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2008 Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference: 484-489
Biodiversity of Protozoa in Freshwater Case Study in the Chao-Praya River, Thailand
Yuwarad Polameesanaporn Department of Environmental Science, Rajabhat-Suan-Dusit University, 295 Rachaseema Rd., Dusit, Bangkok 10300 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, www.dusit.ac.th ABSTRACT
Chao-Praya River is a major river flowing through many provinces in the central region including Bangkok and Nonthaburi. This river is very important for Thai people as a water resource for Agricultural, Residential and Household used. The researcher selects Nonthaburi as a case study because the area usage of this province has changed from agricultural usage in the past to residential and commercial usage these days. Some area has also been arranged for industrial zone. The water samples have been collected from nine areas classified by land usage and season, follow the Nonthaburi Land Usage Map in 2005. There are two seasons, which are drought (from December 2005 to February 2006) and rainy season (from June 2006 to August 2006). We studied the relationship between the diversity of protozoa and physical/chemical properties of water. The results showed that the diversity of protozoa in agricultural area is higher than other areas. We also found greater number of protozoa in rainy season than in drought. The diversity of protozoa in Class Euglena and Class Phacus could be used as bio-indicators for Mesosaprobic Zone water resources follows Saprobic System. From the result we can conclude that this area is medium deteriorate water resource. Keywords: Biodiversity/ Bio-indicator/ BOD/ Chao-Praya River/ Do/ Protozoa/ Saprobic System
INTRODUCTION The Chao-Praya River is the major river located in the central region of Thailand. This river, which has 20,125 squared kilometers, has more than 22 billion cubic meters water flowing through 11 provinces covering some part of Nonthaburi province. This paper discusses about the biodiversity of protozoa in this river located in Nonthaburi. This province is located close to Bangkok, thus there is a lot of water utilization such as transportation purposes, industrial usage, household usage and agricultural usage. All these usages affect to the quality of water in the river. Current status of water in this river depends on the utilization. There is a lot of waste in form of organic, inorganic and pollutant from mentioned activities. Therefore, the quality of water has direct impact to the diversity of protozoa in the water. The researcher chose protozoa as an indicator of the water quality because of their genome, which is in Eukaryote cell, is similar to the genome of higher level animal than the genome of Prokaryote cell. Protozoa has high growing rate and has thin call wall. This makes them response to the changes of environment quickly and need specified environment for survival. Farmer (1980) found that Synura Uvella and Stentor Polymorphus are protozoa in high level oxygen. Bopit and Nuntaporn (1989) studied class of protozoa which could be used as indicator of water quality in Bung Magasun, an area in Bangkok. They confirmed the existing of protozoa class Metopus in
Polysaprobic zone, or so called low-oxygen water resource. As researchers know that Protozoa has fast response to the changes of environment, therefore the use of protozoa as bio-indicator is very popular in this field. They can benefit from the cheap investment, the accuracy of result and save time. There are many researchers in Thailand which had done water quality survey using Protozoa diversity as indicator. Poowadon (2003) studied the diversity of protozoa in Nam-Pong-river, Khonkhan province during July 2001 to July 2002 (12 months). He found 13 classes of protozoa such as Class Euglenoidea and Class Lobosea. Intira (1999) studied the diversity of protozoa and quality of water in Klong-Mae-Kar, Chiang-Mai province during December 1997 to November 1998. She found 4 classes of protozoa such as class Ciliata, class Mastigophora and class Sarcodina. Chidchai (2000) studied the quality of water and found protozoa in Chula-Longkorn-university. He found more than 60 classes. He classified the water quality based on Saprobic system. He divided the water quality into 4 zones which are Polysaprobic zone (BOD 10 – 50 milligrams/liter), α- mesosaprobic zone (BOD 5-10 milligrams/liter), β- mesosaprobic zone (BOD 2.5 – 5 milligrams/liter) and Oligosaprobic zone (BOD 12.5 milligrams/liter). The result showed the BOD is around 7.6 – 35.1 milligrams/liter. Thus, he can conclude that this water resource is in αmesosaprobic Zone and Polysaprobic Zone. They also found Euglena and Phacus as imminent class.
