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INTRODUCTION

In the world today, businesses are constantly competing with each other to gain the market share in their product category. This competition between businesses has brought about the term known as dumping. Dumping causes countries like the United States to develop antidumping laws, which seek to prevent products manufactured overseas from being sold by foreign firms in the U.S. at "less than fair value." These laws were designed to achieve free trade between countries and be beneficial to U.S. consumers. However, in reality their effect is anything but beneficial to the U.S. consumer. According to Policy Analyst Thomas A. Johnson (1998), "antidumping laws are confusing and arbitrary, and in many instances merely allow American firms to secure punitive tariffs against competing importers where no unfair trade practices are involved. Worse, these laws drive up the costs of imported components used by other American enterprises, making their products less competitive in world markets" (Johnson, 1998, p 5). As a result of antidumping laws, American consumers are paying higher prices for both imported and domestic goods, and American workers are finding fewer employment opportunities in less competitive American companies.

HOW DUMPING IS DETERMINED IN THE U.S.
The Department of Commerce and the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) together start the investigation process of a dumping case. Writer Tam Harbert (1998), lists the steps in starting an antidumping case as (Harbert, 1998, p. 7): 1. U.S. company submits a petition to the International Trade Administration at the Department of Commerce, alleging that a foreign company is dumping its product in the U.S. 2. If the Commerce Department determines that sufficient evidence exists, it will proceed with an investigation. 3. The ITC then may start its own investigation to determine whether there is injury to any domestic companies. 4. If the ITC finds there has been material injury to a U.S. company, the Commerce Department will determine whether the product in question is being sold in the U.S. at "less than fair value," or at a lower price than that sold in the home market or a third country market. 5. If the Department issues a preliminary finding that sufficient evidence of such pricing practices exists, it will direct the U.S. Customs Service to suspend the importation of the product, or require U.S. importers of the product to post a deposit. This bond must be paid to the U.S. government in the event that a final determination finds that the product is being sold at less than fair value. 6. The ITC, at this point, must determine if there is any actual material damage to U.S. companies caused by the alleged dumped imports. 7. If the ITC determines that the dumping has caused injury to a U.S. manufacturer, the products then are subjected to "antidumping duties" equal to the amount of the determined margin. If, however, the ITC finds that there is insufficient evidence, the case is dismissed. When the Commerce Department makes their final decision the case can go in several directions. First, if dumping has been found to occur, the foreign business can appeal the

decision made by the Commerce Department. This causes the case to go longer, and will cause both businesses more money. However, this can benefit the foreign business because the Commerce Department and the ITC may stumble upon information that they have not see or information that they misinterpreted the first time. An appeal of the case may also benefit the foreign business because of the high cost it takes to start an antidumping case the second time. This is beneficial to the foreign business because they may be able to afford the cost of another case. While on the other hand, the American business may not be able to afford an appeal by the foreign business. This same process can also happen in reverse if the Commerce Departments final decision is that dumping has not occurred. In the end, the real losers of these disagreements are the consumer and other businesses. Because any fines or costs to the foreign or American business causes the price to go up for any parts or products produced by the two.

PROBLEMS WITH U.S. ANTIDUMPING LAWS
When an American business accuses a foreign business of dumping in the U.S., the Commerce Department must compare the price of the good in the home market of the foreign firm and the price it is sold for in the U.S. If the U.S. price does not reflect "fair market value," which was determined by the Commerce Department, the foreign business can be found guilty of dumping. According to Johnson (1998), complex and Arcane Methods. The problem is that the methods the Commerce Department employs are complex, arcane, and plagued with conceptual and technical problems. And because so many aspects of estimating the fair market value are subjective, it is easy for the Commerce Department to "prove" dumping when in fact no dumping has occurred" (Johnson, 1998, p.6). However, the federal government claims that antidumping laws help fight unfair trade practices by foreign businesses, in reality there are so many problems associated with determining the existence of dumping that the rules themselves turn out to be unfair. Here are just a few of the many difficulties caused by antidumping laws: 1. When a U.S. company charges a foreign company with dumping, the Commerce Department assumes that the products in question are similar. "For example, if U.S. farmers charge Colombian farmers with dumping, it is presumed that the American farmers are accusing the Colombians of dumping the identical crop to that produced by the Americans. Yet many U.S. dumping cases against foreign products are initiated by American companies marketing products significantly dissimilar to the products allegedly dumped" (Seaver, 1999, p. 5). 2. When the Commerce Department decides if a product is being dumped, they must first determine the dumping margin between the price the product is sold for in the foreign market and the U.S. market. For this to occur both of the prices must be calculated in U.S. dollars. This creates a problem because some business agreements between a foreign and U.S. company use fixed exchange rates. So the selling price of the product in the foreign country will change according to the current exchange rate, but the production cost will remain the same. The problem occurs because U.S. government sometimes will use the current exchange rate, instead of the exchange rate used by the foreign business.

