You are on page 1of 29

[G.R. No. L-12858. January 22, 1918.] THE UNITED STATES, plaintiff and appellee, vs. SANTIAGO PINEDA, defendant-appellant.

SYLLABUS 1.EVINDENCE; "RES INTER ALIOS ACTA." — As general rule, the evi en!e "# "ther "##enses !"$$itte %& a e#en ant is ina $issi%le. As "ne e'!e(ti"n, h")ever, it is (er$issi%le t" as!ertain e#en ant*s +n")le ge an intent an t" #i' his negligen!e. I# the e#en ant has "n $"re than "ne "!!asi"n (er#"r$e si$ilar a!ts, a!!i ent in g"" #aith is ("ssi%l& e'!lu e , negligen!e is intensi#ie , an #rau ulent intent $a& even %e esta%lishe . There is n" %etter evi en!e "# negligen!e than the #re,uen!& "# a!!i ents. -.ID; DISCRETION O. TRIAL /0D1E. — On the trial "# a !ri$inal !ase )here the ,uesti"n relates t" the ten en!& "# !ertain testi$"n& t" thr") light u("n a (arti!ular #a!t, "r t" e'(lain the !"n u!t "# a (arti!ular (ers"n, there is a !ertain is!reti"n "n the (art "# the trial 2u ge )hi!h a !"urt "# err"r )ill n"t inter#ere )ith, unless it $ani#estl& a((ear that the testi$"n& has n" legiti$ate %earing u("n the ,uesti"n at issue, an is !al!ulate t" (re2u i!e the a!!use . 34""re vs. 0.S. 516789, 1:; 0.S., :<.= 8.ID; CIRC04STANTIAL EVIDENCE. — >henever the ne!essit& arises #"r a res"rt t" !ir!u$stantial evi en!e, either #r"$ the nature "# the in,uir& "r the #ailure "# ire!t (r""#, "%2e!ti"ns t" the testi$"n& "n the gr"un "# irrelevan!& are n"t #av"re . 34""re vs. 0. S. 516789, 1:; 0.S :<.= ?.ID; 4OTIVE. — Evi en!e is a $issi%le in a !ri$inal a!ti"n )hi!h ten s t" sh") $"tive, alth"ugh it ten s t" (r"ve the !"$$issi"n "# an"ther "##ense %& the e#en ant. 34""re vs. 0.S. 516789, 1:; 0.S. , :<.= :.ID; ID. — A ruggist #ille a (res!ri(ti"n !alling #"r (r"tassiu$ !hl"rate )ith %ariu$ !hl"rate, a ("is"n, !ausing the eath "# t)" h"rses. A#ter anal&@ing the (a!+ages, t)" !he$ists )ent t" the rug st"re "# the e#en ant an %"ught ("tassiu$ !hl"rate, )hi!h )hen anal&@e )as #"un t" %e %ariu$ !hl"rate. Ael B That the testi$"n& "# the !he$ist )as a $issi%le in "r er t" e$"nstrate e#en ant*s $"tive an negligen!e. C.DR011ISTS; RESDONSIEILITF. — The (r"#essi"n "# (har$a!& is "ne e$an ing !are an s+ill. The res("nsi%ilit& "# the ruggist t" use !are !an %e ,uali#ie as the highest egree "# !are +n")n t" (ra!ti!al $en. The s+ill re,uire "# the ruggist !an %e ,uali#ie as high "r a$(le. In "r er )"r s, the !are re,uire $ust %e !"$$ensurate )ith the anger

inv"lve , an the s+ill e$(l"&e $ust !"rres("n )ith the su(eri"r +n")le ge "# the %usiness )hi!h the la) e$an s. <.ID; ID — The rule "# !aveat e$(t"r !ann"t %e a((lie t" the (ur!hase an sale "# rugs. An i$(erative ut& is "n the ruggist t" ta+e (re!auti"ns t" (revent eath "r seri"us in2ur& t" an& "ne )h" relies "n his a%s"lute h"nest& an (e!uliar learning. The nature "# rugs is su!h that e'a$inati"n )ill n"t avail the (ur!haser an&thing, C"nse,uentl&, it $ust %e that the ruggist )arrant that he )ill eliver the rug !alle #"r. 6.ID; ID. — In !ivil !ases, the ruggist is $a e lia%le #"r an& in2ur& a((r"'i$atel& resulting #r"$ his negligen!e. "Dhar$a!ists "r a("the!aries )h" !"$("un "r sell $e i!ines, i# the& !arelessl& la%el a ("is"n as a har$less $e i!ine, an sen it s" la%ele int" the $ar+et are lia%le t" all (ers"ns, )h", )ith"ut #ault "n their (art, are in2ure %& using it as su!h $e i!ine, in !"nse,uen!e "# the #alse la%el; the rule %eing that the lia%ilit& in su!h a !ase arises, n"t "ut "# an& !"ntra!t "r ire!t (rivit& %et)een the )r"ng "er an the (ers"n in2ure , %ut "ut "# the ut& )hi!h the la) i$("ses "n hi$ t" av"i a!ts in their nature anger"us t" the lives "# "thers." 3Nat. Savings Ean+ vs. >ar 516<79, 1;; 0.S. 17:, #"ll")ing Th"$as vs. >in!hester 516:-9, - Sel . 5N.F .9, 87<.= 7.DAAR4ACF LA>; ".RA0D0LENT" CONSTR0ED. — The Dhar$a!& La) $a+es it unla)#ul #"r an& (ers"n t" sell an& rug un er an& "#rau ulent na$e." The )"r "#rau ulent" is n"t here use in all "# its stri!tness. Rather !"nsi ering the res("nsi%ilit& #"r the e,ualit& "# rug )hi!h the la) i$("ses "n ruggists an the ("siti"n "# the )"r "#rau ulent" in 2u'ta("siti"n t" "na$e" )hat is $a e unla)#ul is the giving "# a #alse na$e t" the rug as+e #"r. 1;.DENALTF. — The La) (enali@es an& ruggist )h" shall sell "ne rug #"r an"ther )hether it %e thr"ugh negligen!e "r $ista+e. 11.ID.; ID. — A ruggist in #illing a (res!ri(ti"n !alling #"r ("tassiu$ !hl"rate gave instea t" the !ust"$er %ariu$ !hl"rate, a ("is"n, an (la!e this ("is"n in a (a!+age "# the (res!ri(ti"n t" t)" "# his si!+ h"rses )ith the result that the& ie sh"rtl& a#ter)ar s. HeldB That the ruggist is guilt& "# a vi"lati"n "# the Dhar$a!& La). DECISION MALCOLM, J B
(

This a((eal re,uires a !"nstru!ti"n an an a((li!ati"n, #"r the #irst ti$e, "# the (enal (r"visi"ns "# the Dhar$a!& La). Santiag" Dine a, the e#en ant, is a registere (har$a!ist "# l"ng stan ing an the ")ner "# a rug st"re l"!ate at N"s. ??-, ???, Calle Sant" Crist", !it& "# 4anila. One .eli!ian" Sant"s, having s"$e si!+ h"rses, (resente a

the (res!ri(ti"n )as (re(are an returne t" Sant"s in the #"r$ "# si' (a(ers $ar+e . 786 7?. an is !al!ulate t" (re2u i!e the a!!use . Ri!har s"n.. .uesti"n relates t" the ten en!& "# !ertain testi$"n& t" thr") light u("n a (arti!ular #a!t. 3See 1. ((. it sh"ul %e n"te . The t)" h"rses.. thereu("n. the t)" !he$ists als" )ent t" the rug st"re "# the e#en ant an %"ught ("tassiu$ !hl"rate. The #irst is that the l")er !"urt in a $itting the testi$"n& "# the !he$ist DeGa an Dar2uan as t" their (ur!hase "# ("tassiu$ !hl"rate at the rug st"re "# the a!!use . N"r is there an atte$(t t" ra) the $in a)a& #r"$ the ("int at issue an thus t" (re2u i!e e#en ant*s !ase. )hi!h )hen anal&@e )as #"un t" %e %ariu$ !hl"rate. Sant"s. The e##"rt is n"t t" !"nvi!t the a!!use "# a se!"n "##ense. R. an #rau ulent intent $a& even %e evi en!e "# negligen!e than the #re. "r t" e'(lain the !"n u!t "# a (arti!ular (ers"n. Drs. 3Eariu$ !hl"rate. there is a !ertain is!reti"n "n the (art "# the trial 2u ge )hi!h a !"urt "# err"rs )ill n"t inter#ere )ith. an t" #i' his negligen!e is intensi#ie . — seis (a(eles — (ara !a%all" — St".uen!& "# a!!i ents. >hat a((ellant is here rel&ing "n is the $a'i$ res inter alois acta. is a ("is"n. unless it $ani#estl& a((ear that the testi$"n& has n" legiti$ate %earing u("n the . Ein"n ". L. ie sh"rtl& a#ter)ar s. ">henever the ne!essit& arises #"r a res"rt t" !ir!u$stan!ial evi en!e. t""+ the three re$aining (a!+ages t" the Eureau "# S!ien!e #"r e'a$inati"n. at Dine a*s rug st"re #"r #illing. "n anal&sis #"un that the (a!+ages !"ntaine t" ("tassiu$ !hl"rate %ut %ariu$ !hl"rate. %ut )as n"t use . either #r"$ the nature "# the in. ???. )hi!h su%stan!e (r"ve "n anal&sis t" %e %ariu$ !hl"rate. As a general rule.!"(& "# a (res!ri(ti"n "%taine #r"$ Dr. gra$"s — en seis (a(elit"s e -.uesti"n at issue. C. a veterinarian. "%2e!ti"ns t" the testi$"n& "n the gr"un "# irrelevan!& are n"t #av"re . (ut t)" "# his si!+ (a!+ages in )ater an gave the "ses t" t)" "# his si!+ h"rses.= The 0nite States Su(re$e C"urt has hel thatB "On the trial "# a !ri$inal !ase )here the . the evi en!e "# "ther "##enses !"$$itte %& a e#en ant is ina $issi%le.. The (res!ri(ti"n rea — "!l"rat" e ("tasa — 1-. an #"un that eath )as the result "# ("is"ning. "E"ti!a Dine a — Cl"rat" ("tasa — 1-.= Dr. 4anila. an )hi!h "n "ther "!!asi"ns Sant"s ha given t" his h"rses )ith g"" results. At the instan!e "# Sant"s."ur assign$ents "# err"r are $a e." 0n er the su(ervisi"n "# Dine a. (er#"r$e an aut"(s& "n the h"rse. DeGa an Dar2uan.uir& "r the #ailure "# ire!t (r""#. Eut a((ellant has !"n#use this $a'i$ an this rule )ith !ertain e'!e(ti"ns theret". (ara !a%all". ("tassiu$ !hl"rate is n"t." Sant"s. The (ur("se is t" as!ertain e#en ant*s +n")le ge an intent. Euen!a$in". Crist" ??-. t" )hi!h ha %een given the (re(arati"n. .. gra$"s. "# the Eureau "# S!ien!e. un er the %elie# that he ha (ur!hase the ("tasiu$ !hl"rate )hi!h he ha as+e #"r. An"ther (a!+age )as $i'e )ith )ater #"r an"ther h"rse.

