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Deflection of Structures

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**BOIETZ’ SLOPE & DEFLECTION DIAGRAM BY PARTS
**

Developed by Boietz S. Caluag (2003) Introduction: Deflection and Slope Diagram by Parts is an alternate method of solving the slope and deflection of the statically determinate beams at any point in a single process. It is a method utilizing the Conjugate Beam loaded by M/EI Diagram by parts as the real beam. Theorem 1. The slope of the curve at any point in the real beam is numerically equal to the algebraic sum of the ordinates at the corresponding point in the Slope Diagram by Parts. Theorem 2. The deflection of the curve at any point in the real beam is numerically equal to the algebraic sum of the ordinates at the corresponding point in the Deflection Diagram by Parts.

Comments: 1. Slope and Deflection Diagram is more convenient to use compared to Conjugate Beam Method. 2. The slope and deflection at any point can be computed only by one process/formula. 3. The Slope and Deflection Diagram by Parts can be drawn similar to that of drawing the Shear and Moment Diagram by parts.

Ordinate:

m’ H y x L vertex

x H y= L

m'

**Deflection or Slope at any point, where: y ∆ , y θ = deflection and slope ordinates, resp.
**

δ=

∑ ∑

y∆

x = distance from vertex/point of tangency to the point. H = highest ordinate or the ordinate at the fixed support. L = Length of the cantilever beam.

θ=

yθ

m’ = slope of the deflection or slope diagram.

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURES Engineering structures are constructed from materials that deform slightly when subjected to stress or a change in temperature. As a result of this deformation, points on the structure undergo certain movements called DEFLECTIONS. Provided that the elastic limit of the material is not exceeded, this deformation and the resulting deflection disappear when the stress is removed and the temperature returns to its original value. This type of deformation or deflection is called ELASTIC and can be caused either by loads acting on the structure or by a change in temperature. CAUSES OF DEFLECTION 1. Stress 2. Change in temperature 3. Support settlement 4. play in pin joints 5. shrinkage of concrete, creep 6. etc. IMPORTANCE OF DEFLECTION COMPUTATIONS 1. Mode of failure in design 2. to analyze the vibration and dynamic response characteristics of the structures 3. Stress analysis of statically indeterminate structures are based largely on an evaluation of their deflection under load 4. etc. METHODS OF COMPUTING DEFLECTION 1. Virtual Work Method (Applicable to any type of structure – beam, truss, frames, etc.) 2. Castigliano’s Second Theorem (Applicable to any type of structure) 3. Williot-Mohr Method (Applicable to trusses only) 4. Bar-chain Method (Applicable to trusses only) 5. Double Integration Method (Applicable to beams only) 6. Moment-Area Method (Applicable to beams and frames only) 7. Elastic Load Method (Applicable to beams and frames only) 8. Conjugate Beam Method (Applicable to beams only) 9. Slope and Deflection Diagram by Parts (Applicable to beams only)

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

Relationship between Load, Shear, Moment, Slope and Deflection Diagram by Parts Maximum Ordinate:

VMSD = m

n! wLd (n + d)!

where: VMSD = shear, moment, slope or deflection ordinate at the fixed end. d = type of diagram = 1, for shear = 2, for moment = 3, for slope = 4, for deflection w = maximum intensity of the load, KN/m L = Length of the cantilever beam, m n = Degree of the load = 0, for uniform load = 1, for triangular load ≥ 2, for spandrel load

Slope and Deflection Diagram Ordinate from M/EI Diagram Slope:

θ=−

m! ML (m + 1)! EI

Deflection:

δ=

m! M 2 L (m + 2)! EI

where:

**M = moment/EI ordinate at fixed support (maximum) EI
**

m = degree of the M/EI Diagram =n+2

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

**Derivation: For Concentrated Load:
**

Fixed

**For Concentrated Moment:
**

P

Fixed

M L

L

V = -P M = PL 0° 1°

V - Diag

V=0 M= M 0° V - Diag M - Diag

M - Diag

θ = - PL

2

θ - Diag 2° 3° δ - Diag

θ = -ML δ = ML 2

2

1° 2°

θ - Diag δ - Diag

2

3 δ = PL

6

**For Spandrel Load (n ≥ 0):
**

w n° Load Diagram

Shear:

L

V=−

n! wL (n + 1)!

V

Shear Diagram by Parts n+1 n+2 Moment Diagram by Parts

Moment: n! M= wL2 (n + 2)!

M

Slope:

θ=−

Slope Diagram by Parts

n! wL3 (n + 3)!

θ

n+3

δ

n+4 Deflection Diagram by Parts

Deflection: n! δ= wL4 (n + 4)!

