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Fall-2013 Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 2 MB0048-Operations Research-4 Credits (Book ID: B1631) Assignment (60 Marks) Note: Answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme. Each Question carries 10 marks 6 X 10=60. Q1. Discuss the methodology of Operations Research. Explain in brief the phases of Operations Research. Answer. Operations research: Churchman, Aackoff, and Aruoff defined operations research as the application of scientific methods, techniques and tools to the operation of a system with optimum solutions to the problems where 'optimum' refers to the best possible alternative. The objective of OR is to provide a scientific basis to the decision-makers for solving problems involving interaction with various components of the organisation. This can be achieved by employing a team of scientists from Q2. a. Explain the graphical method of solving Linear Programming Problem. b. A firm produces three types of products viz., A, B and C, which are processed on three different machines viz., M1, M2 and M3. The time required to process on unit of each of the products and the daily capacities of machines available per day are given in the following table. The profit earned by selling one unit of type A, B and C is Rs.10, Rs.15 and Rs.20 respectively. It is assumed that what all is produced is consumed in the market. Formulate this as Linear Programming Problem to maximize the profit.

Answer. (a) Graphical Methods to Solve LPP While obtaining the optimal solution to an LPP by the graphical method, the statement of the following theorems of linear programming is used:

The collection of all feasible solutions to an LPP constitutes a convex set whose extreme points correspond to the basic feasible solutions. There are a finite number of basic feasible regions within the feasible solution space. If the convex set of the

Q3. Explain the steps involved in finding Initial Basic Feasible solution by the following methods: a. North West Corner Rule method b. Vogels approximation method. Answer. (a) North West Corner Rule method: Steps 1 - The first assignment is made in the cell occupying the upper left hand (north-west) corner of the transportation table. The maximum feasible amount is allocated here is: x11 = min (a1, b1) Either the capacity of origin O1 is used up or the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied or both. This value of x11 is entered in

Q4. Explain Monte Carlo Simulation method. What are the advantages and limitations of Simulation? Answer. Monte Carlo Simulation method: The Monte-Carlo method is a simulation technique in which statistical distribution functions are created by using a series of random numbers. This approach has the ability to develop many months or years of data in a matter of few minutes on a digital computer. The method is generally used to solve the problems that cannot be adequately represented by mathematical models or where solution of the model is not possible by analytical method. Let us now describe each step in detail. Step 1: Define the problem: a) Identify the objectives Q5. Explain the Characteristics and Constituents of a Queuing System. Answer. Meaning of Queuing Theory: A congestion system is system in which there is a demand for resources for a system, and when the resources become unavailable, those requesting the resources wait for them to become available. The level of congestion in such systems is usually measured by the waiting line, or queue, of resource requests (waiting line or queuing models). Operating Characteristics of a Queuing System A queuing model has the following operating characteristics which enables us to understand and efficiently manage a queue: Queue length: The number of customers in the waiting line reflects one of the two conditions. Short queues could mean Q6. a. What do you mean by dominance? State the dominance rules for rows and columns. b. What are the differences between PERT and CPM? Answer. (a) Dominance: In a rectangular game, the pay-off matrix of player A is pay-off in one specific row ( r row ) th exceeding the corresponding pay-off in another specific row( s row ) th . This means that whatever

course of action is adopted by player B, for A, the course of action Ar yields greater gains than the course of action As .