ualit& "r (urit& given in the 0nite States Dhar$a!"("eia. drug. se!ti"n <:1=. The (r"gra$ "# su%2e!ts #"r the e'a$inati"n in )i e. %e (unishe %& a #ine n"t t" e'!ee t)" hun re (es"s. in!lu ing.ualit& %e&"n a reas"na%le "u%t "# an in#ra!ti"n "# A!t N". 171C. $e i!ine. "r (retense. an the e'a$inati"n an registrati"n "# (har$a!ists. !hanges the (enalt& s"$e)hat %& (r"vi ing thatB "An& (ers"n engaging in the (ra!ti!e "# (har$a!& in the Dhili((ine Islan s !"ntrar& t" an& (r"visi"n "# the Dhar$a!& La) "r vi"lating an& (r"visi"ns "# sai la) #"r )hi!h n" s(e!i#i! (enalt& is (r"vi e shall. The (r""# e$"nstrates the !"ntrar&. alth"ugh it ten s t" (r"ve the !"$$issi"n "# an"ther "##ense %& the e#en ant. 1:. se!ti"n 1<. an -86-. 0. 17-1. $e i!ines. The thir an #"urth assign$ents "# err"r are that the l")er !"urt erre in #in ing that the a!!use has %een (r"ve . 516789. an #inall& !"ntains sun r& (r"visi"ns relative t" the (ra!ti!e "# (har$a!&. Aigh .ualit& "# rugs is #i'e %& se!ti"n 1< "# the Dhar$a!& La). as a$en e 3n") A $inistrative C" e 5171<9. in the #"ll")ing ter$B "Ever& (har$a!ist shall %e res("nsi%le #"r the . --8C. )as later a$en e %& A!t N"s. !he$i!al. (re(are. "r a $inister any prescription. "# the A $inistrative e'a$iners. as a$en e . se!ti"n -C<C. #"r ea!h "##ense. "r "##ere #"r sale. 0. The thir assign$ent !"ntains the ("ints )e sh"ul !"nsi er. )e $a& re$ar+. )as %ariu$ !hl"rate an n"t ("tassiu$ !hl"rate. !he$i!al. :7<. :<. u("n !"nvi!ti"n.S. "r %& i$(ris"n$ent #"r n"t $"re than ninet& a&s. an is n") #"un as Cha(ter 8. or poison under any fraudulent name. medicine. (ursuant t" )hi!h (r"se!uti"n has %een . An& rug." The sa$e a!ti"n "# the Dhar$a!& La) als" !"ntains the #"ll")ing (enal (r"visi"nB "An& (ers"n vi"lating the (r"visi"ns "# this A!t shall."Evi en!e is a $issi%le in a !ri$inal a!ti"n )hi!h ten s t" sh") $"tive." The A $inistrative C" e." These are the (r"visi"ns "# la). The Dhar$a!& La) )as #irst ena!te as A!t N"."# /une.uali#i!ati"ns #"r a((li!ants #"r the (har$a!euti!al e'a$inati"n are esta%lishe . "r ("is"n shall %e hel t" %e a ultere "r eteri"rate )ithin the $eaning "# this se!ti"n i# it i##ers #r"$ the stan ar "# . "r t" a ulterate an& rug.ualit& "# all rugs. chemical. in the ire!ti"n "# the !"urt.uesti"n !"n!erning )hi!h the %rie#s have given little assistan!e. :7<. s"l . "r %"th. %e (unishe %& a #ine n"t $"re than #ive hun re "llars. an ("is"ns he $a& sell "r +ee( #"r sale. ire!ti"n. !he$i!als."34""re vs.eli!ian" Sant"s "n the -. a s"$e)hat i##i!ult .S.. "r ("is"n s" use .= The se!"n assign$ent "# err"r is that the l")er !"urt erre in #in ing that the su%stan!e s"l %& the a!!use t" . Res("nsi%ilit& #"r the . sell. an it shall be unlawful for any person)h"$s"ever t" $anu#a!ture.

""r inar& !are" )ith re#eren!e t" the %usiness "# a ruggist. e#en ant is a (har$a!ist. C??. the Su(re$e C"urt "# C"nne!ti!ut has sai $ust %e hel t" signi#& "the highest (ra!ti!a%le egree "# (ru en!e. Va.. :. Su!h a !"nstru!ti"n )ith a literal #"ll")ing "# )ellI+n")n (rin!i(les "n the su%2e!t "# #rau )"ul stri( the la) "# at least $u!h "# its #"r!e.uali#ie as ""r inar& !are. The res("nsi%ilit& "# the ruggist t" use !are has %een vari"usl& . )hi!h a((ellant vig"r"usl& insists u("n. an the $"st e'a!t an relia%le sa#eguar s !"nsistent )ith the reas"na%le !"n u!t "# the %usiness. It )"ul leave the inn"!ent (ur!haser "# rugs. the ." It is the "ne )"r "#rau ulent" )hi!h has given the !"urt tr"u%le. that it )as #alse.<9 61 N. >. an it sh"ul n"t %e #"rg"tten that the !ases )e !"nsi er are !ivil in nature. Thus. that the (ur!haser a!te in relian!e u("n it. that )hen he $a e it he +ne) that it )as #alse "# $a e it re!+lessl& )ith"ut an& +n")le ge "# its truth an as a ("sitive asserti"n. 0n er "ne !"n!e(ti"n. The (r"#essi"n "# (har$a!&. it has %een sai again an again.ualit& "# all rugs an ("is"ns )hi!h he sells. E. -8:." 3Deter vs. See als" >ills"n vs.-9. t" !"nvi!t an& ruggist "# a vi"lati"n "# the la). there#"re. >hat i the Legislature inten t" !"nve& %& this restri!tive a 2e!tiveH >ere )e t" a here t" the te!hni!al e#initi"n "# #rau . an that the (ur!haser there%& su##ere in2ur&. R.= In "r er )"r s." 3T"$%ari vs.. the Su(re$e C"urt "# Jentu!+& sai B . Turning t" the la). ?-6. C.A. 6: C"nn." Even un er the #irst !"nservative e'(ressi"n.. that he $a e it )ith the intenti"n that it sh"ul %e a!te u("n %& the (ur!haser. !ertain ("ints therein as %earing "n "ur (resent #a!ts $ust %e a $itte . /a!+s"n 517. An #inall& it is (r"vi e that it shall %e unla)#ul #"r hi$ t" sell an& rug "r ("is"n un er an& "#rau ulent na$e. In a e!isi"n )hi!h stan s al"ne. it )"ul %e i##i!ult. >e sh"ul n"t. i# n"t i$("ssi%le. The ruggist is res("nsi%le as an a%s"lute guarant"r "# )hat he sells. As a (har$a!ist..initiate an )hi!h it is n") in!u$%ent u("n us t" !"nstrue. at the $er!& "# an& uns!ru(ul"us ven "r.uesti"n "# negligen!e "r ign"ran!e is irrelevant." "!are "# a s(e!iall& high egree.. the !are re. )h" $ust %lin l& trust in the g"" #aith an vigilan!e "# the (har$a!ist. an the s+ill e$(l"&e $ust !"rres("n )ith the su(eri"r +n")le ge "# the %usiness )hi!h the la) e$an s.. :< L.uire $ust %e !"$$ensurate )ith the anger inv"lve . The (r"se!uti"n )"ul have t" (r"ve t" a reas"na%le egree "# !ertainl& that the ruggist $a e a $aterial re(resentati"n. C"nn"r 5171-9. At+ins 517." "the highest egree "# !are +n")n t" (ra!ti!al $en. an vigilan!e.uire "# a ruggist is en"$inate as "high" "r "a$(le. in "r er that hu$an li#e $a& n"t !"nstantl& %e e'("se t" the anger #l")ing #r"$ the su%stituti"n "# ea l& ("is"ns #"r har$less $e i!ine. th"ught#ulness. )ith"ut g"" reas"n s" evitali@e the la). is "ne e$an ing care an skill.= The "s+ill " re. he is $a e res("nsi%le #"r the .

n"r !an )e a((rehen that it is in an& )ise (r"%a%le. An i$(erative ut& is "n the ruggist t" ta+e (re!auti"ns t" (revent eath "r seri"us in2ur& t" an&"ne )h" relies "n his a%s"lute h"nest& an (e!uliar learning. ." 3S$ith*s A $i'. 3See Jn"e#el vs. C"nse. (la!e this ("is"n in a (a!+age la%ele "("tassiu$ !hl"rate" . That is t" sa&. The ven "r an the ven ee " n"t stan at ar$s length as in "r inar& transa!ti"ns. !an %e hear t" sa& that his $ista+es %& )hi!h he #urnishes a !ust"$er the $"st ea l& "# rugs #"r th"se !"$(arativel& har$less is n"t. vs. gr"ss negligen!e. it )as un "u%te l& a $ista+e an unintenti"nal. that he ha %een ver& !are#ul an (arti!ular.leet vs A"llen+e$( 516:-9. "r (ers"ns engage in ven ing rugs an $e i!ines %& retail. un er the $"st #av"ra%le as(e!t #"r hi$sel#. ?6?. in (la!e "# an"ther sent #"r an esigne t" (r" u!e a i##erent e##e!t. Instea "# caveat emptor. I# he "es these things. :C A$.uentl&. it $ust %e that the ruggist )arrants that he )ill eliver the rug !alle #"r. et!. in an "# itsel#. having right#ul a!!ess t" the$. 4i elt"n 517.-9. "r even "n inn"!ent rug.= The rule "# caveat emptor !ann"t a((l& t" the (ur!hase an sale "# rugs. the legal $a'i$ sh"ul %e reverse . Su!h e'!uses )ill n"t avail hi$. it )as a $ista+e "# the gravest +in . )here a !ust"$er !alls u("n a ruggist #"r a har$less re$e &. a ("is"n. as arseni! #"r !al"$el. :C8. It )"ul %e i le $"!+er& #"r the !ust"$er t" $a+e an e'a$inati"n "# a !"$("un "# )hi!h he !an +n") n"thing. I# it )as #urnishe %& the !ler+. it sh"ul %e !aveat ven it"r."As a((li!a%le t" the ")ners "# rug st"res. (la!ing the %ur en "n hi$ t" sh") that the $ista+e )as un er the !ir!u$stan!es !"nsistent )ith the e'er!ise "# ue !are.. an e'(e!t t" es!a(e res("nsi%ilit& "n a (lea "# $ista+e. he !ann"t es!a(e !ivil res("nsi%ilit&. an relie u("n %& th"se ealing )ith hi$ t" e'er!ise that high egree "# !auti"n an !are !alle #"r %& the (e!uliarl& anger"us nature "# this %usiness. De!. A")ever. #"r e'a$(le in #illing a (res!ri(ti"n !alling #"r ("tassiu$ !hl"rate give instea t" the !ust"$er %ariu$ !hl"rate. )as negligen!e. :C L. that the a!t "# #urnishing the )r"ng rug in this !ase )as )ill#ul. u("n the allege (rete'ts that it )as an a!!i ental "r an inn"!ent $ista+e. it )as sai B "It is n"t suggeste . an ha use e'tra"r inar& !are an iligen!e in (re(aring "r !"$("un ing the $e i!ines as re. in )hi!h (r""# "# negligen!e is !"nsi ere as $aterial."3. an "# the $"st isastr"us e##e!t. an that "# an aggravate #"r$. The nature "# rugs is su!h that e'a$inati"n )"ul n"t avail the (ur!haser an&thing.= The ruggist !ann"t. !arthari es #"r "r $i'e )ith sna+er""t an Deruvian %ar+. an )h" "es s". R. S" in a !ase )here a ruggist #ille an "r er #"r !al"$el ta%lets )ith $"r(hine an (la!e the $"r(hine in a %"' la%ele !al"$el. Ais $ista+e. At+ins.. eliver& "# a ("is"n"us rug %& $ista+e %& the ruggist is prima facie negligen!e. >e !ann"t sa& that "ne h"l ing hi$sel# "ut as !"$(etent t" han le su!h rugs.= 0n er the "ther !"n!e(ti"n. !al!ulate t" (r" u!e a !ertain e##e!t.uire . supra. let hi$ %e !ertain that he "es n"t sell t" a (ur!haser "r sen t" a (atient "ne rug #"r an"ther.

