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# TheMathematicsofPumpingWater

AECOMDesignBuild
Civil,MechanicalEngineering

INTRODUCTION Inanypumpingsystem,theroleofthepumpisto provide sufficient pressure to overcome the operatingpressureofthesystemtomovefluidat a required flow rate. The operating pressure of the system is a function of the flow through the system and the arrangement of the system in terms of the pipe length, fittings, pipe size, the change in liquidelevation, pressure on the liquid surface,etc.Toachievearequiredflowthrougha pumping system, we need to calculate what the operatingpressureofthesystemwillbetoselect asuitablepump.

Water is pumped from the reservoir into a receiving tank. This kind of arrangement is used toliftwaterfromareservoir,orriver,intoawater treatment works for treatment before the water goes into the supply network. The water level in thereservoirvariesbutthedischargelevelinthe receiving tanks remains constant as the water is discharged from a point above the water level. The pump is required to pass forward a flow of 3 2500m /hrtothereceivingtank. The operating pressure of a pumped system is calculated in the SI unit of meters (m). To maintain dimensional consistency, any pressure values used within the calculations are therefore converted from kPa into m using the following conversion 1kPa = 0.102m (asmeasuredbyawaterfiledUtube manometer) For the above system, the operatingpressure or thetotalsystemhead, HTotal ,isdefinedas:

## HTotal = H s + H D + (P RT - P RES) (1)

where,

H s H D PRT

Figure1:TypicalVerticalTurbineWaterPumps

## MATHEMATICALMODELANDCALCULATIONS Consider the pumping arrangement shown in Figure2below:

Pressureonthesurfaceofthewaterin thereceivingtank(m) Pressureonthesurfaceofthewaterin PRES = thereservoir(m) Although theatmospheric pressurechanges with height, the change in pressure that occurs over thepumpingheightisoftensosmallthatitcanbe considered negligible. In this exemplar, the change in pressure over the elevation from the reservoir to the receiving tank is not that significant and hence is negligible, i.e., PRT - P RES 0 . Therefore,equation(1)becomes:

HTotal = H s + H D (2)
The static head H s is the physical change in elevationbetweenthesurfaceofthereservoirand thepointof discharge intothe receivingtank.As thewaterlevelinthereservoircanvary,thestatic headforthesystemwillvarybetweenamaximum andaminimumvalue:

Figure2:PumpingArrangement

## H = discharge level- reservoirT WL S min

and

reservoir to the receiving tank. Values can be obtainedfromstandardtablesandatotal K fittings valuecanbecalculatedbyaddingallthe K fittings valuesforeachindividualfittingwithinthesystem. The following table shows the calculation of K fittings forthesystemunderconsideration: FittingItems PipeEntrance (bellmouth)
o 90 Bend (shortradius) o 45 Bend

## H = dischargelevel- reservoirB WL S max

where TWL = TopWaterLevel(reservoir) BWL = BottomWaterLevel(reservoir) If the discharge point is at a level of 110.5 m abovethemeansealevel(alsoknownasAbove Ordnance Datum (AOD) in technical language) and the reservoir level varies between 105.2 m AODand101.6mAOD,then:

No.of Items 1 10 2 2 1 1

K fittings
Value 0.05 0.75 0.3 0.3 1.00 0.2

## H = 110 . 5- 105 . 2= 5 . 3m S min H = 110 . 5- 101 . 6= 8 . 9m S max

Asaresultofthevariationinthestatichead,the total system head, HTotal , will also have a maximum and minimum value which we need to calculatehere. The dynamic head is generated as a result of friction within the system. The dynamic head is calculated using the basic Darcy Weisbach equationgivenby:
H D =
where

Kv2 (3) 2 g

## Table1:Calculating K for thesystemunder fittings consideration

Hence, the total K fittings for the system under = losscoefficient = velocityinthepipe(m/sec)
2 = accelerationduetogravity(m/sec )

K
v

considerationis9.95.

