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Submitted To

Submitted By
Roll No. 1119540023

Mr. Yogesh Vikram Srivastav Kumar Suman


I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks and deep sense of gratitude to all those who helped us in preparing for this seminar. First and foremost, I would like to express sincere thanks to all my faculty members from the core of my heart because they encouraged and persuaded us to prepare on this topic.

Introduction Two Stroke Engine Four stroke Engine Otto Cycle Flame propagation Flame development Knocking Carburetor Supercharger Advantages & disadvantages Future trend in si engine

Two Stroke Engine

A two-stroke, two-cycle, or two-cycle engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle in only one crankshaft revolution and with two strokes, or up and down movements, of the piston in comparison to a "four-stroke engine", which uses four strokes to do so. This is accomplished by the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happening simultaneously and performing the intake and exhaust (orscavenging) functions at the same time. Two-stroke engines often provide high power-to-weight ratio, usually in a narrow range of rotational speeds called the "power band", and, compared to 4-stroke engines, have a greatly reduced number of moving parts, are more compact and significantly lighter. The first commercial two-stroke engine involving in-cylinder compression is attributed to Scottish engineer Dugald Clerk, who in 1881 patented his design, his engine having a separate charging cylinder. The crankcase-scavenged engine, employing the area below the piston as a charging pump, is generally credited to Englishman Joseph Day. Gasoline (spark ignition) versions are particularly useful in lightweight (portable) applications such as chainsaws and small, lightweight and racing motorcycles, and the concept is also used in diesel compression ignition engines in large

and weight insensitive applications, such as ships, locomotives and electricity generation. The heat transfer from the engine to the cooling system is less in a two-stroke engine than in a traditional four-stroke, a fact that adds to the overall engine efficiency; however, traditional 2-strokes have a poor exhaust emissions feature.

The two-stroke petrol engine was very popular throughout the 19th-20th century in motorcycles and small-engine devices, such as chainsaws and outboard motors, and was also used in some cars, a few tractors and many ships. Part of their appeal was their simple design (and resulting low cost) and often high power-to-weight ratio. The lower cost to rebuild and maintain made the two stroke engine incredibly popular, until for the USA their EPA mandated more stringent emission controls in 1978 (taking effect in 1980) and in 2004 (taking effect in 2005 and 2010). The industry largely responded by switching to four-stroke petrol engines, which emit less pollution.[1] Most small designs use petroil lubrication, with the oil being burned in the

combustion chamber, causing "blue smoke" and other types of exhaust pollution. This is a major reason why two-stroke engines were replaced by four-stroke engines in many applications. Simple two-stroke petrol (gas) engines continue to be commonly used in high-power, handheld applications such as string trimmers and chainsaws. The light overall weight, and light-weight spinning parts give important operational and even safety advantages. For example, a four-stroke engine to power a chainsaw operating in any position would be much more expensive and complex than a two-stroke engine that uses a gasoline-oil mixture. These engines are still preferred for small, portable, or specialized machine applications such as outboard motors, high-performance, smallcapacitymotorcycles, mopeds, underbones, scooters, tuktuks, snowmobiles, karts, ultralights, model airplanes (and other model vehicles) and lawnmowers and dirt bikes. The two-stroke cycle is also used in many diesel engines, most notably large industrial and marine engines, as well as some trucks and heavy machinery.


A four-stroke engine (also known as four-cycle) is an internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four separate strokesintake, compression, power, and exhaustduring two separate revolutions of the engine's crankshaft, and one single thermodynamic cycle. There are two common types of four-stroke engines. They are closely related to each other, but have major differences in design and behaviour. The earliest of these to be developed is the Otto cycle engine developed in 1876

by Nikolas August Otto in Cologne, Germany, after the operation principle described by Alphonse Beau de Rochas in 1861. This engine is most often referred to as a petrol engine or gasoline engine, after the fuel that powers it. The second type of four-stroke engine is the Diesel engine developed in 1893 by Rudolph Diesel, also of Germany. Diesel created his engine to improve efficiency compared with the Otto engine. There are several major differences between the Otto cycle engine and the fourstroke diesel engine. The diesel engine is made in both a two-stroke and a four-stroke version. Otto's company, Deutz AG, now primarily produces diesel engines. The Otto cycle is named after the 1876 engine of Nikolas A. Otto, who built a successful four-stroke engine based on the work of Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir.[1] It was the third engine type that Otto developed. It used a sliding flame gateway for ignition of its fuel a mixture of illuminating gas and air. After 1884, Otto also developed the magneto to create an electrical spark for ignition, which had been unreliable on the Lenoir engine. Today, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is used in motorcycles, automobiles, boats, trucks, aircraft, ships, heavy duty machinery, and in its original intended use as stationary power both for kinetic and electrical power generation. Diesel engines are found in virtually all heavy duty applications such as trucks, ships, locomotives, power generation, and stationary power. Many of these diesel engines are two-stroke with power ratings up to 105,000 hp (78,000 kW). The four strokes refer to intake, compression, combustion (power) and exhaust strokes that occur during two

