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Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 2 1.1 Aim, Objective & Scope ...................................................................................................... 4 2.0 Literature Review................................................................................................................. 4 2.1 Identify the causes and effect of delays in large construction projects. ........................... 4 2.1.1 Studies on causes of delay............................................................................................. 4 2.1.2 Studies on the effects of delay....................................................................................... 6 2.2 Categorize types of delays on construction projects ........................................................ 7 2.2.1 Critical Versus Non-Critical Delays ............................................................................. 7 2.2.2 Excusable versus Non-Excusable Delays ..................................................................... 8 2.2.3 Compensable Delays versus Non-Compensable Delays ............................................... 9 2.2.4 Concurrent Delays ....................................................................................................... 10 2.3 To prepare methods of occurrence delays ...................................................................... 11 2.4 Problem Statement ......................................................................................................... 11 3.0 Methodology ...................................................................................................................... 12 4.0 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 13 5.0 References .......................................................................................................................... 14 6.0 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................... 14

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Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management

(E) work variance. market growth. Bangkok. (E) Finance and payments agreements. increases the risk of market delay in production. it is essential to identify the real causes of delay in order to minimize and avoid delays and the corresponding expenditure. the period may be defined as the time during the execution. Therefore. (Saleh Al Hadi Tumi. While completing the project at the right time profit driven. Page 2 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . The main objective of this study is to know what the main causes of delay are. (B) The problems caused by customers and consultants. (D) Shortages of materials and equipment. and his analysis that there are three major categories of delay in the construction of the project (a) Shortages or deficiencies in the industry infrastructure. This project slides on its schedule and is consider a common problem in construction projects. In previous studies safety equipment & Daily target was not included in the studies there. According Mansfield (1994) .Razek (2008) identified that the delay in the construction project is considered one of the most common problems that cause many negative effects on the project and its stakeholders. which also leads to cause delay in the construction of the project. In the study by Al. Chan and Kumaraswamy (1997) conducted a survey to find the causes of delay in construction projects in Hong Kong and he found five factors: Delay . increased customer confidence and increased self-confidence and team.Abdelnaser Omran. increased cost of materials and inefficiencies. or beyond the completion date specified in a contract or beyond the date parties accept the idea for the project delivery. the loss of capital and income. (C) In all the price fluctuations.They showed that the causes of delays and cost overruns in the construction of Nigeria project were to attribute (a) the mismanagement of the contract. 2009) Similar survey was conducted in 1996 by Ogunlana Thailand. Delay in construction of the project causes stress to the team as a whole. (D) The client's initiative variation.Abdul Hamid Kadir Pakir. (B) Imprecise estimates. (C) Slow decision-making.(a) risk of poor management and supervision (b) blurred Site state.1.0 Introduction Delays are one of the biggest problems construction firms face.Assaf and Hejji (2006). As we know that time is money (Procrastination is the thief of time (Edward Young) which is defined delay in the construction of the project means exceeded. (C) The problems caused by the Contractor incompetence / insufficiency. Bassioni & El.

design changes . (1998) investigated the causes of delays in the construction industry in Lebanon from the perspective of owners. A single element of risk in the industry is the how litigation and claims are woven through the fiber construction process. volatile and requires huge capital expenditure. Delays caused by contractors can generally be attributes to poor managerial skills. 2009) Delays caused by the client such as late submission of drawings and specifications. contractors and / Engineer architecture. The party knows the damage and the parties responsible for them in order to recover the time and cost. delays in payments to contractors and the resulting cash flow problems during the construction. conflicts in work schedules subcontractors. A delay may occur at the same time as other delays and each can affect the completion date of the project. (1994) studied the causes of delays and cost overruns in construction projects Nigeria.. loss of productivity. However. rising costs and the termination of the contract. shortages of labor and inadequate job skills . in general situations of delay are complex. The results showed that most important factors are the financing and payment for completed jobs. The construction industry is vast. The most important causes of delay including the approval of shop drawings . Assaf et al. changes in site conditions. Mansfield et al. (Saleh Al Hadi Tumi. lack of equipment and poor planning. A delay caused by a party may or may not affect the completion date of the project and may or may not cause damage to a third party.A delay in an activity may not result in the same amount of delay of the project. design errors . Lack of planning and a poor understanding of accounting and financial principles have led to many a contractor’s downfall. and inadequate site information generates claims from both the main contractors and subcontractors which many times entail lengthy court battles with huge financial repercussions. slow decision making and bureaucracy in the executive home owners organizations. (1995) studied the causes of delay in major projects building construction in Saudi Arabia.Pattanakitchamrron and Arditi (2006) reported that construction delays could cause a number of changes in the project as late completion. frequent change orders. Mazhar et al.Abdul Hamid Kadir Pakir. acceleration. poor contract management.Abdelnaser Omran. It was found the owners had more concerns with regard to Page 3 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management .

