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FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series & E-Series

Features Description
February 28, 2011 Hardware Release: R2 & R3 Software Release: i6.7 Document Revision 1.8

Copyright © 2011 by Ceragon Networks Ltd. All rights reserved.

FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series

®

Features Description

Notice
This document contains information that is proprietary to Ceragon Networks Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced, modified, or distributed without prior written authorization of Ceragon Networks Ltd. This document is provided as is, without warranty of any kind.

Registered TradeMarks
Ceragon Networks® is a registered trademark of Ceragon Networks Ltd. FibeAir® is a registered trademark of Ceragon Networks Ltd. CeraView® is a registered trademark of Ceragon Networks Ltd. Other names mentioned in this publication are owned by their respective holders.

TradeMarks
CeraMap™, ConfigAir™, PolyView™, EncryptAir™, and CeraMon™ are trademarks of Ceragon Networks Ltd. Other names mentioned in this publication are owned by their respective holders.

Statement of Conditions
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. Ceragon Networks Ltd. shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damage in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this document or equipment supplied with it.

Open Source Statement
The Product may use open source software, among them O/S software released under the GPL or GPL alike license ("GPL License"). Inasmuch that such software is being used, it is released under the GPL License, accordingly. Some software might have changed. The complete list of the software being used in this product including their respective license and the aforementioned public available changes is accessible on http://ne-open-source.licensesystem.com/.

Information to User
Any changes or modifications of equipment not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment and the warranty for such equipment.

Revision History
Rev
1.1 1.2

Date
13/02/2011 21/02/2011

Author
Jeffrey Fefer Jeffrey Fefer

Description
Initial version New template Added enhanced QoS Added reviewers‟ comments

Approved by

Date

1.3 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.6

27/02/2011 08/03/2011 13/03/2011 14/03/2011 16/03/2011

Jeffrey Fefer Jeffrey Fefer Jeffrey Fefer Jeffrey Fefer Jeffrey Fefer

Added reviewers‟ comments Added reviewers‟ comments Improved enhanced QoS section Alarms editing revised Sync updated E-series clarified

Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential

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FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series

®

Features Description

Table of Contents
1. Introduction ...................................................................................................... 4
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 IP-10 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 4 About this Document ...................................................................................................... 4 IP-10G Hardware Release Introduction ......................................................................... 5 Version 6.7 Introduction ................................................................................................. 5 Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 7

2. General Platform Support and Characteristics .............................................. 8
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Auxiliary Channels ......................................................................................................... 8 IP-10G Nodal Configuration ........................................................................................... 9 Licensing ...................................................................................................................... 11 Support for dual DC feed ............................................................................................. 12

3. Feature Description ........................................................................................ 13
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Equipment Resiliency Features ................................................................................... 13 Ethernet Traffic Support ............................................................................................... 24 Frequency Synchronization Support ............................................................................ 64 Performance Monitoring ............................................................................................... 69 Radio Features ............................................................................................................. 72 Security ........................................................................................................................ 87 System Management ................................................................................................... 92 TDM Traffic support ................................................................................................... 111

4. Enhanced functionality ................................................................................ 124

Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential

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2 About this Document The purpose of this document is to describe the features provided by the IP10G in this version (including existing features from previous version) from a functional point of view. FibeAir IP-10 employs the most advanced Adaptive Coding & Modulation (ACM) technique. This unique feature allows the solution to maximize spectrum utilization and capacity over any given bandwidth and changing environmental conditions. from 10Mbps to 500Mbps over a single radio carrier. FibeAir IP-10 facilitates cost effective. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 4 of 124 . hybrid or pure IP/Ethernet network. reduces CAPEX and OPEX and improves over-all network availability and reliability to support services with stringent SLA. For a detailed description concerning configuration details. FibeAir IP-10 family covers the entire licensed frequency spectrum and offers a wide capacity range. this first-of-its-kind solution simplifies network design. Ceragon's High Capacity Wireless Network Solution for IP networks. integrated Ethernet switch for advanced networking solutions and an optional TDM cross-connect for nodal site applications. and leaves ample headroom for future capacity enhancements. FibeAir IP-10 features a powerful. basic guidelines are given for some critical procedures such as software and configuration management. Introduction This New Software Version (NSV) release introduces the 8th release of the IP10 series. meant to provide additional capabilities. using a single RF unit. FibeAir IP-10 is Ceragon’s next generation carrier-grade wireless Ethernet backhaul product family. This versatile solution supports the entire licensed spectrum – from 6GHz up to 38GHz – and offers a wide capacity range of 10Mbps . Combining advanced TDM and Ethernet networking. With FibeAir IP-10. With advanced service management and Operation Administration & Maintenance (OAM) tools. Ceragon offers risk-free migration with the highest possible capacities at the lowest overall cost.1 IP-10 Introduction This release includes new software. see the CLI and WEB guides.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 1. risk-free migration to IP and can be integrated in any TDM. 1.500Mbps along with enhanced Adaptive Coding & Modulation for maximum spectral efficiency in any deployment scenario. Additional functionality and capacity are enabled via software upgradable licenses while using the same hardware. 1. In addition. The solution easily serves the capacity requirements of a single base-station as well as those of traffic-intensive hub sites.

7 Introduction This release includes new software (referred as version I6. IP-10G includes a slot for an optional T-card which can provide additional TDM interfaces IP-10G has an extra RJ-45 connector for external protection located at the left side of the front panel (for stand-alone use only).4 Version 6.34 (an earlier version loaded in production for some systems) must be upgraded to an officially released version while in stand-alone mode (not in shelf configuration).3 IP-10G Hardware Release Introduction The IP-10G is a new hardware release of the IP-10.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 1. instead of one in the IP-10.7 in this document) that is meant to run in IP-10G series and IP10E series hardware only. IP-10G has an extra connector at the back panel for connection to a backplane used in the stacked configuration. 1. meant to provide new nodal capabilities. as well as introducing the E-series (for which all Ethernet-related features are relevant):  New features o o o o o o o o o o o o  XPIC ACM scripts Configurable radio traffic prioritization 2+0 Multi-Radio 1+1 Space Diversity Enhanced Ethernet QoS Frequency Synchronization distribution PRC pipe frequency regenerator mode Standard Provider bridge RSTP Support for Ethernet services Alarms description and severity editing ATPC override timer Security log Page 5 of 124 Improvements in existing features Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential .0. as well as new interfaces. In addition. and in that case it will have to be sent to the manufacturer to be replaced. notice that IP-10G systems with software version 3. The IP-10G can easily be distinguished from previous IP-10 hardware versions by the following characteristics:     IP-10G has two dual (electrical/SFP) GbE ports – identifiable by the two SFP connectors in the front. This version adds to the G-series the following features. Attempting to install this software version in previous IP-10 hardware releases may make the system inoperative.

FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description o o o o o Hybrid Ethernet ports Improvements in Ethernet configuration synchronization in 1+1 and 2+2 HSB Reduced need for system resets Automatic state propagation in 1+1 and 2+2 HSB Improved display of MRMC scripts Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 6 of 124 .

FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 1.5 AIS ACM AES BER BPDU CA CFM CN DST EFM EOW EXC BER FD FE Acronyms Alarm Indication Signal Adaptive Coding and Modulation Advanced Encryption Standard Bit Error Rate Bridge Protocol Data Unit Certificate Authority Connectivity Fault Management (Protocol) Customer Network (Port) Daylight Saving Time Ethernet in the First Mile (Protocol) Engineering Order Wire Excessive BER Frequency Diversity Fast Ethernet File Transfer Protocol (Secured File Transfer Protocol) Gigabit Ethernet Greenwich mean time InDoor Controller Inter Frame/Packet Gap Hypertext Transfer Protocol (Secured HTTP) Link Aggregation Group Loss Of Carrier Loss Of Frame Loss Of Signal Link-Trace Message (CFM) Link-Trace Response (CFM) Maintenance Association (CFM) Media Access Control Message Authentication Code Maintenance Association (MA) Identifier (ID) Maintenance End Point (CFM) MAC Header Compression FTP (SFTP) GbE / GBE GMT IDC IFG / IPG HTTP (HTTPS) LAG LOC LOF LOS LTM LTR MA MAC (Ethernet) MAC (Security) MAID MEP MHC Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 7 of 124 .

and one V. UC (User Channel) options: a) Two RS-232 Asynchronous UCs (9600bps each) b) Two V.11 Synchronous Co-Directional (64Kbps) e) One V.11 Synchronous Contra Directional UC (64Kbps) Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 8 of 124 .FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description MIB MIP MSE NTP NSV OAM PIRL PM PN PV QoS RSL SD S/N SNMP SNTP STP / xSTP SSH UC UTC WSC XPIC Management Information Base Management Intermediate Point (CFM) Minimum Square Error Network Time Protocol New Software Version Operation Administration & Maintenance (Protocols) Port Ingress Rate Limiting Performance Monitoring Provider Network (Port) PolyView Quality of Service Received Signal Level Space Diversity Serial Number Simple Network Management Protocol Simple Network Time Protocol Spanning Tree Protocol Secured Shell (Protocol) User Channel Universal Time Coordinated Wayside Channel Cross Polarization Interference Cancellation 2.11 Asynchronous UCs (9600bps each) c) One RS-232 Asynchronous UC. General Platform Support and Characteristics 2.1 Auxiliary Channels The following auxiliary channels are supported: EOW (Engineering Order Wire).11 Asynchronous UC (9600bps each) d) One V.

1 Shelf Characteristics There are two kinds of shelves available: main and extension.2 IP-10G Nodal Configuration IP-10G can be used in two distinct modes of operation: Stand-alone configuration: In this mode the system performs basically as in previous versions. each extension shelf can contain two more IDUs. Nodal configuration: In this mode several IDUs are stacked in a dedicated modular shelf.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 2. and act as a single network element (NE) having multiple radio links. and can hold two IDUs. IDUs may assume two different roles: Main IDU: centralizes management access to the system. Extension shelves can be stacked on top of main shelves. 2. and up to two extension shelves can be stacked. and provides the switching fabric for TDM trails.2. It is accessed through the main unit. allowing nodes of up to 6 radio links: IDUs in such a shelf get each a “slot ID” indicating their position: slot 1 is the lowest IDU and 6 is the highest In each such node. A main shelf is required in each node. Unit number 2 is a main unit if configured as protected 1+1 (in which case it protects IDU#1). Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 9 of 124 . otherwise it is an extension unit. allowing point-to-point TDM and Ethernet transport. Unit number 1 (the lowest unit in a shelf) is always a main unit. Extension IDU: provides radio and line interfaces for TDM trails.

This is not carried out by the internal network. CLI. However.2. The IP address of the shelf is the address of the main unit in it.3 Centralized System Features Some system features make use of the shelf configuration and can be configured and monitored from the main unit. Others are available individually in each IDU in the system. From the main unit’s CLI access to all other units is provided. The main reason for this is that some features are strictly point-to-point (such as radio link configurations and performance) and therefore there is no value in centralizing them.2. PM. adding/deleting users. Therefore. Use of each channel is described in the respective section below.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 2. telnet. NMS) this requires IP traffic to be directed to the main unit. SNMP offer mechanisms to reach every unit in the shelf (see below) Users management: login. while others encompass the shelf as a single unit. or locally All other features are handled in each IDU individually. For remote channels (WEB. Following is a list of features which are centralized and are handled by the main unit: IP communications: All communication channels are opened through the main unit’s IP address Management channels: WEB. the shelf will have two IP addresses (the addresses of each of the main units) and it should be managed via the active unit. with the exception of the main unit functionality is limited to local configurations. which communicates with the extension units by an internal shelf communications network. For 1+1 units. Local craft terminal (CLI) is available in each IDU individually. TDM trails cross-connect: TDM trails definitions. 2. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 10 of 124 .2 Management in a Shelf Configuration In a shelf configuration all management is carried out through the main unit. statuses are all handled centrally from the main unit Nodal time synchronization: system time is automatically synchronized in all IDUs in a shelf Nodal software version management: SW version can be upgraded/downgraded in all IDUs from the main unit Nodal configuration backup: configuration files can be created. downloaded and uploaded via the main IDU Nodal reset: extension units can be reset individually or collectively from main unit. and therefore Ethernet cables must connect traffic from the extension units to the main unit. it is required that management traffic arrives to the main unit for management to be available.

 Per-usage license: Allows unlimited usage of all features in the system.3 Licensing The following licenses exist in the system:  Capacity license: limits the total amount of radio capacity available. A particular IDU may be in one of the following license states:  "Default" – Factory minimum default license. Page 11 of 124 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential . but the number of trails is limited. Normal license allows access to features and capacities according to the loaded "license key".FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 2. No RSTP SNCP trails are allowed Synchronization sources for Sync Ethernet are blocked      IDUs are manufactured with "default" license. This license applies only if the TDM-only license (see below) is disabled. used for usage-based billing. Network resiliency license: Allows configuration of features that make use of loop network topologies: o Ring RSTP o TDM trails protection (SNCP) Note that for systems in which these features were enabled in previous versions. If this license is allowed. any radio script can be loaded. "Normal" – Once license is loaded successfully to the system. the features will be allowed even if no resiliency alarm is purchased. Ethernet switch license: allows use of “Managed switch” and “Metro switch” Ethernet applications ACM license: allows use of dynamic ACM radio scripts Synchronization unit license: Allows configuration of external source as a clock source for synchronous Ethernet output (provided that the IDU’s hardware supports synchronization). Allows minimal Ethernet traffic for network management only. This limit applies for the sum of Ethernet and TDM traffic bandwidth. Default license is limited to the following capabilities: o o o o o o  Total 10Mbps radio traffic No ACM No switch capabilities (single pipe only). In addition. If this license is not installed. This alarm is enforced by limiting the bandwidth of the radio script that can be loaded. and generates reports of current usage. TDM-only license: limits the amount of TDM trails that can be mapped to a radio. system will warn user when a chargeable feature is enabled. No License has been purchased or loaded. it is considered to have "normal" license. Ethernet clock source can only be a local (internal) clock.

Notice that license is per-IDU (even if stacked in a shelf). no alarm will be raised. An alarm is raised and a timer of the remained hours is shown on the license menu while demo is enabled. an alarm will be raised to notify that the “demo license” is about to be ended within 48 hours.5v approximately). When system is up. the system will indicate whether received voltage in each connector is above or below the threshold power (40. allowing only management channels to remote end. the system shall perform a reset and automatically change the radio-script to the last radioscript that was used before the demo license was enabled. and then. indicating that configuration of the system allows capacities or features that are not allowed by the license. The function can be enabled and disabled from the license menu. When "License Violation" alarm is raised. 2. If license key itself is not legal (typing mistake. user must configure the system to comply with the loaded license. 48 hours before the license period is completed. Demo (Temporary) license User can use demo (temporary) that allows him to activate all features. allowing access to new capacities and/or features. The timer does not run when the unit is down. Radio port capacity is automatically limited to ~3Mbps. This option is limited only to 60 days (see next section for further details). it will check configuration legality against license limits. issue cold-reset. without the option to expand the time.4 Support for dual DC feed In boards with dual DC feed hardware. License Violation License violation is an alarm scenario in the system. When system is up.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description  "Demo" – Temporary license that allows access to maximum capacity and all features. Demo license is allowed for 60 days per IDU. and assuming no violation is detected. In order to upgrade license. General License key is generated per IDU serial number (S/N). and radio will be fully operational. illegal S/N…) specific alarm will be raised. An event will be raised 10 days before expiration. license-key must be entered to the system (requires cold-reset). In order to clear the violation alarm. its license key is checked. When the function is disabled or when the 60 days are up. This will be shown in two ways:  The LED (and its WEB representation) will only be on if the voltage is above the threshold  If voltage is below the threshold an alarm will be raised Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 12 of 124 . all the radio scripts are available and the user can choose any wanted script. When demo is enabled.

3. There is one IP address for each of the main units.1 Protection – General Notes Equipment protection is possible in two configurations:  "External Protection" is achieved by using two separate boxes in stand-alone configuration. It is also possible to use Ethernet splitters to FE and SFP (Optical GbE) ports. so that no alarm is permanently raised. 1+1 protection in a shelf: in this case. Ethernet traffic running through this port may be affected in the Active unit.    Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 13 of 124 . Split cables must be used for Ethernet signals. but in the installation only one of them is actually connected. it should be understood that access to the new "Active" will be done using its IP address. "Active" & "Standby" units' traffic. the protection feature is identical in both cases. 3. This is used for cases where the dual feed hardware is used. In this case. units are connected by the backplane. Electrical GbE (10/100/1000) interface can be split (via panel. which is obviously different than previous "Active" unit's IP address.5ca 3. Feature Description This section includes a review of all features that can be configured in the system. and previous "Active" becomes "Standby". management and wayside ports should also be connected to the panel.1. the IDUs must be connected by a dedicated Ethernet protection cable. Customer equipment’s cables should be connected to the panel and cables. Each box has its unique IP address.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description User may configure the system not to raise an alarm in case of under-voltage for any of the supplies.  Except for this difference. When a switchover occurs.1. or via split cables) according to the following limitations: o Should be set to “Autoneg OFF” with “100 Full”. A "Protection Panel" or protection split cable is designed to implement E1/DS1 splitters. and there is no need for extra cable.1 Equipment Resiliency Features 1+1 HSB Protection  Feature available from version: I6.1 3. o When Standby unit is powered OFF and back ON.1.

In case both are in-band management – in-band VLAN must NOT be used for traffic. wayside. Installation The following installation scenarios are described: Scenario 1: Configuring “Protection Enable” from “scratch” for standalone units. Scenario 2: Replacing Standby Unit for stand-alone units.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. The conditions above are the minimum requirement for proper communications to be established between the active and the stand-by units. 3.1. Disconnect all cables from units (radio. traffic. both out of band or both inband) – otherwise “mate communication error” alarm will be raised In case both are in-band management – in-band VLAN should be the same. except for management cable. Both IDU's should have protection enabled.1. metro switch) Management type should be the same (i. 1st unit. Different IP addresses (within the same subnet) should be configured for both units. protection…). This will not cause communications to be lost. doing so in the active unit will cause communications to be lost. managed switch. Scenario 3: Configuring “Protection Enable” from “scratch” in shelf configuration Scenario 4: Replacing Standby Unit in shelf configuration Scenario1 (stand-alone): Starting point .1. Therefore they should be first changed in the stand-by unit.2 Conditions for Protection The following conditions must be met at both units for 1+1 protection configuration to be valid and work properly:         Both IDUs must have identical hardware (same P/N) Both IDUs must have identical software versions Same Ethernet application (smart pipe. 2. Turn ON 1st unit. user should make sure that configuration is identical at all times (see copy-to-mate mechanism below) 3. 4. after configuring 1+1 protection there still may be a configuration mismatch between the units.Protection admin is ‘Disable’.1. 3.3 1.. Even if they are fulfilled. 1.e. but in order to assure proper operation in case of a protection switch. Notice that if it is desired to change the management type or in-band VLAN in an established 1+1 configuration. or via terminal configure the IDU: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 14 of 124 . 2. connect management cable to the management interface.

HTTPS. 6. Connect Ethernet cross cable between both units’ Protection interface. Configure radio related parameters: radio parameters. f. Upgrade SW (if necessary). b. both units should start communicating. Check on both units that "Mate Communication Failure" alarm is not raised. HTTPS. issue "coldreset" to the mate unit. Managed Switch or Metro switch). its Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 15 of 124 . e. Managed Switch or Metro Switch). 5. set its desirable “management VLAN ID” (CQ20084). Set security configurations: add users. At this point. transmitting their local MAC & IP address to each other. set its desirable “management VLAN” (CQ20084). e. 0x9100 and 0x9200). c. The management cable can be disconnected from the 2nd unit. Configure “management type” (“out-of-band or “in-band”) to fit the “Active” unit’s “management type”. 1st unit: Issue “Lockout”. 11. SNMPv3. etc. f. In this case a "copy-to-mate" operation must be issued on the "Active" unit. SNMPv3. Install its license (if necessary). 2nd unit: Issue "Protection Admin Enable". management might be lost for approximately 50sec. This operation will copy all "Active" unit's configuration to the mate unit. radio script. When mate unit is up and running. then "protection" installation is failed. If “inband” is required. 4. At this point. d. etc. etc. 12. Upgrade SW (if necessary). and then. it means both units are not synchronized in terms of configuration. 8. Use ‘Y’ splitter cable or the “protection panel” to connect both units’ management interfaces. 1st unit: issue "Protection Admin Enable". Install License (if necessary).FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description a. If “Metro Switch” application is set. Configure “management type” (“out-of-band or “in-band”). If "Configuration Mismatch" alarm is raised. Set the required “Switch Application” (Single pipe. d. c. 7. The 2nd unit should be prepared by following procedure (CQ19517): a. If it is raised. b. configure its “Ether-type” to fit the “Active” unit’s Ether-type (possible values are: 0x88a8. 10. 9. Turn ON 2nd unit. Set security configurations: add users. Management will be available again when 50 sec time period is terminated. 2nd unit: connect management cable to the management interface. Set the required “Switch Application” (Single pipe. If “in-band” is required. 0x8100.