Station5 W atYai Saw angA rrom Station6W at Polam aiy ikaw asw oraw iharn Station4W atChuengLane Station3Phra-NangKlawBridge Station9W atM olee Station2R am aVBridge Station8BangM uang Station7W atChalor Station1Ram aV I IBridge Figure 1 Water sample collecting area of Chao-praya river in Nonthaburi province 485 . Sample Collection Areas There are 9 stations to collect the sampled water from Rama VII bridge to Wat-PoramaiyikawasWorawihan and Klong Bangkok-Noi to Klong Aomnon Nonthaburi as shown in the table 1.The result corresponded to previous research such as Margulis. has various usage and many kinds of waste water flowing into the river and impact to the quality of water. Corliss. 1990. which flows pass Nonthaburi province. Curds 1992 (refer to Chidchai (2000)) found that Euglena and Phacus are bio-indicators of αmesosaprobic Zone and Polysaprobic Zone METHODOLOGY The Chao-Praya River is the major river of Thailand. the sample collection was done follow the land usage map (2005) from the civil department of Nonthaburi as shown in figure 1. Chapman. Therefore. Melkonian.
4665662 13.4880912 13.80 – 6. class Heliozoea (2 species).3 – 6. Total Phosphorus and Ascorbic acid 40 35 30 Species 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Station 6 7 8 9 Drought S eas on Rainy S eason Figure 2: Biodiversity of Protozoa 486 . Wat Chalor 8.6 milligrams/liter.109 – 0. The sample is collected during drought season (December 2005 – February 2006) and rainy season (June 2006 – August 2006).5 milligrams/liter.0 milligrams/liter. class Oligophymenophorea (1 species).4886777 13. Rama VII Bridge 2.8699395 100. dissolved oxygen 1.Wat Poramaiyikawasworawiharn Location (Lat/Lon) 13. Rama V Bridge 3. Protozoa Studied Method Water was horizontally sampled collected on water surface.1-6. Phra-Nang-Klao Bridge 4. 50 species protozoa were found in the rainy season which are class Phytomastigophorea (36 species).3 milligrams/liter.8497379 100. We found 4 classes. BOD is 2. dissolved oxygen is 2. Protozoa was examined using 10 x – 40 x microscope and record the shape.095 milligrams/liter In rainy season.8316903 100. Total phosphorus is 0.8189489 100.814360 100.4945988 13. 32 species which are class Phytomastigophora (23 species). We used 40 microns plankton net and keep the water sample using 4% concentration formaldehyde and tighten the container. class Prostomatea (1 species) and class Litostomata (1 species).0-4.4765500 13. After that sampled water is analyzed in laboratory to find the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by AlkaliIodide-Azide.1.9121661 100. class Lobosea (8 species). Wat Chueng Lane 5. BOD 2. 7 classes.2 – 0. class Sprortricsea (1 species) and class Oligohymenophorea (1 species) In addition. the transparency index is 32-53 centimeters.267 milligrams/liter and total nitrogen 1. Bang Muang 9.8080530 100. 7. class Spirotricsea (2 species). They use UV-Spectrophotometer/UV 1601 machine. structure and movement organ.260 milligrams/liter and total nitrogen is 1. Nantaporn Jarupan (2004) and Bopit and Nantaporn Jarupan (2006) RESULTS The results of water colleted at Chao-Phaya River at Wat Poramaiyikawasworawihan to Rama VII bridge and Bangkok-Noi to Klong Oam-nont in drought season showed that the transparency index was 36-70 centimeters.9142558 100.514210 13.5013255 13. Wat Yai Sawang Arrom 6. Wat Molee Water Quality Study Process The sampled water is collected at described stations by collecting water at the center of Chao-praya river at the depth around center of the river.8992270 100.Table 1: Water sample collecting areas and their location Sampled Area 1. The organelles were also recorded for classification using method in Patterson (1996). Farmer (1980). Total phosphorus 0. They have been collected once a month and analyzed for parameters such as transparency and collect the sampled water in 1 liter bottle stored in controlled temperature container.394 milligrams/liter We found both Autotroph and Hetrotroph protozoa in the river. This container is controlled at 4 degree celsius.007-1. class Lobosea (7 species).1192. Total Nitrogen by Kjeldahl method and Dissolved oxygen in water (DO) in the analysis.4239779 methods.4761356 13.
