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Crude Oil Geochemistry and Its Relation to the Potential Source Beds for Some Meleiha Oil Fields in the North Western Desert, Egypt
Mohamed M. El Nadya; Fatma S. Harba; Janette S. Bastaa a Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt Online publication date: 19 February 2003

To cite this Article Nady, Mohamed M. El , Harb, Fatma S. and Basta, Janette S.(2003) 'Crude Oil Geochemistry and Its

Relation to the Potential Source Beds for Some Meleiha Oil Fields in the North Western Desert, Egypt', Petroleum Science and Technology, 21: 1, 1 — 28 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1081/LFT-120016913 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/LFT-120016913

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PETROLEUM SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol. 21, Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 1–28, 2003

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Crude Oil Geochemistry and Its Relation to the Potential Source Beds for Some Meleiha Oil Fields in the North Western Desert, Egypt
Mohamed M. El Nady,* Fatma S. Harb, and Janette S. Basta
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

ABSTRACT
The results of the geochemical evaluation for eleven crude oil samples from some Meleiha oil fields revealed that, these oils have high specific gravity ( API), low sulfur content and rich in saturated hydrocarbons. Two oil classes were recognized. The first is carbonate oils of high maturity level, originated from marine origin. The second, deltaic oils of moderately level of maturation, derived mainly from terrigenous sources. Oil: source correlation for the productive oils and the extracts of the potential source beds revealed a genetic close relationship between oils and extracts of Khatatba and

*Correspondence: Mohamed M. El Nady, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Hei Al-Zehour, 11727, Cairo, Egypt; Fax: (202) 2747433. 1
DOI: 10.1081/LFT-120016913 Copyright & 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1091-6466 (Print); 1532-2459 (Online) www.dekker.com

oil Downloaded By: [University of Technology. . This indicates that the source of the oils in the study area may be related to mixed sources of these formations. This area is related to Meleiha sub-basin of Cretaceous age (Meshref. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 1. INC. origin. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. The first is the evaluation of the geochemical characteristics for the crude oils in order to identify gross composition. and Basta Alam El Bueib formations. 2). 1990). Location map of the study area.MARCEL DEKKER. Inc. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. INTRODUCTION Meleiha area is located in the northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt between latitudes 30 500 and 31 000 N and longitudes 27 000 and 27 600 E. The main objectives of the present study. 1. 2 El Nady. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. 1990). All rights reserved. south of Mediterranean Coastal town of Mersa Matruh (Fig. The sedimentary section of the North Western Desert including Meleiha area exceeds 4573 m in thickness and range in age from Paleozoic to Miocene (Fig. that are essentially to illustrate two purposes for the petroleum produced from some oil fields in Meleiha area. Harb. Inc. Bahariya Formation (Early Cenomanian age) is the main productive horizon in the most oil fields in Meleiha area (RRI. 1).

Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 2.MARCEL DEKKER. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. The second purpose. Darahem et al. maturation. Inc. All rights reserved. Generalized litho-stratigraphic column of the Meleiha area (Kholeif et al. . Crude Oil Geochemistry 3 Downloaded By: [University of Technology. 2000). 1986). 2. (1998. Inc. depositional environments. GEOLOGIC SETTING The geologic setting of the Meleiha oil fields have been studied by many authors of mention as Dia El Din (1974). El Sheikh (1990). is the discussion of the relation between the produced oils and the potential source rocks in study area (oil: source correlation). to confirms the indigenous sources for the petroleum produced from the Meleiha oil fields. and Metwalli et al. INC. (1990).. Salah and Paradisi (1992). • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. and the genetic relationship between these oils. classes.