Remove the powered down unit. An additional “copy-to-mate” operation should be executed. set its desirable “management VLAN” (CQ20084). including management. and connect ONLY management cable and/or serial COM to it. Ethernet and radio cables. Power down standby unit (the unit needed to be replaced). 5. and issue "Manual Switch" if this IDU is "Standby". or via ‘Y’ splitter. and "Configuration Mismatch" alarm should be cleared on both units. Change new unit's IP address to the desired IP address and subnet (feasible via CLI or WEB interface). If “Metro Switch” application is set. d. 7. 13. Configure “management type” (“out-of-band or “in-band”) to fit the “Active” unit’s “management type”. Install its license. etc.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description configuration should be totally identical to the "Active" unit’s. 4. "Active" unit must not be touched. 3. and avoid managing it via the ‘protection panel’. 6. which is connected to the ODU fed by the lower attenuation channel of the RF coupler. while installing the radio. Configure Ethernet and E1/DS1 interfaces to “Enable”. The new unit should be prepared by following procedure (CQ19517): a. Upgrade its SW version to fit the “Active” unit’s SW version. Connect all traffic. Set the required “Switch Application” (Single pipe. The same procedure should be issued in the remote end. Configure systems to "Lockout". Scenario 2 (stand-alone): Replacing Standby Unit 1. c. 0x9100 and 0x9200). If “in-band” is required. is the IDU that should be selected as "Active". Place the new unit (that will be the new Standby). in order to re-synchronize both units’ configurations. Disconnect all cables from stand-by unit. 0x8100. Power on the new unit. Page 16 of 124 f. 8. 2. 14. or via splitters). as it might be carrying live traffic. It is important to connect separate management cable to it. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential . configure its “Ether-type” to fit the “Active” unit’s Ether-type (possible values are: 0x88a8. Determine which unit should be the "Active" one. SNMPv3. wayside cables to both units (via protection panel. Radio and other line interfaces should not be connected at this stage. radio. e. b. Set security configurations: add users. Managed Switch or Metro Switch). The IDU. Disable “Protection Lockout” and verify no alarms are raised. HTTPS.

Check "Mate Communication Failure" alarm is NOT raised. 3. c. f. 6. etc. d. Install its license (if necessary). Configure “management type” (“out-of-band or “in-band”). and turn it ON while it is outside the node (stand alone) 2nd unit: connect management cable to the management interface. 12. 14. Management will be available again when 50 sec time period is terminated. Once "Standby" unit is up. Disconnect the management cable from the new unit and connect the new unit’s management and the ‘Active’ one by using ‘Y’ Ethernet splitter or Protection Panel. Set security configurations: add users. except for management cable. radio and WSC cables to it. Install License (if necessary). e. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 17 of 124 . HTTPS. Turn ON 1st unit.Protection admin is ‘Disable’. For stand-alone configuration. 1. Upgrade SW (if necessary). b. Scenario 3 (shelf configuration): Starting point . Unset "lockout" on "Active" unit. 13. connect "Protection Cable" to interface "PROT" on both units. c. SNMPv3. Do not insert 2nd unit to its slot. 15. traffic. radio script.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 9. 10. protection…). 1st unit: issue "Protection Admin Enable". and connect all traffic. management might be lost for approximately 50sec. 2. Issue "Protection Admin Enable" on the new unit. wayside. Disconnect all cables from units (radio. Verify that new unit was raised as "Standby". Configure radio related parameters: radio parameters. Set the required “Switch Application” (Single pipe. At this point. SNMPv3. etc. connect management cable to the management interface. HTTPS. 5. Set security configurations: add users. set its desirable “management VLAN ID” (CQ20084). Upgrade SW (if necessary). The 2nd unit should be prepared by following procedure (CQ19517): a. or via terminal configure the IDU: a.. Issue "copy-to-mate" on "Active" unit if "Configuration Mismatch" alarm is raised. etc. 4. If “inband” is required. b. Managed Switch or Metro switch). 1st unit. check alarms are cleared. 1st unit: Issue “Lockout”. 7. 11.

and issue "Manual Switch" if this IDU is "Standby". When the mate unit is up and running. Disconnect all cables from stand-by unit. The management cable can be disconnected from the 2nd unit. Turn OFF 2nd unit. then "protection" installation is failed. 14. Disable “Protection Lockout” and verify no alarms are raised. 9. 2. Configure “management type” (“out-of-band or “in-band”) to fit the “Active” unit’s “management type”. wayside cables to both units (via protection panel. or via splitters). set its desirable “management VLAN” (CQ20084). radio. which is connected to the ODU fed by the lower attenuation channel of the RF coupler. and then. 3. Configure systems to "Lockout". "Active" unit must not be touched. 2nd unit: Issue "Protection Admin Enable". The IDU. Configure Ethernet and E1/DS1 interfaces to “Enable”. issue "cold-reset" to the mate unit. it means both units are not synchronized in terms of configuration. Remove the powered down unit. 11. If “in-band” is required. 10. Check on both units that "Mate Communication Failure" alarm is not raised. Use ‘Y’ splitter cable or the “protection panel” to connect both units’ management interfaces. 12. 8. in order to re-synchronize both units’ configurations. is the IDU that should be selected as "Active". exchanging their local MAC & IP addresses. Power down standby unit (the unit needed to be replaced). In this case a "copy-tomate" operation must be issued on the "Active" unit. 15. both units should start communicating. The same procedure should be issued in the remote end. An additional “copy-to-mate” operation should be executed. its configuration should be totally identical to the "Active" unit’s. as it might be carrying live traffic. This operation will copy all "Active" unit's configuration to the mate unit. and turn it ON. If "Configuration Mismatch" alarm is raised. Determine which unit should be the "Active" one. 13. Set the required “Switch Application” (Single pipe. Ethernet and radio cables. while installing the radio. 4. and "Configuration Mismatch" alarm should be cleared on both units.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description d. At this point. Managed Switch or Metro switch). Connect all traffic. including management. Scenario 4 (shelf configuration): Replacing Standby Unit 1. Insert 2nd unit to its slot. If it is raised. Page 18 of 124 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential . e.

Configure “management type” (“out-of-band or “in-band”) to fit the “Active” unit‟s “management type”. HTTPS. Managed Switch or Metro switch). 7. 15. 8. e. It is important to connect separate management cable to it. Set the required “Switch Application” (Single pipe. 14. and connect all traffic. and turn it ON. Upgrade its SW version to fit the “Active” unit‟s SW version. Insert the new unit into its slot. Install its license. Issue "copy-to-mate" on "Active" unit if "Configuration Mismatch" alarm is raised. Verify that new unit was raised as "Standby". Unset "lockout" on "Active" unit.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 5. Connect to the new unit ONLY management cable and/or serial COM (craft terminal). 16. Power on the new unit in stand-alone mode – do not insert it into the node yet!. SNMPv3. etc. set its desirable “management VLAN” (CQ20084). 11. and avoid managing it via the ‘protection panel’. 6. Issue "Protection Admin Enable" on the new unit. Once "Standby" unit is up. Radio and other line interfaces should not be connected at this stage. b. c. 10. radio and WSC cables to it. Change new unit's IP address to the desired IP address and subnet (feasible via CLI or WEB interface). Disconnect the management cable from the new unit and connect the new unit’s management and the ‘Active’ one by using ‘Y’ Ethernet splitter or Protection Panel. 13. or via ‘Y’ splitter. Check "Mate Communication Failure" alarm is NOT raised. The new unit should be prepared by following procedure (CQ19517): a. 9. Turn OFF the new unit. If “in-band” is required. check alarms are cleared. d. Set security configurations: add users. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 19 of 124 . 12.

adding “—showDiff” argument to the copy-to-mate command will give extra details about the progress of the process. according to their priority (top – highest priority). Irrelevant at „ACM adaptive‟ mode Irrelevant at „ACM adaptive‟ mode - 6 7 8 9 Copy-to-Mate In order to synchronize configurations of both local and mate units.4 Protection Mechanisms Switchover Triggers Switchover triggers are described in the following table. copy-to-mate command is required. When issuing a "copy-to-mate" on the "Active" unit. If configuration is set via CLI it is important to know that "write" command must be called in order to have all configuration saved in the disk. When "Configuration Mismatch" alarm is raised. Only "saved" configuration can be copied to mate IDU.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. Once units have synchronized configuration. In CLI. Only active unit is monitored in this case Configurable. Priority top to bottom 1 2 3 4 5 Fault Remark Mate Power OFF Lockout Force Switch Local Radio LOF TDM Line LOS / SFP LOS / GBE LOC Change Remote request due to "Radio LOF" Local Radio Excessive BER Change Remote due to Radio Excessive BER Manual Switch Does not persist after cold-reset. a "copyto-mate" command must be issued by the user on the "Active" unit. all configuration database and files will be copied from Active (local) unit to the Standby (mate).1. and cold-reset will be automatically issued on the Standby unit. Does not persist after cold-reset. all radio parameters will be automatically copied from the Active unit to the Standby unit. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 20 of 124 .1. upon any user configuration. Electrical GBE LOC is configurable.

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Features Description

Mismatch Mechanism This mechanism is responsible to detect if there is a mismatch between local and mate units' configurations. This mechanism is activated by the system periodically and independently of other protection mechanisms, every fixed number of minutes. It is activated asynchronously in both Active & Standby units. Once this mechanism detects any configuration mismatch, it raises a "Mate Configuration Mismatch" alarm. If Active & Standby configurations are identical, the mechanism clears "Mate Configuration Mismatch" alarm. In order to know which parameters do not match between the units, user can (in CLI) query for the details of the mismatch (“cfg-mismatch-details” command). If configuration is made via CLI, a "write" command must be called in order to have the configuration saved in the disk. "Mismatch" mechanism checks mismatches only between saved configuration files. This mechanism does not display the specific parameters that caused the “mismatch”. It is important to issue a “copy-to-mate” command once "Mate Configuration Mismatch" alarm is raised, and avoid configuring specific parameters in order to clear this alarm.

3.1.2

2+2 protection
 Feature available from version: I6.6.2 The 2+2 configuration consists of two pairs of IDUs, Each pair is an 2+0 link (can be in XPIC configuration or in different frequencies). The two pairs are inserted into separate chassis and are connected by a protection cable between the main IDUs in slot #1 only. Protection is performed between the pairs - at any given time one pair is active and the other is stand-by. The 2+2 configuration is possible only between the units in the main backplane in each shelf (slots 1-2). Using the other IDUs in the shelves (slots 3-6) is not supported. For this configuration we define the following terminology: o Master unit (lower IDU in each pair): in a pair belonging to a 2+2 configuration, a unit which is responsible for the following:    Sending/receiving traffic from/to user through line interfaces Receiving protection information from mate (slave) Sending/receiving protection information to second master – at any one time one master is “decision” and the other is “report”. Sending/receiving traffic from/to user through line interfaces Sending protection information to mate in shelf (master)
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o

Slave unit (upper IDU in each pair):  

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Features Description

Slave units always behave as “report” (are told by master whether to be active or stand-by)

external protection interface XPIC interface

Shelf 1 modem Switching matrix

Traffic interfaces MGT interfaces

f1 H-Pol

TDM SLAVE 2+0 pair (whole pair is active or stand-by) Switching matrix

f1 V-Pol

modem

MASTER

TDM Ethernet

Shelf 2 modem f2 H-Pol Units exchanging protection data (one is decision, one is report) SLAVE 2+0 pair (whole pair is active or stand-by) f2 V-Pol Switching matrix Switching matrix

TDM

modem

MASTER

TDM Ethernet

3.1.2.1  o

2+2 configuration A new 2+2 protection mode is defined. A system may either be in 1+1, 2+2 or protection disabled. The configuration is separate in each of the four units, and user should configure all four units to 2+2. In order to switch from 1+1 to 2+2 the system must go through “protection disabled”. The following table summarizes the possible changes between the configurations:

o

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Features Description

From\To
Disable

Disable
No reset

1+1
Slot#1 no reset Slot#2 reset

2+2
No reset

1+1

Slot#1 no reset Slot#2 reset

No reset

Blocked

2+2

No reset

Blocked

No reset

 

All the conditions for protection as explained in section ‎ 0 apply for 2+2 as well (between master units). While in 2+2 mode, all commands and configurations available for 1+1 protection are available as follows: o o Locking, forcing protection is done from master units only Copy to mate operation is available separately in master units and slave units 2+2 operation The same criteria (interfaces LOS, LOC, LOF) are monitored and compared between active and stand-by units o Comparing is carried out by master units All enabled interfaces of all four IDUs are monitored A missing slave unit is interpreted as LOS in its interfaces. A missing master is a “no mate” condition 2+2 mantainance The following procedures are relevant when changing units in a 2+2 node: Replacing slave units (extensions) 1. Protection lockout to the Master-active. 2. Insert new unit. 3. Power it up. 4. Enable protection 2+2 HSB. 5. Copy to Mate 6. Connect the ODU to relevant Eth, PDH/SDH Y-cables/fibers. Replacing a standby master unit 1. Protection lockout to the Master-active. 2. Set to default the new card in SA mode. 3. Reset. 4. Configure same management type (in/out of band), management VLAN and Ethernet application.

3.1.2.2 

The principles of 2+2 operation are an extension of 1+1 protection:

 

3.1.2.3

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9. 6. as done in 2+0 XPIC. 8. 3. "Radio" port of the switch (Ethernet#8) will be forced to be disabled (Ethernet#8 port cannot be muted. Enable protection 2+2 HSB. In "Managed"/"Metro" applications. Power it up. the system will switch to the stand-by pair instead of attempting to recover the link. in order to allow the “network” find alternative paths. Connect the ODU to relevant Eth. The feature allows user configure which criteria will force GbE port (or ports in case of “remote fault”) to be mute/shutdown. the XPIC recovery mechanism is disabled. Since these two are unrelated mechanisms.4 XPIC and 2+2 protection 2+2 XPIC is a common application. The reason for this is that in case of a failure in a link.7 “Automatic State Propagation” ("GigE Tx mute override") enables propagation of radio failures back to the line. In "Single Pipe" application upon radio failure Ethernet#1 will be mute when configured as “optical” or will be shutdown when configured as RJ-45.2. 7.1 Ethernet Traffic Support Automatic State Propagation  Feature available from version: I6. Additionally. When configured as 2+2. but only disabled on both directions). Copy2mate. a number of safeguards have been put in place to assure their proper operation in tandem. to improve the recovery performance of resiliency protocols (such as xSTP).1. Insert the unit.1. PDH/SDH Y-cables/fibers. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 24 of 124 . the change at the master will be rolled back and user will be given an error message.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 5. Connect the protection cable. 3. the following mechanisms are active in a 2+2 configuration:  The following parameters can be changed only at the master unit. they will be automatically changed at the slave unit accordingly: o o o  Radio script Radio TX frequency Radio RX frequency Should the change at the slave unit fail for any reason.5ga o Improved for protection in I6. in order to assure that the conditions for XPIC exist (in particular having the same radio script and frequencies).2 3.2. 10.

Mute the LOCAL port when ACM Rx profile degrades below a preconfigured profile on the LOCAL unit Mute the LOCAL port when „Excessive BER‟ alarm is raised on the LOCAL unit Mute the LOCAL port when GbELOC alarm is raised on the LOCAL unit. Note1: Electrical-GbE cannot be muted. Radio-LOF on the LOCAL unit. 2. Electrical-GbE LOC will not trigger "Shut-down". Link ID mismatch on the LOCAL unit.„Single Pipe‟ application No shut-down. 2. Radio-LOF on the LOCAL unit.„Single Pipe‟ application No mute is issued. Link-ID mismatch (always enabled) Mute the LOCAL port when one or more of the following events is raised: 1.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description The following options are available: User Configuration Optical GbE (SFP) port functionality . Electrical GbE port (10/100/1000) functionality . Shutdown the LOCAL port when ACM Rx profile degrades below a pre-configured profile on the LOCAL unit. Link ID mismatch on the LOCAL unit. Shutdown the LOCAL port when one or more of the following events is raised: 1. This capability is applicable only when ACM is enabled. Local LOF. Radio Port functionality – „Managed/Metro‟ application ”Automatic State Propagation” disabled. Shutdown the LOCAL port when „Excessive BER‟ alarm is raised on the LOCAL unit No shutdown. Ethernet shutdown threshold profile. because it will not be possible to enable the port when LOC alarm is cleared N/A Local Excessive BER Local LOC Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 25 of 124 .

„Single Pipe‟ application Shutdown the LOCAL port. only if enabled on the LOCAL. ACM Rx profile crossing threshold (on remote). 4. 4. ACM Rx profile crossing threshold (on remote). Link-ID mismatch (on remote). when one or more of the following events is raised on the REMOTE unit: 1. It is recommended to configure both ends of the link to same “Automatic State Propagation” ("GbE Tx Mute Override") configuration. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 26 of 124 . 3. „Excessive BER‟ (on remote). when port is muted.„Single Pipe‟ application Mute the LOCAL port. when one or more of the following events is raised on the REMOTE unit: 1. 4. only if enabled on the LOCAL. 5. Radio-LOF (on remote). because it will not be possible to enable the port when LOC alarm is cleared Radio Port functionality – „Managed/Metro‟ application Shutdown the LOCAL port. „Excessive BER‟ (on remote). 3. Electrical-GbE LOC will not trigger "Shut-down". and the unit will not be manageable. Radio-LOF (on remote). only if enabled on the LOCAL. GbE-LOC alarm is raised (on remote). when one or more of the following events is raised on the REMOTE unit: 1. Remote Fault Notes: 1. Link-ID mismatch (on remote). „Excessive BER‟ (on remote). 2. Unit will be manageable only when port will be un-muted (or enabled). If link is managed by in-band. 2. 3. Note1: Electrical-GbE cannot be muted. (or shut-down) management that distributed through it might be lost. Link-ID mismatch (on remote). Radio-LOF (on remote). only if enabled on the LOCAL. Electrical GbE port (10/100/1000) functionality . 2. 2. only if enabled on the LOCAL. ACM Rx profile crossing threshold (on remote). only if enabled on the LOCAL.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description User Configuration Optical GbE (SFP) port functionality .

Queue Decision – Only classification to queue. Classification according to lower criteria (pbits or port priority). or the ingress frame does not carry any MAC DA that appears in the “Status MAC” table) classification and/or marking (VLAN Pbits overwrite. No marking. Queue Decision & VLAN Pbits Overwrite – Both classification and VLAN Pbits overwrite. QoS configurations are available in all switch applications (Single Pipe. Pbits will be assigned as follows (if egress frame is tagged): Frames classified to 1st queue will be given Pbits=0 Frames classified to 2nd queue will be given Pbits=2 Frames classified to 3rd queue will be given Pbits=4 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 27 of 124 . Since it is common to set QoS and rate limiting settings identically in several ports.classifies incoming frames to one of 4 priorities (Queues) according to several optional classification criteria. If 1st criteria is not fulfilled (whether the 1st criteria is disabled. an option has been added to copy the configurations from one port to another.1. No marking. configured by user. assuming the frame egress tagged) shall be decided according to the “VLAN ID to Queue table” (see details next) according to the following options: Disable – No VLAN ID classification or VLAN Pbits overwrite (marking). In this case. VLAN Pbits Overwrite – Only VLAN Pbits overwrite (marking).FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. This saves considerable time and prevents configuration mistakes. Queue Decision – Only classification to queue.2 Ethernet Standard QoS  Feature available from version: I6. Managed Switch and Metro switch).5ga The QoS feature allows the user to configure classification and scheduling to ensure packets are forwarded and discarded according to their priority.2. Second Criteria: “VLAN ID overwrite” – “VLAN ID overwrite”. VLAN Pbits Overwrite – Only VLAN Pbits overwrite (marking). according to the following options: Disable – No MAC DA classification or VLAN Pbits overwrite (marking). QoS Flow: Ingress Port #x 5 Policers (Ingress Rate Limiting) Egress Port #y Shaper (Egress rate limiting) Classifier (4 Queues) Marker Queue Controller Scheduler Classifier . Classifier Criteria: Classifier is constructed of 4 classification criteria hierarchies: First Criteria: “MAC DA (Destination Address) overwrite” – Classification and marking will be done for incoming frames carrying a MAC DA that appears in the “Static MAC” table (see details next). Classification according to a lower criteria.

according to frame’s Pbits (CoS). Number of table entries is: IP Precedence configuration – 8 entries. according to frame’s VLAN-ID. Remapping table can be used to re-scale some port’s priorities down (for example 7:0 -> 3:0) while at same time scaling some port’s priorities up (for example 7:0->7:4) or to ensure certain priorities are reserved for specific purposes. to any other preferable value in the range of 07. if the ingress frame carries a VLAN. For untagged packet has an IP header .classification according to IP TOS. Each line in the table indicates a different possible value for CoS Number of table entries is 8 (all CoS legal values). or IP diffserv). "VLAN-ID to Queue" – A single table for all ports in the Switch. Assigning a Queue to a frame. Initial Classification according to the following configuration: VLAN Pbits – classification according to VLAN Pbits. protecting priorities 7:5) Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 28 of 124 . assuming the frame contains an IP packet. assuming the frame is tagged. Queue is assigned according to “IP Pbits to Queue” table (see details next). Allows user to remap VLAN-Priority bits values 0-7. For the ingress frame without IP header carries a VLAN . Number of table entries depends on number of VLANs that have "Queue allocation". Assigning a Queue to a frame. IP TOS – according to IP TOS (IP precedence. Number of table entries is 8 (all CoS legal values). DiffServ configuration – 64 entries. Queue is assigned according to “VLAN Pbits to Queue” table (see details next). Default Classification. by initially remapping all frames away from reserved priorities (for example 7:0-> 4:0. "VLAN Pbits priority Remap" – A single table per port. Classifier Tables: The following tables are available to users for configuration: "VLAN-Pbits to Queue" – A single table for all ports in the Switch. By default VLANs do not have pre-determined "Queue allocation". Default priority for frames incoming at the port. according to frame’s IP priority bits (IP precedence or Diffserv). if the ingress frame has an IP header. IP TOS over VLAN Pbits – classification according to IP TOS. Assigning a Queue to a frame. VLAN Pbits over IP TOS – classification according to VLAN Pbits. For each value user can define the priority "IP-Pbits to Queue" – A single table for all ports in the Switch.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Frames classified to 4th queue will be given Pbits=6 Queue Decision & VLAN Pbits Overwrite – Both classification and VLAN Pbits overwrite.classification according to VLAN Pbits. Port (Default) – If any of the above criteria is not fulfilled default classification will be assigned to the ingress frame according to the port priority.