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

**Slope and Deflection Diagram by Parts From M/EI Diagram:
**

M/EI m =n+2° M/EI Diagram

Slope:

L Fixed

θ=−

m! ML (m + 1)! EI

θ

Slope Diagram by Parts m+1 m+2 Deflection Diagram by Parts

Deflection: m! M 2 δ= L (m + 2)! EI

δ

**For Concentrated Load:
**

Fixed

**For Concentrated Moment:
**

P

Fixed

M L

L

θ - Diag θ=-P 0° δ = PL 1° δ - Diag

θ=0

θ - Diag δ - Diag

δ= M

0°

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

ORDINATE OF SLOPE AND DEFLECTION DIAGRAM

m’ H y x L vertex

Ordinate:

x y= L H

m'

where: y = deflection or slope ordinate at any point. x = distance from vertex/point of tangency to the point. H = highest ordinate or the ordinate at the fixed support. L = Length of the cantilever beam. m’ = slope of the deflection or slope diagram.

STEPS:

1. 2. Compute the reactions of the real beam. Choose an arbitrary point on the beam to be held fixed and draw the M/EI Diagram by parts. For Concentrated Moment:

P L

Fixed

**For Concentrated Load:
**

Fixed

M L

M = PL

1° M/EI - Diag

0°

M= M

M/EI - Diag

**For Spandrel Load (n ≥ 0):
**

W m =n+2° Load Diagram

L

Moment Ordinate:

M= m! W 2 L (m + 2)! EI

M

m+2 M/EI Diagram by Parts

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

3. 4.

For the conjugate beam loaded by M/EI Diagram by parts, compute the reactions. Draw the Deflection and Slope Diagram by Parts using the principles in drawing the shear and moment diagram by parts.

**Slope and Deflection Diagram by Parts From M/EI Diagram:
**

M/EI m =n+2° M/EI Diagram

L Fixed

Slope:

θ=−

Slope Diagram by Parts m+1 m+2 Deflection Diagram by Parts

m! ML (m + 1)! EI

θ

δ

Deflection: m! M 2 δ= L (m + 2)! EI

5.

Using the curve property, compute the slope and deflection at any point. Ordinate:

m’ H y x L vertex

x H y= L

m'

**Deflection or Slope at any point,
**

δ=

∑y ∑y

∆

where:

y ∆ , y θ = deflection and slope ordinates, resp.

θ=

θ

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

**SAMPLE PROBLEM Compute the slope of the elastic curve at point A, slope and deflection at midspan.
**

30KN a 12m 6m c EI = constant

**Solution: 1. Compute the reactions
**

30KN a Ra 12m 6m c Rc

∑ Mc = 0 ∑ Ma = 0

Ra(18) -30(6) = 0 ∴ Ra = 10 KN Rc(18) -30(12) = 0 ∴ Rc = 20 KN

**2. Draw the M/EI Diagram by parts Fixed @ a,
**

30KN a Ra = 10 20(18)=360

1° M/EI - Diag 1°

12m

6m

c Rc = 20

-30(12)=-360

**3. Compute the reactions of the conjugate beam
**

12m 360

M/EI - Diag

6m

∑ Ma = 0

Rc’(18) -1/2(360/Ei)(18)(18/3) +1/2(360/EI)(12)(12/3) = 0 ∴ Rc’ = 600/EI

-360 Rc’ Ra’

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

**4. Draw the Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts Fixed @ a,
**

12m 360

1° M/EI - Diag

Slope Ordinates:

6m

θ=− m! ML (m + 1)! EI

A=− B=−

600 EI 1! − 360(18) 2160 = (1 + 1)! EI EI 1! 360(18) 3240 =− (1 + 1)! EI EI

-360

1°

Rc’ =600/EI

C=−

A = 600

EI

B= 2160

EI

2°

Slope Diag by Parts

Deflection Ordinates: m! M 2 δ= L (m + 2)! EI

D= 1! 360 2 19440 18 = (1 + 2)! EI EI −360 2 −8640 1! 12 = (1 + 2)! EI EI −600 −10800 (18) = EI EI

C= −3240

EI

2°

E=

D= 2160

EI

3°

Deflection Diag by Parts

F=

E= −3240

EI

3°

F= −10800

EI

1°

BOIETZ S CALUAG

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BOIETZ’ Slope & Deflection Diagram by Parts

5. Compute the Slope and deflection

m’ H y x L vertex

x y= L H

m'

**Slope @ left support:
**

θa = =

∑ yθ

600 2160 3240 −480 + − = EI EI EI EI ans

Slope @ midspan:

θm =

=

∑ yθ

600 3 2160 9 3240 − 75 + − = EI EI 12 EI 18 EI

2 2

ans

Deflection @ midspan:

δm =

∑ y∆

3 2 2

9 19440 3 8640 9 10800 − 3105 = − − = EI EI EI 18 12 EI 18

ans

BOIETZ S CALUAG

Page 10

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