and Basta Structurally. SAMPLES AND ANALYTICAL METHODS Eleven crude oil samples were collected from eleven productive wells in Meleiha area namely: Aman-1x. in the Western Desert. All rights reserved. Metwalli and Abd El-Hady (1975). Lotus-1x. Waxy oil was originated from non-marine origin. and Meleiha North East 1. Many workers discussed the crude oil evaluation of the North Western Desert including Meleiha area in detail. from Aptian clastics. (1996) referred to that the whole oil and condensates of the Western Desert have been originated from terrigenous organic matter of coaly facies. Downloaded By: [University of Technology. Non waxy oil was sourced from carbonates source rocks. The tectonic activity in this area was occurred mainly during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time (Darahem and Paradisi. the Meleiha oil field was characterized by three development leases and consists of a series of en-echelon. Metwalli and Abd El-Hady (1975). Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 3. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. Kanak-1x. First cycles in Jurassic and underlying older formations. El Sheikh (1990). stated that Umbarka oil field produced a waxy oil of 44 API. Zein El Din et al. Inc. Most of the produced oils of these wells were mainly from Early Cenomanian reservoir. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. and the Alamein dolomite acts a sealing rock for the oil accumulated in Aptian clastics in that field. and 4 wells. 1992). (1988) reported that there are two oil families. (1998 and 2000) and El Nady (2001). The organo geochemical characteristics of the source rocks of the Meleiha area were discussed by RRI (1990). 2. Emry-1x. (1990) recognized that Meleiha oil fields are belonging to Abu Gharadig oil group which of marine origin. They also added that the variation of crude oilgravities. Taher et al.. Inc. El Nady (1998) divided the oil of some oil fields of the North Western Desert into two types.. reflects different stages of oil migration and accumulation as well as different oil source rocks in the same and different ages. Metwalli et al.3. Aman-3x. associated with horsts (Kholeif et al. Falak-1. 1986). 4 El Nady. second cycle in Cretaceous formations and third cycle for Tertiary hydrocarbons. except the Lotus-1x well which was produced . INC. WNW-ESE horsts and grabens (Kholeif et al. 1986). also suggested the different cycles of oil generation and accumulation in the northern part of the Western Desert. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. Halim et al. 1. Ghanem et al. (1999) recognized two oil groups in the North Western Desert (Light and heavy oil) which are rich in a terrigenous organic matter. Aman-2x.2. Oil accumulation in these fields appears to be structurally controlled. which were derived mainly from terrestrial source. Harb.MARCEL DEKKER.

INC. Inc.1.6 C (60 F) and is related by equation: 141:5  À 131:5 ðWaples. according to methods of Korachagina and Cheteverkova (1976). 3. and Waples (1985). 1985Þ API ¼ Specific garvity Sulfur content: was determined by X-ray sulfur meter model RX500 S according to ASTM D-42914 procedure. Crude Oil Geochemistry 5 from Middle Jurassic reservoir (Khatatba Formation). Five core samples (mainly shale) were taken from Meleiha NE wells to represent the different potential source beds in the study area. All rights reserved. and the results expressed as weight percent. API Gravity and Sulfur Content API gravity: is a measure of crude oils density at 15. Stable Carbon Isotopes Carbon isotope values are obtained by converting the sample to CO2 in atmosphere of oxygen at 86 C. Downloaded By: [University of Technology.1.2. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation and Agiba Petroleum Company were kindly supplied all these samples (oil and core). then by using a mass spectrometer the relative amount of 13C and 12C in the sample is measured and compared with those in Peedee Belemnite standard (PDB limestone). including Khatatba.MARCEL DEKKER. Bahariya.1. Alam El Bueib. The results are expressed as per-mil deviation (%o) and are calculated using the following equation: " # ð13 C=12 CÞ sample 13  C ¼ 13 12 À 1 Â 1000 ðWaples. . Crude Oil Analyses 3. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 3. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. These core samples were used to identify the correlation with the oils produced in that area.2. and Abu Roash formations. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker.1. 1985Þ ð C= CÞ standard 3. Kharita. Source Rock Extraction About 200 g of core samples were powdered to 250-mesh size and then extracted with chloroform by using Soxhlet extractor. Inc.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4. and above 20 are mature oils. sulfur content. respectively. and Basta 3. All the analyses were carried out in the laboratories of the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute. Column Chromatography Analysis The deasphalted residue of crude oils and bitumen were separated into saturates.1.1. 4. According to Tissot and Welte (1984). 4. and chloroform yielded saturates aromatics and resins with NSO component fractions.4. Oven temperature was programmed for 100–320 C at 5 C/min. API Gravity Tissot and Welte (1984) recognized that. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. except carbon isotopes analysis is done in the laboratories of nuclear materials organization. The obtained fractions were free from solvents by evaporation. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 3. aromatics and resins including NSO compounds by column chromatography. The column was packed with 1:1 (by weight) alumina overlying silica gel such that the weight of the sample (asphaltenes free) was about 2% of the combined weight of the packed materials. Inc. The results are expressed as weight percent to the whole oil and extracts. Downloaded By: [University of Technology.MARCEL DEKKER. . Harb. Successive elution with n-heptane. crude oils have API gravities less than 20 are immature. Gas Chromatography Analysis (GC) Saturated fractions for oils and extracts were analysed by means of gas chromatography using (Perkin Elmer Instrument Model 8700) provided with a flame ionization detector (FID). Paraffins and naphthenes ratios for the saturates were calculated by the GC chromatogram draft.3. and Waples (1985). All rights reserved. toluene. 1991). crude oil compositions and stable carbon isotope ratio (13C%o). Inc. the common method for determining geochemical characterization of crude oils is the measurement of API gravity. 6 El Nady. Crude Oil Characterization Geochemical characterization of crude oils increases the efficiency of petroleum exploration and exploitation programs (Demaison and Huizinga. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. INC.1. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker.