Unicast.000Kbps < CIR <= 1. Broadcast. Up to 5 “class maps” can be configured per policer: System supports a color blind leaky bucket scheme. Such an entry includes the static MAC address.Committed Burst Size. Management frames are BPDUs processed by the system’s IDC. xSTP). Queue2. 100. Non-TCP-UDP. UDP. Rate for "rate limiting" is measured for all "Layer 1" bytes. and should be configured in [bytes]: For 64Kbps <= CIR <= 960Kbps.192. Unknown unicast.000Kbps. 1000Kbps <= CIR <= 100.000. TCP-Data. TCP-Control. that will be assigned to the frame.Rate can be limited based on following data types: None (no limiting). Data type . Queue1. Policer list – A list of all defined policers.UDP. The second 1518 byte Service Frame needs more than the 422 bytes Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 29 of 124 .000 bps) and a CBS=2KB (=2000 bytes): Two 1518 byte Frames are sent back to back.A single table for all ports in the Switch. This service frame is in-profile and delivered per the performance parameters specified by the service.000Kbps in steps of 10. 0 < CBS <= 4.000Kbps. Unknown multicast. Multicast. Management. ARP.000Kbps.668 Bytes. in steps of 64Kbps. 0 < CBS <= 132. For 100.Committed Information Rate. This table allows user add a “Static MAC” entry to the switch’s forwarding table. Queue3. when “MAC DA classification overwrite” is enabled on the port.000.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Static MAC .585 Bytes.000Kbps in steps of 1000Kbps. Queue4. CBS . Limit Exceed Action Discard Frame. Policer . CBS is CIR-dependent. 0 < CBS <= 273. The first frame depletes 1518 bytes of the initial 2KB CBS in the token bucket leaving 422 bytes remaining.Port Ingress Rate Limit (BW Profile definitions). the ports the frame should be forwarded to and a priority.000Kbps < CIR <= 1. when processing L2 protocols (e.000. Each Policer can have up to 5 “class maps” (policy rules) resources. Non. For 1000Kbps <= CIR <= 100.404 Bytes. Each “class map” have following parameters: CIR . meaning: Preamble (8bytes) + Frame's DA to CRC + IFG (12 Bytes) The significance of CIR and CBS is illustrated in the following simple example for a service that provides a CIR=4Mbps (=4.g. Rate limiting resolution: 64Kbps <= CIR <= 960Kbps.

It should be emphasized that 4th Queue is the Highest Priority Queue. the policer will be attached to the port. add new “policer”. No related configurations are available to user. Parameters’ limits should be taken from the table at the bottom of the page. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 30 of 124 . by pressing “detach”. Under “Configuration →Ethernet Switch →QoS & Rate Limiting”. frames will egress in a "mixed" manner. The default queues' weights are 8. Queue's weight will be used by scheduler when the specific queue is part of HRR scheduling scheme.4. in order to avoid "starvation" of lower priority queues. and under “Ingress rate limit”. Scheduler – Determines how frames will be output from the queues. Shaper is OFF by default. Queue Controller . Strict for 4th & 3rd queues. A new line with the selected name will be added to the “Policer List”. Shaper – Determines scheduler rate (Egress rate limit). Following configurations are related to shaper: Shaper ON/OFF. Expand (pressing [+]) the line of the new Policer. The following scheduling schemes are supported: Strict for all queues. “CBS”. If this operation succeed. set the policer name. by selecting a name and pressing “add”. Each Queue weight can be configured. 2nd & 1st queues. Two class maps must have a different name. Strict for 4th queue. Ingress Rate Limiting Configuration: In order to configure “ingress rate limiting”.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description remaining in the bucket and therefore is out-of-profile and is immediately discarded (if "Limit Exceed Action" configuration is set to "Discard Frame"). In HRR scheduling scheme a weight is assigned to each queue. so frames egress from the queues according to their assigned weight. Up to 5 “class maps” can be defined per Policer. and HRR for 2nd & 1st queues. HRR (Weighted Round Robin) for all queues. and should be configured via "Queues Weights Table". 1st Queue is the Lowest Priority Queue.Distribute frames to queues according to classifier. Configure “class map” by defining “CIR”. expand (press [+]) the port for rate limiting. “class map” should have a unique name. When a Policer configuration is done. it is ready to be attached to a port.2. and issue apply.1. A policer can be detached. in order to avoid "bursts" of frames from the same queue. and HRR for 3rd . In addition. the following steps are needed: Under the WEB page “Configuration →Ethernet Switch →QoS & Rate Limiting →Policer List”. QueueWeight can be configured in the range of 1-32. “Data Type” and “Limit exceed action. even if they are part of different policers (CQ18150).

The above improvements will apply to the egress traffic on the radio port (where the bottleneck is). For 1000Kbps <= Rate <= 100. 01:80:C2:00:00:0E (Std. Enhanced QoS suggests the following improvements:        Enhanced Classification criterions Improved Scheduler based on strict priorities and/or WFQ algorithm. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 31 of 124 .1D Bridge Group Address). 01:80:C2:00:00:03 (IEEE Std 802. Enhanced shaper per priority queue. Additional QoS Features: The following multicast addresses are prioritized in "Single Pipe" application by classifying them to the highest priority queue (4th Queue): 01:80:C2:00:00:00 (IEEE Std 802.1X PAE address). 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CD (Cisco PVST) 3.000Kbps.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Shaper Rate. Enhanced QoS requires license. 8 priority queues with configurable buffer length.000Kbps in steps of 1000Kbps.3 Slow Protocols Multicast Address). Enhanced PM and statistics.2 recommendations).3 Ethernet Enhanced QoS Enhanced QoS (also called enhanced Traffic Manager) feature is used to improve the QoS capabilities of the IP10 platform. Following rate steps are available: For 64Kbps <= Rate <= 960Kbps.1. in steps of 64Kbps. 01:80:C2:00:00:08 (Provider Bridge group address).2.1AB Link Layer Discovery Protocol address).000.000Kbps in steps of 10. 01:80:C2:00:00:02 (IEEE Std 802. 802. For 100. PTP Optimized Transport dedicated channel for time synchronization protocols. WRED support – will be discussed later. Configurable CIR and CBS (based on MEF 10. All the other ports will function as usual.000Kbps < Rate <= 1. Enhanced QoS can be enabled / disabled by user configuration.

FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series

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Features Description

 

Upon enabling enhanced QoS, radio port egress traffic scheduling and shaping will be performed in the enhanced QoS module. Thus egress shaper and scheduler on the radio port will be degenerated in switch configuration. Egress shaper must be disabled in the switch. Instead egress shapers per priority queue will be available in the enhanced QoS module. Egress scheduler in switch will be degenerated to „all queues strict mode‟. Instead enhanced scheduler (based on WFQ algorithm) will be used in the enhanced QoS module. This configuration will be performed automatically upon activating enhanced QoS. Note: Enabling enhanced QoS will affect the traffic on the radio port.

3.2.1.3.1

Classifier

The classifier is a basic element of each quality of service mechanism. Each frame is given a Class of Service (CoS) and color (based on MEF 10.2 recommendations). User can define several criteria according to which frames will be classified. All the classification criteria are divided into 3 hierarchies according to their cardinality – from the most specific to the general. The first hierarchy contains the following classification criteria: a. By source MAC address – up to 16 MAC addresses can be configured. For each MAC address entry, user can specify CoS and color values.

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Features Description

b. By UDP source and/or destination ports – up to 8 entries can be configured. In each entry user can specify the CoS and color values for UDP packet containing a pre-defined UDP source and/or destination ports.

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Features Description

To specify classification by UDP source port only, user should configure destination port equal to zero. To specify classification by UDP destination port only, user should configure source port equal to zero. When both source and destination ports fields contain non-zero values, the specified classification criterion will apply only to the frames with both source and destination c. By known Protocol Data Unit (PDU) MAC addresses – contains a list of 66 destination MAC addresses which are reserved for network protocols use. This includes destination MAC addresses reserved by IEEE and ISO standards in range of 01:80:c2:00:00:00 till 01:80:c2:00:3F:FF and also 2 MAC addresses used by Cisco proprietary protocols: per VLAN spanning tree (PVST) protocol 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CD and Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CC. In the aforementioned table the values of the destination MAC addresses are pre-defined while user can set CoS and color for each pre-defined address.

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WARNING:To prevent loss of management to the remote sites.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description The second hierarchy contains classification criterion by in-band management VLAN Id: This classification criterion is used to give high priority to the in-band management frames in order to prevent loss of management on the remote sites. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 35 of 124 . Especially at the first activation after upgrade the in-band management VLAN Id should be assigned CoS 7 and Green color. User can specify in-band management VLAN Id along with CoS and color values to be used for the in-band management VLAN. classification by in-band management must be configured before activating the enhanced QoS feature.

Type of Service (TOS) is a 6-bit length field inside the IP datagram header carrying priority information.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description The third hierarchy contains the following classification criteria: a. The following figure describes the IPv4 datagram header format: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 36 of 124 . By VLAN priority bits (802.1p) and CFI/DEI bit – user can specify CoS and color for each combination of 802.k. By IP DSCP/TOS bits . b.1p priority bits and CFI/DEI bit values.a.Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP) or a.

By MPLS experimental bits – MPLS experimental bits are used to provide QoS capabilities by utilizing the bits set in the MPLS labels. c. Note: The classifier also supports classification by Traffic Class (TC) of the IPv6.1Q tagged and/or provider VLAN tagged frames.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description User can specify CoS and color for each DSCP value. Whatever IP protocol version is used. The following figure shows the MPLS label format: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 37 of 124 . the classifier extracts the adjacent field automatically. Classification by DSCP bits can be used for untagged frames as well as 802.

Class of Service to queue mapping: User can map dynamically each Class of Service priority queues. User can configure default CoS and color values. d. Note: classification by MPLS experimental bits is supported in both untagged and/or 802.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description User can specify CoS and color for each value of the MPLS field. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 38 of 124 .default classification is used when no other criterion was matched. Note that each queue is a physical resource which can be assigned accommodate frame of certain (or several) class of service(s).1Q/provider tagged frames. Default classification .

2 WRED Weighted Random Early Detect (WRED) mechanism can increase capacity utilization of TCP traffic by eliminating the phenomenon of global synchronization. Global synchronization occurs when TCP flows sharing bottleneck conditions receive loss indications at around the same time. The following figure demonstrates the behavior of 2 TCP flows over time without WRED.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. Each TCP flow recognizes a frame loss and restrains its Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 39 of 124 .3.2.1. WRED eliminates the occurrence of traffic congestion peaks by restraining the transmission rate of the TCP flows. This can result in periods during which link bandwidth utilization drops significantly as a consequence of simultaneous falling to „slow start‟ of all the TCP flows. Each queue occupancy level is monitored by the WRED mechanism and randomly selected frames are dropped before the queue becomes overcrowded.

Usually green frames (committed rate) will be preferred over the yellow (excessive rate) as shown in the curve below. Yellow and Green frames can also get different weights. as the queue occupancy grows. Since the frames are dropped randomly. For each one of the priority queues the WRED profile curve can be adjusted. In this way the overall aggregated load on the radio link remains stable while the transmission rate of each individual flow continues to fluctuate similarly. Basically. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 40 of 124 .FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description transmission rate (basically by reducing the window size). Each one of the 8 priority queues can be given a different weight. For each queue user defines the WRED profile curve. As a consequence statistically more TCP flows will be restrained before traffic congestion occurs. The following figure demonstrates the transmission rate of 2 TCP flows and the aggregated load over time when WRED is enabled. This curve describes the probability of randomly dropping frames as a function of queue occupancy. the probability of dropping each incoming frame increases as well. statistically each time another flow has to restrain its transmission rate as a result of frame loss (before the real congestion occurs).

The following figure shows the configuration screen of the queue buffer sizes in the web management screen. when low latency must be guaranteed.5Mbit for each queue.5Mbit by setting WRED tail drop curve.  Throughput immunity to fast bursts – When the traffic is characterized by fast bursts. Tail drop curve is useful to reduce the effective queue size e. 3. The default is 0. In order to set tail drop curve maximal drop percentage must be set to zero. it is recommended to increase the buffer sizes of the priority queues to prevent packet loss.3 Queuing Enhanced QoS will support 8 priority queues of configurable buffer size. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 41 of 124 .g. User can configure the burst sizes‟ as a tradeoff between the latency and immunity to bursts according the application requirements.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Note: WRED can be also set to a tail drop curve. Of course this will come at the cost of possible increase in the latency.3. The size of the buffers should be set out of 2 main considerations:  Latency considerations – If low latency is required (user prefer dropping frames in the queue than increasing latency) small buffer sizes are preferred. Note: Actually effective buffer size of the queue can be less than 0.5Mbit. Total amount of memory dedicated for the queues‟ buffers is 4Mbit while the size of each queue can be set in granularity of 0. User can specify the buffer size of each queue independently.2.1.

User can configure the following parameters:  Global shaper admin – enables/disables all the 8 shapers.3. The following figure shows the shows the shaper and scheduled configuration screen in the web management. Note: User may want the shaper to count in L2 by setting line compensation to be zero.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3.  Shaper admin – enables/disables each shaper for each priority queue.2. User may want to “punish” short frame senders for the overhead they cause in the network by increasing the line compensation above 20 bytes.2)  Line compensation – Represents the number of bytes to compensate in the shaper credits counting for the Inter-Frame Gap (IFG) and the preamble + SFD fields between the two consecutive Ethernet frames.2)  CBS – Committed Buffer Size (as specified by MEF 10. The default value is 20bytes which is the number of bytes used for IFG + preamble + SFD according to the Ethernet standard. In the enhanced QoS mode there is an egress shaper for each priority queue. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 42 of 124 .4 Egress shaper Egress shaper is used to shape the traffic profile sent to the radio.1.  CIR – Committed Information Rate (as specified by MEF 10.

2. The following figure shows an example of possible configuration: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 43 of 124 .FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3.1.1=Low). WFQ weights are used to partition bandwidth between the queues of the same priority.5 Egress scheduling In enhanced QoS mode the egress scheduler employs the Weighted Fair Queue algorithm which is better than the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) that is used otherwise. Each priority queue has a strict priority chosen to be between 1 to 4 (4=High.3.

 Priority (1 to 4) – The priority is strict thus queue with higher priority will egress before the lower regardless of WFQ weights. a special low PDV channel will be created. For example if queue 6 and queue 7 have weights 4 and 8 respectively (using the notations of the above figure) then under congestion conditions queue 7 will be allowed to transmit twice more bandwidth. In this mode Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 44 of 124 .1.2. In the web management shaper and scheduler configurations share the same table. by UDP destination ports 319 and 320 for IEEE 1588 protocol). Note: In order to be able to egress frames each queue also has to have enough credits in its shaper. IEEE 1588.3. This channel has 2Mbit bandwidth and it will carry all the frames mapped to the 8th queue. Upon enabling this feature.6 PTP optimized transport Precision Time Protocol (PTP) optimized transport feature is a special channel with low Packet Delay Variation (PDV) which is essential for timing synchronization protocols e.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description For each queue used configures:  WFQ weight (1 to 15) – Defines the ratio between the bandwidth given to the queues of the same priority. 3.g. After enabling. user has to take care of classify all the PTP frames to the 8th queue according to the criterion described above (e.g.

3.1.2. Each PM is measured per queue in Max/Avg form.7 PM and Statistics The following PMs are collected per each queue:  Green Bytes passes – Measures the transmitted green bytes (CIR rate).FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description all the frames from the 8th queue will bypass the shaper and scheduler and will be sent directly to the dedicated low PDV channel.  Yellow Bytes passed – Measures the transmitted yellow bytes (EIR rate). Note: PTP optimized transport requires Enhanced QoS license.  Green frames dropped – Measures frame losses. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 45 of 124 . User should disable one before enabling the other. Note: PTP optimized transport mode and User Wayside channel are mutual exclusive features.  Yellow frames dropped – Measures frame losses. The following user configuration exists: enable/disable PTP optimized transport.3.

FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description The above results can be displayed graphically in the following figure: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 46 of 124 .

GbE Interfaces System supports two dual GbE interfaces. It is NOT supported and NOT possible. their “functional” LED will be turned ON. SFP supports only optical stack. When "functional" purpose is assigned to a port. For each.1000 External protection/disabled Disable/Traffic Eth2 Electrical GbE 10/100/1000 OR Optical GbE . user can configure the desired interface: Electrical GbE (10/100/1000) interface or Optical GbE (SFP) interface.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. Eth6. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 47 of 124 . WSC interface is limited to 1628 bytes. when they are configured as RJ-45.5ga System Ethernet Interfaces Interface Name Interface Rate Functionality Single Pipe Managed/Metro switch External protection/disabled Disable/Traffic Protection Eth1 (leftmost dual SFP/RJ-45) FE 10/100 Electrical GbE 10/100/1000 OR Optical GbE . For GBE ports. These interfaces can be configured to be simple traffic ports (not in "single pipe"). Eth7 are "dual function" interfaces.4 Ethernet Interfaces  Feature available from version: I6.1. or "functional" ports: wayside or management. Maximum frame length is 1632 bytes for all Ethernet traffic interfaces. its "functional" LED will be turned ON.2. Eth5. to use SFP with Electrical stack.1000 Disabled Disable/Traffic Eth3 Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 (rightmost RJ-45 interface) Eth8 (Radio -Ntype) FE 10/100 FE 10/100 FE 10/100 FE 10/100 FE 10/100 According to Radio script Disable/traffic Disable/Wayside Disable/Management Disable/Management Disable/Management Disable/Traffic Disable/Traffic Disable/Traffic/Wayside Disable/Traffic/Management Disable/Traffic/Management Disable/Traffic/Management Disable/Traffic General Eth4.

Devices (WTD) CORETEK (*) Fiberxon Manufacturer PN PST120-51TP+ RTXM191-551 CT-1250NSP-SB1L FTM-8012C-SLG AO-0037-0 AO-0037-0 AO-0037-0 AO-0037-0 XCVR.10km XCVR.1. Other electrical interfaces' (10/100 or 10/100/1000) LOC cannot initiate protection switchover.DDM XCVR.W.W.850nm.SFP.MM.1310nm. only a single Ethernet interface can be used.850nm.850nm.MM. Electrical 10/100/1000 interface cannot be split.10km Wuhan Telecom.DDM XCVR.25Gb. it is essential to disable the active one first.DDM Manufacturer Name PHOTON Wuhan Telecom.500M.10km XCVR.SM.500M.DDM XCVR.SFP.MM.MM. Line LOC Protection switchover can be triggered only due to LOC on opticalSFP interface. meaning any GbE (and/or FE) ports can be used.1.25Gb. Devices (WTD) CORETEK (*) Fiberxon AGILENT RTXM191-401 CT-1250TSP-MB4LA FTM-3012C-SLG AFCT-5710PZ * Electrically these SFP modules work properly but they tend to get mechanically stuck in the IP-10G cage. or split using "external protection panel" designed for that purpose.1310nm. and then enable the other interface.25Gb.1310nm. Optical SFP should be split with optical splitter.10km XCVR.1.SFP. the options are:  Eth1: Electrical GbE or Optical GbE.850nm. In order to change interface.1.SFP.W.SFP.25Gb. External Protection (1+1) Interfaces FE interfaces should be split with appropriate splitter.SM. Recommended SFP Manufacturers Part Number AO-0049-0 AO-0049-0 AO-0049-0 AO-0049-0 Item Description XCVR.  Eth3: Electrical FE It is possible to use Electrical interface in one end of the link.SFP.W.25Gb.25Gb.500M. or using "external protection panel".1.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description In "Single Pipe" application.SM.1.1310nm.SFP. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 48 of 124 .SFP. In "Managed switch" and “Metro Switch” applications there are no "interface limitations".SM.25Gb.1. and optical interface in the other end.1.25Gb.500M.