an this )"r is !ertainl& n"t s&n"n&$"us )ith "#rau ulent. A (lea "# a!!i ent an $ista+e !ann"t e'!use #"r the& !ann"t ta+e (la!e unless there %e )ant"n an !ri$inal !arelessness an negle!t.= In realit&. "Dhar$a!ists "r a("the!aries )h" !"$("un "r sell $e i!ines. S" "r ere . A") the $is#"rtune "!!urs in uni$("rtant. it !ann"t %e that the Dhili((ine Legislature inten e t" use the )"r "#rau ulent" in all its stri!tness. i# un er all the !ir!u$stan!es the #a!t "# "!!urren!e is attri%uta%le t" the ruggist as a legal #ault. it )as sai . senten!ing the e#en ant t" (a& a #ine "# D1. )hi!h has re(eate l& %een #"ll")e %& the 0nite States Su(re$e C"urt. )h" are .9 87<. 17:.. )e " n"t ee$ it t"" rigi a rule t" h"l that the la) (enali@es an& ruggist )h" shall sell "ne rug #"r an"ther )hether it %e thr"ugh negligen!e "r $ista+e. 1 Le)in.S. )hi!h )e are (er$itte t" !"nsult t" e'(lain the English te't.. in !"nse. Savings Ean+ vs. 1C7..uen!e "# the #alse la%el. %ut "ut "# the ut& )hi!h the la) i$("ses "n hi$ t" av"i a!ts in their nature anger"us t" the lives "# "thers. are lia%le t" all (ers"ns )h"." The usual %a ges "# #rau . $ista+e is negligen!e an !are is n" e#ense. run the sa$e rig"r"us rules. an re$e$%ering (arti!ularl& the !are an s+ill )hi!h are e'(e!te "# ruggists.ualit& "# rugs )hi!h the la) i$("ses "n ruggist an the ("siti"n "# the $a e unla)#ul is the giving "# a #alse na$e t" the rug as+e #"r. an sen it s" la%ele int" the $ar+et. . e'a$(le. 3See Tess&$"n *s Case K16-6L. are in2ure %& using it as su!h $e i!ine.= Eearing these general (rin!i(les in $in . #"ll")ing Th"$as vs. )ith"ut (re2u i!e t" an& !ivil a!ti"n )hi!h $a& %e institute .In !ivil !ases. Thr"ugh"ut the !ri$inal la).F. )ith su%si iar& i$(ris"n$ent in !ase "# ins"lven!&. . In a !ase. C. This vie) is %"rne "ut %& the S(anish translati"n. 5N.Sel . The 2u g$ent "# the l")er !"urt. In vie) "# the tre$en "us an i$$inent anger t" the (u%li! #r"$ the !areless sale "# ("is"ns an $e i!ines.uen!e. an in2ur& $ust %e (resent — %ut n"t s!ienter. i# the& !arelessl& la%el a ("is"n as a har$less $e i!ine. )ith"ut #ault "n their (art. 0.ualit& "# negligen!e in the sale "# $e i!ine )hen eath ensues in !"nse. e!e(ti"n." 3Nat. is a##ir$e )ith the !"sts "# this instan!e against the a((ellant. I# E negligentl& sells ("is"n un er the guise "# a %ene#i!ial rug t" A.. >ar 516<79."r. C.. . have %een hel guilt& "# $anslaughter. the ruggist is $a e lia%le #"r an& in2ur& a((r"'i$atel& resulting #r"$ his negligen!e. that in s"$e 2uris i!ti"ns the& are lia%le even #"r their $ista+e an in "thers have the %ur en (la!e u("n the$ t" esta%lish that the& )ere n"t negligent. the rule %eing that the lia%ilit& in su!h a !ase arises n"t "ut "# an& !"ntra!t "r ire!t (rivit& %et)een the )r"ngI "er an the (ers"n in2ure . #alsit&. Rather !"nsi ering the res("nsi%ilit& #"r the . a("the!aries "r a("the!ar& !ler+s. #"r the ruggist. >in!hester 516:-9. In the S(anish "su(uest"" is use . he is lia%le #"r the in2ur& "ne t" A. 1. an t" (a& the !"sts.

%e!ause the& t""+ (art as a%ett"rs in a!ts "# re%elli"n !"$$itte %& San 4iguel*s %an against the agents "# the Insular 1"vern$ent an in vi"lati"n "# its la)s. )h" )ere $e$%ers "# a !"r(s "# v"lunteers "rgani@e %& the (r"vin!ial g"vern$ent "# Eula!an. N".. FACUNDO PINEDA ET AL.CRI4INAL LA>. defendants-appellants. vs. #"r a((ellee. — The e#en ants.Arellano. Carson.?. 17. eserte )ith their ar$s an a$$uniti"n. !"n!ur.. an 2"ine the #"r!es "# the insurgent lea er San 4iguel. . Johnson. JJ.J.e%ruar& -C. that the& )ere (r"(erl& !"nvi!te "# the !ri$e "# re%elli"n un er se!ti"n 8 "# A!t N". -7-. 51. C. Araullo. 1:.R. #"r a((ellants.C.. complainant-appellee.9 THE UNITED STATES. Torres. J B ( .. an as a $e$%ers "# his #"r!es engage in si$ilar s+ir$ishes )ith the C"nsta%ular&B Held. !sabelo Artacho. SYLLABUS 1. DECISION TORRES. INS0RRECTION. olicitor-"eneral Araneta. an treet.

ar$e )ith ri#les an un er !"$$an "# Sergeant Da$as" Caa$%"l. a rev"lver. Lieutenant Re&es an his s"l iers atta!+e the (art& at 4atala%a. an %eing (r"vi e )ith guns an a$$uniti"n %el"nging t" the Insular 1"vern$ent.8. an a Re$ingt"n ri#le. )aiting #"r an "(("rtunit& t" $a+e an atta!+ u("n the t")n "# Aag"n"& an later u("n the t")n "# 4al"l"s. that he +ne) that these $en ha s" 2"ine the %an . an 2"ine the (art& "# the s"I !alle 1eneral San 4iguel. Eenign" Eae@a. De r" Ten"ri". an . that "n the #"ll")ing a&.e%ruar& "# the sa$e &ear. an . that "n A(ril 8. )ith their ar$s an a$$uniti"n. Ne$esi" Aernan e@. the !""+ "# San 4iguel*s (art&.a!un " Dine a a$"ng the $e$%ers "# the %an . 17. 17. the (r"vin!ial #is!al "# Eula!an #ile an in#"r$ati"n !harging . "n "r a%"ut the Cth a& "# . %& na$e Cris(ul" Ca(uli. "# )hi!h (ur("se Lieut.a!un " Dine a. )h" %& "r ers "# the sai lieutenant 2"ine the (art& en!a$(e in sai $angr"ve s)a$(s. an )hile garris"ne )ith "thers t" the nu$%er "# -: in the t")n "# O%an ". . %e!ause he )as (resent )hen a letter #r"$ Sergeant Da$as" Caa$%"l )as rea . testi#ie that he sa) Eulali" Re&es. g"ing t" the %arri" "# Einauangan an then!e t" the (la!e !alle C"rral na Eat". )here the& 2"ine the (art& !"$$an e %& the s"I!alle 1eneral San 4iguel. Eenit" Villanueva. Agustin e la Cru@.uentl& s"$e "# the eserters !"n!eale the$selves in the $angr"ve s)a$(s at a (la!e !alle 4atala%a. le#t their garris"n an %arra!+s in the t")n "# O%an ". this against the statute in the !ase $a e an (r"vi e .8. )here the& #"r$e an"ther %an . /"se Re&es.eli' La. "# the t")nshi( "# Da"$%"ng. the !a(ital "# the (r"vin!e. -: v"lunteers. an a#ter the !"$%at !a(ture (r"visi"ns.ran!is!" Eene i!t".uin anu$ )ith insurre!ti"n. "# the sa$e &ear. )as in#"r$e %& three $en. /uan M"rilla. The evi en!e in the !ase !"n!lusivel& esta%lishes the #a!ts that "n the a#tern""n "# . ai ing an (r"$"ting the insurre!ti"n against the !"nstitute g"vern$ent "# these Islan s. #ighting )ith the ar$s )ith )hi!h the& ha %een intruste against the l"&al tr""(s until the& )ere arreste s"$e $"nths a#ter)ar s in vari"us (arts "# the (r"vin!e. a$"ng the$ the eight e#en ants. that su%se. in )hi!h letter he ann"un!e his . Eulali" Re&es. a%an "ne the garris"n an eserte #r"$ the ran+s. is(ersing it. Agustin e la Cru@. an eserte . )ith their ar$s an a$$uniti"n. an Valentin e 1u@$an.On August -7. . %& )h"$ their en!a$($ent )as atta!+e . the sai e#en ants t""+ (art in the #ight. that )hile "n their )a& the& )ere $et %& s"$e #i#teen $e$%ers "# the sai %an )h" ha !"$e "ut t" re!eive the$. in that the sai e#en ants. "# the C"nsta%ular& #"r!es. "n )hi!h the (artisans "# San 4iguel ha a #ight )ith the C"nsta%ular&. ai ing an a%etting San 4iguel*s $en.e%ruar& C. that the s(ies sa) Ne$esi" Aernan e@ an .a!un " Dine a a$"ng the O%an " v"lunteers )h" 2"ine the sai (art&. %eing $e$%ers "# the v"lunteer !"r(s "rgani@e %& the g"vern$ent "# the sai (r"vin!e t" $aintain the (u%li! (ea!e.ran!is!" Eene i!t".

1. rea s as #"ll")sB "Ever& (ers"n )h" in!ites. "ne "# the$ a $e$%er "# the C"nsta%ular& an an"ther a $e$%er "# the v"lunteer !"r(s "rgani@e in Eula!an. .uentl& 4al"l"s. an Dine a. esta%lishes the #a!t that "n the a#tern""n "# .. sets "n #""t. that the (ur("se "# this %an . )ith "thers u( t" the nu$%er "# -:. )here the& (r"("se t" #"r$ an"ther (art& #"r the (ur("se "# #alling u("n the t")n "# Aag"n"& an su%se. an C"ntreras. assist. resisting the agents an "##i!ers "# the Insular 1"vern$ent. an alth"ugh the (ur("se )as n"t !arrie int" e##e!t. )as t" #ight against the C"nsta%ular& t" a!!"$(lish the in e(en en!e "# the !"untr&. N" "u%t the& eserte #"r the e'(ress (ur("se "# 2"ining the insurre!ti"n an "(("sing the auth"rities an their agents. Ins(e!t"r D"nat" testi#ie su%se. shall. an the lea ers. Natali" Austria. These #a!ts are !"n#ir$e %& the testi$"n& "# the a!!use . ai ing an a%etting an ta+ing a!tual (art in the a!ts "# re%elli"n an insurre!ti"n !"$$itte %& the sai %an against the auth"rit& "# the 0nite States an "# its la)s.. Eene i!t". this )as %e!ause Lieutenant Re&es "# the C"nsta%ular& atta!+e the$ %e#"rehan )ith the 1"vern$ent #"r!es an is(erse the$ "n A(ril 8.. /"se Re&es i enti#ie the a!!use as $e$%ers "# the v"lunteer !"r(s t" )h"$ the& ha elivere guns an (a&. 17. 17. Re&es. Aernan e@.uentl& that Eulali" Re&es. an . Eae@a.. !"nsisting "# the testi$"n& "# a nu$%er "# )itnesses an es(e!iall& the testi$"n& "# t)" "##i!ers. a!!"r ing t" San 4iguel.a!un " Dine a !"n#esse t" hi$ a#ter eserting the& 2"ine San 4iguel*s %an . Se!ti"n 8 "# A!t N". A("l"ni" Sa$s"n. It #urther a((ears #r"$ the re!"r that s"$e "# the e#en ants le#t San 4iguel*s %an an )ent int" hi ing in the $angr"ve s)a$(s "# the t")n "# Da"$%"ng. "r )h" gives ai "r !"$#"rt t" an&"ne s" engaging in su!h re%elli"n "r insurre!ti"n. "r the la)s there"#. an the testi$"n& "# the )itness /uan M"rilla. a!ting u("n an agree$ent t" that en )ith San 4iguel "r s"$e "# the "##i!ers "# his %an . "u%tless )ith the intent "# atta!+ing the l"!al auth"rities "# these t")ns. u("n the su(("siti"n that the sai auth"rities )"ul "(("se their assault. the !a(ital "# the (r"vin!e. the eight e#en ants.ran!is!" Eene i!t".8. u("n !"nvi!ti"n." The evi en!e in this !ase. Ins(e!t"r D"nat" Te" "r" an Liet. "r engages in an& re%elli"n "r insurre!ti"n against the auth"rit& "# the 0nite States "r the 1"vern$ent "# the Dhili((ine Islan s. -7-. %eing v"lunteers (r"vi e )ith ar$s %el"nging t" the Insular 1"vern$ent. en!a$(e at C"rral na Eat". a%an "ne the garris"n in )hi!h the& ha %een stati"ne . %ut n"t)ithstan ing the ina $issi%le an unsu(("rte e'!ul(ati"n )hi!h #ive "# the$ atte$(te . . %e i$(ris"ne #"r n"t $"re than ten &ears an %e #ine n"t $"re than N1.arrival in the $"untains #"r the (ur("se "# 2"ining San 4iguel*s (art&. 1uiller$". un er the ire!ti"n "# Sergeant Da$as" Caa$%"l 2"ine the %an "# the s"I!alle 1eneral San 4iguel. The eight e#en ants (lea e n"t guilt&. (asse N"ve$%er ?.8.. 17..e%ruar& C.