The later is characterized by more than (40%) naphthenes and less than (50%) paraffins and aromatic hydrocarbons plus NSO compounds (Table 1). In the present work oil samples are characterized by sulfur percent range from 0.85 ) indicating a condensate oil. The former has more than (50%) paraffins and less than (50%) naphthenes and aromatic hydrocarbon plus NSO compounds (Table 1). Therefore the studied crude oil samples have API gravities range from 22. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. All rights reserved.11 (Table 1) reflecting a mature normal oils. Gross Composition of Crude Oils Saturates. 4) namely. crude oils with sulfur percent more than one are high sulfur content and less than one are low sulfur content.51 to 43. Downloaded By: [University of Technology. . 4.1. this type oils might be rich in marine organic matters.51% (Table 1) indicating the low sulfur content of the crude oil samples.MARCEL DEKKER. Inc. asphaltenes. This figure revealed most of the studied oils were derived from marine origin. aromatics. and resins are the main common group composition of any crude oils.3. and Zumberge (1993). locate in the region of normal oil and showing no biodegradation (Fig. Zumberge (1993) used the gross composition of crude oils as an indicator for the origin source (Fig. All the oil samples under investigation are rich in saturated hydrocarbon ( > 50%) (Table 1). and Waples (1985) reported that. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 4. the abundance of paraffins exceeding naphthenes and NSO compounds revealed that the mature oil. 6). revealed that. the normal crude oils have API gravity range form 20 to 45 . Tissot and Welte (1984). INC.1. Moreover. and Karnak-1 oils which were originated from terrigenous source.13% to 0. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. Inc. paraffinic and naphthenic oil classes. This conclusion is confirmed by the use of ternary diagram (Fig. indicating mature oils. except samples from Falak-1x. the oil samples could be classified into two oil classes as shown on ternary diagram (Fig. except oil of Lotus-1x well has API (46. On the other hand. 3). Emry-1.2. Sulfur Content Waples (1985). This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. which shows that all the oil samples locate around to the increase of maturation trend. Crude Oil Geochemistry 7 Waples (1985) reported that. less than 20 are usually biodegraded and above 45 are condensates oil. 5).

65 0.87 2.12 0.91 21.42 22.28 0.37 0.34 71.21 0.11 1.12 0.47 6.38 0.52 À28.12 À26.28 0. 1984).24 0.07 46.84 13.13 Gross oil composition % Saturates 70.32 0.15 À28.16 70.91 % Aromatics À27.89 38. and Basta NSO compounds (nitrogen.61 0.73 0.00 3.52 61.89 % Aromatics 15.82 25.41 À27.79 0.11 8.48 13.12 58. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker.20 0.07 2.21 0.00 4.11 0.72 À0.19 4. INC.72 À28.00 À29.13 0.72 À0.48 8.38 0. and isoprenoids data for the studied oil samples. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker.16 9.23 55.53 13Csaturate À 2.82 23.28 À29.93 10.88 CV À0.68 0.34 0.12 1.19 12.13 46. Harb. Wells Gross compositions.26 1.34 1.51 0.16 8.71 44.81 9.64 À27.18 À1.35 0.52 3.52 0.07 51.16 53.10 À0.61 0.79 4.87 1.15 7. .13 4.44 0.20 1.30 62.65 68.56 9.98 MARCEL DEKKER.16 Pristane/n-C17 0. El Nady.22 13Caromatic À 11.00 2.48 33.86 0.65 0.19 5.00 61.98 À26.51 0.14 À25. CV (mathematical canonical variable) ¼ À2.81 41. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 8 Table 1.63 % Resins 9.Downloaded By: [University of Technology.66 3.53 3.28 0.19 26.85 0.35 61.36 1.01 À27.57 28.53 À29.39 0.09 62.35 Aman-1X Aman-2X Aman-3X Falak-1X Emry-1X Lotus-1X Karnak-1X Meleiha Meleiha Meleiha Meleiha NE-1 NE-2 NE-3 NE-4 36.02 34.50 5.20 0.00 4.18 À27.48 5.79 % Asphaltenes 3.33 À28. All rights reserved.19 0.11 API gravity (60 F) % Sulfur 0.31 0.25 10.93 66.73 À29.11 À25.59 25.65 À26.15 À28.51 46.92 1.32 Carbon isotope composition % Saturates À28.28 32.84 32.85 12.11 0.22 27.76 1. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK.69 % NSO compounds 13. Inc.20 19.11 À1.49 0.86 15.40 C15þHC composition % Paraffins 59.47 6.59 8. sulfur.18 58.81 11.01 18.26 0.20 7.18 1.94 11. and oxygen) ¼ asphaltenes þ resins.76 0.71 0.51 À28. Inc.21 1.46 0.05 9.18 25.99 43.09 57.17 Phytane/n-C18 CPI 0.30 62.25 0.00 25.53 % Naphthenes 11.83 3.15 0.65 (Sofer.24 0.99 33.09 3.36 Pristane/phytane 0.99 0. Data 40.97 À29.43 63. stable carbon isotope.31 1.