WHAT THE U.S. SHOULD DO?
The procedures used by the Commerce Department to determine if dumping has occurred are unfair and in many cases result in harm to U.S. businesses as well as higher costs to the U.S.

consumers. The U.S. can do several things to take the pressure off U.S. businesses and consumers. First, they should start a study on the damage done to American businesses and consumers by antidumping laws. "Anti dumping duties cost the U.S. economy millions, perhaps billions, each year in higher prices, lost jobs, and declining competitiveness" (Leclerc, 1999, 16). Another solution would be to stick with the Antidumping Act of 1916, which was to prevent predatory pricing by foreign businesses. This Act required American businesses to prove that the foreign business was pricing their product with the intent to drive U.S. companies out of business. If this could not be proven, then the antidumping law would not be applied to the foreign business. This solution would take the majority of the workload of the Commerce Department and ITC, which would allow better decisions to be made.

CONCLUSION
The United States government is raising costs for American consumers and also taking the competitiveness out of the American business industry. Many of the people who support antidumping laws say that the laws are needed to prevent foreigners from destroying American jobs and industries. However, these laws in most instances cause more damage and create more problems than they solve. "Thanks to duties imposed as a result of antidumping laws, U.S. manufacturers of such products as computers, medical equipment, and machine tools are paying increased prices for the components they import to manufacture their products, raising production costs and making their exports less competitive in world markets. In some cases, such as computer components, U.S. companies have effectively been denied needed supplies" (Wieland, 1996, p. 9).

DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
1. Antidumping- Laws which seek to prevent products manufactured overseas from being sold by foreign firms in the U.S. at "less than fair value." 2. Dumping- When a foreign company sells their products or services in a market at a price which is below their cost of production in order to gain market share. 3. Dumping margin- the difference between the price of the "dumped product" and the price the product would sell for if it were being sold at a "fair" price, according to calculations by the ITC.

The paper industry has an important social role to play for the country. Use of paper is considered as an index of cultural growth. The paper industry is also contributing towards fulfillment of various requirements of the industry as a whole like information dissemination, publicity etc. which in turn stimulate industrial growth of the country. The paper industry has, thus, a catalytic role to play not only for the overall growth of the industry but also for the living standards of the people.

The primary products sector include manufacturing pulps from wood and other cellulose fibers, and from rags; the manufacture of paper and paperboard; and the manufacture of paper and paperboard into converted products, such as paper coated off the paper machine, paper bags, paper boxes, and envelopes and other commodity grades of wood pulp, printing and writing papers, sanitary tissue, industrial-type papers, containerboard, and boxboard.

In the last few years, India’s paper industry has grown by 6 per cent annually. In the coming years, this growth rate will go up to 10 per cent because of huge spurt in demand for writing and printing paper. The domestic demand for paper is set to far surpass supply, with the growing emphasis on education and alternative uses of paper. The demand for upstream market of paper products, like, tissue paper, tea bags, filter paper, light weight online coated paper, medical grade coated paper, etc., is growing up. These developments are expected to give fillip to the industry. Improvement of key ports, roads and railways and communication facilities will help the entire industrial sector including pulp & paper. India’s paper industry is worth Rs 225 billion. It accounts for about 1.6 per cent of the world’s production of paper and paperboard. In India, the demand for paper is set to far surpass supply and is expected to reach the level of 110 lakh tones by 2015 from 72 lakh tones in 2007. It is said that if the gross domestic product (GDP) grows at 10 per cent, paper demand will grow at 8 per cent. The per capita consumption of paper in India is barely 8 kg. Paper consumption is poised for a big leap forward in sync with the economic growth. About 38 per cent of the total demand comes from culture paper (creamwave), while 58 per cent arises out of the industrial paper sector. The rest 4 per cent comes from speciality paper including coated paper, tissues, posters, one-time carbon (OTC), cheques, drafts, etc. The country’s paper industry, with an existing production capacity of 90 lakh tones, requires an additional $2 billion of investment to meet the rising demand. The capacity is likely to increase to 112 lakh tones per annum by 2010.The share of wood as raw materials has declined from 84 per cent to 36 per cent since 1970.On the other hand, the share of agro and waste paper has increased from 9 and 7 to 29 and 35 per cent, respectively. Of course, the share of recycled paper would go up in the future. The government is drawing up a new scheme for technological upgradation and modernization of paper mills.