(oss * )lock.R.9 E. #. ate Se(te$%er -:. an Jose (obles 'ahesa. #illard. 51. A. SYLLABUS 1. S" "r ere . vs. )ruce. . #"r e#en ant.INDIN1S..8. "# la). IN/0RF D0E TO INTOOICATION.. N".. C"nse. )e are "# the "(ini"n that the 2u g$ent "# the !"urt %el"). #"r (lainti##. Arellano. MANILA ELECTRIC R. <<C. M.. !"n!ur. #"r the& i n"t resist the allege isar$a$ent an +i na((ing )hi!h the& allege.uentl& sh")s !"n!lusivel& that the& )ent int" the ran+s "# the ene$ies "# (ea!e. Insular (es"s ea!h an t" the !"sts $ust %e a##ir$e .uentl& the& are guilt& as (rin!i(als "# the !ri$e )ith )hi!h the& are !harge an are su%2e!t t" the (ers"nal an (e!uniar& (enalties t" )hi!h the& have %een !"n e$ne . Hartigan. WRIGHT.. an "# the )ellI%eing "# the !"untr& )ill#ull& an )ith #ull +n")le ge "# the gravit& an !"nse. 17. an their !"n u!t at the ti$e "# their eserti"n an su%se. Thomas '. R. The %est (r""# "# the guilt "# the a!!use is that "n the a& #"ll")ing that "n )hi!h the& 2"ine San 4iguel*s #"r!es the& assiste the latter in the s+ir$ish against the C"nsta%ular&.uen!es "# their a!ts.sa&ing that the& "nl& "%e&e the "r ers "# Sergeant Caa$%"l )hen leaving O%an " garris"n an that )ith the !"nsent an %& "r er "# the latter the& )ere isar$e %& a nu$%er "# the $e$%ers "# the San 4iguel Dart& )hi!h sur(rise the$ )hile their guns )ere unl"a e an t""+ the$ t" C"rral na Eat". defendant-appellant. This e!isi"n an the 2u g$ent herea#ter t" %e entere in a!!"r an!e there)ith )ill %e sent t" the !"urt %el") #"r e'e!uti"n. JJ . an %& )hi!h ea!h "# the eight e#en ants is !"n e$ne t" ten &ears* i$(ris"n$ent an t" the (a&$ent "# 1. Cooper... $c%onough an Johnson. &incaid. plaintiff-appellant. — >here the (lainti## r"ve h"$e in the nightti$e in a !alesa.J . the !ase nevertheless sh")s $"re than su##i!ient evi en!e "# the guilt "# the e#en ants "# the !ri$e "# re%elli"n !"$$itte against the auth"rities. #"r the reas"ns a%"ve state . C . & LIGHT CO. There#"re. . O!t"%er 1. 'awrence.. $apa. a t)"I)heele vehi!le. 171?.ADDEAL.

in!lu ing the $uni!i(alit& "# Cal""!an. On the night $enti"ne (lainti## r"ve h"$e in a !alesa an in !r"ssing the tra!+s t" enter his (re$ises the h"rse stu$%le . resulting in the .ECTS IN TRACJS.7. in an The e#en ant is a !"r("rati"n engage in "(erating an ele!tri! street rail)a& in the !it& "# 4anila an its su%ur%s. )"ul "r inaril& %e su##i!ient t" thr") a s"%er $an #r"$ the vehi!le an !ause the in2uries )hi!h resulte . DECISION MORELAND. he using "r inar& !are an (ru en!e in $a+ing the !r"ssing. t"gether )ith the su en st"(. !ausing the vehi!le t" stri+e "ne "# the rails )ith great #"r!e.INTOOICATION IS NOT NE1LI1ENCE. lea(e #"r)ar . is in2ure %& reas"n "# the !"n iti"n "# the tra!+s. it is i$$aterial )hether he is run+ "r s"%er. stri+ing u("n the tra!+s an t" in2ure hi$sel# severel&. I# a (ers"n*s !"n u!t is !hara!teri@e %& a (r"(er egree "# !are an (ru en!e. it is err"r #"r the !"urt t" #in that. 8. I# an& !"n!lusi"n at all !an %e legiti$atel& ra)n #r"$ the #a!ts. s" that t" enter his (re$ises #r"$ the street (lainti## is "%lige t" !r"ss e#en ant*s tra!+s. -. NE1LI1ENCE. The #all "# the h"rse an the !"llisi"n "# the vehi!le )ith the rails. there%& giving the %" & "# the vehi!le a shar( #"r)ar in!linati"n. the rails an a (art "# the ties "# )hi!h )ere a%"ve the sur#a!e "# the gr"un .STREET RAILROADS.an . having t" (ass "ver sai tra!+s at right angles )ith a vehi!le in the nightti$e. in su!h !"n iti"n that the rails an a !"nsi era%le ("rti"n "# the ties are a%"ve the level "# the street. he )"ul n"t have %een in2ure . DE. The (lainti##*s resi en!e in Cal""!an #r"nts "n the street al"ng )hi!h e#en ant*s tra!+s run. is negligent an is res("nsi%le t" a (ers"n )h". the h"rse stu$%le . there%& !ausing the (lainti## t" (it!h #"r)ar #r"$ the vehi!le. thre) . 17. n"r "es the $ere #a!t "# int"'i!ati"n esta%lish a )ant "# "r inar& !are. the (lainti## %eing at the ti$e s"$e)hat int"'i!ate %ut a%le t" han le the h"rse an vehi!le )ith "r inar& !are an (ru en!e. i# the (lainti## ha n"t %een int"'i!ate . resulting in a su en st"(. an #ell. at a ("int )here the& are !r"sse %& travelers. in !r"ssing the tra!+s "# a streetI!ar !"$(an&. — A streetI!ar !"$(an& )hi!h $aintains its tra!+s in the (u%li! high)a&. J B ( This is an a!ti"n %r"ught t" re!"ver a$ages #"r in2uries sustaine a!!i ent )hi!h "!!urre in Cal""!an "n the night "# August 6. — 4ere int"'i!ati"n is n"t negligen!e. it is that the su en #alling "# the h"rse. as the !"n!lusi"n that a s"%er $an )"ul n"t have #allen #r"$ the vehi!le un er the sa$e !ir!u$stan!es is #"un e "n s(e!ulati"n an guess)"r+.ui!+ an e!i e l")ering "# the thills. lea(e #"r)ar an #ell !ausing the vehi!le t" stri+e "ne "# the rails )ith su!h #"r!e as t" st"( it su enl& an t" %rea+ "ne "# the )heels.

(lainti##*s negligen!e )as his int"'i!ati"n.uesti"n %e#"re us is state %& the e#en ant thusB "A!!e(ting the #in ings "# the trial !"urt that %"th (lainti## an e#en ant )ere guilt& "# negligen!e. thus !"n#erring u("n this !"urt 2uris i!ti"n t" eter$ine the .* I# the #"r$er. he !ann"t re!"ver. %ut that the ties u("n )hi!h the rails reste (r"2e!te #r"$ "neIthir t" "neIhal# "# their e(th "ut "# the gr"un .uesti"n at issue is )hether "r n"t the (lainti## )as negligent. CO.uesti"n as state %& (lainti## is as #"ll")sB "The $ain .. I# the negligen!e "# the (lainti## )as the (ri$ar& !ause "# the a!!i ent then.uesti"ns "# #a!t. an . 8:7= a(("rti"ne the a$ages an a)ar e (lainti## a 2u g$ent "# D1. the trial !"urt )as !"rre!t in a(("rti"ning the a$ages." In su(("rt "# the e#en ant*s !"ntenti"n !"unsel sa&sB "De#en ant*s negligen!e )as its #ailure (r"(erl& t" $aintain the tra!+. as he ha "ne a hun re ti$es %e#"re.. It is un is(ute that at the ("int )here (lainti## !r"sse the tra!+s "n the night in . nevertheless. i# his negligen!e ha n"thing t" " )ith the a!!i ent %ut !"ntri%ute t" his in2ur&. then the !"urt )as right in a(("rti"ning the a$ages. i# the latter.uate t" the in2ur& sustaine . A. It is a $itte that the e#en ant )as negligent in $aintaining its tra!+s as es!ri%e . The . t" )hat e'tent. he !ann"t re!"ver. P D. i# s".. i# he ha %een s"%er. It see$s !lear that (lainti##*s int"'i!ati"n !"ntri%ute t" the #all. . 3< Dhil. it !an har l& %e "u%te that he )"ul have !r"sse the tra!+ sa#el&. n"t all "# the testi$"n& ta+en "n the trial. the "nl& .uesti"n t" %e !"nsi ere is )hether the negligen!e "# (lainti## !"ntri%ute t" the *(rin!i(al "!!urren!e* "r *"nl& t" his ")n in2ur&. an )hile the (lainti## $a e a $"ti"n #"r a ne) trial u("n the statut"r& gr"un s an t""+ (r"(er e'!e(ti"n t" the enial there"#. then he sh"ul %e a)ar e a$ages a e. The trial !"urt hel that %"th (arties )ere negligent." The .uesti"n n"t "nl& the rails )ere a%"veIgr"un .. 1. "# !"urse.(lainti## #r"$ the vehi!le an !ause the in2uries !"$(laine "#. thus $a+ing the t"(s "# the rails s"$e : "r C in!hes "r $"re a%"ve the level "# the street. the e#en ant "n the gr"un that it )as n"t lia%le an the (lainti## "n the gr"un that the a$ages )ere insu##i!ient a!!"r ing t" the evi en!e. %ut that the (lainti##*s negligen!e )as n"t as great as e#en ant*s an un er the auth"rit& "# the !ase "# Ra+es vs. the *(rin!i(al "!!urren!e* )as (lainti##*s #all #r"$ his !alesa. %ut it is !"nten e that the (lainti## )as als" negligent in that he )as int"'i!ate t" su!h an e'tent at the ti$e "# the a!!i ent that he )as una%le t" ta+e !are "# hi$sel# (r"(erl& an that su!h int"'i!ati"n )as the (ri$ar& !ause "# the a!!i ent." >hile %"th (arties a((eale #r"$ the e!isi"n. Re(. %ut i# there )as n" negligen!e "n the (art "# the (lainti##..

N"t all the evi en!e ta+en "n the hearings %eing %e#"re the !"urt.uesti"n an ha n"t atte$(te . vs. 11?. L")ell. Chi!ag" et!.s" #ar as !an %e gathere #r"$ the re!"r . 3>ar vs. 4i lese' R. >. ?. Chi!ag" P N. "I# the e#en ant "r its e$(l"&ees )ere negligent %& reas"n "# having le#t the rails an a (art "# the ties un!"vere in a street )here there is a large a$"unt "# travel. "ne "n the 81st "# August an the "ther "n the -6th "# Se(te$%er. R. The evi en!e ta+en "n the #irst hearing is here. R. 11: 4ass. R. 4ere int"'i!ati"n is n"t negligen!e. R.. C. Central R. 78 1a.uire t" %e e'er!ise %& an int"'i!ate $an #"r his ")n (r"te!ti"n than %& a s"%er "ne. 88 Ill. ?66. n"r "es the $ere #a!t "# int"'i!ati"n esta%lish a )ant "# "r inar& !are. C"..uesti"n. 4aguire vs. )e $ust re#use. R. R. C1 Te'. 4ass. C18. C.. C". has %een %r"ught t" this !"urt. )hat are the #a!ts #"un %& the trial !"urt an state in its "(ini"n u("n )hi!h $a& %e (re i!ate the #in ing that the (lainti## i n"t use "r inar& !are an (ru en!e an that the int"'i!ati"n !"ntri%ute t" the in2ur& !"$(laine "# H A#ter sh")ing !learl& an #"r!i%l& the negligen!e "# the e#en ant in leaving its tra!+s in the !"n iti"n in )hi!h the& )ere "n the night "# the in2ur&. R. Alger vs. Da!i#i! R. -87.. I# "ne*s !"n u!t is !hara!teri@e %& a (r"(er egree "# !are an (ru en!e. Dhina@ee. he n"t having a%staine #r"$ his !ust"$ "# ta+ing $"re )ine than he !"ul !arr& )ith"ut istur%ing his 2u g$ent an his sel#I!"ntr"l. ?. . vs. e$"nstrates that he )as int"'i!ate . 4". 8 Allen. t" !"nsi er even that evi en!e )hi!h is here.. 1:1.= I# int"'i!ati"n is n"t in itsel# negligen!e.. A((. It is %ut a !ir!u$stan!e t" %e !"nsi ere )ith the "ther evi en!e ten ing t" (r"ve negligen!e.. the (lainti## )as n" less negligent. A. an . 6: >is. 4e&er vs. an n" greater egree "# !are is re.. C". P T.. . there#"re.. . Dra+e. it is i$$aterial )hether he is run+ "r s"%er. )ith re#eren!e t" the negligen!e "# the (lainti##B ">ith res(e!t t" the !"n iti"n in )hi!h 4r.-. the !"urt has the #"ll")ing t" sa& an it is all that !an %e #"un in its "(ini"n. R. A !are#ul rea ing "# the e!isi"n "# the trial !"urt lea s us t" the !"n!lusi"n that there is n"thing in the "(ini"n )hi!h sustains the !"n!lusi"n "# the !"urt that the (lainti## )as negligent )ith re#eren!e t" the a!!i ent )hi!h is the %asis "# this a!ti"n. un er "ur rules. It is the general rule that it is i$$aterial )hether a $an is run+ "r s"%er i# n" )ant "# "r inar& !are "r (ru en!e !an %e i$(ute t" hi$. C". >right )as "n returning t" his h"use "n the night in . that ta+en "n the se!"n is n"t. )e are. he +n")ing that he ha t" rive a h"rse an )ag"n an t" !r"ss railr"a tra!+s )hi!h )ere t" a !ertain e'tent anger"us %& reas"n "# the rails %eing elevate a%"ve the level "# the street. C".. relegate t" the #a!ts state in the "(ini"n "# the !"urt an the (lea ings #ile . There see$ t" have %een t)" hearings. vs. Reas"n. in the e!isi"n "# this !ase.1. the testi$"n& "# D"!t"r Jnee ler )h" )as the (h&si!ian )h" atten e hi$ all h"ur a#ter the a!!i ent. C". "I# the (lainti## ha %een (ru ent "n the night in .

