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in contradiction to the do!inant story that is e!"edded in a pro"le!# Co-authorin - a co-$oint process %here client and counselor share responsi"ility &or developin alternative stories# Deconstruction- e'plorin !eanin "y ta(in apart)unpac(in the ta(en-&or- ranted cate ories and assu!ptions underlyin social practices that are uised as truths# Do!inant story- understandin a situation that is accepted %ithin a culture that appears to represent reality# Do!inant stories are developed throu h conversations in social and cultural conte'ts and these stories shape ho% people construct and constitute %hat people see* &eel* and do# E'ception +uestions- SF counselors in+uire a"out ti!es %hen the pro"le!,s- have not "een pro"le!atic# Sho%s that pro"le!s are not ever e'istin and al%ays overpo%erin # E'ternali.in conversation- a %ay o& spea(in a"out a pro"le! as i& it is a distant entity* separate o& the person# /ased on the pre!ise that people %ho vie% the!selves as the pro"le! li!it the!selves to the e'tent they cannot e&&ectively deal %ith the pro"le!# For!ula &irst session tas(- o"servation ho!e%or( iven that !ust "e co!pleted "et%een &irst and second session# They !ust o"serve %hat is happenin in their lives that they %ant to continue to happenin # Mappin -the-in&luence +uestions- a series o& +uestions as(ed a"out a pro"le! that clients have internali.ed as a !eans o& understandin the relationship "et%een client and pro"le!# Miracle +uestion- ST techni+ue that as(s clients ho% their lives %ould "e di&&erent i& they %o(e up to!orro% and they no lon er had their pro"le!,s-# 012ou didn3t (no% the pro"le! %ent a%ay "ecause you %ere asleep* so* %hat %ould "e the &irst di&&erence you notice as you %a(e up and et ready &or the day456 Narrative- social contructionist conceptuali.ation o& ho% people develop and create 7storied3 !eanin s in their lives# Narrative therapy- post!odern approach to counselin that is "ased on counselor characteristics that create an encoura in cli!ate %here clients see their stories &ro! di&&erent perspectives# Philosophical &ra!e%or( assists clients in &indin ne% !eanin s and possi"ilities in their lives# Not-(no%in position- a therapeutic stance that invites clients to "e e'perts a"out their o%n lives# Clients in&or! counselors a"out si ni&icant narratives in their lives# Post!odernis!- philosophical !ove!ent that ai!s to critically e'a!ine assu!ptions that are a part o& the esta"lished truths o& society# Reco ni.e)Ac(no%led e co!ple'ity* relativity* and intersu"$ectivity o& all hu!an e'periences#
therapeutic perspective %ithin a post!odern %orldvie% that stresses client reality %ithout disputin the accuracy and validity# E!phasi.Solution-&ocused and Narrative-.a post!odern approach to counselin in %hich clients recover and create solutions* not tal( a"out pro"le!s Totali.a SF techni+ue that as(s clients to o"serve chan es in &eelin s* !oods* thou hts* and "ehaviors# Clients rate chan es on a 8-89 scale# Social constructionis!.e co!petencies Help &ocus on %hat clients are doin 0%hen pro"le! does not occur6 to develop stren ths* potential* and resources Narrative counselors avoid !a(in assu!ptions "y valuin each uni+ue story and culture o& clients .a process in NT %here clients and counselors $ointly create an alternative li&e story# Scalin +uestions.er Narrative."elieve that su"$ective reality cannot e'ist independently o& the o"servational process# Pro"le!s e'ist %hen people say that a pro"le! needs to "e addressed# Pretherapy chan e.SF counselors as( a"out pre-session i!prove!ents* or %hat clients have done that !ade any di&&erence since schedulin the session in the &irst counselin session# Pro"le!-saturated story.lived e'periences are outside the real! o& do!inant stories OR lived e'periences are contradiction to the pro"le! story# Key Figures: Solution-&ocused.in descriptions.%hen clients are over%hel!ed and &used to pro"le!s# NT assist clients to understand they do not have to reduce their identity "y totali.es the %ays people !a(e !eanin in social relationships# Solution-&ocused "rie& therapy. Michael ?hite > David Epston Philosophy and Basic Assumptions: Social Constructionis! .Post!odernist.descriptions o& people that constrict the!selves to a sin le di!ension that reportedly captures their identity# :ni+ue outco!e. Stories people tell are true and creations o& !eanin Realities are socially constructed* there is no a"solute reality Counselors DO NOT i!pose their reality or values Clients are the e'perts o& the!selves Solution-&ocused counselors vie% people as healthy* co!petent* resource&ul* and a"le to construct solutions and alternative stories to enhance lives Help clients reco ni. <nsoo =i! /er > Steve de Sha.in descriptions# Re-authorin .