Paper Bags for White Cement Packaging
The multi wallpaper sack is an economical, efficient and safe package to transport and store various products. There is loss of cement in a jute bag through puffing and sifting so paper bag are feasible for cement packaging. White cement is a costly item therefore its packing should be airtight. Besides use of paper bags increases the economy. There are many cement factories in India which use paper bags. So there is great potential in this industry and entrepreneurs are certain to incur rich returns.

Creative World of Paper Bags Reuse, Recycle, Reduce & Recover is the new mantra to rescue our planet from pollution. The plastic bag we use daily will bio-degrade in next 1000 years. It is true that plastic bags are very convenient and economical but the continuous use of plastic bags has resulted environmental pollution to a threatening level. Reasons To Use Paper Bags Paper bags are made from the renewable resources i.e. trees that we can plant & indeed we should plant them more & more. Paper bags are strong enough to hold up to 5 kg of stuff & that too without any break & can be used again & again. Paper Bags are made manually by workers, who earn their livelihoods from it. Paper bags are eco-friendly, bio-degradable, bio-compatible, tree-free, acid free. So, Act Today To Secure Tomorrow Most of the companies, dealers & stores are replacing the plastic bags with paper bags. Paper bags look more attractive and they come in a variety of shapes, sizes, colors & designs. VIN’S Graphic opens you the door of Creative paper bags that you haven’t imagined so far. We have a separate manufacturing facility for paper bags. All skilled workers contribute their efforts & Creativity to make a bag that will carry your 'Desired Marketing Goals. “Value Additions to Your Promotions” It's not only a carrier or shopping bag, but It's a Promotional Aid of your Brand. In today's market chain retail shops are booming, everyone wants there brand to be number one. It is getting harder for a brand to stand out of the clutter by using traditional media. The key to success in brand building is to reach the target audience through an innovative medium. To help you achieve this objective, we introduce a Unique, Creative, Socially relevant medium - Paper Bags We offer you a wide array of paper bags. Sturdy cord, endurable paper quality, excellent craftsmanship & cost effective are our trademarks Customized Paper Bags (Shopping Bags) For Every Segment. Brand Promotions Events/Exhibitions/Conferences Health & Beauty Care Apparels/Boutiques

Gems & Jewelers Mega Shopping Centers Ready Made Garments Mobile, Camera Shops Grocery Bag Sports wear & equipments Food & Beverage Industries Wine & Liquor Industries Gifts, Toy Shops Hospitality/ Airline/ Tourism Corporate & Personalized Gifting Pharmaceutical Sector We Manufacture Paper Bag in all kinds of paper (as per uses) like...
     

Kraft Paper Brown/White Duplex Paper/card (Gray/White Back) ITC Paper/card Art Paper/card Ethnic & Creative Handmade Papers Imported Papers etc.

Advantages of Using Paper Bags Ever since it was developed in 1852, paper bags have gone through a lot of changes and they remain a popular material for bagging shopping items. Most of us definitely have used them before. Many supermarkets and stores around the world today make use of paper bags to pack the goods that people shop. Despite the fact that they face stiff competition from plastic bags, they are still able to retain their popularity especially amongst retail outlets that offer clothes and other non-food items. You will not usually find these bags in supermarkets due to the fact that they are not waterproof and not all of its types are as durable as plastic bags but they definitely have more advantage as compared to the latter.

