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volume distributions Transforming results 10 Setting particle size speciﬁcations Distribution basis Distribution points Including a mean value X vs. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Why is particle size important? Which size to measure 3 Understanding and interpreting particle size distribution calculations Central values: mean.Y axis Testing reproducibility Including the error Setting speciﬁcations for various analysis techniques Particle Size Analysis Techniques 15 LA-950 laser diffraction technique The importance of optical model Building a state of the art laser diffraction analyzer 18 SZ-100 dynamic light scattering technique Calculating particle size Zeta Potential Molecular weight 23 PSA300 and CAMSIZER image analysis techniques Static image analysis Dynamic image analysis 26 Dynamic range of the HORIBA particle characterization systems 27 Selecting a particle size analyzer When to choose laser diffraction When to choose dynamic light scattering When to choose image analysis 29 References . mode Distribution widths Technique dependence Laser diffraction Dynamic light scattering Image analysis 8 Particle size result interpretation: number vs. median.

homogenization. and aerosols. polymers. abrasives. fertilizers. cosmetics. compaction. The size and shape of the glass beads used in highway paint impacts reﬂectivity. The size and shape distribution of the metal particles impacts powder behavior during die ﬁlling. For these and many other reasons it is important to measure and control the particle size distribution of many products. This is true for powders. emulsions. and others. microﬂuidization. Determining the particle size of powders requiring mixing is common since materials with similar and narrower distributions are less prone to segregation. and sintering. more spherical particles will typically ﬂow more easily than smaller or high aspect ratio particles. The most obvious example is milling (or size reduction by another technology) where the goal of the operation is to reduce particle size to a desired speciﬁcation. Many other size reduction operations and technologies also require lab measurements to track changes in particle size including crushing. There are also industry/application speciﬁc reasons why controlling and measuring particle size is important. emulsiﬁcation. may be monitored by measuring particle size before and after the process. For example. Particle size growth may be monitored during operations such as granulation or crystallization. cyclones. Powder or droplets in the range of 2-5µm aerosolize better and will penetrate into lungs deeper than larger sizes. etc. Measurements in the laboratory are often made to support unit operations taking place in a process environment. and therefore inﬂuences the physical properties of the parts created. Other industries where particle size plays an important role include nanotechnology. In the paint and pigment industries particle size inﬂuences appearance properties including gloss and tinctorial strength. Cement particle size inﬂuences hydration rate & strength. In the pharmaceutical industry the size of active ingredients inﬂuences critical characteristics including content uniformity. proteins. Particle size is critical within a vast number of industries. Separation steps such as screening. soils. Smaller particles dissolve more quickly and lead to higher suspension viscosities than larger ones. and many more. Larger. Smaller droplet sizes and higher surface charge (zeta potential) will typically improve suspension and emulsion stability. suspensions. it determines: appearance and gloss of paint ﬂavor of cocoa powder reﬂectivity of highway paint hydration rate & strength of cement properties of die ﬁlling powder absorption rates of pharmaceuticals appearances of cosmetics 1 .Why is particle size important? Particle size inﬂuences many properties of particulate materials and is a valuable indicator of quality and performance. dissolution and absorption rates. ﬁltering. Particle size of the cocoa powder used in chocolate affects color and ﬂavor. The size and shape of powders inﬂuences ﬂow and compaction properties.

A light scattering device will average the various dimensions as the particles ﬂow randomly through the light beam. shifting the reported particle size in the smaller direction. As seen in Figure 1. settling rate) and determining the size of the sphere that could produce the data. Thus. The only techniques that can describe particle size using multiple values are microscopy or automated image analysis. perimeter. The reported value is typically an equivalent spherical diameter.e. It is only for elongated or ﬁbrous particles that the x axis is typically displayed as length rather than equivalent spherical diameter. such as ﬁbers or needles. with the other particles and/or the container walls tending to slow their movement. Shape factor causes disagreements when particles are measured with different particle size analyzers. the shapes of particles generated by most industrial processes are such that the spherical assumption does not cause serious problems. or again by equivalent spherical diameter.WHICH SIZE TO MEASURE? DIAMETER VERTICAL PROJECTION A spherical particle can be described using a single number—the diameter— because every dimension is identical. non-spherical particles can be described using multiple length and width measures (horizontal and vertical projections are shown here). producing a distribution of sizes from the smallest to the largest dimensions. An image analysis system could describe the non-spherical particle seen in Figure 1 using the longest and shortest diameters. many techniques make the useful and convenient assumption that every particle is a sphere. but also greater complexity. This is essentially taking the physical measured value (i. 2 . Problems can arise. Each measurement technique detects size through the use of its own physical principle. a sieve will tend to emphasize the second smallest dimension because of the way particles must orient themselves to pass through the mesh opening. These descriptions provide greater accuracy. For example. A sedimentometer measures the rate of fall of the particle through a viscous medium. HORIZONTAL PROJECTION ﬁgure 1 SHAPE FACTOR | Many techniques make the general assumption that every particle is a sphere and report the value of some equivalent diameter. if the individual particles have a very large aspect ratio. Flaky or plate-like particles will orient to maximize drag while sedimenting. scattered light. Microscopy or automated image analysis are the only techniques that can describe particle size using multiple values for particles with larger aspect ratios. When reporting a particle size distribution the most common format used even for image analysis systems is equivalent spherical diameter on the x axis and percent on the y axis. Although this approach is simplistic and not perfectly accurate. projected area. however.

3) for an explanation of number. For the denominator take the geometric Di to the third power x the percent in that channel. A better approach is to report both a central point of the distribution along with one or more values to describe the width of distribution. surface. and volume distributions.Understanding and interpreting particle size distribution calculations. Some people prefer a single number answer—what is the average size? More experienced particle scientists cringe when they hear this question. ﬁgure 2 | SYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTION WHERE MEAN=MEDIAN=MODE 3 . There are multiple deﬁnitions for mean because the mean value is associated with the basis of the distribution calculation (number. Other approaches are also described in this document. The Di value for each channel is the geometric mean. Laser diffraction results are reported on a volume basis. volume). MEDIAN.1. surface. See (ref. The best way to think about this calculation is to think of a histogram table showing the upper and lower limits of n size channels along with the percent within this channel. so the volume mean can be used to deﬁne the central point although the median is more frequently used than the mean when using this technique. summed over all channels. the square root of upper x lower diameters. summed over all channels. MODE For symmetric distributions such as the one shown in Figure 2 all central values are equivalent: mean = median = mode. But what do these values represent? MEAN Mean is a calculated value similar to the concept of average. Performing a particle size analysis is the best way to answer the question: What size are those particles? Once the analysis is complete the user has a variety of approaches for reporting the result. CENTRAL VALUES: MEAN. The various mean calculations are deﬁned in several standard documents (ref. For the numerator take the geometric Di to the fourth power x the percent in that channel. The equation for deﬁning the volume mean is shown below. knowing that a single number cannot describe the distribution of the sample.2).

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