RFC 2665 – Ethernet-like MIB.1.5ga IP-10G release 6.2.1.10/100/1000)  Eth3: FE interface Any traffic coming from the Ethernet interface will be sent directly to the radio and vice versa.6 Ethernet Switch Applications  Feature available from version: I6. Any of the following ports can be chosen:  Eth1: GBE interface (Optical GbE-SFP or Electrical GbE . not counted in "Fragments".2 supports three switch-applications: 1.5ga The system supports Ethernet statistics counters (RMON) display.5 Ethernet Statistics (RMON)  Feature available from version: I6. "Jabber" or "Rx error" counters Counts good frames that cannot be forwarded due to lack of buffer memory Counts good frames that were filtered due to egress switch VLAN policy rules Number of flow-control pause frames received 3. The counters are designed to support:     RFC 2819 – RMON MIB. Single (Smart) Pipe (default) This application allows a single Ethernet port as traffic interface. This application allows QoS configuration.6. but with an invalid FCS Total frames received with a length of less than 64 bytes. RFC 2233 – MIB II. and an invalid FCS Total frames received with Phy-error Total frames received with CRC error.2.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. RFC 1493 – Bridge MIB. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 49 of 124 . The statistics counters are split to ingress statistics and egress statistics Special RMON counters description: Counter Undersize frames received Oversize frames received Jabber frames received Fragments frames received Rx error frames received FCS frames received In Discard Frames In Filtered Frames Pause frames received Description Frames shorter than 64 bytes Frames longer than 1632 bytes Total frames received with a length of more than 1632 bytes.

This application can be configured in protection mode. Managed Switch This application is “802.1AD” S-VLAN aware bridge. otherwise they are shut down. All Ethernet ports are allowed for traffic. Allowed Ingress Frames Only Untagged frames (or Tagged with VID=0 – "Priority Tagged"). The following table describes each type’s attributes: Type Access VLANs A default VLAN should be attached to access port. Each traffic port can be configured to be "Customer Network" port or "Provider Network" port. Allowed Ingress Frames Untagged frames (or Tagged with VID=0 – "Priority Tagged") or C-VLAN tagged frames S-VLAN Tagged frames. 3. A default VLAN should be attached to access port. Allowed Egress Frames Untagged frames. The aging time used by the MAC learning table can also be configured. or "all" VLANs should be attached to trunk port Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 50 of 124 . Allowed Egress Frames Untagged frames (or Tagged with VID=0 – "Priority Tagged") or C-VLAN tagged frames S-VLAN Tagged frames. Only Tagged frames. In this mode. allowing L2 switching based on VLANs. Tagged and untagged frames. Management .FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Other FE (10/100) interfaces can be configured to be "functional" interfaces (WSC. allowing L2 switching based on S-VLANs. Metro Switch This application is “802.see details under "Ethernet Interfaces" section).1Q” VLAN aware bridge. Hybrid Tagged and untagged frames. This application also allows QoS configuration. of the line ethernet ports only the Optical GbE-SFP port will be a trigger for protection switches. Trunk Tagged frames. A range of VLANs. 2. or "all" VLANs should be attached to trunk port. Each traffic port can be configured to be "access" port or "trunk" port. or "all" VLANs should be attached to trunk port A range of VLANs. The following table describes each type’s attributes: Type Customer Network VLANs Specific S-VLAN should be attached to access port. Provider Network A range of S-VLANs.

802. “Managed switch” and “Metro switch” applications require a license. and does not require a license. Two methods are available for LAG traffic distribution: Simple XOR: In this method the 3 LSBs of DA and SA are XORed and the result is used to select one of the ports in the group. LAG may be defined only in IDUs which are configured as managed switch or metro switch All ports in a LAG group must be in the same IDU (same switch) There may be up to 3 LAG groups per IDU. “Single pipe” application is the default application.3ad  Feature available from version: I6. All Ethernet ports are allowed for traffic. Page 51 of 124 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential . 3. This is meant for better statistical load balancing.2. This group is called a LAG.1 Link aggregation allows the user to group several ports into a single logical channel bound to a single MAC address. traffic sent to the ports in such a group distributed through a load balancing function. The 802. This is the responsibility of the user.7 Link Aggregation . A LAG may contain from 1 to 5 physical ports Ports 1-2 (GBE ports) and ports 3-7 (FE only ports) can’t be in the same LAG group even if the GBE ports are configured as 100Mbps. Notice that only static LAG is supported (no support for LACP protocol). LAGs may include ports with the following constraints:       Only traffic ports (including radio port) can belong to a LAG group (ports configured as management/WS cannot).FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description This application also allows QoS configuration.3ad standard specifies that all ports in a LAG must have the same data rate and must be configured as full duplex.6.1. This is meant for simpler testing and debugging.3 Users can choose the Ethertype used to recognize S-VLAN tag between the following values:     88A8 8100 9100 9200 The aging time used by the MAC learning table and can also be configured. Hash (default): In this method the hash function used by the traffic switch for address table lookups is used to select one of the ports in the group.

A LAG is a logical port with its own MAC address. When a LAG is created by adding a first port to it.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Radio port (port 8) may be in a LAG with the GBE ports only LAG Creation LAGs are virtual ports that don’t permanently exist in the system. that differs from that of the component ports. and are created when a first physical port is added to them. except for the following: xSTP role (edge. the LAG will automatically inherit all the ports’ characteristics. non-edge) path cost The LAG will initially receive default values for these parameters. except for the following: o o o o o Admin Flow control Ingress rate limiting policer name Shaper (egress rate limiting) Peer port parameters      MAC address IP address Slot ID Port number description Adding Ports to a LAG The following settings must be identical between a LAG and ports being added to it (otherwise their inclusion in the LAG will be blocked): o QoS configuration       o o o o o Port MAC DA QoS classification Port VID QoS classification Port initial QOS classification Port default QoS classification Port VLAN PBITs priority remap Egress scheduling scheme data rate type (access/trunk or cn/pn) interface (electrical/optical) duplex auto-negotiation Page 52 of 124 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential . All Ethernet ports parameter may be configured in a LAG (and physical component ports will inherit them) and will be unavailable for physical ports belonging to it.

Removing Ports from a LAG Ports removed from a LAG will keep the existing port parameters. ports with CFM MEP/MIPs will not be added to a LAG (which may have its own MEP/MIPs). Therefore it is necessary to remove all MEP/MIPs from a LAG before removing the last port. the LAG will be deleted. when the last port is removed from a LAG. but will be initially disabled in order to prevent loops. In addition. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 53 of 124 .FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description o VLANs   VLAN list must be identical “allow all” is considered a different value (must be equal in all ports) o learning state In addition.

2. Used for Wayside. This does not affect the functionality of the traffic but the correct configuration is necessary at the element for PV to configure the services. This VLAN is always defined in the database. Not defined. Traffic frames carrying this VLAN are not allowed in Single Pipe Application. Cannot be used for "in-band" management. VLAN 0 1 Description Frames with VLAN=0 are considered "untagged". as it provides the required support.1. Internal VLANs. when using “Managed Switch” application.8 Special & Internal VLANs  Feature available from version: I6. Managed Application: "Access" traffic ports cannot be associated with any of these default VLANs. the relevant functionality is summarized as follows:  Each Traffic Ethernet port has a service type configuration.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. There are two possible values: o SAP (service access point) – the port is the end-point of one or more services.2.5ca The following table describes reserved VLANs for internal use.  Every VLAN may be assigned to a service.7 Ethernet services is a Polyview-related feature which allows configuring of end-to-end connectivity for Ethernet traffic. 3. o SNP (service network point) – the port is an intermediate port for one or more services This parameter is not relevant in "smart pipe" applications. Two parameters are added to each VLAN: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 54 of 124 . This VLAN is used in order to prioritize untagged traffic Default VLAN. - Remark - 4091 - 4092 4093 4094 4095 Used for protection internal communication. Since some of the functionality is visible to users at the IDU level. For Polyview to make use of this feature the IDU NEs must be loaded with software version I6.1. and all trunk ports are members of this VLAN.7 or above. Used for internal management.9 Support for Ethernet Services  Feature available from version: I6. VLAN 1 cannot be deleted from the database and not from Trunk port membership. Single Pipe Application: Frames carrying these VLANs are not allowed.

Link-Trace. The maximum supported number of remote MEPs per single IDU is 256. Each “Domain Level” can be assigned with a single Domain. CFM proactive monitor is not running on level 0 (only levels 1 to 7 are supported). Bridge role: <bridge role>. CFM specifically provides tools (Continuity-Check.on port: <port>. 3. Before activating IDU loopback option (e.2 CFM (Service OAM) .2. or Error messages of CFM should be ignored by the user for a period of up to “CFM remote MEP learning” time (default value is 60 seconds) after disabling the IDU loopback. Role: <Role>.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description o evc-id    Syntax: string Default: “evcX” where X is the VLAN number This string must be unique (different string for each VLAN).2.2. Only MEPs.2.802. IF loopback) CFM proactive monitoring should be disabled. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 55 of 124 . Loopback) to monitor and troubleshoot Ethernet services over a network. State: <state>”  A new command is available in order to configure a "bulk" of continuous VLANs. root id: <root id>.2 CFM Limitations User should be aware of the following set of limitations/recommendations regarding the CFM behavior: The Domain Name is unique for different levels.5ga 3.g. instead of configuring them one by one. The event will contain the following text: “STP event . Syntax: string Default: “evcX” where X is the VLAN number o evc-description    Events will be raised (and accordingly SNMP traps will be sent) Every time a port changes its STP role or state to any other role/state. 3. but not MIPs. Number of allowed MAIDs is limited to 512 MAIDs (CQ16731).1ag  Feature available from version: I6. can be defined on a “Single Pipe” port. The IDU supports single Local MEP for each MAID.2. The maximum supported number of local MEPs per single IDU is 256.1 General Overview OAM (Opertions Administration and Maintenance) refers to the tools to monitor and troubleshoot a network.

and generates LTR (Link-trace Response) message back to the CN port. In “Managed Switch” application. the service is identified by the 802. CN ports are part of a provider domain. Now when it ingresses the leftmost trunk port.1Q VLAN. In such scenarios. Automatic link-trace timer is a trigger for automatic link-trace process that might take longer time than the value the timer is configured to. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 56 of 124 . while in “Metro Switch” (Provider Bridge) application. Customer Bridge A Provider Bridge A Provider Bridge B Customer Bridge B Domain Level Customer Level Provider Level 0 Customer Level MEP Customer Level MIP Provider Level MEP Provider Level MIP 7 + - MEP ID & Remote MEP IDs must be unique. and should be defined as such (CQ20006 / CQ20037). the service is recognized only by the outer “S-tag”.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description CFM monitoring failure as a result of receiving unexpected remote MEP ID may remain in failure state even if the failure doesn't exist anymore for a period of up to CFM remote MEP learning time (default value is 60 seconds). MEP ID should NOT be reused for Remote MEP IDs on the same (specific) MAID CFM works according to the outer VLAN. Loopback command from a MEP to a MIP on the same device cannot be sent. customer level) must “envelope” lower domain levels (e. it is discarded (step 4). which might encapsulate inner C-tag (CQ19849). MIP should be avoided on a CN port.1ag model.g.g. and affect other domains (CQ17382). and reaches CPU.1Q bridge) trunk port is connected to a “Metro Switch” CN port as described in the example above. The CPU strips its VLAN (step 2). thus MIP or MEP on these ports are part of the provider OAM domain. Examining the following example: Managed Switch Access 4 Trunk Discard untagged LTR Untagged LTR 1 C-tagged LTM Metro Switch Radio PN 2 CN Stripping C-tag Metro Switch PN CN Managed Switch Trunk Access 3 Assuming “Managed Switch” (802. due to the number of remote MEPs (each link-trace process takes around 12 seconds). that does not obey this limitation. it is tagged (step 1). This LTR message does not carry any VLAN (step 3). This LTM ingress the leftmost CN port. and MIP. might not be operational. with the same level is defined on the leftmost CN port. This example demonstrates that a MIP issued on the CN port does not reply to LTM. MEP is defined on the leftmost access port. operator level) according to 802. When LTM (Link-trace message) “egress” the leftmost trunk port. Higher domain levels (e. A domain that is added in between domains.

still maintaining service disruption limitations. Relations between Root and Designated bridges when ring is converged in the first time is the same as defined in the standard RSTP.g.g. Ring-RSTP itself is different than “classic” RSTP. 3. When a failure appears (e. Ring RSTP gives improved performance for ring topologies. but in some cases (change of root node) the convergence time may be above 1sec.2 Ring RSTP Limitations User should be aware of the following limitations: Ring RSTP is a proprietary implementation of Ceragon Networks.3.3 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Rings (Fast Ring RSTP)  Feature available from version: I6. 3.2.3.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description When automatic link-trace timer is set to a new value. LOF is cleared) the ring reverts back to its original state. When the ring is set up. it is not available in any the “Single Pipe” application. RSTP PDUs coming from “Edge” ports are discarded (and not processed or broadcasted).2.2. Ethernet-Fast-Ring-RSTP will use the standard RSTP BPDUs: 01-80-C2-00-0000.1 General Overview Ceragon Networks ring solution enhances the RSTP algorithm for ring topologies. it is converged according to RSTP definitions. only one loop should be present Ring RSTP can be activated in “Managed Switch” or “Metro Switch” applications. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 57 of 124 . When the failure is removed (e. in order to accelerate convergence. LOF is raised). For any other topology the algorithm will converge but performance may take several seconds.5ga 3. and cannot inter-work with other Ring RSTP implementations of other 3rd party vendors. the ring is converged. Also. there should be only 2 edge ports in every node. The ring is revertible. For this reason. as it exploits the topology of the ring. the new cycle period will take place only after the current cycle period is terminated The maximum number of MEPs guaranteed to provide reliable indications is 50 per IDU. accelerating the failure propagation relative to the regular RSTP. Ring RSTP may run with protection 1+1.

they are user interfaces.3. User Ports (Edge) Node/Site Type B The site is connected with Radios to both directions of the ring (e. Line LOC Node cold reset (“Pipe” and/or “Switch”).g. and the second run in “Single pipe” mode. West). Other line interfaces are in “edge” mode. Pipe Mode Switch Mode User Ports (Edge) 3.g. West).2.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Ra di o Ra di o e Lin d io Ra Page 58 of 124 . towards the second direction (e. Each IDU support the Radio in one direction One IDU runs with the “Ring RSTP”. Other line interfaces are in “edge” mode. The Radio interface towards one direction (e. East & West). meaning. Site contains two IDUs. and are not part of the ring itself. Both IDUs are connected via Gigabit interface (either optical or electrical).4 Ring RSTP Performance The following failures will initiate convergence: Radio LOF Link ID mismatch.g.g. The site contains only one IP-10 IDU. East) and one Line interface (e. East).2.3.3 Site/Node Types The ring can be constructed by two types of nodes/sites: Node/Site Type A The site is connected to the ring with one Radio interface (e.g. and one of the Gigabit (Copper or Optical) interfaces. Radio Excessive BER (optional) ACM profile is below pre-determined threshold (optional).

but since this is a user configuration. it is not considered a failure.2. xSTP port Disable/Shutdown. Radio TX mute/ un-mute convergence takes. Excessive BER convergence might end within 600mSec (CQ19230). “Managed Switch” elements will be configured to “In-Band”. When user issues “port shutdown” fast convergence should not be expected. The reason for that requirement is the “automatic state propagation” behavior of the “Single Pipe” that shuts down its GbE traffic port upon failure. Ring port (non-edge port) shutdown will initiate convergence. thus. Convergence performance: Up to 4 nodes < 150mSec Up to 8 nodes < 200mSec Exceptions: 10% of convergence scenarios might take 600mSec. management is protected with the traffic when the ring is re-converged as a result of a ring failure. management might be lost to it. The ring acquires its “steady state” in a non optimal time. Any other failure that might disrupt data. management is part of the data traffic. 3. In this scenario. in 5-10% of the cases. The ring shall NOT converge optimally upon “path cost” configuration. thus it is not “propagated”. similar to regular RSTP. The ring is converged in order to cope with physical layer failures.5 Ring RSTP Management In-Band Management In this scenario. while “Single Pipe” elements will be configured to “Out-of-Band”. “Single Pipe” nodes will be connected with external Ethernet cable to the “Managed Switch” for management.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Node power down (“Pipe” and/or “Switch”). thus. since such a configuration might force the ring to converge into a different “steady state” (CQ19998). Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 59 of 124 . HW (cold reset) resets. convergence might end within 400-600 mSec (CQ20697). such as interfaces configuration to exclude necessary VLANs (CQ19037) will not be taken care of by the protocol. 500 – 1000 mSec (CQ19926).3.

The following picture demonstrates 4 sites ring.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description If “Managed Switch” power is down. its mate “pipe” will not have management access. The following picture demonstrates 4 sites ring. and resolve the management loops. with WSC “enabled”. with in-band management: Resilient In-Band ring management WSC Eth4 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 Eth5 Eth8 Managed Switch: In-Band Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Management Traffic Connectivity Single Pipe: Out-of-Band Radio Radio Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Single Pipe: Out-of-Band Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Managed Switch: In-Band Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Managed Switch: In-Band Single Pipe: Out-of-Band Radio Radio Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Network Management Managed Switch: In-Band Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Single Pipe: Out-of-Band Out-of-band Management In this scenario. all node will lose management. Management will be delivered over WSC. all elements (“Single pipe” and “Managed Switch” IDUs) should be configured to “Out-of-band”. In band management gives user additional free interfaces in each node for traffic. meaning. its mate “Managed Switch” IDU will still have management access. External xSTP switch should be used in order to gain resilient management. If node’s pipe power is down. with out-of-band management: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 60 of 124 .

WSC should be ‘enabled’. “Bridge level” Ring-RSTP parameters should be configured (“Bridge Priority”). and 2 management ports at the other nodes. Management & WSC should be configured to be “Edge” ports (CQ19598). Traffic ports should be configured to be “Edge” ports.2. Ring management: For “Out-of-band” management: at least 3 management ports in the “management gateway” node. if “automatic state propagation” configuration is skipped. then fast convergence cannot be guaranteed (CQ19363). WSC should be ‘disabled’. Ethernet-Fast-Ring-RSTP should be ‘enable’. “Port level” Ring-RSTP parameters. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 61 of 124 . User can choose which faults to propagate.3. For “In-band” management: at least 2 management ports in the “management gateway” node. Only 2 interfaces that connect the node to the ring should be configured as “non edge” interfaces.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Resilient Out-of-Band ring management Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Managed Switch WSC Eth4 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 Eth5 Eth8 Management Traffic Connectivity Single Pipe Radio Radio Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Single Pipe Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Mng Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Managed Switch Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Managed Switch Single Pipe xSTP External Switch.6 Ring RSTP Configurations Node Type A configuration Switch application: “Managed Switch”. resolving management loops. “Non edge” ports should have their “port priority” and “path cost” configured. and 1 port at any other node. “Automatic State Propagation” Enable. It is recommended to enable all the options to gain convergence upon any failure. Eth1 Eth2 Radio Radio Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Network Management Managed Switch Eth1 Eth2 Eth3 WSC Eth4 Eth5 Mng Eth6 Mng Eth7 Eth8 Single Pipe 3.

WSC ‘enabled’. meaning radio links that have the same “Switch Application” on both ends.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Node Type B configuration “Managed Switch” IDU should be configured as described above. The second unit should be configured as follows: Switch application: “Single Pipe”. The reason for that recommendation is the fact that “Managed Switch” does not react to “LOC” fault that might be propagated by a “Single Pipe” when they are in the same link.3. User can choose which faults to propagate. This might affect ring re-convergence performance. 5. Insert the new unit into its slot. If “automatic state propagation” configuration is skipped. and turn it ON. Connect one “arm” of the ring to the node (radio for example. 3. 1. 4. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 62 of 124 . Connect the second “arm” of the ring. It is recommended to design the ring to be constructed of symmetrical radio links. For example. Configure all RSTP and/or other configurationsto fit the previous configuration (see “Ring RSTP Configurations” section). without line). It is recommended to enable all the options to gain re-convergence upon any failure. 6. and/or “Managed Switch” with “Managed Switch” link (CQ19593). “Automatic State Propagation” Enable. Install license in the unit. At least 2 management ports. 7. then fast convergence cannot be guaranteed (CQ19363). 8. Make sure the node “understands” its role in the network.2.7 Installation The following installation scenarios are described: 1. and the alternate port should “appear” again. Ring management: “out-of-band”. Make sure the ring is converged properly. 2. Scenario 1: Configuring “ring RSTP” from “scratch” 2. Scenario2: replacing unit in RSTP ring 1. 3. and all nodes are accessible. Identify the port in the network that is now shut-down due to ring failure. Disconnect all Ethernet cables from relevant unit (except local management if needed).none. “Single pipe” with “Single pipe” link. Identify whether the unit that should be replaced is root or not. Scenario 2: Replacing Unit in RSTP ring Scenario1: Starting point – STP protocol . 2. At this point the ring should be reconverged.