4 (2.132 (0.102-0.38) 2.55-3.156-0.1-2.2-2.2 (3) (mg/l) 2.5) 62-70 (66) 50 (50) 57-65 (61) 33-53 (43) 54-56 (55) 32-38 (35) 55-56 (55.6-6.12) 0.2 (3) 2.122-0. In the station 4 (Wat Chueng Lane). have DO number around 3.173-1.047-1.23) 1. There also has much micro-organism which is food for protozoa which cannot generate food (Hetorotroph).9 (2.184-0.029-1.2-4.6) 2.123-1.8-6.21) 0.4 (2.257-0.152-0. Thus.05) 2.26) 0. 487 . as shown in figure 4.2-3.75) 4.65) 35-39 (37) 56-58 (57) 37-40 (38.5 (2.7-5.252 (0.114-0.4-2.7-5. The more organic decomposition.4) 2.2-5.2-4.142 (1.26) 0.231 (2. as shown in figure 2 and table 2.159-0.55-3.Table 2: Protozoa species found and water quality studies DO Station Season Drought season Rama VII Bridge Rainy season Drought season Rama V Bridge Rainy season Drought season Phra Nang Klao Bridge Rainy season Drought season Wat Cheung Lane Rainy season Drought season Wat Yai Sawang Arrom Rainy season Drought season Wat Poramaiyikawas Rainy season Drought season Wat Chalor Rainy season Drought season Bang Muang Rainy season Drought season Wat Molee Rainy season (mg/l) 2.04) 1.127 (1.134 (1.5) 39-42 (40.25) 2.3-2. In addition.8-3.2) 0.95 (3.17) 1.182-0.036 (0. The food generation process of Autotroph is affected by the transparency of water because of water in the drought season is transparent than in the rainy season as shown in figure 3.035 (1.5) 34-36 (35) 36-37 (3.159 (0.9) 5.25) 5.11) 0.281 (2.037 (1.24) 1.6 (4.109-0.25) 3.07) 2.7 (2.5) 39-42 (40.5 (4.1 (2.1 (5.132-1.254 (0.2) 2.85) 2.0 (4.1) 5.6-6 (5.3 (2.5) 39-42 (40. which are medium populous-residential areas. BOD is 2.258 (0.034-1.9) 1.7 (2. in the rainy season greater than in drought season.19) 0.1 (2.24) 0.24) Total nitrogen (mg/l) 1.4) 2.8 (3) 2.201 (0. It will flow on water surface when sun shine in small amount and it will go in deep water when the sun light is strong.12) 1.2 (3.2) 4.05) 2.1-2.2) 0.26) 0.250-0.4 (4.245-0.1-6.050 (1.8-6.394 (2. which are in agricultural area.3 milligrams/liter.2-3.245 (0.7-3 (2.7) 4. we can conclude that the diversity of protozoa depends on the land usage and the quality of water.1 (5. it could be food for protozoa and indirectly help protozoa to breed. Each protozoa species also have different amount of light needed in food generation process.1-2.8-3.38) Protozoa Species 21 26 26 30 25 32 31 38 31 33 32 34 17 24 15 20 22 28 Numbers in the bracket are estimated values.11) 0.21) 0.235-0.244 (0.263-2.260 (0.129-1.195-0. For example Euglena and Volvox like minded sun light.210 (0.05 (4.58 milligrams/liter.13) 1. In the station 2 (Rama V bridge) and station 3 (Phra Nang Klao bridge). This makes BOD value.2-3.110-0.04) 1.235-0.123 (1.260 (0. However.007-1.22) 0.2 (2.5 (5. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS Seasonal Effect The diversity of protozoa found in the rainy season is greater than found in the drought season as shown in figure 2.6-3.2-4.037-1.015-1.025 (1.9 (3.80-3.45) 2.034-1.3 (5.202 (0.234 (0.05) 2.368-2. the bio-diversity does not relate to this.52) 1.095 (1. This is because of the amount of phosphorus and nitrogen in water in the rainy season is greater than in drought season as shown in table 2.45) 3.3-2.3 (4.3-2.4-6. the more bacteria could be found