2007) Page 4 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . 2. 1. while consultants considered project management issues to be the most important causes delays.1.financial issues . However.The most important contractual relations . Assaf identified 56 main causes of delay in Major construction projects to Saudi buildings and their relationship importance. A questionnaire survey was conducted with contractors. and global price fluctuations.1 Studies on causes of delay Mansfield identified 16 key factors that have caused delays in Nigeria. shortages of materials. entrepreneurs considered . delays in the progress of the contractor. consultants and clients organizations in Nigeria. Yau Wen Soon. The main objectives of this study include the following:  To identify the causes and effect of delays in large construction projects  To categorize types of delays on construction projects  To Prepare methods of occurrence delays 2. Objective & Scope Identify and develop methods of minimizing and control delay in construction projects.0 Literature Review 2.1 Aim. (Murali Sambasivan *.1 Identify the causes and effect of delays in large construction projects. shortages of labor and poor working skills were important delay factors. the relationship between subcontractors and slow decision process owner who were the main causes of delay. From the point of view of architects and engineers Cash flow problems during construction. Based on the entrepreneurs surveyed more important factors of delay were the preparation and approval of shop drawings. They showed that the causes of delays and cost overruns on construction projects Nigerian were allocated to financing and payment terms. the payment by the owners and design changes. the owners agreed that design errors. inaccurate estimation. poor contract management.

late deliveries. slow decision making and cash flow problems. inadequate inspection of the site. Odeyinka and Yusif have examined the causes of delays in construction projects in Nigeria. The result of the study indicates the main causes of delay in the construction of public projects were related to designers. Foreign causes of delay were identified: weather. problems of material management.Ogunlana and Promkuntong conducted a study on construction delays in Thailand. (b) caused by clients and consultants and (c) caused by contractor incompetence / inadequacies. They classified the causes behind the project participants and foreign factors. Chan and Kumaraswamy conducted a survey to identify and assess the relative importance of the major factors causing delays in building Hong Kong projects. planning and scheduling problems. Delays to customers included change orders. site. materials management problems and a shortage of labor. customer initiated changes and necessary Changes in work. unexpected soil conditions. They recommended there should be a concerted effort by the managers of the economy associations and the construction industry to provide the necessary infrastructure for effective project management. The results indicate that the five leading causes of delays were: poor site management and supervision. labor disputes and strikes.Momani conducted a quantitative analysis construction delays in Jordan. weather. Contraction delays related to Tor identified are financial difficulties. Al. They found that the problems faced by the construction industry in developing economies as Thailand could be: (a) shortages or deficiencies infrastructure industry (mainly provide resources). economic conditions and increasing the amount. user changes. They analyzed and classified the main reasons delays and divided into two groups: (a) the role of stakeholders in the local construction industry (ie clients. low speed of decision making involving all project teams. consultants and contractors) and (b) the type of projects. Page 5 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . acts of nature.