Insert the new unit into its slot. 5. 12. 11.   9. Connect the second “arm” of the ring. it is recommended to configure its “Bridge priority” to a higher value than the current root. At this point the ring should be reconverged.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. In addition.4 Standard RSTP support  Feature available from version: I6. making sure it will become root. it is recommended to configure its “Bridge priority” to a lower value than the new root.2. Make sure the node “understands” its role in the network. and turn it ON.1D. Provider bridge RSTP will be automatically activated when RSTP is enabled in a "metro switch" bridge. Extract the unit. Do not connect ethernet cables to new units (except local management if needed) 7. The two protocols differ in the following aspects:          Topologies supported Standard RSTP is meant to work with any mesh topology Ring RSTP is meant for ring only Interoperability Standard RSTP is fully interoperable Ring RSTP is proprietary Performance Standard RSTP will converge in up to a few seconds Ring RSTP converges in under 200ms in most cases Standard RSTP is supported for both managed switch application (regular VLANs) and metro switch application (provider bridge). Make sure the ring is converged properly. Install license in the new unit. 10. Cisco PVST proprietary address is supported. If the unit was pipe. 6. Configure all RSTP and/or other configurations (assuming it is not pipe) to fit the previous configuration (recommended to download backup configuration).6.2 o Provider mode added in I6. Standard RSTP configurations are identical to those for the Fast ring RSTP.  If the unit was not root. 3. Turn OFF the unit that its port is in shut-down. 8. its configuration is not relevant for RSTP. making sure it won’t be root. Connect one “arm” of the ring to the node (radio for example. and all nodes are accessible. Disconnect all Ethernet cables from it. If the unit was root. 4. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 63 of 124 .7 Users have the option to choose between the Fast ring RSTP (as described above) and the standard RSTP protocol as defined in IEEE 802. without line). and the alternate port should “appear” again.

3 Frequency Synchronization Support Network Frequency Distribution  Feature available for co-located TDM trails from version: I6. thereby frequency-synchronizing the receiver with that source. SDH or logical interfaces. PDH. which was derived from some reference clock source. The interface used to convey the frequency may be Ethernet.7 3.1 3.3. It can be used to synchronize network elements by feeding one node with a reference clock. The feature allows the receiving side of an interface to lock onto the physical layer clock of the received signal. all PDH trails are synchronized to a common clock Page 64 of 124 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential .1.3.6. In 2G networks for example.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description The behavior of provider bridge RSTP PDUs is as follows:  In CN ports: Destination Address 01-80-C2-00-00-00 01-80-C2-00-00-08 01-00-0C-CC-CC-CD Ingress Action Add S-Vlan tag and multicast it to all PN ports Discard Add S-Vlan tag and multicast it to all PN ports Spanning Tree type Bridge Group Address Provider Bridge Group Address CISCO PVST  In PN ports: Spanning Tree type Bridge Group Address Provider Bridge Group Address CISCO PVST Destination Address 01-80-C2-00-00-00 Ingress Action Add S-Vlan tag and multicast it to all the ports Perform fast ring RSTP Add S-Vlan tag and multicast it to all the ports 01-80-C2-00-00-08 01-00-0C-CC-CC-CD 3. and having other nodes derive their clocks from that source. The following applications of this feature are relevant:  Distribution of synchronization to sync-Ethernet capable equipment in a PDH-synchronized network (co-located synchronization): o Synchronization sources are entered into the system as PDH trails transported through the system.1 Synchronization Principles Frequency synchronization consists of the transport of a frequency timing reference through the physical layer of a certain interface.1 o Frequency distribution added in I6.

the reference frequency is conveyed to the user synchronous Ethernet interfaces A Synchronization source is entered into the network through synchronous Ethernet or SDH and distributed through the radio links Through the network the reference frequency is conveyed to the user synchronous Ethernet interfaces o o  Distribution of synchronization in an Ethernet-only network: o o Notice that in order to use this feature. The available interfaces for frequency distribution depend on the hardware assembly. as well as loading the SyncU software license.3. for example) and distributed through the radio links In nodes with PDH support. the reference frequency is conveyed to the user through an E1/T1 interface used for synchronization In nodes with Ethernet support. an IP-10G with supporting HW is required.1. where some of the sites require sync Ethernet and others PDH synchronization: o A Synchronization source is entered into the network (through Ethernet or SDH.2 Available Synchronization Interfaces Frequency signals can be taken by the system from a number of different interfaces (one reference at a time) and the reference frequency may also be conveyed to external equipment through different interfaces. 3.  Distribution of synchronization in a hybrid network. the frequency is taken from the local trails (which derive their frequency from the original input) The transported frequency is used to drive the outgoing Ethernet signal.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description o o In the desired nodes. as summarized in the following table: Hardware type IP-10G R2 Available interfaces as frequency input (reference sync source)  TDM trails  E1/T1 interfaces  STM-1/OC-3 VC-11/12s  Radio channels IP-10G R3  TDM trails  E1/T1 interfaces  STM-1/OC-3 VC-11/12s  Radio channels  Gigabit Ethernet interfaces Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 65 of 124 Available interfaces as frequency output  E1/T1 interfaces  STM-1/OC-3 VC-11/12s  Radio channels  Gigabit Ethernet interfaces  E1/T1 interfaces  STM-1/OC-3 VC-11/12s  Radio channels  Gigabit Ethernet interfaces .

unrelated to the system reference frequency Synchronization reference: causes the interface to generate its signal from the system reference clock. In the event of a failure in the primary signal (LOC.1. as shown in the example below. etc…) the secondary source will be taken as the reference frequency until the primary recovers.3. a single channel per radio link is necessary to synchronize all the nodes in the network. LOF. which is taken from the synchronization source  For each interface. the source of its outgoing signal clock. it is possible to configure two co-located interfaces (different interfaces in the same node).  When distributing through a network. Notice that at this point there is no support for loops or for quality indicators (SSM). regardless of their number. where the reference frequency from a single node is distributed to a number of base stations: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 66 of 124 . However the following facts mitigate this effect:  When using TDM trails as a synchronization source (co-located mode). For the synchronization source.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description When using a radio channel to distribute a frequency. one of which is primary and the other secondary. LOS. 2Mbps of bandwidth will be used for this purpose.3 Synchronization Configuration Frequency is distributed by configuring the following parameters in each node:  System synchronization sources (primary/secondary) o o o Only one primary and one secondary source can be configured in each node A revertive timer can be configured These are the interfaces from which the frequency is taken and distributed to other interfaces Local clock: causes the interface to generate its signal from a local oscillator. 3. a frequency “flow” can be achieved. no additional bandwidth is taken (the 2Mbps is already used by the trail). It can be: o o By configuring synchronization sources and transporting the reference frequency to the related interfaces in a network.

The clock taken from a radio channel can´t be conveyed to another radio channel in the same radio. a pre-existing trail must be configured  An interface can either be used as a synchronization source or can take its signal from the system reference but not both (no loop timing available. unless the “tdm trail” interface is used o In this case. In each IDU. SDH. the synchronization source can´t be removed. all other interfaces in the same board must make use of the local clock. VC-11/12. The clock taken from a line interface (E1/T1. only one line interface at the main board and only one at the T-card can take their outgoing clock from the reference clock at any given time. no interfaces may take their outgoing clock from the reference If at least one interface is currently taking its outgoing clock from the reference. except locally in SDH interfaces) If no interface is configured as synchronization source. Page 67 of 124      Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential .FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description The following restrictions apply for frequency distribution configuration:  Synchronization source interfaces must not be assigned to a TDM trail. Ethernet) can´t be conveyed to another line interface in the same IDU.

3. Ethernet interfaces can´t be configured as synchronization source for distribution In PRC regenerator mode. For this reason frequency can be distributed only in one direction.2.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Should the signal driving the Ethernet interfaces fail. For electrical interfaces. the radio frame frequency is used as the reference signal for the outgoing Ethernet PHY. frequency is taken from the incoming gigabit Ethernet signal. PRC pipe regenerator mode makes use of the fact that the system is acting as a simple link (so no distribution mechanism is necessary) in order to to achieve the following:  Improved frequency distribution performance: o PRC quality o No use of bandwidth for frequency distribution  Simplified configuration 3. the following limitations apply:    In PRC regenerator mode. On the receiver side.7 In IP-10G R3 systems operating in "smart pipe" Ethernet application an additional synchronization mode is available.2 User configuration For PRC pipe regenerator mode to work the following is necessary:   The system must be configured as "single pipe" Ethernet port #1 (GBE) must be enabled Page 68 of 124 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential . each PHY must act either as clock master or as clock slave in its own link. 3. independent frequencies are transported in each direction. Ethernet interfaces can´t be configured to take the system reference clock for their outgoing signal. In this mode. an alarm will alert user. separate. determined by the user. but since it makes use of the Ethernet interfaces.2 PRC pipe regenerator mode  Feature available from version: I6. frequency is transported between the gigabit Ethernet interfaces through the radio link. PRC regenerator mode does not completely override the regular synchronization distribution.3.2. 3. Frequency distribution behaves in a different way for optical and electrical GBE interfaces.3. because of the way this interfaces are implemented:   For optical interfaces. and used as a reference for the radio frame. Frequency distribution through the radio is independent for each mechanism and is carried out at a different layer.1 Basic operation In PRC pipe regenerator mode.

Frame error rate (%) measured on radio-Ethernet interface.4.1 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 69 of 124 . Radio Ethernet Throughput (rate of data bits rate measured on radio-Ethernet interface). Radio Ethernet frame error rate.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description  Ethernet interfaces must not be configured as system synchronization source PRC regenerator mode admin Direction of synchronization distribution (applicable only for electrical GBE interfaces. Radio MRMC Minimum ACM profile. for optical interfaces this parameter will be ignored) o Line to radio o Radio to line User can configure the following:   3. Peak throughput. Maximum Number of TDM interfaces allocated to the radio. Minimum Bit-rate (Mbps). 3. Minimum Number of TDM interfaces allocated to the radio.4 Performance Monitoring PM Measurements The following PMs are measured (15 min or 24 hour interval): Radio PMs MSE PM: Minimum MSE. Maximum MSE. Maximum Bit-rate (Mbps). Exceed MSE Threshold seconds. Maximum ACM profile. Average throughput. Exceed throughput threshold seconds.

Average Utilization.4. Utilization (%) is displayed as one of five bins: 0-20%. Trail PMs End-to-end PMs: ES. Exceed Capacity threshold seconds. UAS BBE. data and overhead. show that the values are not constant as they expected to be. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 70 of 124 .FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Radio Ethernet Capacity (overall Ethernet bits rate. measured on radio-Ethernet interface): Peak Capacity. and shows which E1/DS1 channels are unavailable as a result of ACM changes or radio LOF in this particular link. Active path seconds (for SNCP trails) Number of SNCP switches 3. This “ripple” is negligible. as they are counted by the RMON counters. trying to test whether these PMs give constant value. 6080%. The criteria for change are the following: Current interval is marked as idf if time changes more than 30 sec. Ethernet throughput & Capacity PMs are measured by accumulating the number of Ethernet octets every second. excluding TDM channels). Average Capacity.2 Interval Behavior when System Clock Changes The PM intervals may be changed due to system clock change (because of NTP updates or user configuration). 20-40%. 40-60%. SES. Radio Ethernet Utilization (Actual Ethernet throughput. Exceed Utilization threshold seconds. and does not affect the reliability of the PM measurement (CQ17918). Injecting constant data to the unit. but has a very low “ripple”. Radio TDM Channels Channel UAS (Unavailable Seconds). relative to the potential Ethernet throughput of the radio. This PM is shown in all radio links. 80-100%): Peak Utilization.

The new interval will be marked with IDF if the interval is shortened by more than 30sec from its initial value. Example: for 900 second PM – time is 16:07 Time to Interval end Change (in seconds) +7 +35 -7 -35 +490 +520 Time left 473 445 487 515 890 860 480 Add new No No No No Yes Yes Mark idf no Yes No Yes Yes Yes Mark new IDF ----No Yes Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 71 of 124 ..FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description A new interval will be added if time changes by more than 30sec or the new time crosses the interval boundary. and time left to interval end grows.

even if channel fading conditions allow it. The selected profile will be the only one that will be valid. ACM TX profile can be different than ACM RX profile. RX generates a request to the remote TX to ‘upgrade’ its profile.5. For example. QPSK – 256QAM  ACM-50MHz. The “Minimum profile” will always be “0” (QPSK) without any option to configure it.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. “Maximum Profile” should be selected by the user. ACM scripts can be activated in one of two modes: Fixed Mode. In this mode user should select the specific profile.1 General Overview “Adaptive Coding and Modulation” (ACM) radio capability is supported by the following new radio scripts:  ACM-56MHz. while these parameters dictate profile’s capacity (bps). the radio adapts its profile according to the channel fading conditions. system “chooses” automatically which profile to use according to the channel fading conditions. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 72 of 124 . which will limit the highest used profile. ACM Profiles are decreased or increased errorless. QPSK – 256QAM  ACM-14MHz. When this mode is used. it means the system will not climb above profile 5. Each profile is defined by modulation order (QAM) and coding rate. if user selects “Maximum Profile” to be “5”.5.5. QPSK – 256QAM  ACM-7MHz. meaning.1 3. In this mode. RX end is the one that initiates ACM profile upgrade or downgrade.4. Adaptive Mode.5ca 3.5 Radio Features ACM  Feature available from version: I6. If MSE degrades below a predefined threshold. RX generates a request to the remote TX to “downgrade’ its profile. QPSK – 256QAM  ACM-28MHz. while the ACM engine will be forced to be OFF. When MSE is improved above predefined threshold. all the required conditions for XPIC apply – see section ‎ 3. from all available profiles in the script.1. QPSK – 256QAM  XPIC-ACM-28MHz. without affecting E1/DS1s or Ethernet traffic. This mode can be chosen without having “ACM” license. This mode requires a valid “ACM” license. ACM TX profile is determined by remote RX MSE performance. QPSK-256QAM ACM radio script is constructed of a set of profiles. ACM engine is running. QPSK – 256QAM  ACM-10MHz. When ACM script is activated. In the case of XPIC ACM scripts.

in order to avoid alternate switchovers. When link is up and OK. link system gain will be maximal. follow the instructions how to set up 1+1 protection. On RX direction. Under this scenario. receivers may have “false lock”. If LOF alarm remains. thus. Standby TX might have the same profile as the Active TX one. ACM with 1+1 installation (CQ15510 / 15392 / 16525 / 19478) When activating ACM script in protection 1+1.1 and older). and Standby appears to be OK. receiver will be able to lock on a higher ACM profile (according to what is dictated by the RF channel conditions). protection switchovers may appear alternately every 1 sec.1. because its RSL will be 6db below Standby unit. In order to avoid that. and ACM behavior will be optimal due to the following reasons: On the TX direction. the power will ‘experience’ the minimal attenuation.5. received signal will be attenuated minimally. That depends if Standby TX was able to follow remote RX Active unit ‘ACM requests’ (which is the only RX that sends ‘ACM request’ messages). a protection switch shall not be initiated. Active TX will follow remote Active RX ‘ACM requests’ (according to remote Active Rx MSE performance). if LOF alarm is raised. while Standby unit will have its LOF alarm cleared. If Standby unit is fed via the main channel of the coupler. both Active and Standby receivers degrade to the lowest available profile (highest RX sensitivity). 3. ”lockout” may be disabled. which will result in a “switchover”. and feed Standby unit via the secondary channel of the coupler (-6db attenuated channel). on all profiles.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. there is a chance that Active unit will have its LOF alarm raised. Link should be established with “lockout” configuration (see details under “External Protection” section). Because RX sensitivity is very high. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 73 of 124 . This may cause management instability and even inability to have management access to the units. when remote unit transmits in QPSK modulation (profile-0). although Active unit is in LOF. This enhancement is relevant to all ACM scripts.3 Ethernet Reduced Latency Ethernet latency was reduced over the radio link (relative to releases 6.5. General ACM Behavior Overview in 1+1 (CQ15432) The following ACM behavior should be expected at 1+1 configuration: On TX direction. it is essential to feed Active unit via main channel of the coupler (lossless channel). When this constraint is fulfilled.1. Both Active and Standby follow remote Active TX profile (which is the only active transmitter). or might stay at the lowest profile (profile-0).1.2 ACM and Protection (1+1) – Technical Overview Active / Standby coupling (CQ15453) When AC+M is activated with Protection 1+1. On the RX direction.

if used. See table below for a summary of the maximum powers available by modulations scheme & frequency band. and when the radio path conditions allow it. the operator licenses the system for maximum EIRP attainable. class 5): Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 74 of 124 . thus providing valuable extra dB of system gain to counter deteriorating propagation. Increase capacity [increase throughput of existing link] – have option to use Adaptive TX Power 2. The Adaptive TX Power feature coupled with ACM can work in one out of two scenarios: 1.g. the link will increase the modulation. The second scenario is for customers who plan a new link for a specific availability and capacity.2. The first scenario is for customers who have existing PDH links of several E1s in a low class (modulation order). maximum TX power was limited by the highest modulation defined in ACM configuration.5. and want to use ACM in order to carry the same PDH circuits with additional Ethernet traffic without occupying more spectrum bandwidth. This increase of modulation may require lowering the output power (see table below). In the first scenario the user will plan the link according to “low class” channel mask. in order to decrease the non linearity of the transmitter for the higher constellations & for the transmitted spectrum to stay within the licensed “low class” channel mask. class 2) relative to “high class” mask (e. for ACM operation. up to 4dB over the rage from QPSK to 256QAM. to increase TX power correspondingly.e.e. i.1. In previous software versions to I6. i. For this feature to be used effectively it is essential that the operator ensures they do not breach any regulator-imposed EIRP limitations.4 Adaptive TX Power General Overview Adaptive TX power is designed to work with ACM in certain scenarios to maximize the additional few dB of TX power available at lower order modulation schemes for a given modulation scheme. The following picture demonstrates the differences between “low class” mask (e.g. Now the user has the choice to configure using the new adaptive TX power feature that as ACM reduces modulation in response to deteriorating link conditions.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. but they want to take advantage of the new ACM capability to get lower capacity even in higher fades. Increase availability [new link] – Adaptive TX Power use is not applicable.

50MHz) should be selected with “reference class = FCC” option (CQ20359). in order to achieve a desired RSL in the other side of the link. with SW version 2. Any FCC radio script (channel spacing: 10.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Limitations / Guidlines The feature is available only with RFU-C. In the existing mechanism. This may cause a higher level of interference with other systems until the failure is corrected.5. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 75 of 124 . 20. HP.01 or above. SP) the feature will be automatically disabled.7 ATPC is a closed-loop mechanism by which each RFU changes the transmitted signal power according to the indication received across the link.2 ATPC override timer  Feature available from version: I6. 30. The maximum power will be the power allowed for profile-7 (256QAM). and the system will not be able to increase the power when the profile decreases. The system allows the configuration of any “reference class”. in case of radio LOF the system automatically increases its transmit power to the configured maximum (as done when ATPC is disabled). the regulation standards (ETSI/FCC) have limitations on which “reference class” to use for each specific “channel spacing”. In fact. “Reference class” is ETSI terminology. 40. 3. The user will have to configure if to enable “Adaptive TX Power” capability when configuring radio script. In any “non RFU-C” RFUs (1500P. It is user responsible to configure the right “reference class” according to the “channel spacing” (CQ20098). disregarding the script’s “channel spacing”. The feature is available only when ACM “Adaptive Mode” is configured.

ATPC is overridden and the system transmit at a pre-determined power level until user manually reestablishes ATPC and the system works normally again.3. or 32xE1/T1 line & XC protected to East/West radio. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 76 of 124 . until the present release. 3. some regulators require a timer mechanism which will be manually overridden (when the failure is fixed). If the timer expires. ATPC may be overridden again. The principle is that the system should start a timer from the moment maximum power has been reached.3 Radio Disabling  Feature available from version: I6. users require extra line interfaces but have no need for additional radio carriers. users should be sure that the problem has been corrected. Two typical cases of such applications are:   64xE1/T1 to East/West radio. however. is to manually cancel the override.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description In order to minimize this interference. An alarm will be raised in this situation. User may configure the following parameters:  Override timeout (0 to disable the feature): the amount of time to count from the moment the system transmits at the maximum configured power. When the system enters into the override state.  Override transmission power: the power that will be transmitted if ATPC is overridden because of timeout. IP-10s can be added to a shelf to provide extra switching or line ports.5. When doing so.6.1 Use and Applications In certain applications. 64xE1 into radio with full protection (1+1).1 3. ATPC will be automatically disabled and the system will transmit at the pre-determined override power. The only way to go back to normal operation.5. otherwise.  Users can also look at the current countdown value. it was always assumed that a radio was to be connected and configured and if it wasn’t the case alarms and other indications would be risen.