crankshaft rotations per power cycle. (Risqu slang among some automotive enthusiasts names these respectively the "suck," "squeeze," "bang" and "blow" strokes.) The cycle begins at Top Dead Centre (TDC), when the piston is farthest away from the axis of the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston from Top Dead Centre (TDC) to Bottom Dead Centre.

1.INTAKE or INDUCTION stroke: on the intake or induction stroke of the piston, the piston descends from the top of the cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder, increasing the volume of the cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air, or just air in a diesel engine, is forced by atmospheric (or greater) pressure into the cylinder through the intake port. The intake valve(s) then closes. The volume of air/fuel mixture that is drawn into the cylinder, relative to the maximum volume of the cylinder, is called the volumetric efficiency of the engine. 2. COMPRESSION stroke: with both intake and exhaust valves closed, the piston returns to the top of the cylinder compressing the air or fuel-air mixture into the combustion chamber of the cylinder head. During the compression stroke the temperature of the air or fuel-air mixture rises by several hundred degrees. 3. POWER stroke: this is the start of the second revolution of the cycle. While the piston is close to Top Dead Centre, the compressed airfuel mixture in a gasoline engine is ignited, usually by a spark plug, or fuel is injected into a

diesel engine, which ignites due to the heat generated in the air during the compression stroke. The resulting pressure from the combustion of the compressed fuel-air mixture forces the piston back down toward bottom dead centre. 4. EXHAUST stroke: during the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns to top dead centre while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent fuel-air mixture through the exhaust valve(s).

The Ideal Air Standard Otto Cycle

Systems which are thermally insulated from their surroundings undergo processes without any heat transfer; such processes are called adiabatic. Thus during an isentropic process there are no dissipative effects and the system neither absorbs nor gives off heat. A reversible process, is a process that can be "reversed" by means of infinitesimalchanges in some property of the system without loss or dissipation of energy. Isentropic processis a process which is a process is both adiabatic and reversible .

A carburetor is a device that an internal combustion engine. blends air and fuelfor

The carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, and the higher its dynamic pressure. The throttle (accelerator) linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being pulled into the engine. The speed of this flow, and therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Later engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor.

Most production carbureted (as opposed to fuel-injected) engines have a single carburetor and a matching intake manifold that divides and transports the air fuel mixture to the intake valves, though some engines (like motorcycle engines) use multiple carburetors on split heads. Multiple carburetor engines were also common enhancements for modifying engines in the USA from the 1950s to mid-1960s, as well as during the following decade of highperformance muscle cars fueling different chambers of the engine's intake manifold. Older engines used updraft carburetors, where the air enters from below the carburetor and exits through the top. This had the advantage of never "flooding" the engine, as any liquid fuel droplets would fall out of the carburetor instead of into the intake manifold; it also lent itself to use of an oil bath air cleaner, where a pool of oil below a mesh element below the carburetor is sucked up into the mesh and the air is drawn through the oil-covered mesh; this was an effective system in a time when paper air filters did not exist. Beginning in the late 1930s, downdraft carburetors were the most popular type for automotive use in the United States. In Europe, the side draft carburetors replaced downdraft as free space in the engine bay decreased and the use of the SU-type carburetor (and similar units from other manufacturers) increased. Some small propeller-driven aircraft engines still use the updraft carburetor design.

Outboard motor carburetors are typically sidedraft, because they must be stacked one on top of the other in order to feed the cylinders in a vertically oriented cylinder block.

1979 Evinrude Type I marine sidedraft carburetor

The main disadvantage of basing a carburetor's operation on Bernoulli's principle is that, being a fluid dynamic device, the pressure reduction in a venturi tends to be proportional to the square of the intake air speed. The fuel jets are much smaller and limited mainly by viscosity, so that the fuel flow tends to be proportional to the pressure difference. So jets sized for full power tend to starve the engine at lower speed and part throttle. Most commonly this has been corrected by using multiple jets. In SU and other movable jet carburetors, it was corrected by varying the jet size. For cold starting, a different principle was used in multi-jet carburetors. A flow resisting valve called a choke, similar to the throttle valve, was placed upstream of the main jet to reduce the intake pressure and suck additional fuel out of the jets.