Chan and Kumaraswamy explored strategies compression durations of the construction of various types of construction projects because of lessons learned from Surveys based in Hong Kong and other search results. (Murali Sambasivan *. Page 6 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . An assessment of the causes of delays and the magnitude of their impact on project costs were also made. 2007) 2. suppliers ' default. Manavazhia and Adhikarib conducted a survey to investigate material supply delays and equipment road projects in Nepal. architects and engineers. They found that the effects of six-construction delay were Timeout. The survey method was used in the conduct This research involving large construction projects.Assaf and Hejji link causes related contractor and work related to the likely overcoming delays in construction projects in Saudi Arabia. and subcontractors were among the top ten most important factors. Al. slow decision making. Yau Wen Soon. poor planning . Delay in delivery of materials and equipment for construction sites is often a contribution cause cost overruns on construction projects costing developing countries. The results of the Investigation revealed that contractors and consultants agreed the owner of interference . and contractors. The literature of different countries on the factors that influence construction times.Similarly. experience insufficient contractor financing and payments . government regulations and transport delays.2 Studies on the effects of delay Aibinu and Jagboro have studied and evaluated the effects delays in construction project delivery in Nigerian Construction industry. cost overruns. litigation. Odeh and Battaineh also conducted a survey to determine the most important causes of delays in construction projects with the traditional type of contracts viewpoint construction contractors and consultants. labor productivity . Main causes delays supply materials and equipment were considered (in order of importance) organizational weaknesses. the reasons for project delays and existing statistical models to forecast time were review.1. arbitration and litigation and total abandonment. The Questionnaires were sent to all three groups of construction practitioners: surveyors.

how to build the job from a practical perspective Page 7 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . i. All delays that are identified in the analysis will be either excusable or nonexcusable.related causes and related customer both likely overruns of construction projects in Hong Kong. Delay can be further categorized into compensable or non-compensable delays. If these activities are delayed. Yau Wen Soon.2.1 Critical Versus Non-Critical Delays Delays that affect the project completion.2 Categorize types of delays on construction projects Theodore (2009) mentioned that there are four basic ways to categorize type of delays: a) Critical or noncritical b) Excusable or non-excusable c) Compensable or non-compensable d) Concurrent or non-concurrent In the process of determining the effect of a delay on the project. The determining which activities truly control the project completion date depends on the following: a) The project itself b) The contractor’s plan and schedule (particularly the critical path) c) The requirement of the contract for sequence and phasing d) The physical constraint of the project. or a milestone date are noncritical delays. or in some cases a milestone date.Odeh and Battaineh related causes account contract probable disputes occur in construction projects Jordan. and delays that do not affect the project completion.e. 2007) 2. are considered as critical delays. (Murali Sambasivan *. 2. Chan and Kumaraswamy related to the consultant . the analyst must determine whether the delay is critical or noncritical. the project completion date or a milestone dater will be delayed. The analyst must also assess if delay are concurrent. Mansfield and Frimpong related to the customer-related.

Don Simon Kankanamge Upali. Lack of action by government bodies. Owner-directed changes f. 2011) Page 8 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management .2. based on common general provisions in public agency specifications. A project-specific labor strike caused by either the contractor’s unwillingness to meet with labor representative or by unfair labor practices (Jayalath. Errors and omissions in the plans and specifications g. such as building inspection Non-excusable delays are events that are within the contractor’s control or that are foreseeable. Untimely performance by suppliers c. Faulty workmanship by the contractor or sub-contractors d. Differing site conditions or concealed conditions h.2 Excusable versus Non-Excusable Delays All delays are either excusable or non-excusable. Intervention by outside agencies j. Late performance of sub-contractors b. delays resulting from the following events would be considered excusable: a. Floods d. Unusually severe weather i. Acts of God e. Fires c. Normally. General labor strikes b. An excusable delay is a delay that is due to an unforeseeable event beyond the contractor’s or the subcontractor’s control.2. These are some examples or non-excusable delays: a.

(Saleh Al Hadi Tumi.Abdelnaser Omran. the question of whether a delay is compensable must be answered. Delay Categories (Theodore.Figure: 1. a non-excusable delay warrants neither additional compensation nor a time extension. Thus. Relating back to the excusable and non-excusable delays.2.0. Additionally.Abdul Hamid Kadir Pakir. 2009) Page 9 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . the contractor is not entitled to any added compensation resulting from the excusable delay. for which is the contractor does not receive any additional money but may be allowed a time extension. Whether or not a delay is compensable depends primarily on the terms of the contract. a contract specifically notes the kinds of delays that are non-compensable. In the most cases. 2009) 2. Non-compensable delays mean that although an excusable delay may have occurred.3 Compensable Delays versus Non-Compensable Delays A compensable delay is a delay where the contractor is entitled to a time extension and to additional compensation. only excusable delays can be compensable.