Manufacturers now develop paper bags that are treated and have more resilient quality thus increasing their durability. In some cases, they are more durable as compared to some plastic bags. They can withstand much more hurt and pressure. Also, their box like design allows the shoppers to put more goods inside them. They are also safer to use as compared to plastic. If a child accidentally put a plastic bag over his head, it may induce suffocation. However with paper bags, tearing them open would be easy. Paper bags today have become sort of a fashion symbol since big brand names in the apparels sector have their shopping bags made out of paper. The designers of these companies come up with various designs for the bags that would make the brand look classy and at the same time making the bag look attractive. The reason why these companies spend so much time and effort in making shopping bags is because if they look attractive, people would carry them around and since the brand name would be on the bags, it will help in publicizing and giving the brand a good image. Apart from these benefits, the major advantage of using paper bags is that they are more environmentally friendly as compared to plastic bags. If they are properly taken care of, they can be reused over and over again. The fact that they are cheap, recyclable and biodegradable is what makes them an advantageous material to use. Since plastic does not decay, it can be harmful to the surroundings when left in an open ground. On the contrary, paper would simply decay and merge with the environment without letting out harmful gases. This would save space as well. When burnt, plastic releases out toxic gases unlike paper. Paper bags can be recycled to produce new pieces of paper. Many organizations all over the world are now choosing to use recycled paper products to help save the environment. This has thus increased their popularity. Using paper bags is really advantageous and can help save the environment against pollution except for one negative point. As we use these bags, more trees around the world are cut down. This act is harmful to the environment. One best solution to this is to use bags that are made of recycled paper. The emphasis to save the environment has motivated many organizations to create more bags out of recycled papers

About us :

The Galaxy Design identified as a reliable name engaged in manufacturing and exporting of wide range paper products like, promotional paper bags, printed paper bags, laminated paper bags, paper shopping bags, shopping bags, gift bags, stock bags and various type of packing boxes. Delivering an impressive high quality hand finished printed paper products, we have placed ourselves prominently in this domain. Apart from manufacturing, we can also provide custom graphic design of corporate. The Galaxy Design Conscious about the quality that we offer, we bring in use only best raw materials in all our processes right from manufacturing to printing processes. Nestled in Rajkot, we have been catering to clients spread in different parts of Rajkot, India and

across the globe. We have been capable of designing and offering products exactly as per the clients' specifications. Mostly our all clients based from gulf countries as specially Dubai - U. A. E. In the Gulf countries, we are supplying our exclusive paper bags some of reputed shopping malls and jewellery showrooms on regular basis. Our Core Objectives Focusing on complete customer satisfaction, we have been trying to meet our core objectives through our operations. An eco friendly firm, we have been constantly working towards achieving our aim.  Consistent Quality  Excellent & Timely response  Best design & Printing  Prompt service  Competitive Pricing

Welcome to Dutta Enterprise We are an India Based Company specializing in High Quality Paper Bags, Shoe Boxes and other Packaging Products. With our experience in the field of packaging, we can provide you the best quality products. We offer you total solutions for your packaging requirements. About Us Design Our products are designed as per a simple design program, but our group of selected graphic designers can design well for your required products. Quotation To get our quotes, please email us with the details of your requirements. Also try to select a sample photo of our product from “showroom” and email us the code no. or name of the required product. If you want to discuss your requirements, kindly call us. We will try to provide you quotation within 24 hours. Production We have complete in-house production and post-production facilities for offset printing, screen printing, lamination and a team of skilled hand assembly employees. We use extraordinary equipments for our product manufacturing. Mission Our mission is to consistently provide outstanding value to our customers in quality, efficiency and price and build a permanent relationship.

Environment We are producing environment friendly products, and in this way, we save the environment. Our Products Paper Bags All the Paper Products are eco-friendly products. To save Nature from pollution we need to use eco-friendly products like Paper Bags. Paper bags are mainly used for carrying garments, jewellery, food and snacks, wine, stationery goods, etc. These are available in different sizes and colors. We use Duplex Board as raw materials for this Paper Bag Product. Four colors printing and gloss/mat lamination are also available for Paper Bags. This Paper Bag product is very fashionable and it has the ability to carry loads.