The flame speed is the measured rate of expansion of the flame front in a combustion reaction. Whereas flame speed is generally used for a fuel, a related term is explosive velocity, which is the same relationship measured for an explosive. Combustion engineers differentiate between the laminar flame speed and turbulent flame speed. Flame speed is typically measured in m/s, cm/s, etc.

Knocking (also called knock, detonation, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder starts off correctly in response to ignition by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front. The fuel-air charge is meant to be ignited by the spark plug only, and at a precise point in the piston's stroke. Knock occurs when the peak of the combustion process no longer occurs at the optimum moment for the four-stroke cycle. The shock wave creates the characteristic metallic "pinging" sound, and cylinder pressure increases dramatically. Effects of engine knocking range from inconsequential to completely destructive.

Knocking should not be confused with pre-ignition. They are two separate events, however, pre-ignition is usually followed by knocking. Normal combustion Under ideal conditions the common internal combustion engine burns the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder in an orderly and controlled fashion. The combustion is started by the spark plug some 10 to 40 crankshaft degrees prior to top dead centre (TDC), depending on many factors including engine speed and load. This ignition advance allows time for the combustion process to develop peak pressure at the ideal time for maximum recovery of work from the expanding gases. The spark across the spark plug's electrodes forms a small kernel of flame approximately the size of the spark plug gap. As it grows in size, its heat output increases, which allows it to grow at an accelerating rate, expanding rapidly through the combustion chamber. This growth is due to the travel of the flame front through the combustible fuel air mix itself, and due to turbulence which rapidly stretches the burning zone into a complex of fingers of burning gas that have a much greater surface area than a simple spherical ball of flame would have. In normal combustion, this flame front moves throughout the fuel/air mixture at a rate characteristic for the particular mixture. Pressure rises smoothly to a peak, as nearly all the available fuel is consumed, then pressure falls as the piston descends. Maximum cylinder pressure is achieved a few crankshaft degrees after the piston passes TDC, so that the force applied on the piston (from the increasing pressure applied to the top surface of the piston)

can give its hardest push precisely when the piston's speed and mechanical advantage on the crank shaft gives the best recovery of force from the expanding gases, thus maximizing torque transferred to the crank shaft. Abnormal combustion When unburned fuel/air mixture beyond the boundary of the flame front is subjected to a combination of heat and pressure for a certain duration (beyond the delay period of the fuel used),detonation may occur. Detonation is characterized by an instantaneous, explosive ignition of at least one pocket of fuel/air mixture outside of the flame front. A local shockwave is created around each pocket and the cylinder pressure may rise sharply beyond its design limits. If detonation is allowed to persist under extreme conditions or over many engine cycles, engine parts can be damaged or destroyed. The simplest deleterious effects are typically particle wear caused by moderate knocking, which may further ensue through the engine's oil system and cause wear on other parts before being trapped by the oil filter. Severe knocking can lead to catastrophic failure in the form of physical holes punched through the piston or cylinder head (i.e., rupture of the combustion chamber), either of which depressurizes the affected cylinder and introduces large metal fragments, fuel, and combustion products into the oil system. Hypereutectic pistons are known to break easily from such shock waves. Detonation can be prevented by any or all of the following techniques:

1. The use of a fuel with high octane rating, which increases the combustion temperature of the fuel and reduces the proclivity to detonate. 2. Enriching the air-fuel ratio which alters the chemical reactions during combustion, reduces the combustion temperature and increases the margin above detonation. 3. Reducing peak cylinder pressure by decreasing the engine revolutions (e.g., shifting to a higher gear, there is also evidence that knock occurs more easily at high rpm than low regardless of other factors). 4. Decreasing the manifold pressure by reducing the throttle opening, boost pressure orreducing the load on the engine. Because pressure and temperature are strongly linked, knock can also be attenuated by controlling peak combustion chamber temperatures by compression ratio reduction, exhaust gas recirculation, appropriate calibration of the engine's ignition timing schedule, and careful design of the engine's combustion chambers and cooling system as well as controlling the initial air intake temperature. The addition of certain materials such as lead and thallium will suppress detonation extremely well when certain fuels are used. The addition of tetraethyl lead (TEL), a soluble salt added to gasoline was common until it was discontinued for reasons of toxic pollution. Lead dust added to the intake charge will also reduce knock with various