## K pipe is associated with the straight lengths of

pipeusedwithinthesystemandisdefinedas:

## We can calculate the velocity in pipe using the followingformula:

v= Q (4) A

K pipe =
where

fL (6) D

where

3 = flowratethroughthepipe(m /sec)

f L D

## = frictioncoefficient = pipelength(m) = pipediameter(m)

througha0.8mdiameterpipethen:

## The friction coefficient f can be found using a modifiedversionoftheColebrookWhiteequation:

A=

2 pD

2 p 0 . 8

= 0 . 5m

f =

0. 25 k 5 . 74 + log 0 . 9 . 7 D Re 3
2

(7)

Hence,usingequation(4),weget:
v = 25000 1 = 1 . 39m/sec 3600 0 . 5

where

## The loss coefficient K is made up of two elements:

k Re

= Roughnessfactor(m) = Reynoldsnumber

## K = K fittings + K pipe (5) K fittings isassociatedwiththefittingsusedinthe

pipeworks of the system to pump the waterfrom

Thepiperoughnessfactor k isastandardvalue obtainedfromstandardtablesandisbasedupon the material of the pipe, including any internal coatings,andtheinternalconditionofthepipeline i.e.good,normalorpoor.

Reynolds number is a dimensionless quantity associatedwiththesmoothnessofflowofafluid and relating to the energy absorbed within the fluid as it moves. For anyflow in pipe, Reynolds number can be calculated using the following formula:
Re= vD

useavariablespeedpumpbyadjustingthepump speed we can control the flow to the receiving 3 tankto2500m /hrovertheentireheadrange. PUMPSELECTION Byrepeatingthecalculationfor H D forarangeof flows we can generate a pair of system curves that define the relationship between head and flow for the top and bottom water conditions. Thesecurvesdefinetheenvelopeofthepumping system. A pump has been selected from manufacturers details that can achieve the required flow at the BWL at a speed of 675 rpm. The characteristic hydraulic curve for the selected pump has been overlaidontothesystemcurves(seeFigure3on thenextpage)andtheeffectofrunningthepump at this speed but at the TWL can be seen. The IntersectionoftheTWLandBWLSystemCurves with the Speed Curves define the Pumps maximumandminimumoperatingspeeds.Inthis instance, the pump would run to the right hand end of its hydraulic curve possibly causing cavitations. Thepumpspeedneedstobereducedinorderto achieve the required flow at the TWL and the required speed can be calculated using the affinitylaws: First affinity law Flow is proportional to the shaftspeed,i.e.,

(8)

where

2 = Kinematicviscosity(m /s)

If the total pipe length is 250 m, the pipe has a roughness factor of 0.3 mm and the kinematic -6 2 viscosityofwateris 1. m /sec,thenfrom 31 10 equation(8),weget:

Re =

1 . 39 0 . 8 5 = 8 . 49 10 - 6 1 . 31 10

Usingthisvalueinequation(7),weget:

f =

0 . 25

## . 0003 5 . 74 0 log + 5 3 . 7 0 . 8 8 . 49 10 = 0 . 0165

0 . 9

Usingthisvalueinequation(6),weget:

0 . 0165 250 = 5 . 16 0 . 8 Finally, using equation (5), the total K value for K pipe =
thesystemis:

K = 5. 16+ 9 . 95= 15 . 11
We can now calculate the dynamic head using equation(3)asfollows:

Q1 N = 1 (9) Q N 2 2
where

Q
N

3 = Flowthroughthepipe(m /sec)

15 . 11 (1 . 39 ) = 1 H . 49m D = 2 9 . 81
The dynamic head is the same for both the maximumandminimumstaticheadconditionsas the dynamic head is independent of the system elevation. Hence, the maximum and minimum total head 3 valuesforthesystemataflowof2500m /hrcan nowbecalculatedusingequation(2):

) H1 (N = 1 2 (10) H (N2) 2
where

## HTotal max = 8 . 9+ 1 . 49= 10 . 39m HTotal min = 5 . 3+ 1 . 49= 6 . 79m

Hence we can conclude that in order to pump 3 2500m /hratthebottomlevelinthereservoir,the pumpwillneedtoovercomeasystempressureof 10.39m.Atthetoplevel,thepumpwillonlyneed to overcome a system pressure of 6.79 m. If a centrifugal pump were selected to achieve either the maximum or minimum head condition, this would likely result in either too much or too little flow at the other head condition. Instead, if we

Using an iterative process ofadjusting the pump speedandcalculatingtheresultantflowandhead using the above laws, we can determine the required speed of the pump for the TWL condition.Inthiscase,thepumpneedstorunat around590rpm. The power requirement for the pump can be calculatedby:
P= Q H g r (11) PumpEfficiency

where

= Power(W)

3 = Density(Kg/m )