#urther$"re. J. there#"re. "E"th (arties.J. Johnson.. an the %rie#s #ile . It is ver& !lear that )hen the !ase )as su%$itte . !"ntri%ute in greater (r"("rti"n t" the a$ages than i the e#en ant.t" rive his !"nve&an!e )hile in a run+en !"n iti"n. an )e " n"t #in #a!ts in the "(ini"n "# the !"urt %el") )hi!h 2usti#& a larger ver i!t than the "ne #"un . n" #a!ts are state therein )hi!h )arrant the !"n!lusi"n that the (lainti## )as negligent. i# the& s" esire. dissenting I issent. these #in ings su##i!ientl& esta%lish the negligen!e "# the (lainti##. alth"ugh the !"$(an&. )as negligent in $aintaining its tra!+s in a %a !"n iti"n #"r travel. 1. )ere negligent an %"th !"ntri%ute t" the a$ages resulting t" the (lainti##.. It is i$("ssi%le t" sa& that a s"%er $an )"ul n"t have #allen #r"$ the vehi!le un er the !"n iti"ns es!ri%e .uesti"n an ha n"t atte$(te . )ith"ut s(e!ial #in ing as t" !"sts. C. Arellano. un er su!h !ir!u$stan!es. !"n!ur. that %e#"re (r"n"un!ing 2u g$ent the (arties sh"ul have an "(("rtunit&. this $ight %e su##i!ient t" thr") a (ers"n #r"$ the vehi!le n" $atter )hat his !"n iti"n. JJ. J. alth"ugh the (lainti##. The trial 2u ge e'(ressl& #"un that — "I# the (lainti## ha %een (ru ent "n the night in . a s"%er $an )"ul n"t have #allen )hile a run+en $an i . "n its (art. t" !"rre!t the $ani#estl& a!!i ental "$issi"n #r"$ the re!"r "# a (art "# the trans!ri(t "# the re!"r . issents. he )"ul !ertainl& have av"i e the a$ages )hi!h he re!eive ." As is !lear #r"$ rea ing the "(ini"n.uesti"n (resente %& the a((ellant !"$(an& )ith re#eren!e t" the a((li!a%ilit& "# the !ase "# Ra+es vs. it is unne!essar& t" is!uss the . %"th (arties )ere un er the $ista+en i$(ressi"n that all the evi en!e )as in the re!"r . I thin+. The 2u g$ent a((eale #r"$ is a##ir$e . that i# the !ase is t" %e e!i e "n the #in ings "# #a!t %& the trial 2u ge. I thin+. in the /u g$ent "# the !"urt. the vehi!le !rashing against the rails )ith su!h #"r!e as t" %rea+ a )heel. The !"n!lusi"n that i# he ha %een s"%er he )"ul n"t have %een in2ure is n"t )arrante %& the #a!ts as #"un .. A. Torres an Araullo. a%"ve.. Separate Opinions CARSON. It having %een #"un that the (lainti## )as n"t negligent. an t" !"n!lu e that. is t" ra) a !"n!lusi"n )hi!h enters the real$ "# s(e!ulati"n an guess)"r+. A h"rse !r"ssing the railr"a tra!+s )ith n"t "nl& the rails %ut a ("rti"n "# the ties the$selves a%"vegr"un stu$%ling %& reas"n "# the unsure #""ting an #alling. P D. C".. in the #irst (la!e.

= .uire t" #in $erel& evi entiar& #a!ts. an )hi!h !"nstitute the #"un ati"n #"r a 2u g$ent. that there )ere evi entiar& #a!ts is!l"se at the trial )hi!h )ere su##i!ient t" sustain the #in ing "# negligen!e. )as negligent in $aintaining its tra!+s in a %a !"n iti"n #"r travel." This is a #in ing "# #a!t — the #a!t "# negligen!e — an I +n") "# n" rule )hi!h re.t" rive his !"nve&an!e )hile in a run+en !"n iti"n.uires the trial !"urt t" set #"rth n"t "nl& the ulti$ate #a!ts #"un %& it. -<C.. argu$ent..an n"t th"se that are $erel& evi entiar& "# the$. 188. 1ra!e. 17. an th"ugh it is n"t #ull& sustaine there%&. n"r !"$$ent has an& legiti$ate (la!e in #in ings "# #a!ts. %ut als" all the evi entiar& #a!ts "n )hi!h su!h !"n!lusi"ns are %ase The #in ing is n"t in !"n#li!t )ith the "ther #a!ts #"un %& the trial 2u ge. ." 3C"nlan vs. 8C 4inn.-6-. se!. )e $ust assu$e. The !"urt is n"t re. "r t" set #"rth an e'(lain the $eans "r (r"!esses %& )hi!h he arrive at su!h #in ings.uire t" %e #"un are the ulti$ate #a!ts #"r$ing the issues (resente %& the (lea ings. i# )e e!line t" e'a$ine the re!"r .= "The #a!ts re. "The state$ent "# #a!ts $ust !"ntain "nl& th"se #a!ts )hi!h are essential t" a !lear un erstan ing "# the issues (resente an the #a!ts inv"lve . "n its (art." 3A!t N". he )"ul !ertainl& have av"i e the a$ages )hi!h he re!eive . Neither evi en!e. alth"ugh the !"$(an&.

<8776. "3T=he . LA!UGAN. ID. -= the in#eren!e $a e is $ani#estl& $ista+en. . ADDEALS ARE ENTITLED TO 1REAT RESDECT AND ORDINARILF NOT DIST0REED ON ADDEAL. petitioner. := the C"urt "# A((eals )ent %e&"n the issues "# the !ase i# the #in ings are !"ntrar& t" the a $issi"n "# %"th the a((ellant an the a((ellee. and TRA"ELLERS MULTI#INDEMNIT! CORPORATION. )"ul ". INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT. .uesti"n "# #a!t elevate t" us. — Negligen!e is the "$issi"n t" " s"$ething )hi!h a reas"na%le $an. gui e %& th"se !"nsi erati"ns )hi!h "r inaril& regulate the !"n u!t "# hu$an a##airs. su!h asB 1= )hen the !"n!lusi"n is a #in ing gr"un e entirel& "n s(e!ulati"n. NE1LI1ENCE."r i# )e have t" revie) ever& . Q0ASIIDELICT. +dralin ..R. $ateo #"r (etiti"ner.SECOND DIVISION 51.ID.ACT O. ID.INDIN1S O.9 PEDRO T. (oberto T . 8. . CIVIL DROCED0RE. sur$ise.. +spinas #"r res("n ent Travellers 4ultiIIn e$nit& C"r(. 1766. an 7= )hen the #in ings "# #a!t "# the C"urt "# A((eals are (re$ise "n the a%sen!e "# evi en!e an are !"ntra i!te "n re!"r .. CIVIL CODE. 6= the #a!ts set #"rth in the (etiti"n as )ell as in the (etiti"ner*s $ain an re(l& %rie#s are n"t is(ute %& the res("n ents. vs. -. ?= the 2u g$ent is %ase "n $isa((rehensi"n "# #a!ts. <= the sai #in ings "# #a!t are !"n!lusi"ns )ith"ut !itati"n "# s(e!i#i! evi en!e "n )hi!h the& are %ase . GODOFREDO ISIDRO.. "r the "ing "# s"$ething )hi!h a (ru ent an reas"na%le $an )"ul n"t ". EOCEDTIONS. CO0RT O. — It is an ele$entar& rule in the revie) "# e!isi"ns "# the C"urt "# A((eals that its #in ings "# #a!t are entitle t" great res(e!t an )ill n"t "r inaril& %e istur%e %& this C"urt. "r as /u ge C""le& e#ines it. )e )"ul har l& have an& $"re ti$e le#t #"r the )eightier issues !"$(elling an eserving "ur (re#erential attenti"n.RE4EDIAL LA>. 8= there is grave a%use "# is!reti"n. C= the #in ings "# the C"urt "# A((eals are !"ntrar& t" th"se "# the trial !"urt. — Surel& there are esta%lishe e'!e(ti"ns )hen the C"urt sh"ul revie) an re!ti#& the #in ings "# #a!t "# the l")er !"urt. N". respondents. N"ve$%er 1?. "r !"n2e!ture.INED.rlando '.CIVIL LA>. ID. . SYLLABUS 1. ADDEAL. DE. -allarta #"r res("n ent 1" "#re " Isi r".

. un er the !ir!u$stan!es inv"lve .. ID.. — The "!trine "# res ipsa lo2uitur as a rule "# evi en!e is (e!uliar t" the la) "# negligen!e )hi!h re!"gni@es that (ri$a #a!ie negligen!e $a& %e esta%lishe )ith"ut ire!t (r""# an #urnishes a su%stitute #"r s(e!i#i! (r""# "# negligen!e. DOCTRINE IS INADDLICAELE >AERE TAE ACT0AL CA0SE O. <.ID. it a##"r s reas"na%le evi en!e. an the a!!i ent is su!h as in the "r inar& !"urse "# things "es n"t ha((en i# th"se )h" have the $anage$ent use (r"(er !are.... ADDLICATION. )hen a((li!a%le t" the #a!ts an !ir!u$stan!es "# a (arti!ular !ase.ID. ID.uire$ent "# (r""# "# !ul(a%le negligen!e "n the (art "# the (art& !harge .ID. TEST TO DETER4INE EOISTENCE. ID.. ID. The rule. ire!t evi en!e is a%sent an n"t rea il& availa%le. "r is "ver!"$e. ID. is n"t inten e t" an "es n"t is(ense )ith the re. an vigilan!e )hi!h the !ir!u$stan!es 2ustl& e$an . (re!auti"n.. It $erel& eter$ines an regulates )hat shall %e (ri$a #a!ie evi en!e there"# an #a!ilitates the %ur en "# (lainti## "# (r"ving a %rea!h "# the ut& "# ue !are. The "!trine !an %e inv"+e )hen an "nl& )hen.. The La) !"nsi ers )hat )"ul %e re!+less.#ailure t" "%serve #"r the (r"te!ti"n "# the interests "# an"ther (ers"n. V"l. The la) here in e##e!t a "(ts the stan ar su(("se t" %e su((lie %& the i$aginar& !"n u!t "# the is!reet paterfamilias "# the R"$an la). The e'isten!e "# negligen!e in a given !ase is n"t eter$ine %& re#eren!e t" the (ers"nal 2u g$ent "# the a!t"r in the situati"n %e#"re hi$. ID.ID. EODLAINED. — It has generall& %een hel that the (resu$(ti"n "# in#eren!e arising #r"$ the "!trine !ann"t %e availe "#. 8. then he is guilt& "# negligen!e. )e hel B The test %& )hi!h t" eter$ine the e'isten!e "# negligen!e in a (arti!ular !ase $a& %e state as #"ll")sB Di the e#en ant in "ing the allege negligent a!t use that reasonable care and caution which an ordinarily prudent person would have used in the same situation.." ?." 3C"!le& "n T"rts. that the a!!i ent ar"se #r"$ )ant "# !are. :. DOCTRINE O. ID. I# n"t.. %la$e)"rth&.01!T1(.. (+ !/ A '... — In Di!art vs. ID. "r negligent in the $an "# "r inar& intelligen!e an (ru en!e an eter$ines lia%ilit& %& that. )here (lainti## has +n")le ge an testi#ies "r (resents evi en!e as t" the s(e!i#i! a!t "# negligen!e )hi!h is the !ause "# the in2ur& !"$(laine "# "r )here there is ire!t evi en!e as t" the (re!ise !ause "# the a!!i ent an all the . that egree "# !are. ID. 8C7= C. e!i e $"re than sevent& &ears ag" %ut still a s"un rule. IN/0RF IS ESTAELISAED EEFOND CONTROVERSF . The "!trine is n"t a rule "# su%stantive la) %ut $erel& a $" e "# (r""# "r a $ere (r"!e ural !"nvenien!e.. ID. ID. — The "!trine res ipsa lo2uitur is state thusB ">here the thing )hi!h !auses in2ur& is sh")n t" %e un er the $anage$ent "# the e#en ant. in the a%sen!e "# an e'(lanati"n %& the e#en ant. ID. )here%& su!h "ther (ers"n su##ers in2ur&. S$ith... ID.