hydrocarbon fuels. Manganesecompounds are also used to reduce knock with petrol fuel. Knock is less common in cold climates. As an aftermarket solution, a water injection system can be employed to reduce combustion chamber peak temperatures and thus suppress detonation. Steam (water vapour) will suppress knock even though no added cooling is supplied. Certain chemical changes must first occur for knock to happen, hence fuels with certain structures tend to knock easier than others. Branched chain paraffins tend to resist knock while straight chain paraffins knock easily. It has been theorized that lead, steam, and the like interfere with some of the various oxidative changes that occur during combustion and hence the reduction in knock. Turbulence, as stated, has very important effect on knock. Engines with good turbulence tend to knock less than engines with poor turbulence. Turbulence occurs not only while the engine is inhaling but also when the mixture is compressed and burned. During compression/expansion "squish" turbulence is used to violently mix the air/fuel together as it is ignited and burned which reduces knock greatly by speeding up burning and cooling the unburnt mixture. One example of this is all modern side valve or flathead engines. A considerable portion of the head space is made to come in close proximity of the piston crown, making for much turbulence near TDC In the early days of side valve heads this was not done and a much lower compression ratio had to be used for any given fuel. Also such engines were sensitive to ignition advance and had less power.

Knocking is more or less unavoidable in diesel engines, where fuel is injected into highly compressed air towards the end of the compression stroke. There is a short lag between the fuel being injected and combustion starting. By this time there is already a quantity of fuel in the combustion chamber which will ignite first in areas of greater oxygen density prior to the combustion of the complete charge. This sudden increase in pressure and temperature causes the distinctive diesel 'knock' or 'clatter', some of which must be allowed for in the engine design. Careful design of the injector pump, fuel injector, combustion chamber, piston crown and cylinder head can reduce knocking greatly, and modern engines using electronic common rail injection have very low levels of knock. Engines using indirect injection generally have lower levels of knock than direct injection engine, due to the greater dispersal of oxygen in the combustion chamber and lower injection pressures providing a more complete mixing of fuel and air. Diesels actually do not suffer exactly the same "knock" as gasoline engines since the cause is known to be only the very fast rate of pressure rise, not unstable combustion. Diesel fuels are actually very prone to knock in gasoline engines but in the diesel engine there is no time for knock to occur because the fuel is only oxidized during the expansion cycle. In the gasoline engine the fuel is slowly oxidizing all the while it is being compressed before the spark. This allows for changes to occur in the structure/makeup of the molecules before the very critical period of high temp/pressure.

An unconventional engine that makes use of detonation to improve efficiency and decrease pollutants is the Bourke engine. Pre-ignition Pre-ignition (or preignition) in a spark-ignition engine is a technically different phenomenon from engine knocking, and describes the event wherein the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder ignites before the spark plug fires. Pre-ignition is initiated by an ignition source other than the spark, such as hot spots in the combustion chamber, a spark plug that runs too hot for the application, or carbonaceous deposits in the combustion chamber heated to incandescence by previous engine combustion events. The phenomenon is also referred to as 'after-run', or 'run-on' or sometimes dieseling, when it causes the engine to carry on running after the ignition is shut off. This effect is more readily achieved on carbureted gasoline engines, because the fuel supply to the carburetor is typically regulated by a passive mechanical float valve and fuel delivery can feasibly continue until fuel line pressure has been relieved, provided the fuel can be somehow drawn past the throttle plate. The occurrence is rare in modern engines with throttle-body or electronic fuel injection, because the injectors will not be permitted to continue delivering fuel after the engine is shut off, and any occurrence may indicate the presence of a leaking (failed) injector. In the case of highly supercharged or high compression multi-cylinder engines particularly ones that use methanol (or other fuels prone to pre-ignition) pre-ignition can quickly

melt or burn pistons since the power generated by other still functioning pistons will force the overheated ones along no matter how early the mix pre-ignites. Many engines have suffered such failure where improper fuel delivery is present. Often one injector may clog while the others carry on normally allowing mild detonation in one cylinder that leads to serious detonation, then pre-ignition. The challenges associated with pre-ignition have increased in recent years with the development of highly boosted and "down speeded" spark ignition engines. The reduced engine speeds allow more time for auto ignition chemistry to complete thus promoting the possibility of pre-ignition and so called "mega-knock". Under these circumstances, there is still significant debate as to the sources of the pre-ignition event. Pre-ignition and engine knock both sharply increase combustion chamber temperatures. Consequently, either effect increases the likelihood of the other effect occurring, and both can produce similar effects from the operator's perspective, such as rough engine operation or loss of performance due to operational intervention by a powertrain-management computer. For reasons like these, a person not familiarized with the distinction might describe one by the name of the other. Given proper combustion chamber design, pre-ignition can generally be eliminated by proper spark plug selection, proper fuel/air mixture adjustment, and periodic cleaning of the combustion chambers .