= 1000kg/m forwater Forthispump,atthemaximumheadof10.39m 3 3 and a flow of 2500 m /hr (0.694m /s) the pump efficiencyis84%.Therefore,usingequation(11), thepowerrequirementis:
P = 0. 694 10 . 39 9 . 81 1000 ,or 0 . 84

selectedpump is capable ofachieving the entire operating range. Using variable speed pumps is one way of coping with the variations in system operatingpressure. EXTENSIONACTIVITIES 1. Calculate H Totalmax and H Totalmin for the
3 systemiftheflowisreducedto2000m /hr. 2. Whathappenstothepumppowerifthepump efficiencyreduces? 3. Calculatethepowerrequirementofthepump forthefollowingefficiencies:

P = 84210W= 84 . 21 k W Hence,wecansaythattoovercometherequired headof10.39m,weneedavariablespeedpump with84.21W. CONCLUSION The accurate calculation of the maximum and minimumtotalheadiscriticalfortheselectionofa suitable pump. Selection of an unsuitable pump can result in too much or too little water being pumped.Toolittlewatermight,forexample,result in customers not receiving clean drinking water whentheyturnonthetap.Toomuchwatermight result in water being wasted or even lead to flooding. Theoperatingpressureofapumpingsystemcan vary due to various factors, e.g. changes in reservoir level, so all the relevant operating conditions need to be assessed to ensure the

## 95% 75% 50%

WHERETOFINDMORE 1. Basic Engineering Mathematics, John Bird, 2007,publishedbyElsevierLtd. 2. Engineering Mathematics, Fifth Edition, John Bird,2007,publishedbyElsevierLtd. 3. Pressure and Head Losses in Pipes and Ducts,D.S.Miller,1984

Figure3:GraphofPumpingSystemPressureCurvesandPumpOperatingSpeedCurves

MathewMilnesProjectEngineer,AECOMDesignBuild Mathew has worked in theWater Industry designing clean and dirty water treatment plants forthelast10years.AsaCharteredMechanicalEngineerheusesmathematicsonadaily basis to calculate the size and performance of process equipment to provide people with clean drinking water and to ensure their wastewater is treated and disposed of in an environmentallyacceptableway.

INFORMATIONFORTEACHERS Theteachersshouldhavesomeknowledgeof terminologyusedinpumpingwaterandthephysicalmeaningbehindthem handlingformulaewiththemethodofbacksubstitution plottinggraphsusingexcelsheets manipulatingcalculationsandconvertingunitsforuniformity Equation 1 can be derivedfrom an extension tothe Euler equation. Please refer to the lastpage for moreinformationandobservetheuseofpartialderivativesandlimittheory. TOPICSCOVEREDFROMMATHEMATICSFORENGINEERING Topic1:MathematicalModelsinEngineering Topic4:Functions LEARNINGOUTCOMES LO01:Understandtheideaofmathematicalmodelling LO04:Understandthemathematicalstructureofarangeoffunctionsandbefamiliarwiththeirgraphs LO09:Constructrigorousmathematicalargumentsandproofsinengineeringcontext LO10:Comprehendtranslationsofcommonrealisticengineeringcontextsintomathematics ASSESSMENTCRITERIA AC1.1:Stateassumptionsmadeinestablishingaspecificmathematicalmodel AC1.2:Describeandusethemodellingcycle AC4.1:Identifyanddescribefunctionsandtheirgraphs AC4.2:Analysefunctionsrepresentedbypolynomialequations AC9.1:Useprecisestatements,logicaldeductionandinference AC9.2:Manipulatemathematicalexpressions AC9.3:Constructextendedargumentstohandlesubstantialproblems AC10.1:Readcriticallyandcomprehendlongermathematicalargumentsorexamplesofapplications LINKSTOOTHERUNITSOFTHEADVANCEDDIPLOMAINENGINEERING Unit1:InvestigatingEngineeringBusinessandtheEnvironment Unit3:SelectionandApplicationofEngineeringMaterials Unit4:InstrumentationandControlEngineering Unit5:MaintainingEngineeringPlant,EquipmentandSystems Unit6:InvestigatingModernManufacturingTechniquesusedinEngineering Unit7:InnovativeDesignandEnterprise

Unit8:MathematicalTechniquesandApplicationsforEngineers

1. H H Totalmax =9.85m, H Totalmin =6.25m( D=0.95m) 2. Thepowerrequirementgoesupastheefficiencyreduces. 3. 90%=74.5kW,75%=94.3kW,50%=141.5kW