the contractor is entitled to time extension. few contract specifications include a definition of concurrent delay and how concurrent delays affect a contractor’s entitlement to additional compensation for time extension or responsibility for liquidated damages. In addition. only a time extension is granted to the contractor. There was no reliable method to differentiate the impact of contractor caused delays from client caused delays until the development of CPM schedule analysis is developed. The concurrency argument is not just from the standpoint of determining the project’s critical delays but also from the standpoint of assigning responsibility for damages associated with delays to the critical path. Don Simon Kankanamge Upali.2. By the available of sophisticated computerized techniques. In analyzed concurrent delays. but not to damages.2. Contractors will often cite concurrent delays by the owner as a reason why liquidated damages should not be assessed for its delays. if excusable with compensation and excusable without compensation delays occur concurrently. 2011) Page 10 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . Firstly. if two excusable with compensation delays occur concurrently. the possibility to segregate the impacts of apparently concurrent client and contractor delays would be higher. if excusable and non-excusable delays occur concurrently. (Jayalath. although the guidelines are useful for carrying out the delay analysis. each delay is assessed separately and its impact on other activities and the project duration is calculated. at the beginning. it is in the best interest of all parties involved in a construction project to agree. Unfortunately. Lastly.4 Concurrent Delays The concept of concurrent delay has become a very common presentation as part of some analysis of construction delays. Owners will often cite concurrent delays by the contractor as a reason for issuing a time extension without additional compensation. Next. the contractor is entitled to both time extension and damages. There are some guidelines for concurrent delays classification. the definitions of such delays and accommodate them throughout the contract language.

Bramble and Callahan (1987) defined that " delay is the time during which a certain the project construction was Lying or unrealized due to unforeseen circumstances. (1996) studied the delays in construction projects in Thailand. The delay in dispute settlement has manifold effects such as it will give detrimental to the relationship between owner and contractor.” An incident delay may originate from within the organization of the contractor or any of other factors on the building interface project. primarily provide resources. and then allocated the responsibilities and types of delays for each cause. Some projects are just a few days behind schedule. Kumaraswamy et al. It is therefore essential to define the real causes of delay in order to minimize and avoid delays in any construction project. (2) problems caused by clients and consultants. (1998) asked about the causes of delays in construction Hong Kong view from clients. They concluded that the problems of the construction industry in developing economies could be embedding in three layers: (1) problem of shortage or shortcomings in the infrastructure industry. consultants. Ahmed (2000) carried out a study to identify the major causes of delays in building construction in Florida. contractors and consultants. Page 11 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . and examined factors affecting productivity. Moreover. The study of Assaf (2006) was carried out the main causes of delay in large building projects in Saudi Arabia. The investigation revealed differences in the perception of the relative importance of the three factors groups representative of their experiences .3 To prepare methods of occurrence delays Delays occur in each building project and the important of these delays varies considerably from one project to another . and owners.4 Problem Statement Many construction projects have faced various problems and delay of time is one of the major problems. it will also contribute to the cost and time overruns. Ogunlana et al. some are delayed during a year. and (3) problems caused by incompetence entrepreneurs. possible prejudice and lack of effective communication. as an example of developing economies. The survey covered a random sample of contractors.2. A lot and various studies have been conducted to assess the causes of delays in construction projects. 2.