Causes of pre-ignition Causes of pre-ignition include the following. 1. Carbon deposits form a heat barrier and can be a contributing factor to pre-ignition. Other causes include: An overheated spark plug (too hot a heat range for the application). Glowing carbon deposits on a hot exhaust valve (which may mean the valve is running too hot because of poor seating, a weak valve spring or insufficient valve lash). A sharp edge in the combustion chamber or on top of a piston (rounding sharp edges with a grinder can eliminate this cause). 2. Sharp edges on valves that were reground improperly (not enough margin left on the edges).A lean fuel mixture. An engine that is running hotter than normal due to a cooling system problem (low coolant level, slipping fan clutch, inoperative electric cooling fan or other cooling system problem). 3. Auto-ignition of engine oil droplets. Not putting oil in the engine Detonation induced pre-ignition Detonation breaks down the boundary layer of protective gas surrounding components in the cylinder, such as the spark plug electrode, these components can start to get very hot over sustained periods of detonation and glow.

Eventually this can lead to the far more catastrophic preIgnition as described above. While it is not uncommon for an automobile engine to continue on for thousands of miles with mild detonation, preignition can destroy an engine in just a few strokes of the piston. Knock detection Due to the large variation in fuel quality, a large number of engines now contain mechanisms to detect knocking and adjust timing or boost pressure accordingly in order to offer improved performance on high octane fuels while reducing the risk of engine damage caused by knock while running on low octane fuels. An early example of this is in turbo charged Saab H engines, where a system called Automatic Performance Control was used to reduce boost pressure if it caused the engine to knock. Various monitoring devices are commonly utilized by tuners as a method of seeing and listening to the engine in order toascertain if a tuned vehicle is safe under load or used to re-tune a vehicle safely.

Knock prediction Since the avoidance of knocking combustion is so important to development engineers, a variety of simulation

technologies have been developed which can identify engine design or operating conditions in which knock might be expected to occur. This then enables engineers to design ways to mitigate knocking combustion whilst maintaining a high thermal efficiency. Since the onset of knock is sensitive to the in-cylinder pressure, temperature and autoignition chemistry associated with the local mixture compositions within the combustion chamber, simulations which account for all of these aspects have thus proven most effective in determining knock operating limits and enabling engineers to determine the most appropriate operating strategy.

Two Stroke Advantages


Requires fewer moving parts to accomplish the same amount of output as four stroke engines. Cheaper to maintain than four stroke engines. Smaller and simple in construction than four stroke engines. Can work in any orientation.

Two Stroke Disadvantages


Less fuel efficient than four stroke. Quicker wear of the engines moving parts. More polluting than four stroke engines since oil is burnt with the fuel and air mixture.

Future of Spark-Ignition Engine

The similar targets of future spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines consisting in the noticeable increase of specific power concomitantly with the drastic reduction of fuel consumption and pollution in a wide operation range lead to similar development of thermodynamic functions and technical solutions. The achieved modular level of implementation of functions and solutions in advanced piston engines allows to establish common development platforms for both SI and CI engines. Such functions are the scavenging management, the sprayguided mixture formation by fuel direct injection, the exhaust gas recirculation and the homogeneous charge compression ignition. Under the technical solutions to their generation there are the super- or turbocharging, the variable control of intake- and exhaust valves and the direct injection techniques by common rails or by high pressure modulation. Between the common platforms of the future SI and CI engines and their several individual peculiarities there are some development milestones of particular interest. Similar development targets of future SI and CI engines such as high specific power, low specific fuel consumption and extremely low pollutant emissions must not lead automatically to their convergence: There are alternative ways to the power by speed (SI) or by torque (CI). There are also different trade off aspects sound versus fuel consumption or hydrocarbon emissions versus particulates.

1. IC by Rogowsky International Book Co. 2. IC Engine Analysis & Practice by E.F. Robert 3. IC Engine by V.Gnesan