
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Casa Mil, Barcelona.
Antoni

Gaud
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Can you ride
a cycle with
square wheels?
http://www.maa.org/mathland/mathtrek_04_05_04.html
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
For the rolling square the shape of the road is a series

of inverted, truncated catenary

curves.
PC LT
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
For regular n-sided polygonal wheels the curve of the road
is made from inverted catenaries with the equation:
y = -

Rcot(t/n).cosh(x/A)
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
In practice a triangular wheel would get stuck.
The vertices puncture the road.
Road
Bottom of triangular wheel
Spoke
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
www.exploratorium.edu/texnet/exhibits/motion/square.../square_cbk.pdf
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN


www.maa.org/pubs/mathmag.html
(General study on roads

and non-circular wheels.)


www.macalester.edu/mathcs/documents/catenaries.pdf

(Uses two coordinate systems: polar and cartesian.)


http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=6322

(Method using several differential equations.)


http://www.snc.edu/math/squarewheelbike.html

Follow hypertext link on the website mathematics.

(Uses standard geometry and calculus: but long.)
See: Wikipedia

page on Roulette (curve).
(Generates the catenary

road as a roulette in the complex plane.)
Proving that the locus of the centre of a square as it

rolls over an inverted catenaries is a straight line.
There are several, diverse proofs. Some are long and complicated.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Consider the square resting

on a vertex and symmetrically

poised between two of the

humps.
We want the centre of the

circle to remain on the line

y = a2 as the square rolls

along the road.
2a
Road, y = f(x)
a2
Y = a2
x
y
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2a
Road, y = f(x)
y = a2
x
y

A
B
C
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2a
Road, y = f(x)
y = a2
x
y

A
B
C
a
y
a.sec
.sec 2 a y a u + =
tan
dy
dx
u =
Appendix
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
.sec 2 a y a u + =
tan
dy
dx
u =
sec 2
y
a
u =
2 2
1 tan sec u u + =
2
2
1 sec
dy
dx
u
| |
+ =
|
\ .
sec u u =
(1)
(2)
Let:
2
2
1
dy
u
dx
| |
+ =
|
\ .
(3)
(4)
From (2) and (3):
2
1
dy
u
dx
=
2
y
u
a
=
From (1) and (3):
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2
1
dy
u
dx
=
2
y
u
a
=
1 du
dy a
=
du du dy
dx dy dx
=
2
1
1
du
u
dx a
=
2
1
1
du
dx
a
u
=

Separate variables.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2
1
1
du
dx
a
u
=

2
1
1
du
dx
a
u
=

} }
1
cosh
x
C u
a

+ =
cosh
x
u C
a
| |
=
|
\ .
2 cosh
y x
C
a a
| |
=
|
\ .
2 .cosh
x
y a a C
a
| |
=
|
\ .
2
y
u
a
=
0
0 2 .cosh a a C
a
| |
=
|
\ .
( )
2 cosh C =
1
cosh 2 C

=
1
2 cosh cosh 2
x
y a a
a

| |
=
|
\ .
Take cosh function of both sides.
When x = 0 y = f(x) = 0. Therefore:
The equation of the road.
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Plots of the Inverted Catenary

Road

and Related Functions.
cosh( ) y x =
( )
1
cosh cosh 2 y x

=
( )
1
2 cosh cosh 2 y x

=
1
2 cosh cosh 2
x
y a a
a

| |
=
|
\ .
(Road equationtion

with a = 1)
Road equation
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
1
2 cosh cosh 2
x
y a a
a

| |
=
|
\ .
Solve for y = 0 and dy/dx

= 0
(0,0)
( )
1
.cosh 2, 2 a a a

y
x
(0.8814, 0.4142)
(1.7627, 0)
(Values when a = 1)
( )
1
2 .cosh 2,0 a

SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
PC PC
LT LT
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
Proof that the Arc Length of the Inverted Catenaries is

Equal to the Length of a Side of the Square: i.e. 2a.
2
1 .
dx
s dy
dy
| |
= +
|
\ .
}
tan
dy
dx
u = cot
dx
dy
u =
2
1 cot . s dy u = +
}
(1)
(2) (3)
From (1) and (3):
cos . s ec dy u =
}
.sec 2 a y a u + =
2 sec y a a u =
sec .tan
dy
a
d
u u
u
=
.cos .sec .tan . s a ec d u u u u =
}
(4)
(5)
From (4) and (5):
2
.sec . s a d u u =
}
APPENDIX 1
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2a
a2
x
y
45
o
45
o
135
o
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
2
.sec . s a d u u =
}
2
1
2
.sec . s a d
u
u
u u =
}
2
1
tan s a C
u
u
u = +
1
45
o
u =
2
135
o
u =
tan45 1 =
tan135 1 =
( )
1 1 2 s a a = =
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
APPENDIX 2
TNB
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
APPENDIX 3
Conversion of FLV (e.g. Youtube) files to downloadable files (e.g. MP4).
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
APPENDIX 4
http://www.mathe-fa.de/en
SUSPENSION BRIDGES / D A GRIFFIN
1
cosh y x

=
cosh x y =
cosh sinh
y
y y e + =
2 2
cosh sinh 1 y y =
2
cosh cosh 1
y
e y y = +
2
1
y
e x x = +
2
ln 1 y x x = +
1 2
cosh ln 1 x x x

= +
1 2
cosh ln 1 x x x

= +
APPENDIX 5
cosh
2
x x
e e
x

+
=
sinh
2
x x
e e
x

=
2 2
cosh sinh 1 x x = cosh sinh
x
x x e + =