Clients esta"lish their o%n oals and pre&erences Create a cli!ate o& !utual respect* dialo ue* in+uiry* and a&&ir!ation 0therapeutic process6 Miracle +uestion helps clients identi&y oals and solutions <denti&y ho% societal standards and e'pectations are internali. E'ternali.in Colla"orate %ith clients to help the! e'perience a hei htened sense o& a ency . Move!ent &ro! pro"le! to solution-tal( /rie& therapy E'ceptions to pro"le!s e'ist Counselors pay attention to %hat client3s do that %or(s Chan e is constant and inevita"le@ "e in %ith s!all chan es Aittle attention to patholo y . E'plore ho% pro"le! has disrupted* do!inated* or discoura ed clients Separate clients &ro! their pro"le!s 0e'ternali.co!petence?or( %ith clients to e'plore %hat (ind o& &uture can "e e'pected &ro! e!er in co!petence Therapeutic Goals: Solution-&ocused. Colla"orative approach %here counselor creates understandin and acceptance so clients can tap into their inner resources Counsel ?<TH clients* not ON clients Solution-&ocused > Narrative.clients are the e'perts o& their livesColla"oration opens opportunities &or present)&uture chan esClients interpret their personal e'periences Clients are pri!ary interpreters o& personal e'periences Sho% clients ho% they can use their stren ths and resources to construct solutions Narrative.actin in societyTechniques and Procedures: 0Techni+ues are &uture-oriented to solve pro"le!s@ no need to understand cause o& pro"le!s6 Solution-&ocused. Counselors see( to understand client e'periences Avoid predictions* interpretations* and patholo i.e pro"le!s Focus on stren ths and unused resources .ed Narrative.dia nosisCounselors assu!e a 1not-(no%in 5 position so that client3s are responsi"le &or constructin solutions Narrative.Key Concepts: Solution-&ocused. Counselors ta(e a naivetB stance .e the pro"le!6 ?or( %ith clients to vie% stories &ro! di&&erent perspectives "e&ore co-creatin an alternative li&e story Clients have to &ind evidence to support their ne% li&e story . <nvite clients to descri"e e'periences %ith ne%)di&&erent)&resh lan ua e Therapeutic Relationship: Social Constructivist.
clients are to o"serve %hat events they %ould li(e to see occur !ore o&ten@ i!ple!ent resources* stren ths* and e'ceptions Su!!ary &eed"ac(.point out stren ths and successes.are iven "y counselors Narrative.?hen did pro"le!s not e'ist4Miracle +uestion.es the relationship Help clients separate the!selves &ro! their pro"le! 0the pro"le! is the pro"le!6 Process o& listenin * curious* persistent* and respect&ul +uestionin E'plore i!pact o& pro"le! and %hat clients are doin to reduce e&&ects o& pro"le! Client and therapist co-construct alternative stories Applications: Solution-&ocused.su"stance and child a"use* depression* se'ual a"use* child > spousal a"useNarrative.enuine a&&ir!ations . E!phasi.Challen e discovery o& solutions that !i ht %or( Pretherapy chan e . <ndividual > Croup Counselin Marria e > Fa!ily Counselin <npatient* School* > Medical settin s Diverse clinical pro"le!s .ena"les clients to see their chan e)pro ress Ho!e%or(.?hat %as done "et%een ti!e set appoint!ent and &irst appoint!ent4E'ception +uestions . <ndividual* School > Croup Counselin Marria e* Fa!ily* > Su"stance A"use Counselin Relationship pro"le!s Mediation Clinical Supervision Depression Eatin disorders Childhood and adolescent-related issues Contributions: Opti!istic@ vie%s people as co!petent and a"le to create solutions and li&e a&&ir!in stories Move &ro! %hat is ?RONC to SOA:T<ONS Pro"le!s are not vie%ed as patholo ical Counselors ive evidence to support client co!petence Future-oriented +uestionin Limitations: Counselor s(ill level to use techni+ues Counselor attitude is critical to success o& outco!es in therapy Counselor should "e s(illed at "rie& therapy Duic( assess!ents* oals* and interventions No set a enda)&or!ula in Narrative Therapy to assure client outco!es .clients descri"e li&e %ithout the pro"le! Scalin +uestions.
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