regulatory changes. delays of time in a project. some of the causes of delay that can be encountered in a construction project were identified. 2. lacking of material and other factors include labour. site management. The causes of delays are then classified into eight major categories 1. and financial problem. slow decision making and unrealistic contract duration imposed by owners. and inadequate contractor experience. some of the causes for delays that may be encounter in a construction project were identify. improper planning and errors during construction. In this step. preparation and approval of drawings. which has divided the reason of construction delays into 2 parts. 4. Consultant related factors: contract management. clients and consultants in some projects in Sri Lanka. 5. 7. i. Contractor related factors: delays caused by subcontractor.0 Methodology The objectives defined in the preceding section were achieve through the accomplishment of the following tasks: The preliminary data for this research was collected through a literature review and the use of a questionnaire survey targeted at some contractors. inappropriate overall organizational structure linking to the project and lack of communication between the parties. conference proceedings. 3. External factors: Weather condition. Contract related factors: change orders and mistakes or discrepancies in contract document. and international project management journals. 3. the Internet.e. quality assurance and waiting time for approval of test and inspection. In this step. 2007) Page 12 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . Material related factors: quality of material and shortage in material. Client related factors: finance and payments of completed work. material and equipment. Contract relationship related factors: major disputes and negotiations. improper construction methods. Yau Wen Soon. problem with neighbors and unforeseen site condition. Labor and equipment related factors: labor supply.In the study of Ahmad (2003). owner interference. (Murali Sambasivan *. 8. labor productivity and equipment availability and failure. The literature review was conduct through books. 6.

at the end of "time". this article summary of the reasons for delays caused to these sites and offers some recommendation. Thus. The projects studied in this study show a delay in lager construction project. In practice. and to provide some guidelines and information useful managers can use to manage their projects. In summary. this phenomenon should continue unless management measures are taken against these causes in planned design element and construction.Data collected through questionnaire surveys are analyzed and recommendations are made for reduce delays. which could allow the organization of the contractor to develop in house competitiveness for producing a the major objective in the construction of a project. Page 13 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . coordination and change procedures for population control institutions must be recognize and implications understood. We believe that the arguments and conclusions presented in this study provide a good guidance for management intervention. 4. best practices planning.0 Conclusion Construction time is an essential function in construction projects.

3. Lagos QS Digest.ac. Int J Project Manage 593–9. Int J Project Manage. 10 02. 2011. 10 08. 2013. Saleh Al Hadi Tumi. Majid M. 2007. 6.0 Bibliography 1. The International Conference on Administration and Business. Z. Construction. and Ronald M.mrt. (1998). 5.5. Alkhalil M. 2009.]http://dl. 2.Abdelnaser Omran. Gigital library University of Moratuwa. 6. Causes of Delay. Assaf SA. Lagos 4. Al-Momani A. Assaf SA.0 References 1.lib. Abd. Jagboro GO. Don Simon Kankanamge Upali.ro. 7.com. Chan DWM.(1997) A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects. www. (1995) causes of delay in large building construction projects. International Journal of Project Management . Factors of Non-Excusable Delays That Influence Contractor’s Performance. Al-Hazmi M.(2002) Construction delay: a quantitative analysis. 2013. Yau Wen Soon. Jayalath. Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry. ASCE: 45–50. (1987) Controlling cost in the construction industry. Ajanlekoko JO.Abdul Hamid Kadir Pakir. Int J Project Manage 55–63. Kumaraswamy MM. 3. Al-Hejji S.lk/theses/handle/123/1895?show=full. Sri Lank. 2. Sri Lanka.faa. J Manage Eng.(2006) Causes of delay in large construction projects. Aibinu AA. in UK. CAUSES OF DELAY IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN LIBYA.. Murali Sambasivan *.(2002) The effects of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry.sciencdirect. http://conference. Page 14 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . Int J Project Manage 349–57.

12. Ghana as a case study. Int J Project Manage -6. Int J Project Manage. Frimpong Y. Yusif A(1997).8. Kumaraswamy MM. Ogunlana SO. The causes and effects of construction delays on completion cost of housing project in Nigeria. Promkuntong K(1996). (2002) Compressing construction durations: lessons learned from Hong Kong building projects. Terry Williams.(1994) Causes of delay and cost overruns in Nigerian construction projects. Mansfield NR. 13. Odeyinka HA. Crawford L. Int J Project Manage 19–26. Int J Project Manage:254–60. Int J Project Manage 37–45. Oluwoye J. 10. J Financial Manage Property Construction 31 44. Page 15 of 15 Bsc (Hons) Quantity Surveying & Construction Management . Chan DWM. 11. Construction delays in a fast growing economy: comparing Thailand with other economies. (2003) Assessing extension of time delays on major projects. 9.(2003) Causes of delay and cost overruns in construction of groundwater projects in a developing countries.