Therefore the studied crude oils can be categorized into two groups (Fig. 7-A): Light oils which have API gravidities more than 31 and sulfur content less than 0. medium and light as the API gravity is less than 22.3 to 31. mostly heavy degraded oils.MARCEL DEKKER. 7-B). the crude oils could be classified into heavy. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. Inc. 3.3 . These relationships indicate the following trends with the increase in API gravity: 1. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. 7-C). and> 31. INC. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 3.4%. and El-Sabagh and El-Afeleq (1995).1 .5 to 31 and sulfur content more than 0. (1977). Inc. Figure 7 shows relations between the physical properties and gross composition of the studied crude oils. According to Martinez et al. 22. These trends illustrate the crude oils maturity relationships as reported by Milner et al. Decrease in sulfur content.1 . respectively. All rights reserved. Increase in the saturate/aromatic ratios (Fig. normal oils. Ternary diagram for the bulk composition of crude oil samples: I. Rohrback (1983).4% and moderately oils characterized by API gravities rang from 22. II. where API gravity (as a mature level) was plotted against three compositional parameters. Crude Oil Geochemistry 9 Downloaded By: [University of Technology. . 2. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. Decrease in asphaltenes percent (Fig. (1984).

• 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. Ternary diagram showing the main trends of thermal maturation and alteration of crude oil samples. Harb. ł . aromatic naphthenic oils. naphthenic oils. Inc.. IV. aromatic intermediate oils. Main path of biodegradation m. III. VI.General trend of thermal maturation.. INC. paraffinic oils. and Basta Downloaded By: [University of Technology. paraffinic naphthenic oils. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. Figure 5. Inc. V. 10 El Nady. . NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. All rights reserved. Ternary diagram showing the classes of crude oil samples: I.MARCEL DEKKER.. aromatic aliphatic oils. m ö m . Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 4.. Main path of degradation. II.

Moreover oil samples of Emry-1x.1. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 6. and 1.52. Crude Oil Geochemistry 11 Downloaded By: [University of Technology. respectively (Table 1) reflecting waxy oil derived from non-marine origin. The oil sample with CV value lower than 0. which indicates nonwaxy oil rich in marine organic matter. Falak-1x. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker.11 to À29.65 to À29. terrigenous source. INC.47 classified as waxy (terrigenous) oil.33. 1984).07. II.MARCEL DEKKER.97.47 is classified as non-waxy (marine) oil and that with CV more than 0.16 to 0. All rights reserved. and Karnak-1x wells have  CV values of 0. marine source. Inc. 1991).53 and À25. most of the oil samples have CV values range from 0. These values revealed that. carbon isotope values for the saturates and aromatics fraction of the oil samples under consideration range from À27. Inc.11 respectively (Table 1). This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. On the other hand. The calculated (CV) values of the crude oil samples under study are listed in Table 1. 4. Carbon Isotopes Composition (13C%o) The isotope composition of oil fractions (saturates and aromatics) can be used to distinguish between marine and terrigenous oils by applying a mathematical relation known as canonical variable (CV) (Sofer. It is that the oils within the study area were derived mainly from marine . C15þ hydrocarbon composition of crude oil samples: I. These values indicate minor variation in isotopic composition of the oils. 1.4. due to the maturation level between the oil samples (Demaison and Huizinga. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK.

INC. Inc. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. All rights reserved. Inc. 12 El Nady. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 7. Harb.MARCEL DEKKER. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. bulk composition of crude oil samples. . API gravity vs. and Basta Downloaded By: [University of Technology.