The alarm will stay raised until user resets the system or enables the radio back. Following the user’s approval.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description East Radio Enable 16xE1 16xE1 spiltter 16xE1 spiltter 16xE1 16xE1 16xE1 Radio Disable (Active) Radio Disable (Stby) Radio Enable (Active) West Radio Enable 16xE1 16xE1 16xE1 16xE1 Radio Disable 16xE1 spiltter 16xE1 spiltter Radio Disable 16xE1 16xE1 16xE1 16xE1 Protection 1+1 Radio Enable (Stby) 64xE1/T1 to E-W or 32xE1/T1 interface & XC protection to E-W 64xE1/T1 to Radio with Protection (1+1) In order to provide the ability to add IP-10s without using the radio interfaces. This change requires a system reset. this reset will not be performed automatically but can be carried out at the user’s discretion. an alarm will be raised indicating that the change requires a system reset which hasn’t been carried out. When a user disables the radio. this allows users to perform another reset-involving operation (such as Ethernet application change. the radio can be disabled just like any other interface. these cases and the system’s treatment of them are as follows:  A radio belonging to an Ethernet LAG can’t be disabled. etc…) before resetting the system. However.5.3. licensing loading. Ingress rate limit policer. 3. disabling a radio will affect other ports or behaviors. Egress rate shaper “non-edge port” in xSTP Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 77 of 124 . User will be prompted to remove the port from the LAG first  A radio that has been disabled (but still working since reset has not taken place) can’t be added to a LAG  If a radio port is associated with any of the following.2 Radio Disable Configuration A parameter allows user to enable/disable the radio interface. The same behavior takes place when enabling the radio in a system with a disabled radio. a warning will be given but the disabling will be allowed after user confirmation:     MEP or MIP. In some cases. and performing a single reset for both operations thus saving time. a confirmation message will be shown.

3 Behavior in Radio Disable Conditions When a radio is disabled (after reset) the following features will not be available:  Radio configuration                                 RFU configuration (frequencies. etc…) Thresholds MAC header compression Script loading XPIC RF and IF loopbacks Remote unit configuration Radio PMs Radio aggregate (ES.5. etc…). Radio – Ethernet (Frame Error rate. SES.3. Throughput. Signal Level (RSL. However. mute.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. Utilization). Radio – TDM. No Signal from RFU. Cable open Cable short Link ID mismatch Remote communication error IF loopback IF synthesizer unlock RX AGC is not locked. MRMC. EOW). TSL). power level. All auxiliary channels alarms (WSC. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 78 of 124 . MSE Traffic channels Way-side channel EOW User channel Alarms Radio Loss of Frame Radio Signal Degrade Radio Excessive BER RFU communication failure. Capacity. their configuration is kept and applied back if the radio is enabled back. UC.

Ethernet For this mechanism to work properly.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. whether it is high or low priority  The amount (in Mbps) of high priority Ethernet Bandwidth  The priority order between the different types of traffic. Ethernet low priority o High-Ethernet-over-tdm. the following schemes are available (from high to low priority): o High-tdm-over-high-ethernet. Ethernet high priority 2. Ethernet high priority 3. TDM high priority 2. o Both sides should have the same amount of high priority Ethernet Bandwidth o Both sides should use the same priority scheme Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 79 of 124 . the system can discern between the following types of traffic:  High-priority TDM trails  Low-priority TDM trails  High-priority Ethernet traffic  Low-priority Ethernet traffic Users configure the following parameters:  For each TDM trail. TDM low priority 3. TDM high priority 3. The system dynamically allocates bandwidth to traffic according to user-defined priorities.5.7 Since radio bandwidth may vary in ACM. both sides should be identically configured: o Each TDM trail in both sides of a link should have the same priority set to it. meaning: 1. meaning: 1. TDM low priority 4. situations may arise in which it is necessary drop some of the outgoing traffic. TDM low priority 4. At the radio level. Ethernet low priority o Tdm-over-ethernet (default). meaning: 1. TDM high priority 2.4 Traffic Priority  Feature available from version: I6.

5.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. which takes place at SNR~10dB The first action taken by the mechanism is to cause the remote transmitter of the faulty carrier to mute.2 XPIC recovery mechanism The XPIC mechanism is based on signal cancellation and it assumes that the two transmitted signals are received (with a degree of polarity separation).5. or a false signal is received. some signal cancelation is required.1 XPIC is a feature that allows two radio carriers to use the same frequency while there is a polarity separation between them. In addition. it takes the following actions: The remote transmitter is un-muted for a brief period Page 80 of 124   Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential .5 XPIC  Feature available from version: I6. This mechanism will also assure that when the failure is cleared both carriers will be operational. thus eliminating the disturbing signal and saving the working link Following this.1 Conditions for XPIC XPIC is enabled simply by loading an XPIC script to the radio in the IDU. an alarm will alert user. If for some reason such as hardware failure one of the carriers stops receiving a signal. events will inform user of which conditions are not met. 3. In addition. The purpose of the XPIC recovery mechanism is to save the working link while attempting to recover the faulty polarization. XPIC includes an automatic recovery mechanism that ensures that if one carrier fails.5. the mate carrier won’t be affected with it.5. the mechanism will attempt at times to recover the failed link. The mechanism works as follows:   The indication to entry the recovery mechanism is a loss of modem preamble lock. Since they will never be completely orthogonal.6. which can’t be canceled in this condition.5. Protection is not enabled The same script is loaded in both IDUs IDU is not in Stand-alone mode If any of these conditions is not met. In order for XPIC to be operational All the following conditions must be met:  Communications with ODU are established in both IDU o ODU supports XPIC o ODU in both IDUs     The frequency of both radios should be equal. In order to do so. 3. the working carrier may be negatively affected by the received signals.

but can be disabled by user. they can be disabled by users. but not seriously affect the working link in the case of a hardware failure. 3. many events could be raised filling the alarms log.3 XPIC events The XPIC events are meant to make system debugging in the field easier.5.  XPIC state machine events: the following events indicates changes in the XPIC state: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 81 of 124 . but it is recommended to keep the default values. Otherwise. in a recovery scenario. The XPIC recovery mechanism is enabled by default. mute it again This action is repeated in an exponentially growing interval. number of retries) can be configured by user.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description   Probe the link to find out if it has recovered. initial time between attempts. However. The number of such attempts is user-configurable Note that every such recovery attempt will cause a brief traffic hit in the working link   All the time intervals mentioned above (recovery attempt time. The following is a list of events that can be raised by the XPIC mechanism:  Condition for XPIC not met: this event will include a bitmap error code indicating precisely which condition was not met. The list of conditions and codes is as follows: Bitmask Code 0x1 0x2 0x4 0x8 0x10 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x100 0x200 0x400 Meaning Local user configuration is not valid with XPIC Mate user configuration is not valid with XPIC Local IDU does not support XPIC Mate IDU does not support XPIC XPIC is not enabled in mate Local and Mate scripts are different Local RFU does not support XPIC Mate RFU does not support XPIC Local and Mate RFU type are different Local and Mate Tx freq are different Local and Mate Rx freq are different Note that depending on precise timing these conditions may be listed in a single event (with the bitmask summing up all the conditions) or in several events. This is meant to quickly bring up both channels in the case of a brief channel fade.5. and provide the user detailed description of the various steps and actions taken during the XPIC mechanism and the recovery process. multiplication factor for attempt time. each with a different condition.

FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series

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Features Description

        3.5.5.4

Remote TX Mute (try # n) was Set by XPIC Recovery on Slot # n Remote TX Un-mute (try # n ) was Set by XPIC Recovery on Slot # n XPIC Recovery Started on Slot # n XPIC Recovery Finished Successfully on Slot # n XPIC Recovery Finished Unsuccessfully on Slot # n. Remote Mute was Set XPIC Recovery on Slot # n Stopped Due to an External Event XPIC Recovery (XRSM) was disabled XPIC Recovery (XRSM) was enabled XPIC-Related PMs

The following PMs and indications are added when XPIC is enabled:  Current XPI is shown as part of the radio parameters   A normal XPI is between 20 and 26dB Minimum and maximum XPI in each interval

3.5.6

1+1 Space diversity Base-band switching
 Feature available from version: I6.7 1+1 Space diversity is a feature that allows dynamically choosing at every moment the best received signal between two radio carriers configured as 1+1 HSB. This allows data flow to be unaffected in the event of unwanted physical events affecting the radio channel, such as fading. It is implemented at the base-band level and thus requires no special RFU connections or upgrades. This feature is available only for IDUs which are inserted in a shelf.

3.5.6.1

Space diversity basic operation The feature is based on the fact that two directional radio channels which are separated in space (distance between receptors) are different enough in their physical characteristics that a fade affecting one of them is very unlikely to affect the other. Space diversity is built on top of regular 1+1 HSB, and it provides an additional layer of protection:   1+1 HSB protects against hardware failure Space diversity protects against interferences in the radio channel

The basic mechanism is as follows:  Both IDUs in a 1+1 HSB pair receive a radio signal from across the link    The base-band signal from the stand-by unit is sent towards the active unit at all times The active unit therefore receives two signals: from its own radio and from its mate’s The active unit performs as a “master” for hitless switching: it chooses between the two data streams based on data quality and early stress indications received from the radio.
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Features Description

  

The switching mechanism is revertive: if no failure is found in any channel, data will be taken from the master radio. The master radio is always the unit acting as “active” in 1+1 HSB configuration The chosen radio stream is sent towards the system switching fabric and line interfaces normally

The figure below shows the flow, where the blue lines represent data transmitted (towards the radio) and the red lines data received (from the radio):

Stand-by From line interfaces To line interfaces (muted) Mute f2

Stand-by From line interfaces To line interfaces (muted)
BP

BP

From line interfaces

Active f1

Active From line interfaces

To line interfaces

To line interfaces

3.5.6.2

Switching criteria The Diversity Mechanism will switch between the data streams in an errorless fashion based on the following priority table:
Priority 1 2 3 4 5 6 Title User force OOF Rx uncor (In Error Detection) MSE (Early Warning) Manual switch Revertive switch

 

Table Explanation: User force – the user has the option to configure the system to lock on to a certain radio regardless of its performance OOF (Out of Frame) – when a radio OOF event is detected, it will switch to the mate's data stream.
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Features Description

 

Rx uncor (uncorrected)– Rx uncor indication is an indication from the MODEM to the Mux, signalling that there are more errors in the traffic stream than it can correct. The purpose of this indication is to alert the Mux to the fact that those errors are "on their way", and in order to avoid them entering the data stream from the Mux onward, a hitless switch is required. MSE – a continuous modem indication representing the quality of the received signal. Each modem will send the MSE indication to its local and mate's Mux, while the Mux will monitor them both as switching criteria. Manual switch –user has the option to request the system to perform a Hitless switch. If all higher priorities are clear, the system will comply. Revertive mode - If all higher priorities are cleared, the system will return the preferable radio following a configurable timeout User commands and status

3.5.6.3

Users can configure the following:  Space diversity enabled/disabled (to be operational, 1+1 HSB must be enabled as well)  Revertive mode  Revertive mode enable/disable  Primary radio for revertive switches  Revertive timer  Switching commands  Force to radio  Manual switch  Clear switch counter command The following indications are provided:  Switch counter  Traffic currently received from radio

3.5.7

2+0 Multi-Radio
 Feature available from version: I6.7 Multi-radio allows two separate radio links to be shared by a single Ethernet port. This provides an Ethernet link over the radio with double capacity, which still behaves as a single layer-2 MAC. The two separate radio links may be implemented using XPIC or separate frequencies. This feature is available only for IDUs which are inserted in a shelf. Multi-radio cannot be used in tandem with the following features:  1+1 HSB  Space diversity

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5. In addition.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. recovering all the information. In Multi-radio mode.1 Multi-Radio basic operation Multi-radio is available for adjacent pairs of IDUs in a shelf (1 and 2. and the upper one is always the slave. which combines it with the data received from its own radio link. Each radio transmits its share of the data. Data is distributed between the two links at the layer-1 level in an optimal way. outgoing traffic at Ethernet port 8 in the master IDU is split between its own radio and that of the slave. At the receiving side. the radio link of each IDU is represented as Ethernet port # 8. The lower IDU is always the master.7. while the second IDU (called “slave”) does not have any direct Ethernet connection to its own radio – in other word. the slave sends the data received to the master. 3 and 4. the distribution is proportional to the available bandwidth in every link:  If both links have the same capacity. The following diagram illustrates the traffic flow: Slave LVDS LVDS Eth x MODEM MODEM duplication x Eth & LVDS Master Eth 8 Traffic splitter MODEM MODEM Traffic combiner Eth 8 LVDS LVDS At the transmitting side. it doesn’t have a port #8 since the radio resource is being used by the master. port #8 of one of the IDUs (called “master”) uses the available bandwidth of both radio channels. 5 and 6). and therefore the distribution is not dependent on the contents of the Ethernet frames. half the data will be sent through each link Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 85 of 124 . In regular 1+0 operation.

not all data will be lost. a failure in one of the radio links may cause all Ethernet frames to be affected. each link remains separate. Multi-radio performs actions to ensure graceful degradation in the case of a failure. Multi-radio graceful degradation is achieved by “blocking” one of the radio links from multi-radio data. but the same base script must still be configured in both. Notice that this provides protection from failures at the radio link.3 Automatic state propagation in multi-radio Automatic state propagation is used in 1+0 links in order to quickly close line links in the case of a radio link failure in order to signal the fault to xSTP and other protocols. multi-radio will make maximum use of available capacity by distributing proportionally to the available bandwidth Notice that the Multi-radio feature is applicable for Ethernet data only. the two radio links should use the same radio script. as before. in this case. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 86 of 124 . When a link is blocked.5. such as the loss of one of the radio link.7. and users can decide to configure trails to either radio (or both.2 Radio protection and graceful degradation Since traffic is distributed between both carriers at layer 1 level. the transmitter won’t distribute data to this link and the receiver will ignore it when combining. Therefore. 3. but transmitter and received always block a link in a coordinated manner. The following are the criteria for blocking a link:  Radio LOF  Link ID mismatch  Minimum ACM point – user configurable (including none)  Radio Excessive BER – user configurable  Radio Signal degrade – user configurable  User command – used to debug a link When a radio link is blocked an alarm is shown to user.7. The blocking is done in each direction independently. The objective of graceful degradation is to ensure that in the case of a partial failure. as the line interfaces are not protected. by using SNCP or ABR). 3. Notice that in the case of ACM they may still use different modulations. For TDM. data will be distributed proportionally in order to maximize the available bandwidth  Links could also have different capacity because of different amounts of TDM trails configured through them.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description  In ACM conditions. as well as the basic multi-radio mechanisms at the master IDU. the links could be in different modulations. but only bandwidth will be reduced. but does not constitute full equipment protection. In order for multi-radio to work properly.5.

The slave unit will not have a port #8. The following Multi-radio configurations are available to users:  Multi-radio admin o Done in each unit separately  Radio blocking criteria o Minimum ACM point and enable/disable o Radio Excessive BER enable/disable o Radio Signal degrade enable/disable  Block/unblock traffic from radio link  Automatic state propagation criteria o Radio LOF o Excessive BER The following Multi-radio status indications are available to users:  Radio blocked alarm  Multi=radio configured with incompatible applications (protection. The “line LOS” criterion (closing the local line port in the event of a remote line LOS) will operating normally in multi radio. The different criteria can be configured by users separately for the multi-radio application. Secure communication channels: end-to-end encrypted channels for management 3. as the radio link is not involved in it. Therefore. however are available for both units.4 User configuration The multi-radio Ethernet port configurations are available normally through the main unit’s Etherent port #8. Notice that the criterion is applicable for the main unit’s line interfaces only. User access control: allowing only authorized users to access the system 2. space diversity) 3. 3.7. the automatic state propagation settings at the master units will apply upon a failure on both radio links. The radio link configurations. Security log: a tool to analyze undesired or unauthorized changes in the system security configuration Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 87 of 124 . as they are separate links at the physical level. however.5.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description In the case of multi-radio. the failure of a single link does not mean that the whole logical link is down.6 Security Security features are meant to improve the following areas: 1.

2.6. Admin user can choose whether to disable "Telnet" protocol.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Security features configurations are available via WEB and CLI to users of type “administrator”. SSH protocol will be used as a secured alternative to "Telnet".6. etc.1 User access control  Feature available from version: I6. 3. Server authentication will be based on IP-10 ’s "public key".) o Include both uppercase and lowercase letters  When calculating the number of character classes.6.1 This feature consists on support for a number of standard encryption protocols and algorithms. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 88 of 124 . SSH protocol will always be operational. which will be "enabled" by default.1 SSH (Secured Shell) SHHv1 and SSHv2 are supported. upper-case letters used as the first character and digits used as the last character of a password are not counted o A password cannot be repeated within the past 5 password changes  Password aging: users will be prompted do change passwords after a configurable amount of time  When new users log in for the first time.6. SW shall force them to change their password. symbols.  Users may be suspended after a configurable amount of unsuccessful login attempts  Users can be configured to expire at a certain date 3..6. Key exchange algorithm is RSA. passwords must comply with the following rules: o Be at least 8 characters long o Include both numbers and letters (or spaces.1 The following features are supported:  Configurable inactivity time-out for closing management channels  Password strength is enforced.2 Secure communication channels  Feature available from version: I6. 3..

Using CA certificate (Optional steps) 4. The returned status values are: “ready” (default).6. or DER (for DER formatted file). an appropriate error message will appear. hmac-sha1-96. MAC (Message Authentication Code): SHA-1-96 (MAC length = 96 bits. PEM and DER certificate formats are supported. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 89 of 124 . Invoke the command (“operator” privilege) “Upload Public Key” (Security WEB page). the following steps must be fulfilled for each file type Determine certificate file name (“Admin” privilege). 5. The status of the “upload” operation can be monitored.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Supported Encryptions: aes128-cbc.2. aes128-ctr. user should follow the following steps (CQ15826 – 3): 1. Server timeout for authentication: 10 min. Download the IDU CA's certificate. 3. hmac-sha1. hmac-md5-96' The server will authenticate the user based on “user name” and “password”. The public key file will be in PEM format. 3des-cbc. “in-progress”. “success”. Enable WEB CA certificate. aes192-cbc. blowfish-cbc. 3. Set WEB Protocol parameter to HTTPS Step1: Public Key Upload The public key should be uploaded by the user for generating the IDU’s digital certificate: The upload will be done by using FTP/SFTP. Step 2: Download IDU server certificate and/or IDU CA certificate (optional) Download will be done by using FTP/SFTP. In any case of failure. arcfour256. Determine the certificate file type (“Admin” privilege): “Target Certificate” (for WEB server digital certificate) or “Target CA certificate” (for WEB CA digital certificate). “failed”. hmac-ripemd160. 6. key length = 160 bit). cast128-cbc. 2. Download the IDU certificate. This value cannot be configured. Create the IDU certificate based on IDU's public key. aes256-cbc. arcfour. aes192ctr. For downloading the IDU server certificate and/or IDU's CA certificate to the system.2 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) In order to manage the system using HTTPS protocol. aes256-ctr. Supported MAC: hmac-md5. Determine certificate file format (“Admin” privilege): Format could be PEM (for PEM formatted file). arcfour128. Number of failed authentication attempts is not limited.

The status of the download operation can be monitored. This is an optional configuration and is recommended for adapting the WEB interface to all the WEB browsers applications (“Admin” privilege).com/?ctt=download msftpsrvr: http://www.6. Certificate public key is compatible to IDU’s private key.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Determine whether to include the CA certificate into the WEB configuration definitions. Open WEB Browser and type the URL ”https:\\<IP of target IDU>”. “success”. for security reasons.download3k.com-Core-FTPMini-SFTP-Server.  Upload public key.2.  Download certificate files.html Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 90 of 124 .com/Install-CoreFTP. If one of the above tests fails. the operation will return an appropriate error indication. It is recommended to “refresh” the WEB page when certificate download operation is terminated (CQ19554).  SW download Recommended SFTP (FreeWare) servers freeSSHd : http://www. WEB server will be automatically restarted when it is configured to HTTPS. While switching to HTTPS mode.  Upload the unit info. the WEB server should be restarted (“Admin” privilege). This parameter is NOT copied when “copy to mate” operation is initiated. The returned status values are: “ready”. To apply the new certificate. the following must be fulfilled: WEB server certificate file exist. a “Download Certificate” command should be issued. After setting the above configurations. “in-progress”. Step3: Activate HTTPS WEB interface protocol can be configured to be HTTP (default) or HTTPS (cannot be both at the same time). “failed”.freesshd. Unsecured unit should not be able to override security parameters of secured unit just by activating a “copy to mate” operation. 3.3 SFTP (Secure FTP) SFTP can be used for the following operations:  Configuration upload/download.

newest events overwrite oldest). o On the event of an attempt to modify the file.6.  Readable only by users with "admin" or above privilege  The log shall can be viewed using the following command: o /management/mng-services/ event-service/event-log/viewsecurity-log  The contents of the log file are cryptographically protected and digitally signed. delete or modify the file The following information is recorded in the log:  Changes in security configuration o Carrying out “security configuration copy to mate” o Management channels time-out o Password aging time o Number of unsuccessful login attempts for user suspension o Warning banner change o Adding/deleting of users o Password changed o SNMP enable/disable o SNMP version used (v1/v3) change o SNMPv3 parameters change        Security mode Authentication algorithm User Password Read community Write community Trap community for any manager o SNMPv1 parameters change o HTTP/HTTPS change Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 91 of 124 .3 Security Log  Feature available from version: I6. an alarm will be raised  Users may not write.7 The security log is an internal system file which records all changes performed to any security feature. The security log file has the following attributes:  The file is of a “cyclic” nature (fixed size.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. as well as all security – related events.