aper bags production processes and technique Paper bags are widely used in clothing, food, shoes, gifts, alcohol, drugs and other areas of packaging. At present, we can use them a lot of paper divided into two types of mobile. One is popular with ordinary paper bag packaging. Most of these paper bags with rotary printing, automated production lines to complete the bag, making the material more choice of kraft paper bags, paper size and pattern relatively inflexible, the advantage of high efficiency, suitable for mass production. The other is beautiful, exquisite packaging, shopping bags. Generally use this type of paper sheet-fed printing, rely on manual or semi-automatic production of kraft paper, coated paper, cardboard, paper bags are often selected as the processing of materials. Most of them have high-end products for the packaging, gift bag or bags of various business activities of advertising. Features of any shape, size paper bag can be produced, but the process is relatively complex, low production efficiency. This paper specifically for this type of paper to discuss the hand bag in the production process. The use of functional or design requirements, the mobile manufacturing process used in paper bag with a certain complexity, but the basic process can be summarized as follows: Here we expand on this flow chart of the production process and bag some technology issues.

1)design
Paper bag paper bag design is the key link in the production process. Most paper products

and corporate image is an extension of advertising strategies, the choice of materials, decoration techniques and forms of expression are associated with the use of paper bags and effectiveness are inextricably linked. Kraft's toughness, high strength, rough surface. Jam good stiffness but the toughness is poor, as the surface of coated paper generally required. Coated paper has a certain toughness, printing, rich colors, but the stiffness worse than cardboard. More emphasis on durability choice in brown paper, to pay attention to color and stiffness are mostly used when the jam, and need rich gorgeous pictorial effect, people tend to prefer art paper. In order to improve the taste and quality hand bags, designers in India after the big brains on the surface decoration technology. Bronzing, UV, polishing, colorful, embossing and flocking process also makes flexible use of paper bags with bright colors, three-dimensional enhanced expression is more abundant. Of course, no matter what kind of finishing process, the designer should consider the economic use of paper materials, process design is reasonable. To produce and quality control, design of the production of a complete and clear operations engineering drawings is essential, in most cases need to go through proofing products are also recognized. Both the process of proofing the design of the verification, but also the basis for customer recognition and production of specimens.

2) proofing
Designed to lead into the cutting machine for drawing software or CAD, with a proofer proofing, in determining the size and other aspects can not be a problem, then the next step.

3)printing
Paper bags with their corporate image is often an extension of commodity advertising strategy, and its design and general print different printing, spot color, full version more, with a large amount of ink, bright colors. So it's printing technology and other product requirements are also different. Special attention to the printing ink to the operator control of balance adjustment of status is better equipment, or prone to ink from the bar, the color of the color problem. Some printing companies than the provincial billing paper and printing to come and go when you need to pay attention to the printing position up and down and to ensure the subsistence and, on paper at the bottom of the tongue and mouth size. Such as the need for coated products such as India must also pay attention to try to control the process ink film thickness and reduce the use of additives to minimize the use of powder.

4) film
India, also known as a plastic film, printed film lamination or India, is covered in the printing surface of 0.012 to 0.020 mm thick layer of transparent plastic film, paper and plastic to form a unity of the whole India finishing process, generally divided into two kinds of pre-coated and the coating process. Depending on the different thin film materials have high light film and the matt film of the points. With the use of environmentally friendly water-based solvents, environmentally friendly coating process has been further improved. Non-coated kraft paper bags use more technology, mainly because of the color film can increase the concentration of water to avoid pollution performance products, paper, anti-

aging, tear resistance and other physical properties expose the general improvement in the fastness of paper and then and strength improved significantly enhanced capacity. In particular, the use of matt film to give people soft, high-end, comfortable feeling. The coating process and bag points to note: ① Select the appropriate glue film, especially the full version of metal embossing ink products and the need for follow-up processing of cases; ② control the speed of film and choose the right sizing based on the amount of speed ; ③ products to be coated must be dry in order to cover India cooperation in trade, just coated products also need to be rolling for a while and then cut, bump processing; ④ printing, spray coating is too large for the former must also be in addition to powder operation; ⑤ strengthening effect on the membrane of the corona inspection. If you do not pay attention to control the above points, easily lead coated product stripping, blistering, pitting and other quality of accidents, and even lead to volume scrapped.