Stable carbon isotope ratios for saturated vs. Crude Oil Geochemistry 13 Downloaded By: [University of Technology. Saturated Hydrocarbon Composition (C15Q) The specific geochemical parameters. 1985). Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 8.2. The best seperation line (dashed) is based on a statistical analysis of hundreds of known marine and non marine crude oils (Sofer. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. Normal Alkanes The distribution of normal alkanes in the saturated hydrocarbons sheds light on the genetic origin of crude oils. Inc. INC. isoprenoids/n-alkanes ratio and carbon preference index.2.MARCEL DEKKER. depositional environments. which have been assessed by the aid of C15 analysis. 4. 8) according to Zumberge (1993) and Peters et al. These parameters can be used for interpreting some geochemical aspects of the studied crude oils such as origin.1. Inc. 4. and biodegradation (Waples. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. origin. pristane/phytane ratio. (2000). This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. aromatic hydrocarbons for oil samples. except few samples derived from terrigenous source (Fig. 1984). The amorphous organic . are: Normal alkanes. All rights reserved.

reflect deltaic oils. 9). The humic organic matters. The finger print of gas chromatograms for the oil samples shows more abundance of the light hydrocarbons in the range of C15–C21.18 to 0. 4. 1984.2. 10). except some oils originated from mixed organic sources which were deposited under transitional environments according to Shanmugum (1985) (Fig. respectively (Table 1).16–0.73 (i.e. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK.. Furthermore. Emry-1x. less than one) and CV of À0. Inc.e.2.49. 1994).. few oil samples characterized by moderately to large amount of heavy normal alkanes in the range of C24–C29.. this figure also shows that with increasing the maturity. and Basta Downloaded By: [University of Technology. 1985).47) associates with carbonate oils. and G). Chung et al. and slightly odd carbon preference (Fig. 14 El Nady. and Karnak-1x wells have pristane/phytane ratios of 1.e. most of these oils were derived mainly from marine organic matter deposited under reducing environments. contains low to moderate amount of heavy normal alkanes. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker.97 (i. 1984). Table 1). All rights reserved. low pristane/phytane ratio ( <1) and CV ( <0.20 and CV values range from 0. derived from contribution of terrestrial and detrital sediments. E.47. Inc. n-alkanes are generated faster than isoprenoids resulting in a decrease of isoprenoids/ n-alkanes ratio and regression along the line toward the origin. However.3. Harb. INC.44 and from 0.17–0. indicating marine oils.47) indicates deltaic oils. which originated from mixed organic source (i. They are found that. These ratios indicate that. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 matters which derived from marine origin have a maximum concentration at n-C15–n-C21 (Waples. >0.52 to 1.33 (Table 1). indicating mature oils of marine origin. 9-D. marine and terrestrial organic matter) are characterized by a maximum concentration of n-C25–C29 (Tissot and Welte. and shows no even or odd carbon preference (Fig. 4. Also. Pristane/Phytane Ratios The pristane/phytane ratios of oil show some kind of correlation with the canonical variable (CV) values (Sofer. rich in marine organic matter and more than one of pristane/phytane ratio and CV (> 0. Isoprenoids/n-Alkanes Ratio The studied oil samples have pristane/n-C17 and phytane/n-C18 ratios range from 0.24 to 0. It is clear .. few oil samples from Falak-1x.MARCEL DEKKER. reveal moderately mature samples of mixed organic sources. Thus most of oil samples have pristane/phytane ratios range from 0. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker.11–1.2.

Crude Oil Geochemistry 15 Figure 9. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. Downloaded By: [University of Technology. Gas chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions (C15þ) for the crude oil samples. INC.MARCEL DEKKER. Inc. Inc. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. All rights reserved. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 .