.7 It is possible for users to change the description text (by appending extra text to the existing description) or the severity of any alarm in the system..7. etc. if applicable  date and time 3.)  IP address.7 System Management Alarms editing  Feature available from version: I6. telnet/SSH. XML.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description o FTP/SFTP change o telnet and web interface enable/disable o FTP enable/disable o Loading certificates o RADIUS server and NAS parameters (IP address) change o RADIUS enable/disable o Remote logging enable/disable (for security and configuration logs) o Syslog server address change (for security and configuration logs) o System clock change o NTP enable/disable  Security events o Successful and unsuccessful login attempts o N consecutive unsuccessful login attempts (blocking) o Configuration change failure due to insufficient permissions o SNMPv3/PV (HTTP) authentication failure o User logout o User Account expired For each recorded event the following information is available:  user ID  Communication channel (WEB.1 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 92 of 124 . This feature is available through CLI only. terminal. This is performed as follows:  Each alarm in the system is identified by a unique name (see separate list of system alarms and events)  User may perform the following operations on any alarm: o View current description and severity 3. SNMP.

1 CLI (Command Line Interface) This interface can be opened via terminal (serial COM. or via telnet (SSH is supported as well). but will be reverted back to the old saved value.1. If HTTPS protocol is used. if box's IP is: 192. 3.2 WEB This interface can be opened with "HTTP Browser" (Explorer or Mozilla Firefox).168.7.7.2.1" This interface is graphical and is much more friendly and convenient to use. configuration will take effect. by using a command which allows to logon to any slot in the shelf. When L2-Switch parameters are configured. Flow-Control: None).168. Stop: 1 bit. speed: 115200. it is essential to issue "write" command in order to have the configuration saved to the disk.1. QoS.).1. A new WEB interface has been developed which shows the actual shelf configuration and gives easy access to any IDU in the shelf. IP-10 supports the following MIBs:    RFC-1213 (MIB II) RMON MIB Ceragon (proprietary) MIB.2 System SW Interfaces  Feature available from version: I6. then typing: "http://192. If "write" is not issued. “Terminal” format should be VT-100 with screen definition of 80 columns X 24 rows.1" will open its graphical user interface. It is important to remember that when configuring the L2-Switch. All parameters' configuration can be issued via this interface. 3.2.5ca 3.3 SNMP IP-10 supports SNMPv1. All system configurations and statuses are available via this interface. then user should type: "https://192.2. etc.168. including all L2-Switch configurations (Port type. by opening HTTP browser and typing: "http://ip_address". issuing "apply" actually saves the configuration to the disk. once cold-reset was issued. for example.7. All IDUs in a shelf can be accessed by the CLI interface. VLANs. SNMPv2c SNMPv3 traps (see more details at SNMPv3 section).FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description o Define the text to be appended to the description and/or severity o Return alarm to default values  User may also return all alarms and events to their default values 3. Data: 8 bits.1.7. Page 93 of 124 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential .

including CPU. The relevant parameters and commands for handling SNMP actions are: Configuring SNMPv1 or SNMPv3. When configuring SNMPv3.3.1 IP-10G units configured as 1+1 HSB are a completely redundant system. The floating IP address feature is meant to provide a single IP address that will always give direct access to the current active main unit.7. The following limitations apply:  The floating IP address must be different from the system IP address Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 94 of 124 . For SNMP access.2.always the same one. The existing IP addresses are kept in order to provide a mechanism to address the stand-by unit in case of problems. the following configurations will be available: username: SNMPv3 user name security-mode: the valid options are: ‘authentication’. 3.6. The downside of this is that when managing a node using a certain IP address. management. the user will be prompted for a password. In case of a protected switch. this may be the stand-by unit.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description For more information. a mechanism has been put in place to similarly allow automatic access to active protected extension units. and from it the whole shelf can be accessed. user will always access one of the main units. etc… Each unit can be managed with its own IP address.4 SNMPv3 Traps The system supports SNMPv1 & SNMPv3. ‘no-security’. Setting SNMP to be “enable” or “disable”.7. Access to all IDUs in the shelf is given by making use of the community and context fields in SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c/SNMPv3 respectively. SHA. authentication-protocol (valid only when security mode is other than ‘nosecurity’): valid options: MD5. and it will be automatically copied to the stand-by unit. This password has to be at least 8 characters long! 3.3 Floating IP address  Feature available from version: I6. If a security mode other than “no-security” was chosen. 3.7. User can configure a floating IP address in the active unit.1 Floating IP configuration The floating IP mechanism can be enabled or disabled. ’authenticationprivacy’. from which configurations are restricted. see the MIB reference guide. Supported MIBs can be found in the MIB document.

users may configure a number of GARP transmission retries (default is 5 retries. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 95 of 124 . such as WEB. This feature is meant mostly for user-access channels. users may access any of the units using their local IP addresses. the GARP message may be lost. In order to access the currently active IDU in a 1+1 HSB protection pair.7.7.3. the actual unit being accessed depends on the community/context string.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description  The floating IP address must be in the same subnet as the system IP address The remote floating IP address can be viewed and configured using the localremote channel. Notice that in SNMP protocol. Upon a protection switch. The floating IP feature can still be used to assure access if one of the main units fails. strings have been added for each pair:  Active unit between slots 1 and 2  Active unit between slots 3 and 4  Active unit between slots 5 and 6 For more information. reestablishment of the management Ethernet ports’ link may take a few seconds after a protection switch.2 Floating IP behavior and limitations Accessing the system through floating IP will always cause the communications to be established with the currently active unit. The IP address will automatically return to the active unit when the situation stabilizes. communications may be lost due to the fact that the ARP changes take place once every few seconds. maximum is 10). In this case. 3. Retries will be sent once a second. In the unlikely case of repeated protection switches (which may take place as a result of permanent radio channel problems). TELNET. the existing floating IP will be assigned to the previously stand-by unit.3 Access to active extension units The SNMP interface allows access to any extension unit using a dedicated string for each. In this case.3. 3. Notice that the IDU may be the stand-by unit. Alternatively. However. when connected directly to some older network equipment. For this reason. which has a different MAC address than the active one. For this reason a gratuitous ARP (GARP) message is automatically sent after the switch. see the IP-10 MIB reference guide. the floating IP address will be automatically locked to one of the IDUs so that users have remote management access to the system. A particular string will always access the same slot number.

7.4. only the main unit’s management ports are available. Default number of ports is 2. the IP-10 marks all management frames (frames incoming from the management ports) with Layer-2 pbits value 7.4 Out-of-Band Management (Default) In this case.4. 1024kbps. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 96 of 124 .4. eth6. since “narrow” WSC might be too slow. On both local & remote units. In shelf configuration.4 Management Configuration  Feature available from version: I6.4. Stand Alone (1+0) Link At least 2 management ports are needed in local unit. "eth6" and "eth5" are the only ports that can be assigned to be "management" ports: Configured Number of Management Ports 1 2 (default) 3 0 Management Interfaces eth7 eth7. eth5 None Management ports are connected to the switch (bridge) and are configured to "learning" mode. Interfaces "eth7".7. this is the highest priority by default.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3.2 Management Frames Priority Management frames should always be set with maximum priority in order to assure that network managements remains available in a loaded network.7. 3.3 Management Capacity Management ports can be configured to have one of the following capacities: 64kbps.7.1 Management Configuration System can be configured to have between 0 to 3 Ethernet management ports. and 2nd port that will be connected to Wayside port. 2048kbps (default). Capacity is limited by "port ingress rate limit". 3. 3. In order to achieve this. eth6 eth7. remote system is managed using Wayside channel.7. 256kbps. Wayside channel can be configured to "narrow" capacity (~64kbps) or "wide" capacity (~2Mbps). Wayside channel will be connected to management port (using cross Ethernet cable). One port for local management. 128kbps.5ca 3. It is recommended to use “wide” WSC in order to get better management performance. 512kbps.

Wayside port will be connected to management port. Active and Standby management ports have 2 alternatives to be connected to the Host: Using Ethernet splitter cable connected to external switch. Wayside port will be connected in each unit to other available management port. In remote site. Using Protection "Patch Panel". each unit's Wayside port should be connected to management port.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description On remote unit. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 97 of 124 . 1+0 Out-of-Band Management via WaySide Channel WSC Interface 3 Management Interfaces Radio Link Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 WSC Interface 1+0 back-to-back Out-of-Band Management 2 Management Interfaces WSC Interface 2 Management Interfaces Radio Link IP-10 IP-10 Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 WSC Interface 2 Management Interfaces Eth7 Radio Link Agenda Traffic Port IP-10 1+0 Out-of-Band Management Branch Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Management Port WaySide Port Protection Port Cross Eth Cable Straight Eth Cable 1+0 Out-of-Band management via Wayside Channel External Protection (1+1) Link In local site.

Interface IP-10 prot 1+1 back-to-back Out-of-Band Management 2 Management Interfaces Prot. WSC Interface 2 Management Interfaces Agenda Traffic Port IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Protected Radio Link IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Management Port WaySide Port Protection Port Cross Eth Cable Straight Eth Cable Eth cable split or Prot. WSC Interface 2 Management Interfaces Protected Radio Link Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Prot. Interface IP-10 prot 3 Management Interfaces Protected Radio Link WSC Prot.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 1+1 Out-of-Band Management via WaySide Channel WSC Prot. Patch Panel 1+1 Out-of-Band Management Branch 1+1 Out-of-Band management via WSC (Cable Splitter) Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 98 of 124 .

WSC). WSC Interface 2 Management Interfaces Protected Radio Link Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Protection Patch Panel Protection Patch Panel Protection Patch Panel Prot. Interface IP-10 prot 3 Management Interfaces Protected Radio Link WSC Prot. Interface IP-10 prot 1+1 back-to-back Out-of-Band Management 2 Management Interfaces Prot. It is possible to spare patch-panels and use less than four (as depicted above) according to the number of FE interfaces needed to be split (traffic. management.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 1+1 Out-of-Band Management via WaySide Channel WSC Prot. WSC Interface 2 Management Interfaces Agenda Traffic Port IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Protected Radio Link Management Port WaySide Port IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Protection Port Cross Eth Cable Straight Eth Cable 1+1 Out-of-Band Management Branch Protection Patch Panel 1+1 Out-of-Band management via WSC (Patch Panel). it is necessary in some cases to use external equipment in order to transport the management to the main unit: Out-of-Band management in shelf configuration Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 99 of 124 . Shelf configuration In shelf configuration. assuming IDUs are co-located.

Remote unit is managed via its traffic ports (radio port for example). sent as part of the traffic. or change "in-band VLAN ID". Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 100 of 124 . External Protection (1+1) Link It is important to follow these instructions carefully in order to avoid management loss to remote.4. In order to configure protected link to "in-band". If “Metro Switch” application is used. Important: it is highly recommended to classify “Management VLAN ID” to the highest queue. the following steps must be taken in their appearance of order (CQ20523): Configure the following units’ management VLAN ID in their order of appearance (even if it is still configured to “out-of-band”): Remote Standby Remote Active Local Standby Local Active.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. in order to be able to manage remote units. It is NOT possible to configure more than single VLAN ID for management.7. identified by "VLAN ID" configured by the user. It is mandatory to have same "management VLAN ID" in all units in a "management domain". This “VLAN ID” will be used ONLY for management. remote unit is managed by specific frames. then in the local. so that no management ports are needed. the “Ether-type” of the bridge should first be configured in the remote side. also under congestion scenarios (CQ19186). Stand Alone (1+0) Link 1+0 Cascading Management Out-ofBand 1 Management Interfaces Radio Link IP-10 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 1 Management Interfaces Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 1+0 In-Band Management 2 Management Interfaces IP-10 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 1 Management Interfaces IP-10 Radio Link Agenda Traffic Port Management Port WaySide Port Protection Port Cross Eth Cable Straight Eth Cable Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 1+0 Branching Management Out-ofBand Local unit is the "gateway" for management.5 In-Band Management In this case.

1 Management Interfaces Agenda Traffic Port Protected Radio Link Management Port WaySide Port IP10. 1+1 back-to-back Out-ofBand Management 1 Management Interfaces Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Prot.Patch Panel 1+1 In-Band Management (Cable Splitter) Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 101 of 124 . 1 Management Interfaces Protected Radio Link Prot. Again.prot IP10.prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 1+1 Branching Management Out-ofBand IP10.prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Prot. 1+1 In-Band Management Prot.prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP10.prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Protection Port Cross Eth Cable Straight Eth Cable Eth cable split or Prot . 2 Management Interfaces Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP10.prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP10. this configuration should be issued to the units at their order of appearance above.prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP10.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Configure all units above to “in-band” management.prot IP10.

Avoiding Ethernet Loops When configuring the system to "In-Band" management. 1 Management Interfaces IP-10 prot Protected Radio Link IP-10 prot IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Protection Patch Panel Protection Patch Panel Protection Patch Panel Prot. Straight & short (<0.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Prot. Straight Ethernet cable should be connected from the customer equipment to the patch-panel. 1 Management Interfaces Agenda Traffic Port IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Protected Radio Link IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Management Port WaySide Port Protection Port Cross Eth Cable Straight Eth Cable 1+1 Branching Management Out-ofBand Protection Patch Panel 1+1 In-Band Management (Patch Panel) It is possible to spare patch-panels and use less than four (as depicted above) according to the number of FE interfaces needed to be split (traffic. it is essential to avoid Ethernet loops: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 102 of 124 . management. 2 Management Interfaces Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 1+1 In-Band Management Prot. When a patch panel is used. WSC). 1+1 back-to-back Out-ofBand Management 1 Management Interfaces Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Prot.5m) Ethernet cables should be connected between the IDU and the panel (these cables are provided by Ceragon). assuming IDUs are co-located.

1 Management Interfaces Protected Radio Link Prot. 1 Management Interfaces Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Prot.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 1+0 In-Band Management 2 Management Interfaces Radio Link IP-10 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 1+0 Cascading Management In-Band. Loops should be avioded ! Avoiding Loops: 1+0 In-Band Management 1+1 back-to-back In-Band Management. Loops should be avoided ! 1 Management Interfaces Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Radio Link 1 Management Interfaces IP-10 Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Radio Link 1 Management Interfaces Agenda Traffic Port Management Port WaySide Port Protection Port Cross Eth Cable Straight Eth Cable 1+0 Branching In-Band Management. it is necessary to transport management traffic to the main unit by using external Ethernet cables. Loops should be avoided ! Eth cable split or Prot. 1 Management Interfaces Agenda Traffic Port Protected Radio Link Management Port WaySide Port IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Protection Port Cross Eth Cable Straight Eth Cable 1+1 Branching In-Band Management. Patch Panel Avoiding Loops: 1+1 In-Band Management Shelf configuration In shelf configuration. 2 Management Interfaces Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 1+1 In-Band Management IP-10 prot IP-10 prot IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 IP-10 prot Eth4 Eth5 Eth6 Eth7 Prot. The following figures show a few examples of relevant topologies and the way to connect the cables for each case: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 103 of 124 . Loops should be avoided ! Prot.

FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot. FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3:1 (Aggregation 3 to 1) prot. FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE main In-band management in non-protected shelf 3:1 (Aggregation 3 to 1) Protection Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 104 of 124 . FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot.

FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot. using optical SFP connections between the IDUs as shown in the following figure: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 105 of 124 . FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE FE MGT MGT FE FE main protected prot.6 GBE In-Band Management in a Node In node configurations shown in the last section the Ethernet bandwidth available between extensions units and main units is limited by the FE interfaces to 100Mbps.7. it is possible to set up the shelf in a ring configuration.4. In order to achieve resiliency and have a configuration ready for higher bandwidth traffic. FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description prot. FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot. FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE FE MGT MGT FE FE main protected In-band management in shelf with protected main units 3.

FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE FE MGT MGT FE FE main protected Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 106 of 124 . FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot. FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE FE MGT MGT FE FE main protected prot.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description prot. FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot. FE E1/T1 GE SFP GE SFP GE RJ 45 GE RJ 45 WS FE FE MGT MGT MGT FE FE FE extension prot.

set /platform/idc-board/cli-script delete.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. FTP parameters can be set or get also via CLI: Get protocol type: Get Host IP: Get the host path: Get the user name get /platform/idc-board/file-transfer-protocol get /platform/idc-board/host-ip get /platform/idc-board/host-path get /platform/idc-board/user-name Change user password: set /platform/idc-board> change-user-password Download the CLI script file: set /platform/idc-board/download-archive cli-script Get the status of the downloaded script. can be downloaded into the IDU. set /platform/idc-board/cli-script execute Delete current script which resides inside the IDU.1 General Overview CLI configuration text scripts. Execute (activate) a CLI script.5ga 3. get /platform/idc-board/download-cli-script-status The returned values might be: “succeeded” or “failed”. User has the following operations to handle CLI scripts: Set the file name of the script: set /platform/idc-board/cli-script-file-name <text_file_name> Download CLI script file to the IDU: It is recommended first to check the FTP parameters.5 Downloading Text CLI Configuration Scripts  Feature available from version: I6. Show the last downloaded CLI script content.5. set /platform/idc-board/cli-script show This operation returns the text content of the downloaded script to the console. written in “Ceragon CLI format”. CLI scripts download and handling is available only via CLI (no ability to download CLI scripts via the WEB interface). All CLI commands that handle “CLI Script” reside at: “/platform/idc-board/”.7.7. It is impossible to upload the IDU’s configuration into a text file. This operation requires user confirmation. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 107 of 124 . which are available in WEB application page “Configuration Management”.

All configurations done from the main units are supported.7. The following commands prompt user confirmation: MRMC (radio) configuration. The “SNMPv3 commands” or “FTP password for Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 108 of 124 . Any bridge (L2 Switch & protocols commands) related commands require “write” operation in order to have them saved. configure “Allowed VLANs” on a port.g.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description The following EVENTs are added in order to help user control the configuration procedure: Operation Downloading a CLI Script Activating a CLI Script Event Scenario CLI script is downloaded successfully CLI script download has failed CLI script activated CLI script executed successfully CLI script executed with errors Event text in “Events Log” “CLI configuration script downloaded successfully” “CLI configuration script download failed” “CLI Configuration script activated” “CLI Configuration script executed successfully” “CLI Configuration script failed” 3. Operator privilege user cannot include higher privilege user commands in his script. Switch application configuration License upgrade Reset IDU Protection “copy-to-mate” command. Only single command of this kind can be used per script.5.2 CLI Scripts Limitations User should be aware of the following limitations: CLI scripts can be loaded only to main units and can’t be written to configure extensions units. when this command is the next one to be executed. at the end of it! If such a command is used at the end of the script. “echo” command should be used inside the script. CLI commands that trigger cold-reset echo “confirmation message” and then issue “cold-reset” to the system if user confirms it. SNMPv3 and “Adding users” commands are not recommended to be configured via CLI script. the script will hold and wait until the user types his confirmation (CQ19326). User should be responsible to edit the CLI commands in their logical order (e. In order to echo the messages to the console while script is being executed. only after it was set to be “trunk” port). The issue around these commands is they require user attention. Higher privilege commands will not be executed and will echo “error”.

“Domain Name” (CFM). returning a “Bad Character” error message (CQ 20490 / 20832 / 20833).5ga The following are supported under External Alarms External Alarms 5 Inputs with configurable trigger.7.g. Any bridge related (L2 switching machine or L2 protocols) free text must be in “standard ASCII” (ASCII 7). French and Russian/Cyrillic CQ (18822 / 20700).5ca User should be aware of the following limitations regarding the usage of “non standard ASCII” (ASCII 7) characters: WEB Interface WEB browser encoding is automatically set to “UTF-8”.g. e. “Class-map Name”. for proper functionality of the WEB interface. “Policer Name”. CLI / SNMP (MIB) Interface Only “Standard ASCII” (ASCII 7) is supported for all free text fields.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description SW/Configuration download”. It is recommended to use only ASCII 7 format characters when configuring SNMP related parameters via WEB (e. returning a “Bad Character” error message. Single alarm output. Any other encoding type is not available (CQ18826).6 Language Support  Feature available from version: I6. thus should not be part of the CLI script.7. Hungarian.7 External Alarms  Feature available from version: I6. etc. e. Swedish. for example. Any attempt to type in any free text in other format than “ASCII 7” format will be rejected by the system. 3. Finnish. Any other free text fields (which are not related to the L2 switch). 3. returning a “Bad Character” error message. can be typed in any foreign language. “System Location”. “Association Name” (CFM). “User-name” and “password” must be typed in “Standard ASCII” (ASCII 7). The following “non standard ASCII” languages were tested: Deutsch. “Contact Person”. Any usage of non “standard ASCII” characters will be rejected by the system. which supports only ASCII 7 format (CQ21324). “VLAN Name”.g. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 109 of 124 . require a password from the user. “System Name”. otherwise it will be rejected by the system. etc. “alarm text” and “alarm severity”. CLLI) in order to avoid “Gibberish” when these parameters are obtained via SNMP interface.