DECISION SARMIENTO.#a!ts an !ir!u$stan!es atten ant "n the "!!urren!e !learl& a((ear.A4ILF . J B ( Assaile in this (etiti"n #"r revie) "n !erti"rari are 1= the e!isi"n $ "# the then Inter$e iate A((ellate C"urt % in ACI1. De#en antI A((ellant an Thir IDart& Dlainti##IA((ellee. "r %"th. Su!h (resu$(ti"n is 2uris tantu$ an n"t 2uris et e 2ure an !"nse. versus 1" "#re " Isi r". DRES04DTION IS OVERCO4E O. versus Travellers 4ultiI In e$nit& C"r("rati"n. ID. 4ASTER OR E4DLOFER IS DRES04ED NE1LI1ENT. — The (rivate res("n ent is sue un er Art.. that e#en ant*s tru!+ %earing Dlate N". Dlainti##IA((ellee. -16. Nueva Vi@!a&a. #"r la!+ "# $erit. Thir Dart& De#en antIA((ellant. the Dlainti## an a !"$(ani"n )ere re(airing the tire "# their !arg" tru!+ )ith Dlate N". . entitle "De r" T. Ca%anatuan Cit&. TAE . In the latter. La&ugan #ile an a!ti"n #"r a$ages against 1" "#re " Isi r". Eaga%ag. )hether %& the (lainti## "r %& the e#en ant. A 1OOD . "r in su(ervisi"n "ver hi$ a#ter sele!ti"n. ID. La&ugan. RESDONDENT S0DERIOR. ")hi!h reverse an set asi e the e!isi"n & "# the Regi"nal Trial C"urt. as in this !ase. Thir /u i!ial Regi"n. "# the Civil C" e. )hi!h )as (ar+e al"ng the right si e "# the Nati"nal Aigh)a&. 17<7 )hile at Earet%et. -1<C in relati"n t" Art.1. D>I:68.. n" (resu$(ti"ns )ill %e inv"lve an the "!trine %e!"$es ina((li!a%le )hen the !ir!u$stan!es have %een s" !"$(letel& elu i!ate that n" in#eren!e "# e#en ant*s lia%ilit& !an reas"na%l& %e $a e. )hen an in2ur& is !ause %& the negligen!e "# a servant "r e$(l"&ee there instantl& arises a (resu$(ti"n "# la) that there )as negligen!e "n the (art "# the $aster "r e$(l"&er either in the sele!ti"n "# the servant "r e$(l"&ee. DOCTRINE O.::. Eran!h OOVI. $a& %e re%utte . the (resu$(ti"n is "ver!"$e an he is relieve #r"$ lia%ilit&. I# #"ll")s ne!essaril& that i# the e$(l"&er sh")s t" the satis#a!ti"n "# the !"urt that in the sele!ti"n an in the su(ervisi"n he has e'er!ise the !are an iligen!e "# a g"" #ather "# a #a$il&. 6. . ID. "n!e the a!tual !ause "# in2ur& is esta%lishe %e&"n !"ntr"vers&..ID. CV N". an als" is$isse the !"$(laint.uentl&. The #in ings "# #a!t %& the trial !"urt )hi!h )ere a "(te %& the a((ellate !"urt are as #"ll")sB ( ''' ''' ''' "De r" T. alleging that "n 4a& 1:. an the !"unter !lai$s "# the (arties an -= the res"luti"n ' en&ing the (lainti##Ia((ellee*s 3herein (etiti"ner= $"ti"n #"r re!"nsi erati"n.. riven re!+lessl& %& Daniel Serran" %u$(e the . S0I<8. )hatever the s"ur!e "# the evi en!e.inall&.ATAER O..R. thir (art& !"$(laint. (aragra(h :.

. an D-. thir I(art& e#en ant )as !"nstraine t" engage the servi!es "# !"unsel #"r a #ee "# D8... The e!isi"n "n %ehal# "# the (lainti## )as set asi e t" give a !han!e t" the e#en ant t" #ile his ans)er an later "n.... in e$nit& an su%r"gati"n %& virtue "# their !"ntra!t un er Insuran!e D"li!& N"..... an that he agree t" (a& his la)&er the su$ "# TEN TAO0SAND DESOS 3D1... Eaga%ag.. he )"r+e as a tru!+ hel(er an )hile )"r+ing as su!h. 11<-8 )hi!h !"vers the insurer*s lia%ilit& #"r a$ages arising #r"$ eath. that the thir I(art& (lainti##.=. that %& reas"n "# the thir I(art& !"$(laint.. hu$iliati"n.=... that (lainti## %eing a $ere %&stan er an hit!hhi+er $ust su##er all the a$ages he in!urre ...... 1ar!ia Resear!h an 4e i!al Center an the Our La & "# L"ur es A"s(ital. (lainti## )as in2ure an h"s(itali@e at Dr. that the (r"'i$ate !ause "# the in!i ent )as the #ailure "# the river "# the (ar+e tru!+ in installing the earl& )arning evi!e.. a thir I(art& !"$(laint. that he su##ere slee(less nights..= a $"nth. Nueva Vi@!a&a. n"t a tru!+ hel(er %eing a %r"therIinIla) "# the river "# sai tru!+. )ith a salar& "# SIO A0NDRED DESOS 3C.(lainti##....e%ruar& 17....... 17<6 an .... E& )a& "# !"unter!lai$ e#en ant allege that ue t" (lainti##s %aseless !"$(laint he )as !"nstraine t" engage the servi!es "# !"unsel #"r D:..... that as a result. )"un e #eelings )hi!h $a& %e esti$ate at D8. that he s(ent TEN TAO0SAND DESOS 3D1. On 4a& -7. hen!e the river "# the (ar+e !ar sh"ul %e lia%le #"r a$ages sustaine %& the tru!+ "# the herein e#en ant in the a$"unt "# $"re than D-. Thir I(art& e#en ant ans)ere that. >hen he is "##I ut&.. even assu$ing that the su%2e!t $atter "# the !"$(laint is !"vere %& a vali an e'isting insuran!e ("li!&. !lai$e that the thir I(art& e#en ant is lia%le t" the #"r$er #"r !"ntri%uti"n.. a thir I(art& !"$(laint )as #ile %& the e#en ant against his insurer.. its lia%ilit& shall in n" !ase e'!ee the li$it e#ine un er the ter$s an !"n iti"ns state therein. an (lainti##s evi en!e )as re!eive e'I(arte "n /anuar& 11... 1761. As (ra&e #"r %& the (lainti##s !"unsel.. De#en ant !"untere that the (lainti## )as $erel& a %&stan er. "!!u(&ing al$"st hal# "# the light lane t")ar s S"lan". 4etr" 4anila.uesti"n )as a((r"'i$atel& !ause %& the !arelessness an gr"ss negligen!e "# the (lainti##. he sustaine in2uries as a result "# the %u$(ing "# the !arg" tru!+ the& )ere re(airing at Earet%et.... Le'Li% De r" La&ugan e!lare that he is a $arrie $an )ith "ne 31= !hil . %" il& in2uries an a$age t" (r"(ert&.. light a#ter the !urve.= an )ill in!ur $"re e'(enses as he re!u(erates #r"$ sai in2uries. )ith"ut a $itting his lia%ilit& t" the (lainti##.. Daulin" /. that %e!ause "# sai in2uries he )"ul %e e(rive "# a li#eti$e in!"$e in the su$ "# SEVENTF TAO0SAND DESOS 3D<... that the tru!+ allege l& %eing re(aire )as (ar+e .. that the a!!i ent in . 176. that the !"$(laint is (re$ature as n" !lai$ has %een su%$itte t" the thir (art& e#en ant as (res!ri%e un er the Insuran!e C" e. Ae )as e$(l"&e as se!urit& guar in 4an alu&"ng... the Travellers 4ulti In e$nit& C"r("rati"n.. Nueva Vi@!a&a %& . 17<7.. the C"urt e!lare the e#en ant in e#ault "n O!t"%er 1-. (er !"urt a((earan!e.. (r! De#en ant a $itte his ")nershi( "# the vehi!le inv"lve in the a!!i ent riven %& Daniel Serran"..

. Dri"r t" the in!i ent.REDO ISIDRO. the e#en ant is here%& "r ere B a=T" (a& the (lainti## SEVENTF TAO0SAND 3D<... DANIEL SERRANO.... an %=The !"sts "# this suit.= DESOS #"r att"rne&*s #ees.= DESOS a!tual an !"$(ensat"r& a$ages... !=... )hile the sa$e )as at a st"( ("siti"n.. The le#t leg "# the (lainti## #r"$ %el") the +nee )as later "n a$(utate 3E'h. %=T>O TAO0SAND 3D-. it has %een esta%lishe !learl& that the in2uries sustaine %& the (lainti## )as !ause %& e#en ant*s river.. (lainti##. %ut a#ter getting in2ure .= (er tri(.IVE TAO0SAND 3D:.. he !he!+e the tru!+... 1ODO.." 3((.I. Due t" sai in2uries.the river "# the e#en ant.. at the rate "# ONE A0NDRED DESOS 3D1. Nueva Vi@!a&a "n 4a& 1C. the thir I(art& e#en ant is "r ere t" in e$ni#& the e#en antRthir (art& (lainti##B a=The su$ "# ....= ''' ''' ''' 0("n su!h #in ings.. As a result there"#. Ae %u$(e the tru!+ %eing re(aire %& De r"La&ugan..ORE. the is("sitive (art "# )hi!h rea s as #"ll")sB >AERE. The tru!+ ")ner use t" instru!t hi$ t" %e !are#ul in riving..= $"nthl&.= DESOS #"r a!tual an !"$(ensat"r& a$ages.. ) The Inter$e iate A((ellate C"urt as earlier state reverse the e!isi"n "# .... his #a$il& is n") %eing su(("rte %& his (arents an %r"ther. 17<6.. an =T" (a& the !"sts "# this suit.... #"r the a$ages sustaine %& this tru!+ %ut n"t the thir (art& lia%ilit&. The !"llisi"n isl" ge the 2a!+ #r"$ the (ar+e tru!+ an (inne the (lainti## t" the gr"un . that %e#"re leaving. Re!"r "n A((eal.. a$(l& su(("rte %& the evi en!e "n re!"r .. e!lare that he gave a state$ent %e#"re the $uni!i(al ("li!e "# Eaga%ag.TF TAO0SAND 3D:. Ae use t" earn T>O A0NDRED DESOS 3D-. e#en antRthir I(art& (lainti##. there%& ren ering hi$ in!a(a!itate #"r )"r+ e(riving hi$ "# his in!"$e. S1*= ate 4a& 8. *C*= )hen gangrene ha set in. (re$ises !"nsi ere . The ("li!e re("rt !"n#ir$e the allegati"n "# the (lainti## an a $itte %& Daniel Serran" "n !r"ssIe'a$inati"n.= t" TAREE A0NDRED DESOS 3D8... ..... that a#ter he #ile the insuran!e !lai$ the insuran!e !"$(an& (ai hi$ the su$ "# D16.. 116 t" 1-. 11<-8 3E'h. he su(("rte his #a$il& su##i!ientl&. 17<7.. that he +ne) the res("nsi%ilities "# s river.= DESOS #"r $"ral a$ages. testi#ie that his tru!+ inv"lve in this vehi!ular a!!i ent is insure )ith the Travellers 4ulti In e$nit& C"r("rati"n !"vering ")n a$age an thir I(art& lia%ilit&... Daniel Serran". un er vehi!le ("li!& N". his le#t leg )as a$(utate s" he ha t" use !rut!hes t" )al+. (lainti## sustaine in2uries "n his le#t #"rear$ an le#t #""t. On the thir I(art& !"$(laint.r"$ the evi en!e (resente . e#en ant river.. the trial !"urt ren ere its e!isi"n...