ApplyingNewton'slawsofmotiontotheflowthroughthecylindricalelementalongthestreamline,theforce (inthedirectionofmotionalongthestreamline)=massxacceleration. The mass of the element and the forces acting on it will be considered later, but first we look at the accelerationofthefluidelement.Ignoringthepossibilitythattheflowmightbesteady,qcanchangewith timet,andalsowithpositionsalongthestreamline.Inotherwords,qisafunctionoftands,orq=f(t, s).Hence,iftheelementmovesadistancesintimet,thenthetotalchangeinvelocityqisgivenby:

dq =

q q ds + dt s t

andinthelimitast tendstozero,the"substantive"derivativeisgivenas:
dq dq q ds q q q = Lim = Lim + = q + dt 0 dt0 dt dt s dt t s t

In other words, fluid can accelerate because it is moving (at velocity q) through a region with changing velocity,orbecausetheflowischangingwithtime.However,forasteadyflowthelocalvelocityatapoint doesnotvarywithtime,sothelasttermundersuchcircumstanceswillbezero. LookingnowattheforcesactingontheelementandapplyingNewton'slaws:
pdA- (p+ p dq ds) dA- r dAdsgcosq = r dsdAq s ds p q dz +r q +r g =0 s s ds

dividingthroughbyA.sanddefiningz=scos,wehavethat:

dividingthroughbyA.sanddefiningz=scos,wehavethat:
p q dz +r q +r g =0 s s ds

andinthelimitasstendstozero,
dp dq dz +r q +r g =0 ds ds ds

or

1 dp dq dz +q +g =0 r ds ds ds

## ThisisaformofEuler'sequation,andrelatesp,q,andzalongastreamline. Assuming r isconstant,andrememberingthat:

q
2 dq 1 d(q ) = ds 2 ds

ifthetermaboveissubstitutedintoEuler'sequation,itthenbecomespossibletointegrateitgiving:
p 1 2 + q +g z=constantalongastreamline r 2 1 2 p+ r q +r g z=constantastreamline 2
2 p q + +z = constantalongastreamline r g 2g

The three equations above are valid for incompressible, frictionless steady flow, and what they stateisthattotalenergyisconservedalongastreamline. Thefirst of theseforms of the Bernoulli equation is a measure ofenergy per unit mass, the second of energyperunitvolume,andthethirdof"head",equivalenttoenergyperunitweight. 2 In the second equation, the term p is the static pressure, { r q } is the dynamic pressure, r gz is the elevationalterm,andtheSUMofallthreeisknownasthestagnation(ortotal)pressure,p0 Inthethirdequation,p/ r gisknownasthepressurehead,q2 /2gasthedynamichead,andthesumofthe threetermsastheTotalHeadH. TheBernoulliequationisusedwidelyinfluidmechanicsandhydraulics.Assumingthattheflowisactually frictionlessandincompressible,whatitshowsisthatifthevelocityfallsinaflow,thenthepressuremust riseandviceversa. Foragas,theelevationaltermscanbeassumednegligible. * Thesum{p+ r gz}isoftenwrittenasp thepiezometricpressure.Wecanthensay:
* p + r q2 =constantalongastreamline

Tomeasurethestaticpressureinafluidflow,itisnormaltomakeasmallholeintheboundarywallofthe flowandtoconnecttheholetoapressuremeasuringdeviceamanometerbeingthetraditionalinstrument used. Tomeasurethetotalpressure,itisnormaltoemployadeviceknownasaPitottube.Thisisathintube thatcanbepointeddirectlyintotheflowsuchthatitisalignedexactlywiththelocalstreamlines.Theother endofthetubeisconnectedtoamanometer(orotherpressuremeasuringdevice).Thestreamlinethat meetstheendofthetubewithintheflowisbroughttorestbecausethereisnoactualflowthroughthe tube/manometersystemandthereforeallthedynamicpressureisconvertedtostaticpressure.Thesum ofthesetwoformsofstaticpressureisknownasthestagnationpressureortotalpressure. Tomeasurethedynamicpressure,themostcommondevice(andthesimplestandcheapest)usedisa Pitotstatictube.Thisisacombinationofthetwotechniquesdescribedabovewithinoneinstrument.It consistsoftwothinconcentrictubesbentintoanLshapetheinnertubehasanopenendwhichispointed into the flow (as described above when measuring total pressure), while the outer tube is sealed and streamlinedatitsendbuthasanumberofsmallholesarounditscircumferencesomewaybackfromthe end.Thetwotubesareconnectedacrossadifferentialpressuremeasuringdevice(again,commonlyaU tubemanometer),andthedifferenceinpressureisthedynamicpressure.