24 0.94 0.68 2.92 1.50 2. Oils Aman-1X Aman-2X Aman-3X Falak-1X Emry-1X Lotus-1X Karnak-1X Meleiha NE-1 Meleiha NE-2 Meleiha NE-3 Meleiha NE-4 Extracts Khatatba Alam El Bueib Kharita Bahariya Abu Roash .82 68.67 2.25 0.96 2.81 0.34 2.19 0.20 66.01 1.14 0.59 55.70 15 17 18 25 25 17 25 16 15 15 15 0.12 1.28 0.20 2.22 0.20 0.12 0.84 62.13 0.21 49.20 0.32 0.78 0.69 0.13 4.98 1. Harb.20 0. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 16 Table 2.18 62.82 0.21 0. and Basta 0.82 0.82 62.17 0.50 50.89 1.98 1.11 0.00 1.19 0.19 0. All rights reserved.00 1.19 0. Inc. INC.59 2.10 18 16 17 16 25 0.53 1.37 0.13 0.84 1.15 El Nady. Samples 70.17 0.10 27.28 0.39 Saturates (%) Cmax CPI Saturates/ aromatics C21þC22/ C28þC29 Pristane/ phytane Pristane/ n-C17 Pristaneþn-C17/ phytaneþn-C18 0.52 0.16 0.99 0.55 2.18 0.93 0.12 0.65 4.68 0.24 0.51 1.64 0.33 0.86 61.89 70.19 0.31 0.41 0.73 1.21 1.32 0.01 0. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker.57 63.12 0.61 0.51 0.14 0.31 0.02 0.62 0.50 1.11 MARCEL DEKKER.00 71. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil and extract samples.11 0.34 0.49 3.81 22.11 0.42 0.91 1.26 0. Inc.12 0.71 0. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK.34 0.12 1.16 0.38 0.64 0.23 0.99 51.Downloaded By: [University of Technology.59 0.54 1.16 0.

All rights reserved. and calculated as follows: CPI ¼ Odd carbon atoms Even carbon atoms ðWaples. This conclusion is further enhanced by Fig. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. Inc. Carbon Preference Index Carbon preference index (CPI) is a measure of the strength of the odd carbon predominance in normal alkanes.12 to 1. 1985).02 for most samples (Table 1) indicating that. that. 11 according to Robert et al. and most probably generated from marine organic sources (Bray and Evans.4. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. phytane/n-C18. Inc.2. Emry-1x. these oils are mainly mature. The CPI values vary from 1. showing the source type of crude oil samples (Shanmugum. Plot of pristane/n-C17 vs. Falak-1 and Meleiha NE-2 oils seem to be more mature than the other oil samples. 1985Þ The CPI values of the crude oils range from 0. all the crude oil samples take the direction of increasing maturity far from the direction of biodegradation. 1961). Moreover. (1998).91 for the oils of Falak-1x. . Aman oils. INC.89 to 1. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 10. 4. Crude Oil Geochemistry 17 Downloaded By: [University of Technology.MARCEL DEKKER.

3. Inc. Harb. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. 1998). C15þ n-alkanes distribution. and Karnak-1x wells. (1981). Alexander et al. In the present work the gross composition. phytane/n-C18. revealing mixed organic sources for these samples in the study area. Pool and Claypool (1984).MARCEL DEKKER. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. and Basta Downloaded By: [University of Technology. Gross Composition of Oils and Extracts Crude oils and source rock extracts in the study area show a remarkable similarities in the gross chemical composition of Khatatba and Alam El Bueib formations. Leythaeuser et al. Welte et al.1. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 11.. owing to high percent of saturated . 4. Oil: Source Correlation The correlation between crude oil and source rock extracts depend on establishing similarities in several molecular parameters of oil and rock extracts which indicates common points in their genesis. (1975). 18 El Nady. (1987).3. Plot of pristane/n-C17 vs. and Philip et al. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. All rights reserved. (1989). Many parameters for oil: source correlation were discussed by Williams (1974). INC. 4. Inc. showing the maturation of crude oil samples (Robert et al. Isoprenoids/n-alkanes ratio as well as correlation assessment have been for this purpose.

All rights reserved. Ternary diagram for the gross composition of crude oil and extract samples: I. hydrocarbons for both formations (Table 2). where both of them are related to normal oils. Inc. This evidence indicates that there are clear similarities in their molecular distribution. except oil of Karnak-1x (Fig. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. C15þ n-Alkanes Distribution The gas chromatograms of the studied oil samples are similar to those of extracts from Khatatba. and Bahariya source rocks. 13). reflecting a genetic relationship between the previous mentioned source rocks and reservoired oils. mostly heavy degraded oils. 12) shows a great relation between oil and extracted samples. Furthermore. Alam El Bueib. II. the oil samples show slightly more mature than the extracts. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 12. Crude Oil Geochemistry 19 Downloaded By: [University of Technology. INC.2.3. 4. Alam El Bueib.3. (Fig. Isoprenoids/n-Alkanes Ratio The pristane/n-C17 and phytane/n-C18 ratios of the crude oil and extracted samples (Table 2) reflect that the oils and the extracts of Khatatba. The ternary diagram of Tissot and Welte (1984). • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. normal oils. 4. Inc.MARCEL DEKKER. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker.4. and Bahariya source rocks are genetically .

and Basta Downloaded By: [University of Technology. Representative gas chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil and extract samples. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker.MARCEL DEKKER. Inc. Harb. Inc. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. . NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 13. INC. 20 El Nady.