:= the C"urt "# A((eals )ent %e&"n the issues "# the !ase i# the #in ings are !"ntrar& t" the a $issi"n "# %"th the a((ellant an the a((ellee. is the . $$ Ee that as it $a&. . $. In ee . this (etiti"n.>AETAER 0DON TAE 1IVEN . "r !"n2e!ture. . <= the sai #in ings "# #a!t are !"n!lusi"ns )ith"ut !itati"n "# s(e!i#i! evi en!e "n )hi!h the& are %ase . + 1. The res("n ent !"r("rati"n stresses that the issues raise in the (etiti"n %eing #a!tual. 6= the #a!ts set #"rth in the (etiti"n as )ell as in the (etiti"ner*s $ain an re(l& %rie#s are n"t is(ute %& the res("n ents.the trial !"urt an is$isse the !"$(laint. it is an ele$entar& rule in the revie) "# e!isi"ns "# the C"urt "# A((eals that its #in ings "# #a!t are entitle t" great res(e!t an )ill n"t "r inaril& %e istur%e %& this C"urt. sur$ise.. -. C"r"llar& theret"."r i# )e have t" revie) ever& . The !ru' "# the !"ntr"vers& lies in the !"rre!tness "r err"r "# the e!isi"n "# the res("n ent !"urt #in ing the (etiti"ner negligent un er the "!trine "# (es ipsa lo2uitur 3The thing s(ea+s #"r itsel#=. ?= the 2u g$ent is %ase "n $isa((rehensi"n "# #a!ts. i# the "!trine is ina((li!a%le. )e )"ul har l& have an& $"re ti$e le#t #"r the )eightier issues !"$(elling an eserving "ur (re#erential attenti"n. The (etiti"ner alleges the #"ll")ing err"rs.uesti"n as t" )h" is negligent.IADDELLEE*S CO4DLAINT. "RES IDSA LOQ0IT0R" >ITA DRODER /0RISI DR0DENTIAL 3si!= EASIS. an the !"unterI!lai$s "# %"th a((ellants. -= the in#eren!e $a e is $ani#estl& $ista+en. this rule is n"t in#le'i%le. the thir I(art& !"$(laint. TAE INTER4EDIATE ADDELLATE CO0RT ACTED CORRECTLF IN REVERSIN1 AND SETTIN1 ASIDE AND DIS4ISSIN1 TAE DLAINTI.>AETAER TAE INTER4EDIATE ADDELLATE CO0RT ACTED CORRECTLF IN ADDLFIN1 TAE DOCTRINE O. 8= there is grave a%use "# is!reti"n. Surel& there are esta%lishe e'!e(ti"ns $% — )hen the C"urt sh"ul revie) an re!ti#& the #in ings "# #a!t "# the l")er !"urt. su!h asB 1=)hen the !"n!lusi"n is a #in ing gr"un e entirel& "n s(e!ulati"n. * Aen!e. an 7= )hen the #in ings "# #a!t "# the C"urt "# A((eals are (re$ise "n the a%sen!e "# evi en!e an are !"ntra i!te "n re!"r .ACTS. the sa$e is n"t revie)a%le %& this C"urt in a (etiti"n #"r revie) %& !erti"rari.uesti"n "# #a!t elevate t" us. C= the #in ings "# the C"urt "# A((eals are !"ntrar& t" th"se "# the trial !"urt..

"r !"n2e!ture.)as #ile . at this ver& late stage. C. it is gr"un e "n s(e!ulati"n. In !avalier #ashi"n. "n A(ril 1. in the #"r$ "# a lighte +er"sene la$(.uesting #"r 8. i n"t !ite s(e!i#i! evi en!e t" su(("rt its !"n!lusi"n. 176C %% %ut it )as "nl& a#ter three $"nths. t" e'a!t its "a ("un "# #lesh". On the "ther han . the res("n ent !"r("rati"n )"ul )ant us t" is$iss this (etiti"n "n the gr"un that it )as #ile "ut "# ti$e. again err"ne"usl&. s" t" s(ea+. Darentheti!all&. 176C.uesting #"r -. an a((earan!e "# a ne) la)&er #"r the (etiti"ner %e#"re the Su(re$e C"urt" )ith $"ti"n %. re. in its !"$$ent. .. %& that the res("n ent !"r("rati"n raise the issue "# tar iness. 176C. -.$( The in#eren!e "r !"n!lusi"n is $ani#estl& err"ne"us. t" #ile the ne!essar& (etiti"n "r (lea ing %e#"re the Su(re$e C"urt". C"nse. the res("n ent !"urt in#erre that the $isha( )as ue t" the negligen!e "# the river "# the (ar+e tru!+. A") the res("n ent !"urt !"ul have reverse the #in ing "# the trial !"urt that a )arning evi!e )as installe $)es!a(es us %e!ause it is evi ent #r"$ the re!"r that reall& su!h a evi!e. )"ul !ause a grave $is!arriage "# 2usti!e. al%eit #ile err"ne"usl& )ith the res("n ent !"urt. It $ust %e n"te that there )as a $"ti"n #"r e'tensi"n. Als". 176C. The res("n ent !"r("rati"n sh"ul n"t have )aite in a$%ush %e#"re the !"$$ent )as re.E'!e(ti"ns 1. $. the res("n ent !"urt. <. )as installe %& the river "# the (ar+e tru!+ three t" #"ur $eters #r"$ the rear "# his (ar+e tru!+. a&s e'tensi"n "t" #ile the Detiti"n #"r Revie) "n Certi"rari. the instant (etiti"n #"r revie) )as #ile "n A(ril 1<. it $ust %e n"te that (rivate res("n ent Isi r" i n"t raise this issue "# late #iling. it si$(l& an ne%ul"usl& a verte t" uns(e!i#ie "s!ant& evi en!e "n re!"r . 176C.= %ig r"un l"gs. "n August i.uire an %e#"re ue !"urse )as given. In a large $easure." $+ On the te!hni!al as(e!t "# the !ase. ?. 176C. a&s #r"$ 4ar!h -. )ith the C"urt "# A((eals. $& the C"urt "# A((eals in#erre that %e!ause "# its )eight the tru!+ !"ul n"t have %een riven t" the sh"ul er "# the r"a an !"n!lu e that the sa$e )as (ar+e "n a ("rti"n "# the r"a $' at the ti$e "# the a!!i ent. in re#using t" give its "i$(ri$atur t" the trial !"urt*s #in ing an !"n!lusi"n that Daniel Serran" 3(rivate res("n ent Isi r"*s river= )as negligent in riving the tru!+ that %u$(e the (ar+e tru!+". On the "ther han . $* >e see this negative #in ing "# the res("n ent a((ellate !"urt as a $isrea ing "# the #a!ts an the evi en!e "n re!"r an ire!tl& !"ntravening the ("sitive #in ing "# the trial !"urt that an earl& )arning evi!e )as in (r"(er (la!e )hen the a!!i ent ha((ene an that the river "# the (rivate res("n ent )as the "ne negligent. In an& event. . sur$ise. ate 4ar!h 17.r"$ its #in ing that the (ar+e tru!+ )as l"a e )ith ten 31." Li+e)ise a si$ilar $"ti"n %$ )as #ile )ith this C"urt als" "n A(ril 1. an 7 "%tain in the instant !ase t" )arrant a eviati"n #r"$ the general rule. re.uentl&.

li+e that re. an "ther (e!uliar !ir!u$stan!es "# the "!!asi"n. ev"+e the (resu$(ti"n "# negligen!e "n the (art "# the river "# the (ar+e !arg" tru!+ as )ell as his hel(er.uate $eans that )"ul (r"(erl& #"re)arn vehi!les "# the i$(en ing anger that the (ar+e vehi!le ("se !"nsi ering the ti$e. )"ul ". Li+e)ise. then he is guilt& "# negligen!e. (r"vi e an earl& )arning evi!e. an vigilan!e )hi!h the !ir!u$stan!es 2ustl& e$an . )here%& su!h "ther (ers"n su##ers in2ur&. %' "r as /u ge C""le& e#ines it. t" %e there. (re!auti"n. li+e a (ar+e tru!+. The e'isten!e "# negligen!e in a given !ase is n"t eter$ine %& re#eren!e t" the (ers"nal 2u g$ent "# the a!t"r in the situati"n %e#"re hi$.uire %& la). I# n"t. %la$e)"rth&. Res("n ent Isi r" ("sits that an& i$$"%ile "%2e!t al"ng the high)a&. %& s"$e "ther a e.uesti"n %e#"re us is )h" )as negligentH Negligen!e is the "$issi"n t" " s"$ething )hi!h a reas"na%le $an. "3T=he #ailure t" "%serve #"r the (r"te!ti"n "# the interests "# an"ther (ers"n. The La) !"nsi ers )hat )"ul %e re!+less. %* . ("ses seri"us anger t" a $"ving vehi!le )hi!h has the right t" %e "n the high)a&. s" t" s(ea+. rule.>e n") !"$e t" the $erits "# this (etiti"n. A%sent su!h (r""# "# !are. "r the "ing "# s"$ething )hi!h a (ru ent an reas"na%le $an )"ul n"t ". his 3Isi r"*s= Isu@u tru!+ ha a right t" %e "n the r"a . mith. (la!e. Ae argues that sin!e the (ar+e !arg" tru!+ in this !ase )as a threat t" li#e an li$% an (r"(ert&. Isi r" (r"##ers that the (etiti"ner $ust sh") t" the satis#a!ti"n "# a reas"na%le $in that the river an he 3(etiti"ner= hi$sel#. #"r." %( In /icart vs. gui e %& th"se !"nsi erati"ns )hi!h "r inaril& regulate the !"n u!t "# hu$an a##airs. that egree "# !are. it )as in!u$%ent u("n the river as )ell as the (etiti"ner. )h" )as #i'ing the #lat tire "# the sai tru!+. "r negligent in the $an "# "r inar& intelligen!e an (ru en!e an eter$ines lia%ilit& %& that. The la) here in e##e!t a "(ts the stan ar su(("se t" %e su((lie %& the i$aginar& !"n u!t "# the is!reet paterfamilias "# the R"$an la). the (etiti"ner herein. Isi r" !"n!lu es. )hile the i$$"%ile !arg" tru!+ ha n" %usiness. t" e'er!ise e'tre$e !are s" that the $"t"rist neg"tiating the r"a )"ul %e (r"(erl& #"re)arne "# the (eril "# a (ar+e vehi!le. as (revi"usl& !lai$e . Isi r" su%$its that the %ur en "# (r"ving that !are an iligen!e )ere "%serve is shi#te t" the (etiti"ner. un er the "!trine "# (es ipsa lo2uitur. )e hel B %) e!i e $"re than sevent& &ears ag" %ut still a s"un The test %& )hi!h t" eter$ine the e'isten!e "# negligen!e in a (arti!ular !ase $a& %e state as #"ll")sB Di the e#en ant in "ing the allege negligent a!t use that reasonable care and caution which an ordinarily prudent person would have used in the same situation. The . "r. )"ul . )h" !lai$s t" %e a hel(er "# the tru!+ river. as in the !ase at %ar.