5)surface finishing
Bronzing, UV, and other printed materials coating the surface finishing technology is widely used mobile paper production process. It is great to meet people on the bag's beautiful, high-end pursuit. In the production process, good control of these processes must also be part of the key points. Indian gold foil technology and strong compared to its metallic, consistency and bright color, three-dimensional richer. Bronzing bronzing effect depends on the perfect temperature, pressure and velocity of the organic coordination. Stamping operations of stamping should be concerned about the effect of the following factors: ① stamping products, surface roughness; ② stamping the surface of printed products post treatment (covered, over oil); ③ the hot foil used in India adaptive; ④ version and foil-stamping machine stamping the status. Stamping is a complex technology, in the stamping process to fully consider the above factors, stamping it be possible to achieve satisfactory results. Mainly refers to the surface of the polishing process on UV light and ordinary glazing. Polishing process can make good gloss printing effects and improve anti-wear resistance of the surface of printed materials, in particular the local UV light and UV coating on the process in the use of paper bags, so thick and dense layers of printing paper , moisture rich gloss, printing prominent theme, look and feel strong. In addition, the bump, colorful, flocking, and other printed materials Paper bags are also finishing process to obtain a degree of technology use, the use of these processes not only improve the aesthetics of paper bags and fashion, but also cultivate a user interest in life. We must also control the operation of technical essentials of these processes, which play the efficacy of icing on the cake

6)die-cutting process
Cutting process is the combination of cutting knives and knife indentation on the template used in the same piece of die-cutting machine for cutting of printed materials and processing technology indentation method, also known as "rolling marks." It is in the process of a paper bag production important process. Directly affects the quality of cutting the quality of paper and hand molding paste system efficiency. Paper bags should pay attention to the die-cutting process: ① choose the correct template.

Since the majority of paper similar shape, size change some little pieces of work must make the first drawings were reviewed in order to avoid the wrong template. ② control the working pressure. Requires cutting edge can not have glitches, dark line clearly better off but also to avoid deep-fried line. Some part of the paper cutting can not see when the dark line, but hand-off occurs when the bags burst paste system, so try to keep die-off during the process of testing to do. ③ consider the characteristics of paper, silk thread along the direction of the paper, paper is better off, molding pressure can be smaller, while the direction perpendicular to the paper, silk thread, paper folding can be more difficult to increase the compression pressure in the local. ④ jam poor toughness, such as when there is no surface film, with particular attention to cutting effect.

7)paste box
Paste system and bag production process is the most special link. In addition to supporting the use of some semi-automatic equipment, mainly depends on manual completion of the entire paper process in the least efficient link. Demand in developed countries and bag a huge fine, because they can not be completed through the automated production line, so there is a lot of printing and packaging enterprises in China's exports of paper products provides a business opportunity. Paper bags must first make a paste made the first pieces of technology planning. ① According to the paper the appropriate choice of adhesive materials. Many paper plants due to lack of technology experience, often caused by improper selection of the adhesive stick a plastic bag off. Export of container in the paper need to adapt to the possible hightemperature 50 ~ 60 ℃ and the Use of 20 ~ 30 ℃ below zero low temperature test, but must also consider the aging of adhesive factors. ② the construction paper and handle forms and other materials and links for a variety of paper products, we will have to investigate specific cases based on the manual process using appropriate methods. Before the system will need to paste some red handle mounting hole, and some system in the process of paste to use hot fixed mobile and so on. These hand-made paste the planning process needs to be completed before production, and once the confirmation process, we should strengthen the process of manually paste the details of the system controls to prevent pollution and avoid the production of excess plastic bag in the surface scratches and so on. Of course, pasting pieces of the system produced the first batch of prenatal proofing can refer to when planning for process re-evaluation process. Paste done by hand and bag system has basically been formed, there are some final steps hand bag - punching, wearing rope and other operations to complete the final molding and bag packaging Process through the above analysis of mobile bags, we know that exquisite fashion mobile bag is a complex process of a series and eventually completed. The omission of any part of a process may lead to the production quality of the accident. Process rigor is a necessary condition to ensure product quality. Throughout the process, we should strengthen the assessment process and the process management of the amount of the first pieces of preenforcement of the validation process, the same time, strict production process of tracking control. Any perfect technology must rely on strict operating procedures to ensure the implementation of technology, mobile paper production is no exception