Pristane/n-C17 vs. Eight correlation parameters have been . In contrast. Bahariya. These conclusions are confirmed by cross plot of Obermajer et al.4. Correlation Assessment The degree of assessments for the correlation between crude oil and the extracted samples has been determined by studying the correlation score for both oils and extracts. except the extracts of Kharita. and Abu Roash formations which related to type II/III Kerogen. (Fig. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 14. Crude Oil Geochemistry 21 Downloaded By: [University of Technology. Abu Roash source rocks are not correlated with the studied oils where they are originated from terrestrial organic matter (Fig.MARCEL DEKKER. Inc. INC. phytane/n-C18. This figure indicates the genetic relation between the crude oils and extracts of the Khatatba and Alam El Bueib source rocks. All rights reserved. However. the extracts of Kharita. related as they are derived from marine organic matter and mixed organic source. 4. Inc. Furthermore the oil samples show a degree of maturation more than the extracts. 14). they are belong to type II Kerogen. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. 1985). showing the source type of crude oil and extract samples (Shanmugam. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. (1999). 15) of the isoprenoids/ n-alkanes ratio.

pristane/n-C17 and pristaneþn-C17/phytaneþn-C18 (Table 2). pristane/phytane. Inc.. saturates (%). 1975.. an overall correlation score was obtained for each extract by summing up to the contribution from each parameter. The score points. The ratio of correlation parameter to the total parameters (parameter match) has been also considered in evaluating the correlation rate (C. (Cmax). 1999). and 25 point to pristane þn-C17/phytaneþn-C18. except some samples are marginally correlatable. 15 points for each saturate (%). C21þC22/C28þC29. The crude oil samples have been correlated with each other. (1981). are 5 score points for each. studied for this purpose includes. Table 3 shows the parameters and score points allotted to the studied crude oil and extract samples. 10 points for each pristane/n-C17 and carbon maxima. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. CPI. Samples with a score 40–50 points and 4/8 parameter match are considered marginally correlatable. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Figure 15. The samples show a score 50 points and 5/8-parameter match or more. Cross plot of pristane/n-C17 vs. which reflect the genetic relations between oils and potential source rocks (Welte et al.). . Cmax.MARCEL DEKKER. indicating good correlation with oil. showing the genetic type of organic matter for crude oil and extract samples (Obermajer et al. and Basta Downloaded By: [University of Technology. All rights reserved. 1981). saturates/aromatics ratios and CPI. Based on the above correlation parameters. saturates/aromatics ratio. 22 El Nady. Inc.. Alexander et al. Harb. This is depending on their powers. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker.R. C21þC22/C28þC29 and pristane/ phytane ratio. phytane/n-C18. which have been allotted to different mentioned parameters according to Alexander et al. INC.

R. ¼ Correlation rating.7 Æ 0.R. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. Pri. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. All rights reserved. Correlation assessment between crude oil and extract samples.00 <22 C29>2 1.þ n-C18 Score þ ¼ 5 matching > 25 > 2.0 Æ 0. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker.0 Æ 0. MARCEL DEKKER.6 0.6 0 ¼ Nil >4/8 a C.1 2. 23 . Crude Oil Geochemistry Samples Saturates Saturates/ C21 þ Pri./ 50 þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ þþþ 0 þ þ 0 0 0 þþ þþ þþ þþ 0 þþþ 0 0 0 0 þ þ þ þ þ 0 0 0 0 0 þþ þþ þþ þþ þþ þþþþþ þþþþþ 0 0 0 85 60 40 40 15 Oils Aman-1X Aman-2X Aman-3X Falak-1X Emry-1X Lotus-1X Karnak-1X Meleiha NE-1 Meleiha NE-2 Meleiha NE-3 Meleiha NE-4 Extracts Khatatba Alam El Bueib Kharita Bahariya Abu Roash þ þ þ þ þ þ þ þ 0 þ 0 þþ þþ þþ 0 0 þþ 0 þþ þþ þþ þþ 0 0 þþþ 0 0 0 0 þþþ 0 þþþ þþþ þ þ þ þ þ þ þ þ þ þ þ þþ þþ þþ þþ þþ þþ þþ þþ þþ þþ þþ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 þþþþþ þþþþþ 0 0 þþþþþ 0 þþþþþ þþþþþ þþþþþ 0 45 70 95 35 35 70 35 85 65 85 55 5/8 6/8 7/8 4/8 4/8 6/8 4/8 7/8 5/8 7/8 5/8 7/8 5/8 4/8 5/8 2/8 Nil Good Good Nil Nil Good Nil Good Good Good Good Good Good Nil Nil Nil a C.þn-C17/ Parameter/ (%) aromatics Cmax C22/C28 þ CPI Pri. INC./Phy./n-C17 Phy. Inc.2 Æ 0. Inc.6 1.Downloaded By: [University of Technology. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 Table 3.