Local Time – Calculated by “offsetting” the UTC by the total offset (“Time Offset” + “DST”). and type in the IP address of the “NTP server” he wants the IP-10 to be locked on.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. “Time Offset” and “Daylight Saving Time” can be configured via WEB (“Unit Information” page) or via CLI: /management/mng-services/time-service> The following table displays to which clock the various SW interfaces are disciplined to: UTC . all units in the shelf (including standby main units) are automatically synchronized to the active main unit’s clock.2 MIB Local Time I6.8 NTP  Feature available from version: I6. both “Active” and “Standby” units should be locked independently on the “NTP server”. I6.7.2 WEB Local Time PM No MIB (was added only in I6. “NA” .1 WEB Local Time I6. and report independently their “Sync” status.1 UTC (GMT) I6. User should “enable” this capability. The “NTP client” returns one of the following “Sync” statuses: If locked. When using NTP in a shelf configuration. it returns the IP address of the server it is locked on.5ga “NTP client” is supported. Time Offset – Configured by the user indicating the time offset from the UTC (“Unit Information” page in the WEB). DST – “Daylight Saving Time” configured by the user (“Unit Information” page in the WEB). Time & Date are not copied from the “Active” unit to the “Standby” unit (CQ19584). “Local” – if the NTP client is locked to the local element’s real-time clock.1 MIB PolyView 6.2) Current Alarm Table Traps PMGenTime (internal Param) InvGenTime (internal Param) UTC (GMT) UTC (GMT) UTC (GMT) UTC (GMT) Local Time N/A N/A N/A UTC (GMT) UTC (GMT) UTC (GMT) UTC (GMT) Local Time N/A N/A N/A When using NTP with external protection 1+1. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 110 of 124 .Universal Time Coordinated.if not synchronized with any clock (valid only when Admin is set to Disable). The feature supports “Time Offset” and “Daylight Saving Time”.

this version includes both AIS detection and AIS signaling in the line interfaces 3.6. which behaves like a regular line interface.8. In case of detection.1 3. This is meant to provide indications to SDH multiplexing equipment which may not have the ability to detect AIS at the payload level. the system can be configured to signal AIS at the VC level (AIS-V) in the V5 byte of the overhead. 3. or 84 DS1 for an OC-3 channels. Each E1 is transported by a VC-12 container (or DS-1 in VC-11). An indication is given to user at the proper interface.1 AIS detection AIS can optionally be detected in incoming signals at line interfaces (E1/DS1 or STM-1/OC-3 VC-11/12).1.8.2.1 General Overview The purpose of the STM-1/OC-3 interface is to provide an interface for up to 63 E1s inside a standard channelized STM-1 signal. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 111 of 124 .8. but this was not fully qualified (CQ19806). TDM trails can be configured ending in VC-11/12 in the same manner as they are configured for E1/DS1 interfaces. since the problem originates elsewhere in the network 3.1. The feature is enabled/disabled for the entire IDU.2 AIS signaling in STM-1/OC-3 interface In case of signal failure at the trail outgoing from the STM-1/OC-3 interface.8.2 STM-1/OC-3 T-Card Support  Feature available from version: I6.8.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description SNTP client is not supported. for all its TDM line interfaces.8 TDM Traffic support AIS Signaling and Detection  Feature available from version: I6. 3. In addition.6 3.2 NTP client should work against SNTPv4 server. Notice that this is not a system alarm. the following takes place: Signal failure is generated at the corresponding trail – this will cause the far end not to receive a signal (including trail ID indications) and the trail status to show “signal failure”. I6.1 For internetworking purposes. AIS will be transmitted at the payload of the VC-11/12.

user can choose between the standard mapping and a proprietary mapping (kept for backwards compatibility with earlier versions). When configuring TDM trails. G. Please note that changing between the modes requires a system reset. with VC-4 mapping as follows: VC-12->TU-12->TUG-2->TUG-3->VC-4->AU-4->AUG For DS1 systems the OC-3 signal must be a channelized OC-3. VC-11/12 containers for which a TDM trail has been configured will be marked as “Asynchronous” TU12 mapped to E1 in the V5 byte. For DS1 systems.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. with VC-3 mapping as follows: VC-11->TU-11->TUG-2->VC-3->AU-3->AUG Other signals will not be recognized.2.2 STM-1/OC-3 Interface Traffic and Signal Characteristics Interface Mapping For E1 systems the STM-1 signal must be a channelized STM-1.8. and all configured trails will receive “signal failure”.707 TUG3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 TUG2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 TU 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SONET (proprietary) TUG3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 TUG2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 TU 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SONET (standard) TUG3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TUG2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TU 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 112 of 124 . the VC numbering to be used is the KLM scheme. Other VC11/12 will be marked as “unequipped”. The mapping is as follows: STM-1/ OC-3 VC number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 SDH.

FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description STM-1/ OC-3 VC number 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 SDH. G.707 TUG3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 TUG2 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 1 1 TU 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 SONET (proprietary) TUG3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 TUG2 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 1 1 TU 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 SONET (standard) TUG3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 TUG2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 TU 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 113 of 124 .

707 TUG3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A TUG2 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A TU 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A SONET (proprietary) TUG3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 TUG2 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 TU 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 SONET (standard) TUG3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 TUG2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 TU 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 114 of 124 . G.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description STM-1/ OC-3 VC number 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 SDH.

707 TUG3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A TUG2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A TU N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A SONET (proprietary) TUG3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 TUG2 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 TU 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 SONET (standard) TUG3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 TUG2 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TU 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Signal Clock Handling The clock source for the outgoing STM-1/OC-3 signal can come from three sources: Local clock: an internal clock. any of them can be use as a basis for the STM-1/OC-3 signal. G.813 clock”. In this case the outgoing SSM will indicate “G. Loop timing: The received STM-1/OC-3 clock is recovered and used to generate the outgoing signal. STM-1 VC: The clock is derived from one of the outgoing VC-11/12. one must be the source of the signal clock). This mode can be used in 2G networks where all E1s are timed to a common high-quality clock at the MSE.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description STM-1/ OC-3 VC number 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 SDH. etc. Otherwise (if no clock signal is received in the relevant E1) “DO NOT USE” will be transmitted. in order to hand this clock through standard SDH interfaces. Since each E1/DS1 is timed to an individual clock. When the system detects a loss of received external clock (due to LOS.811 clock” as long as the relevant TDM trail to be transmitted at the reference VC is received.) it will automatically revert to the local clock in order to continue transmission. This should be used mainly for testing and for back-to-back connections (connecting two IP-10 nodes with STM-1/OC-3 line. LOF. This is the mode to be used when connecting to an SDH network. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 115 of 124 . In this case the outgoing SSM will indicate “DO NOT USE”. Please note that this mode is only meant to be used for VCs which are mapped to unprotected trails. In this case the outgoing SSM will indicate “G.

SFP S1. The string transmitted as J2 trace identifier is the Trail ID defined for the TDM trail mapped to the corresponding VC-11/12 interface.5 STM-1/OC-3 Interface Configuration The following configurations are available: Admin: enable/disable the interface. If a string is defined and user changes the length from 15 bytes to 1 byte. no signal will be transmitted.2 neo-photonics (*) pt7620-31-2w * Electrically these SFP modules work properly but they tend to get mechanically stuck in the IP-10G’s cage. While disabled.1 ao-0072-0 XCVR.1 XCVR.SFP L1.1 ao-0073-0 XCVR. the first byte will be taken and other bytes ignored. Devices (WTD) pt7320-31-2w rtmx140-400 ao-0074-0 XCVR.SFP L1. and any received signal will be ignored.SFP S1.2. 3.3 Recommended SFP Modules Part Number Item Description XCVR.2. expected and received strings are provided. Devices (WTD) source photonics (ECI) Manufacturer PN pt7320-31-1w wtd-rtxm139-400 SP-03-IR1-CDFH XCVR.SFP S1.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Trace identifiers J0 trace identifier is fully supported in both 15-byte and 1-byte modes: An alarm will be raised when the expected string differs from the received string (but traffic won’t be affected).SFP L1.1 Manufacturer Name neo-photonics Wuhan Telecom.4 The STM-1/OC-3 T-card includes a LED that indicates the status of the interface: Critical or major severity alarm raised: RED Minor or warning severity alarm raised: YELLOW No SFP detected or STM-1/OC-3 interface disabled: OFF Otherwise the LED is GREEN 3.1 neo-photonics Wuhan Telecom. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 116 of 124 . Transmit. No mismatch alarm is supported for J2 trace identifier. STM-1/OC-3 Interface LED 3.8.2.8.8.

but received signal will be used for traffic Excessive BER threshold: specific for STM-1/OC-3 interface Signal degrade threshold: specific for STM-1/OC-3 interface Loopback timeout: specific for STM-1/OC-3 interface Line-loopback: loopback can be configured: Towards line (line rx -> line tx) Towards system (line tx -> line rx) J0 trace identifier Trace-identifier-string-length: set either to 1 or 15 bytes transmit-trace-identifier: String used as the transmitted STM-1/OC-3 signal J0 trace identifier expected-trace-identifier: String expected to be received as the STM-1/OC-3 signal J0 trace identifier Enabling/disabling transmission of RDI indication at the optical interface As per the standard. Peer port number . Peer-ip-address: the address of the far-end system this interface is connected to. don’t affect system behavior. the stand-by unit shuts down Uni-directional msp: both active and stand-units’ lasers transmit Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 117 of 124 .FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Trails previously configured to STM-1/OC-3 interface will get “signal failure” No alarms will be shown Clock source: determines the clock source for the outgoing STM-1/OC-3 signal local clock: use an independent local oscillator loop timing: use the incoming STM-1/OC-3 signal as reference stm1-vc: take clock from outgoing TDM trail sync-VC: The outgoing VC to take the clock from Force-mute: mutes the outgoing STM-1/OC-3 signal. Peer-slot-id: the slot number of the far-end system this interface is connected to. Node-to-node connection: an indication that this STM-1/OC-3 interface is a back-to-back connection between two IP-10 systems (enable/disable). relevant only in 1+1 protection Normal: the active unit transmit.the port number of the far-end system this interface is connected to Peer-description: a description of the far-end system. it is enabled by default Topology aides Used by PolyView NMS. Line protection mode: changes the behavior of the transmitted STM-1/OC-3 signal.

The main disadvantage of SNCP is the permanent use of bandwidth in both paths.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Notice that the stand-by unit will carry valid traffic only from the local radio/lines or if the system is in stand-alone mode The following status indications are available: oper-status: Operational status (up/down) clock-source-status: the actual current source clock regardless of user configuration – for example. local clock will be taken even if user sets loop timing in case of loss of incoming signal. Regenerator Section Severely Errored Second (RSSES) is a one-second period which contains >30% errored blocks or at least one defect.6 STM-1/OC-3 Performance Monitoring The following standard PM measurements are taken for the STM-1/OC-3 interface. Parameter EB BBE Valid range (per sec) 0-8000 (integer) 0-2400 (integer) 0-1 (integer) Description Regenerator Section Errored Block (RS-EB) indicates one or more bits are in error within a block. The PMs are only at the regenerator section level. ES SES 0-1 (integer) 3. TDM traffic will be sent through both paths.8. given that at any given moment only one path is being used for traffic. therefore freeing up bandwidth in the radio links.8. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 118 of 124 . reverting to the normal SNCP behavior. TDM traffic will be sent through one path only (the primary path). loopback-counter: Loopback time left (in seconds) received-trace-identifier: STM-1/OC-3 signal J0 trace identifier actually received from the interface 3.6. 1:1 SNCP is meant to make better use of the radio capacity in the unused path. Regenerator Section Background Block Error (RSBBE) is an errored block not occurring as part of an SES.3 TDM Adaptive Band Recovery path protection  Feature available from version: I6. until the failure is corrected. Whenever possible. Regenerator Section Errored Second (RS-ES) is a one-second period with one or more errored blocks or at least one defect.8. if a failure is detected.2 Section ‎ 3. SES is a subset of ES.5 describes the use of SNCP to achieve path protection for TDM trails.2. this is in effect a waste of bandwidth in the unused path.

o In order to make proper use of the freed capacity. its bandwidth is automatically reallocated for Ethernet traffic. Traffic will return to the primary path after the failure condition has been cleared (the mechanism is revertive) o In order to prevent jittering of the path and unnecessary traffic switches in case of intermittent primary path failures. This timer determines the amount of time require after no failure is detected in the primary path before ceasing traffic transmission through the secondary path  Automatically freeing bandwidth whenever TDM traffic is not being sent o Whenever valid TDM traffic is not available at the radio interface for transmission.8.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 119 of 124 . In other words. it is necessary for the Ethernet traffic to use the same path in both directions o For this reason. This may take place in a radio link or an internal connection No valid TDM input (E1/DS1 signal) is received at the end-point AIS signal is detected at the input (if AIS detection feature is enabled)    Selecting the incoming traffic normally as explained for SNCP trails The ABR mechanism is relevant only for the transmission. bandwidth is freed up whenever there is no information to transmit. but for all TDM traffic. any failure in the primary path will cause both sides to revert to the normal mode of operation (sending traffic through both paths). TDM traffic is sent only through the primary path. Reception is dealt with in the same manner as normal SNCP trails. there is a revertive timer. o This is relevant not only for ABR trails. This may occur in the following circumstances:  A failure has occurred which interrupts TDM traffic in a certain trail.1 ABR operation The ABR feature consists of the following components:  Signaling between the end-points of every trail point to exchange information about the quality of the received signals o Each end-point may send an RDI signal along each path (primary and secondary) to the other end point o RDI is sent whenever a valid TDM trail signal is not received  Logic to determine in which cases it is permissible not to send traffic through one of the paths o Under normal conditions.3.

ABR trails are configured exactly in the same way as normal SNCP trails and are subject to the same validations. status is given for paths which are currently transmitting. VC-11/12 in STM-1 line port: available as a T-card Radio VCs: each radio in the system has designated “channels”.8. These channels are called “VCs” and in addition to the TDM signal they carry extra data used for monitoring. 3.3. each of which can carry a duplex TDM signal. occupying bandwidth in both paths. Interfaces may be the following: E1/DS1 line ports: ports 1-16 are available in the lower SCSI connector.  PMs are collected as follows:  Primary is active – No PM counted on secondary.8.8.4 TDM Trails and Cross-Connect  Feature available from version: I6. in addition to protected and unprotected trails.  Secondary is active (due to primary failure or force to standby)– PM counted on primary and on secondary. They are terminated at line interfaces After a trail is created the following takes place: TDM traffic (E1/DS1) is exchanged between the two interfaces Line interfaces are enabled (if no trail are assigned to them they are disabled) Trail is monitored in order to raise indications and measure PMs Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 120 of 124 . The traffic will cease to be sent when “force none” is configured ABR user indications The following indications are added for TDM trails:  RDI indication is given per trail to the user  Separate status indications are given for each path  For SNCP trails. This is because in the worst-case (failure condition) ABR trails behave like normal SNCP trails. Notice that radio VCs are proprietary and do not conform to SDH VCs.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3. status is always given for primary and secondary paths  For ABR trails.3 3. with no failure conditions this means the primary path only.2 ABR configuration A new type of trails (ABR trails) is defined. regardless of failure conditions. The following are extra configuration and behavior exclusive for ABR trails:   Revertive timer: the same timer is used for all trails Forcing ABR trails: when forcing reception of an ABR trail from the secondary path the system will automatically cause both end-points to transmit traffic through that path.5ca IP-10G provides the capability for the user to map any pair of interfaces in order to created TDM trails. ports 17-32 are available in the upper one (if T-card is installed in the system).3.

If a problem is found. Protected trails allow traffic from two different paths to be chosen (see section below) When configuring a trail. the trail will show it is fine) An event will be raised stating what problem was raised or clear in which trail. trails may contain interfaces in only one of them 3. but they are saved in the database. This string may not include spaces.4. Reserved trails do not. Trail description: a 30-character string for user to give a significant description.8.1 TDM Trail Configuration The following is an explanation of all the relevant parameters that are required in order to create a trail: Interface 1: a line (E1/DS1 or STM-1/OC-3 VC-11/12) interface or radio interface in the system Interface 2: a line (E1/DS1 or STM-1/OC-3 VC-11/12) interface or radio interface in the system. The validation criteria are as follows: All interfaces exist in the system and are available (not used by other trails) Interfaces 1 and 2 must not be in the same radio or line interface (in the same IDU) There are exactly two interfaces – for unprotected trails Up to 180 trails can be configured (path-protected trails count as two trails) For IDUs in 1+1 configuration.4. the system will validate that its interfaces are valid. and new trails can’t be configured to this interfaces Path protection: protected/unprotected.8.2 TDM Trail Status Reporting Each trail in the system is monitored end-to-end. Not used by the system ACM priority: high/low. Unprotected trails are point-to-point. 3. the following will take place: An alarm will be raised stating that there is a failure in at least one TDM trail Each trail is updated with its current status (if there is no problem. Operational trails occupy bandwidth and pass traffic.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description The switching fabric is located at the main unit. and therefore a failure in this unit will cause all TDM traffic to fail (unless the main unit is protected). Trail ID: a 15-character (7-bit ASCII) string which identifies the trail. This priority determines which trails will be dropped first from radio links when bandwidth is reduced (in ACM) State: operational/reserved. this information is logged in the event log An SNMP trap will be sent accordingly The following problems may be detected in a trail: Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 121 of 124 .

FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description Signal failure: There is a severe communication problem somewhere along the path of the trail. It is used in order to protect traffic from any failure along its end-to-end path. Can be line or radio. End-point interfaces will transmit AIS Trail ID mismatch: the trail ID received from the incoming radio differs from the ID defined by user for this trail Invalid trail status: Software was unable to read statuses for this trail 3. PMs for trails are measured in the following cases.8.5ga Path-protected trails are a special case of trails. and are kept in the relevant IDUs: End-point interfaces: line interfaces in which a trail ends Radio interfaces which perform SNCP When PM history is cleared from a trail. and in the incoming direction traffic is chosen from them according to certain criteria. and in that sense they differ from line interface PMs. it will be initially active Interface 3: the secondary interface. and not on code violation. in the outgoing direction (from interface 1 into the sytem) traffic is split to interfaces 2 and 3. SNCP trails differ from unprotected trails in the roles of their interfaces: Interface 1: this is the end-point interface. all PMs in the IDUs holding interfaces where measurements are taken are cleared as well. BBE) but are based on BER measurement. 3. This PMs are based on BER measurement. The measurements are the same as given for line interfaces (ES. Interface 2: the primary interface.5. SES.8.1 SNCP Trail Configuration Besides the “protected” parameter.5 TDM Trail Path Protection (SNCP)  Feature available from version: I6. and not on code violation. it will be initially stand-by Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 122 of 124 .4.8. in which not two but three interfaces are configured. 3. and in that sense they differ from line interface PMs. UAS.3 TDM Trail PM Measurement End-to-end PM measurements are taken for TDM trails.

8. AIS detection must be enabled for SNCP to work properly. 3.5.3 SNCP Indications For each protected trail the following status indications will be given:  Paths status  For both active and stand-by paths  Same status indications as given for unprotected TDM trails  Current active trail  Number of switches since last time counter was reset Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 123 of 124 .2 SNCP Switching Criteria Traffic will switch from the currently active interface to the stand-by interface in the following cases:  Signal failure o Notice that when line interfaces (STM-1) are used along a TDM trail path.5.  User command to force traffic to the stand-by interface  Notice that forcing traffic will cause the chosen interface (even if its signal fails) until user cancels this setting (revertive mode is not supported at this stage).8.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 3.

2.8.1. and a single reset of the system is required at the end of the process. a “Hybrid” port type has been added.1.5 ‎ 3. Dynamic copy to mate of Ethernet configuration 3. Enhanced functionality This section describes improvements introduced in this release for features that were already available in previous releases.6 ‎ 2.1 ‎ STM-1/OC-3 interfaces support FCC/ETSI display for scripts 3. This is automatically enabled in “metro switch” configuration Configuration of these features required a system reset in previous versions.1.2.3 ‎ MRMC 3.4 ‎ In addition to the existing “access” and “trunk” types.FibeAir IP-10 G-Series & E-Series ® Features Description 4.1 ‎ RSTP Provider bridge support Reduced need for resets Provider Bridge RSTP is now supported. All system configurations are now automatically copied to mate in 1+1 and 2+2 settings.2.1 ‎ Reference 3.4 ‎ Radio script Ethernet application License change Set to Default Configuration restore Automatic state propagation ABR 3. In previous versions changes to Ethernet related parameters required user to issue “copy to mate” command.2 ‎ 2.3 ‎ 2.2. Improved Feature(s) XPIC New/improved capability XPIC ACM scripts Description New radio scripts were added in order to support ACM in an XPIC configuration.2. 3.1.2 ‎ 1+1 Support Automatic state propagation is now supported in 1+1 HSB configuration ABR is now supported for paths that include a fiber interface in addition to radio Scripts are clearly marked as FCC/ETSI and channel spacing given accordingly 3. The following scripts were added:   Ethernet Interfaces Protection Hybrid ports XPIC-ACM-28M XPIC-ACM-40M 3.5 ‎ Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 124 of 124 . They can now all be configured.5.2.