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An Introduction to the Science of Botany

Chapter 1

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1

Briefly describe the field of botany, and give short definitions of at least five subdisciplines of plant biology

KEY TERMS

BOTANY The scientific study of plants; also called plant biology

Subdisciplines 1
!

Plant molecular biology


!

Structures and functions of important biological molecules (proteins, nucleic acids)

Plant cell biology


!

Structures, functions, and life processes of plant cells

Subdisciplines 2
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Plant physiology
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How plants function (photosynthesis, mineral nutrition)

Plant genetics
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Plant heredity and variation

Subdisciplines 3

Plant ecology
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Interrelationships among plants, and between plants ands their environment

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2

Summarize and discuss the features of plants and other organisms that distinguish them from nonliving things

Characteristics of Living Things


1. Organization
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Plants and other organisms are highly organized with cells as their basic building blocks

Atoms Hydrogen Oxygen Molecule

Biosphere

Ecosystem

Water Community Chloroplast Macromolecule Population Organelle

Cell Epidermis Organism

Tissue Organ

Fig. 1-3, p. 9

! Organism distinct, living entities ! Populations members of the same species that live together in the same area ! Community populations of different organisms that interact with each other within an area ! Ecosystem community with its non-living environment ! Biosphere all of the earths ecosystems

Characteristics of Living Things 1


2. Energy
!

Plants and other organisms take in and use energy

Plant Cells
PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESPIRATION

KEY TERMS
!

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
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Biological process that includes capture of light energy and its transformation into chemical energy of organic molecules that are manufactured from carbon dioxide and water

CELLULAR RESPIRATION
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Cellular process in which energy of organic molecules is released for biological work

Characteristics of Living Things


3. Interaction with environment
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Plants respond to stimuli in their environment

Root Growth and Gravity

Response to Stimuli

Characteristics of Living Things 2


4. Plants undergo growth and development

Germination & Growth

Characteristics of Living Things 2


5. Reproduction
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Plants form new individuals by asexual or sexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction
Stamen male Pistil - female

Characteristics of Living Things


6. Heredity
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DNA molecules transmit genetic information from one generation to the next in plants and other organisms

7. Evolution
! !

Plants and other organisms evolve Populations change or adapt to survive in changing environments

Adaptation

KEY TERMS
!

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)


!

A nucleic acid present in a cells chromosomes that contains genetic information

KEY TERMS
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EVOLUTION
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Cumulative genetic changes in a population of organisms from generation to generation

NATURAL SELECTION
! !

Mechanism of evolution (Charles Darwin) Tendency of organisms that have favorable adaptations to their environment to survive and become parents of next generation

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3

Distinguish among the six kingdoms and three domains, and give representative organisms for each

Euglena

Six-Kingdom Classification
1. Archaea 2. Bacteria 3. Protista
!

protozoa, algae, water molds, slime molds

Six-Kingdom Classification
4. Fungi
!

molds, yeasts

5. Animalia 6. Plantae

Three-Domain Classification
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Archaea
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Kingdom archaea

Bacteria
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Kingdom bacteria

Eukarya
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All other kingdoms

Three Domains:
Bacteria Archaea Eukarya

Six Kingdoms:
Bacteria Archaea Protista Plantae Animalia Fungi

Prokaryotes (lack membrane-bound organelles); unicellular; most are heterotrophic (obtain food by eating other organisms), but some are photosynthetic or chemosynthetic

Prokaryotes; unicellular; microscopic; most live in extreme environments; differ in biochemistry and in cell wall structure from bacteria

Eukaryotes; mainly unicellular or simple multicellular; maybe heterotrophic or photosynthetic; include protozoa, algae, and slime molds

Eukaryotes; multicellular; photosynthetic; life cycle with alternation of generations; cell walls of cellulose

Eukaryotes; multicellular; heterotrophic; most move about by muscular contraction; nervous system coordinates responses to stimuli

Eukaryotes; most multicellular; heterotrophic; absorb nutrients; do not photosynthesize; cell walls of chitin Fig. 1-11, p. 14

KEY TERMS
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KINGDOM
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A broad taxonomic category made up of related phyla; many biologists currently recognize six kingdoms of living organisms

DOMAIN
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A taxonomic category that includes one or more kingdoms

Classification (Binomial System)

KEY TERMS
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SPECIES
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A group of organisms with similar structural and functional characteristics In nature, they breed only with one another and have a close common ancestry

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4

Summarize the main steps in the scientific method, and explain how science differs from many other human endeavors

The Scientific Method 1


1. Recognize a problem
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or an unanswered question

2. Develop a hypothesis
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to explain the problem

3. Design and perform an experiment


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to test the hypothesis

The Scientific Method 2


4. Analyze and interpret the data
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to reach a conclusion

5. Share new knowledge


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with the scientific community

KEY TERMS
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HYPOTHESIS
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An educated guess (based on previous observations) that may be true and is testable by observation and experimentation

THEORY
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A widely accepted explanation supported by a large body of observations and experiments