in the water and also reflected by the low DO number.9-3. which need light in food generation process.267 (0.13) 0. station 5 (Wat Yai Sawang Arrom) and station 6 (Wat Poramaiyikawasworawiharn).25) 2.13) 1.036 (1.35) 5. These two substances are the major substances for Protozoa (self-food-generated: ic organisms). The DO number is around 5 milligrams/liter.85) 4.310 (1. This is the nature of protozoa.3 (2.4) 2.2-6.03) 2.236-0.92) 2.03) 1.119-1.039 (1.132-1.2 (4.14) 1.5) Total phosphorus (mg/l) 0.55) 3.35 (2.27) 1.02) 1. light plays an important role in food generation of Phytoflagellate.15) 0.042 (1.193-0.4 (6) 3.15 (3.04) 1. BOD is 2.210 (1.019-1. Therefore.16) 0.120 (0.8-5.7 (2.75) 2.95) 2.95) 2.2-2. the diversity of protozoa is greater than other areas.035-1.5 (2.25) 0.225-2.8) BOD Transparency Index (centimeter) 65-67 (66) 34-36 (35) 50-55 (52.260 (0.4) 5.05) 2.8-3.8 milligrams/liter.121 (0. Land Usage Effects From the results.115 (0.0-2. the quality of water is better than other areas.6 (3. The micro-organism in water can breed well in the environment by decompose the organic substance in the water.25) 2.
S. The results show that the quality of Chao-Praya River in Nonthaburi area can be classified as Mesosaprobic zone. Purinea. BOD and DO Value DO (Drought S eason) DO (Rainy S eason) B OD (Drought S eason) B OD (Rainy S eason) 6 7 8 9 The diversity of protozoa is less than the first group area. Murphy. Neth. The researcher analyzes the results follows the Saprobic system. Baltic Sea. Journal of Plankton Research. We can found Euglena class and Phacus class in every station which could be use as bio-indicator for this kind of water. and E. and M. Seasonal variation of Phytoplankton community in Thale sap songkhla.. X. Ecol. This shows that the usage of water has direct effect to the diversity of protozoa. 20 (12): 2251 . Effects of nutrient enrichment on the growth rates and community structure of phytoplankton from the Gulf of Riga. Armengol. Miracle. which has BOD around 2. and Maestrini. Station 8 (Bang Muang) and Station 9 (Wat Molee). (1997). Balode. J. These areas are commercial area and crowded residential area. (1998). a lagoonal lake in Southern Thailand. C. The last group which has less diversity of protozoa includes station 1 (Rama VII bridge). 18 (8): 1387 – 1405. I. 21 (12) : 2245 – 2261. and Rakkheaw.2272.5 milligrams/liter.. Atkinson. Aquat.8 milligrams/liter and BOD is 4.70 Transparency Index 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Station 6 7 8 9 Drought S eason Rainy S eason Figure 3: Transparency Index 7 6 BOD/ DO (mg/ l) 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Station Figure 4. M.5-10 milligrams/liter. REFERENCES Angsupanich. gus fullness and gut evacuation rate.R. Journal of Plankton Research. Station 7 (Wat Chalor). The DO number is approximately 2. Y. Journal of Plankton Research. which use BOD value in the classification. 30(4) : 297 – 307. J. (1999).. Diel periodicity of subantarctic copepods : relationships between vertical migration. Bechemin. Ward. Zoo Plankton communities in lakes and pools. 488 . S. in relation to some bathymetric parameters and chemical variables. A. (1996). P.S.
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