revealed that most oils can be classified into non waxy oils derived mainly from marine sources and few oils are waxy originated from terrigenous sources. . Also. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 From the evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of eleven crude oil samples which collected from the main producing horizons of eleven oil wells in the Meleiha area revealed the following: . NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. derived from sources rocks. INC. CONCLUSIONS Downloaded By: [University of Technology. Carbon isotopic ratios of the saturate and aromatic fractions of the crude oils.4%. This evidence indicates that these extracts show good correlation with oils.4%. Gas chromatographic analyses indicate that. B. except some oils are related to naphthenic oil. Therefore. and naphthenes showed that. most of the studied oils are mainly mature. deposited in transitional environments. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. Oil: source correlation revealed that close genetic relationship and remarkable similarities in the origin and maturation for the oils and extracts of the Khatatba and Alam El Bueib source rocks. and Basta The extract samples of Khatatba and Alam El Bueib source rocks have been correlated with the studied oils. can be classified into in two groups: A. except few samples which are originated from mixed organic sources. most of the studied oil samples are mainly genetically related to each other in physical and geochemical properties. it may be sourced from mixed organic matters of Khatatba and Alam El Bueib formations. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. . The crude oil samples characterized by high API gravities. paraffins. most of these oils are belonging to the paraffinic oil class. NSO compounds. aromatics. deposited under marine environments.MARCEL DEKKER. . Harb. low sulfur contents and rich in saturated hydrocarbon fractions. Moderately oils: characterized by API less 30 and sulfur content more than 0. The distribution of the saturates. Inc. All rights reserved. . Light oils: have API gravity more than 30 and sulfur content less than 0. 24 El Nady. . Inc.

M. • 270 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK. Al-Afaleq. E. and Prod. Moinard. . Aman field. M. Thesis.. Sydney] At: 11:40 19 December 2010 REFERENCES Alexander. Evans. M. 10(1):35–48. AAPG Bull. Evaluation of the Bahariya Formation from high resolution logging. M. Seminar. (1981). Woodhouse. Squires. Chung. Egypt. (1995). Darahem. All rights reserved. Geochim. Dept. Paradisi. El Nady. 4th EGPC Explor. Paradisi. 2:324–336. W. Demaison. M. Inc. Dia El Din.. Geol. Huizinga..MARCEL DEKKER. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker. (1994). Fac. Seminar. Stratigraphic and structural studies on Abu Gharadig oil and gas field. 13(7):911–922. El Nady. A case history of field development under complex reservoir geology conditions. M. (1961). Geochemical correlation of Windalia oil and extracts of Winning group (Cretaceous) potential source rocks. 78:396–408. Distribution of n-paraffins as a clue to recognition of source beds. Crude Oil Geochemistry 25 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are deeply grateful to the authority of the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation. AAPG Bull. (1998).. El-Sabagh.. Acta 22:2–15. Downloaded By: [University of Technology. E. of Petrol. Inc.. B. Bray. M. Evaluation of geochemical characteristics of petroleum from some oil fields in the North Western Desert. G. G. especially Exploration and Production Divisions. M. 290–315. 10th EGPC Explor. (1990). I. 75:1626–1643. Conf. (1974). (2001). Western Australia.. D. of Science. Ain Shams Univ. Egypt. R. L. G. Berrow Subbasin. G. and Prod. E. R. Fuel Science and Technology Int. 11th EGPC Explor.. (1991). Generic classification of petroleum systems. M. D. Thanks also to Agiba Petroleum Company for providing the oil and rock samples needed for the completion of this work. Egyptian. R. Ph. INC. AAPG Bull. NY 10016 ©2003 Marcel Dekker. 8p. H. E. (1992). Claypool. Cairo. Darahem. Nature and origin of hydrocarbon for some middle Jurassic-lower Cretaceous of the Meleiha area in the North Western Desert. Maturation and depositional environments of crude oil from Gulf of Suez. et Cosmochim. J.. Kagi. Source characteristics of marine oils as indicated by carbon isotope ratios of volatile hydrocarbons. 65:235–249. E. G. Jour. I. S.. 158–168. M.

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