uen!e "# su!h a!!i ent the (etiti"ner sustaine in2uries "n his le#t #"rear$ an le#t #""t. Nueva Vi@!a&a an at J4 -6:.. I sa) the tru!+ )hi!h )as l"a e )ith r"un l"gs.Res("n ent Isi r"*s !"ntenti"n is untena%le. The res("n ent !"urt rule B &% ''' ''' ''' In a iti"n t" this.uisiti"n that the a%sen!e "r )ant "# !are "# Daniel Serran" has %een esta%lishe %& !lear an !"nvin!ing evi en!e. It #"ll")s that in sta$(ing its imprimatur u("n the inv"!ati"n %& res("n ent Isi r" "# the "!trine "# (es ipsa lo2uitur t" es!a(e lia%ilit& #"r the negligen!e "# his e$(l"&ee. As a ire!t !"nse. ! step 3si!= on my foot brakes but it did not function with my many attempts. still %u$(e the rear "# the (ar+e !arg" tru!+. &$ It is !lear #r"$ the #"reg"ing is.$. Eaga%ag. (. 6 3%& Datr"l$an /"se#in" Velas!"= — >ill &"u narrate t" $e in %rie# h") the a!!i ent ha((ens 3si!= i# &"u !an still re$e$%erH Ans)erB3%& Daniel Serran"= That "n "r a%"ut 1. ! have 3si!= found out later that the fluid pipe on the rear right was cut that3s why the breaks did not function. )e agree )ith the #"ll")ing argu$ents "# a((ellant 1" "#re " Isi r" )hi!h )"ul sh") that the a!!i ent )as !ause ue t" the negligen!e "# the river "# the !arg" tru!+B .Eut es(ite this )arning )hi!h )e rule as su##i!ient. there is the a $issi"n "# res("n ent Isi r"*s river. an e$(l"&ee "# the (rivate res("n ent. a lighte +er"sene la$( )as (la!e . Ais le#t leg )as later a$(utate #r"$ %el") the +nee )hen gangrene ha set in. t" )itB %. 1: 4a& 17<7 )hile riving Isu@u tru!+ at Earet%et. >hether the !arg" tru!+ )as (ar+e al"ng the r"a "r "n hal# the sh"ul er "# the right si e "# the r"a )"ul %e "# n" $"$ent ta+ing int" a!!"unt the )arning evi!e !"nsisting "# the lighte +er"sene la$( (la!e three "r #"ur $eters #r"$ the %a!+ "# the tru!+. %+ 4"re"ver. "Questi"n N"." 3E$(hasis su((lie =.B?. the res("n ent !"urt !"$$itte reversi%le err"r. The evi en!e "n re!"r is!l"ses that three "r #"ur $eters #r"$ the rear "# the (ar+e tru!+. I $et an"ther vehi!le )h" 3si!= i n"t i$ his 3si!= lights which cause 3si!= me to be blinded with intense glare of the light that3s why ! did not notice a parked truck who 3si!= was repairing a front flat tire. &. the Isu@u tru!+ riven %& Daniel Serran". Daniel Serran". >hen I )as a #e) $eters a)a&.

188.. &* The "!trine is n"t a rule "# su%stantive la) &+ %ut $erel& . it a##"r s reas"na%le evi en!e.''' ''' ''' ". et al. the $"t"rists have the right t" %e "n the r"a .. an the a!!i ent is su!h as in the "r inar& !"urse "# things "es n"t ha((en i# th"se )h" have the $anage$ent us e (r"(er !are. an that the a!!i ent )as "ne )hi!h "r inaril& "es n"t ha((en in a%sen!e "# negligen!e." && Or as )lack3s 'aw %ictionary &' (uts itB (es ipsa lo2uitur. . Calte5. Cru7 and Co.uitur is rule "# evi en!e )here%& negligen!e "# allege )r"ng "er $a& %e in#erre #r"$ $ere #a!t that a!!i ent ha((ene (r"vi e !hara!ter "# a!!i ent an !ir!u$stan!es atten ing it lea reas"na%l& t" %elie# that in a%sen!e "# negligen!e it )"ul n"t have "!!urre an that thing )hi!h !ause in2ur& is sh")n t" have %een un er $anage$ent an !"ntr"l "# allege )r"ng "er. )hile the i$$"%ile tru!+ has n" %usiness. that the a!!i ent ar"se #r"$ )ant "# !are. This "!trine is state thusB ">here the thing )hi!h !auses in2ur& is sh")n t" %e un er the $anage$ent "# the e#en ant. vs.6. 1::. A((. vs.. 1?I1<. as in the !ase at %ar. Aillen v. #"r. Civ. !nc. Res i(sa l". an that the "!!urren!e )as su!h that in the "r inar& !"urse "# things )"ul n"t ha((en i# reas"na%le !are ha %een use . in the a%sen!e "# an e'(lanati"n %& the e#en ant. "n the (art "# the river "# the (ar+e !arg" tru!+ as )ell as (lainti## )h" )as #i'ing the #lat tire "# sai tru!+.uite a nu$%er "# !ases.. A%sent su!h (r""# "# !are. It is thus #"r the (lainti## t" sh") t" the satis#a!ti"n "# a reas"na%le $in that the river an he hi$sel# i e$(l"& earl& )arning evi!e su!h as that re. )ill ev"+e the (resu$(ti"n "# negligen!e un er the "!trine "# res ipsa lo2uitur. ?6? S. &) The "!trine "# (es ipsa lo2uitur as a rule "# evi en!e is (e!uliar t" the la) "# negligen!e )hi!h re!"gni@es that prima facie negligen!e $a& %e esta%lishe )ith"ut ire!t (r""# an #urnishes a su%stitute #"r s(e!i#i! (r""# "# negligen!e. .>. C A . n"ta%l& in Africa et al. !nc. A((ellant*s Erie#=. Te'. )hi!h arises u("n (r""# that instru$entalit& !ausing in2ur& )as in e#en ant*s e'!lusive !"ntr"l. s" t" s(ea+. A""+er C"nst. C". In the !ase at %ar the %ur en "# (r"ving that !are an iligen!e )as 3si!= "%serve is shi#te evi entl& t" the (lainti##.. 3((. The thing s(ea+s #"r itsel# Re%utta%le (resu$(ti"n "r in#eren!e that e#en ant )as negligent. t" %e there. as a verte t". place and other peculiar circumstances of the occasion." 3E$(hasis su((lie =. &( an the latest is in the !ase "# 6. In this 2uris i!ti"n )e have a((lie this "!trine in . . At this 2un!ture. 0n er "!trine "# 4res ipsa lo2uitur4 the ha((ening "# an in2ur& (er$its an in#eren!e "# negligen!e )here (lainti## (r" u!es su%stantial evi en!e that in2ur& )as !ause %& an agen!& "r instru$entalit& un er e'!lusive !"ntr"l an $anage$ent "# e#en ant.uire by law or by some other ade2uate means or device that would properly forewarn vehicles of the impending danger that the parked vehicle posed considering the time. it $a& %e enlightening an hel(#ul in the (r"(er res"luti"n "# the issue "# negligen!e t" e'a$ine the "!trine "# (es ipsa lo2uitur.

"r is "ver!"$e. un er the !ir!u$stan!es inv"lve .. n" (resu$(ti"ns )ill %e inv"lve an the "!trine %e!"$es ina((li!a%le )hen the !ir!u$stan!es have %een s" !"$(letel& elu i!ate that n" in#eren!e "# e#en ant*s lia%ilit& !an reas"na%l& %e $a e. -1<C in relati"n t" Art. ') >e " n"t agree )ith the (rivate res("n ent in his su%$issi"n. that the river )as li!ense . "n!e the a!tual !ause "# in2ur& is esta%lishe %e&"n !"ntr"vers&. In the #irst (la!e. "r %"th. I# #"ll")s ne!essaril& that i# the e$(l"&er sh")s t" the satis#a!ti"n "# the !"urt that in the sele!ti"n an in the su(ervisi"n he has e'er!ise the !are an iligen!e "# a g"" #ather "# a #a$il&. as #"un %& the res("n ent !"urt.uentl&. Su!h (resu$(ti"n is 8uris tantum an n"t 8uris et de 8ure an !"nse.uire$ent "# (r""# "# !ul(a%le negligen!e "n the (art "# the (art& !harge . )hatever the s"ur!e "# the evi en!e.inall&. )here (lainti## has +n")le ge an testi#ies "r (resents evi en!e as t" the s(e!i#i! a!t "# negligen!e )hi!h is the !ause "# the in2ur& !"$(laine "# "r )here there is ire!t evi en!e as t" the (re!ise !ause "# the a!!i ent an all the #a!ts an !ir!u$stan!es atten ant "n the "!!urren!e !learl& a((ear. ''as in this !ase. "r in su(ervisi"n "ver hi$ a#ter sele!ti"n. The (rivate res("n ent is sue un er Art. The rule. is n"t inten e t" an "es n"t is(ense )ith the re. t" "ur $in .It $erel& eter$ines an regulates )hat shall %e prima facie evi en!e there"# an #a!ilitates the %ur en "# (lainti## "# (r"ving a %rea!h "# the ut& "# ue !are. the #a!t that the (rivate res("n ent use t" instru!t his river t" %e !are#ul in his riving. $a& %e re%utte . 4"re"ver. )hen a((li!a%le t" the #a!ts an !ir!u$stan!es "# a (arti!ular !ase. -16. "# the Civil C" e. '% Aen!e. an !"ul have re(aire it an thus the a!!i ent !"ul have %een av"i e . )hen an in2ur& is !ause %& the negligen!e "# a servant "r e$(l"&ee there instantl& arises a (resu$(ti"n "# la) that there )as negligen!e "n the (art "# the $aster "r e$(l"&er either in the sele!ti"n "# the servant "r e$(l"&ee. &. It is !lear that the river i n"t +n") his res("nsi%ilities %e!ause he a((arentl& i n"t !he!+ his vehi!le %e#"re he t""+ it "n the r"a . '. )hether %& the (lainti## "r %& the e#en ant. the (resu$(ti"n is "ver!"$e an he is relieve #r"$ lia%ilit&. an the #a!t that he ha n" re!"r "# an& a!!i ent. are n"t su##i!ient t" estr"& the #in ing "# negligen!e .uatel& "ver!"$e %& his river*s state$ent that he +ne) his res("nsi%ilities as a river an that the tru!+ ")ner use t" instru!t hi$ t" %e !are#ul in riving.a $" e "# (r""# "r a $ere (r"!e ural !"nvenien!e. I# he i he !"ul have is!"vere earlier that the %ra+e #lui (i(e "n the right )as !ut. it has generall& %een hel that the (resu$(ti"n "# in#eren!e arising #r"$ the "!trine !ann"t %e availe "#. In the latter. ire!t evi en!e is a%sent an n"t rea il& availa%le. '& . '$ The "!trine !an %e inv"+e )hen an "nl& )hen. '( In is!lai$ing lia%ilit& #"r the in!i ent. (aragra(h :. the (rivate res("n ent stresses that the negligen!e "# his e$(l"&ee has alrea & %een a e.

there is n"t an i"ta "# evi en!e "n re!"r "# the "%servan!e %& Isi r" "# the sa$e ..ORE. (rLL >AERE. )h" $ust %e !"$(etent. (aragra(h :. Daniel Serran". . in "r er t" insure the sa#e "(erati"n "# his tru!+ an thus (revent a$age t" "thers."# the Regi"nal Trial C"urt given the #a!ts esta%lishe at the trial '* The (rivate res("n ent "r his $e!hani!. A!!"r ingl&. >ith !"sts against the (rivate res("n ents. In the light "# the !ir!u$stan!es "%taining in the !ase.uantu$ "# iligen!e in the su(ervisi"n "# his $e!hani!. There is (au!it& "# (r""# that Isi r" e'er!ise the iligen!e "# a g"" #ather "# a #a$il& in the sele!ti"n "# his river. )h" )"ul %e ire!tl& in !harge in $aintaining the r"a )"rthiness "# his 3Isi r"*s= tru!+. Eut that is n"t all. sh"ul have !"n u!te a th"r"ugh ins(e!ti"n "# his vehi!le %e#"re all")ing his river t" rive it.. the res("nsi%ilit& "# Isi r" as e$(l"&er treate in Arti!le -16. the (etiti"n is here%& 1RANTED. "# the Civil C" e has n"t !ease . The De!isi"n "# the res("n ent !"urt as )ell as its Res"luti"n en&ing the (etiti"ner*s $"ti"n #"r re!"nsi erati"n are here%& SET ASIDE an the e!isi"n "# the trial !"urt. SO ORDERED. )e h"l that Isi r" #aile t" (r"ve the iligen!e "# a g"" #ather "# a #a$il& in the su(ervisi"n "# his e$(l"&ees )hi!h )"ul e'!ul(ate hi$ #r"$ s"li ar& lia%ilit& )ith his river t" the (etiti"ner. i# an&. Eut even i# )e !"n!e e that the iligen!e "# a g"" #ather "# a #a$il& )as "%serve %& Isi r" in the su(ervisi"n "# his river. 1768. i# an&. as )ell as in the sele!ti"n "# his $e!hani!. ate /anuar& -. is here%& REINSTATED in toto.