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FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series (R2

)

Product Description

Document Version: 30 October 2010

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This document contains information that is proprietary to Ceragon Networks Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced, modified, or distributed without prior written authorization of Ceragon Networks Ltd. This document is provided as is, without warranty of any kind.

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Ceragon Networks , FibeAir and CeraView are registered trademarks of Ceragon Networks Ltd. Other names mentioned in this publication are owned by their respective holders.
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Any changes or modifications of equipment not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment and the warranty for such equipment. Copyright © 2010 by Ceragon Networks Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 7
1.1 1.2 FibeAir IP-10 G-Series main features ........................................................................ 8 Applications............................................................................................................. 9
Mobile Backhaul ..........................................................................................................9 Converged Fixed/Wireless Networks ............................................................................9

1.2.1 1.2.2

1.3

Advantages ............................................................................................................ 10

2

Overview .................................................................................................... 11
2.1 System Overview ................................................................................................... 11
Interfaces .................................................................................................................. 12 Available Assembly Options *..................................................................................... 14 2.1.1 2.1.2

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

RF Unit .................................................................................................................. 15 FibeAir IP-10 Value Structure ................................................................................. 16 FibeAir IP-10 Functionality ..................................................................................... 17 Features ................................................................................................................ 18
High Spectral Efficiency .............................................................................................. 18 Native2 Microwave Radio Technology ......................................................................... 19 Adaptive Coding & Modulation .................................................................................. 20 Enhancing Spectral Efficiency using XPIC ..................................................................... 21 Integrated Carrier Ethernet Switching ......................................................................... 22 Integrated Quality of Service (QoS)............................................................................. 23 Intelligent Ethernet Header Compression (patent-pending)......................................... 24 Extensive Radio Capacity/Utilization Statistics ............................................................ 24 In-Band Management ................................................................................................ 24 Synchronization Solution............................................................................................ 25 Integrated Nodal Solution .......................................................................................... 25 TDM Cross-Connect Unit ............................................................................................ 26 ABR - Capacity Doubling Innovation ........................................................................... 27

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.5.7 2.5.8 2.5.9 2.5.10 2.5.11 2.5.12 2.5.13

3

Main Features ............................................................................................. 28
3.1 Adaptive Coding and Modulation ........................................................................... 28

FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 3

..........................................................4 3............. 61 TDM Trail Status Handling ....................................................................2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 4 .......... 38 MEF Certified ......................6.................................1......... 44 Ethernet resilient networks support ...............................................4....................................................7 3.......4...........6 3...........................................................................................3 3........................................................................... 51 FibeAir IP-10 Carrier Ethernet Services Example ............................................................. 30 ACM for E1/DS1 services ...............5 3..................................................................................................................4...................... 63 3..........................................................4 Integrated Carrier Ethernet support ........................................ 66 Comparing Ring Protection Schemes .. 59 3.................... 33 XPIC and Multi-Radio .............................................................5....... 31 3......3 3........................................................ 59 Nodal solution Ethernet connectivity ......................5.........................................2 3................. 39 Integrated QoS Support ........................ 40 Ethernet Statistics ......1 3............................. 58 Nodal Solution Management .....1 3.................................................4 3........................................................................................1 3....................... 52 3................... 28 Adaptive Modulation and Built-in Quality of Service ................... 55 IP-10 Nodal Design ...............................................4 3.....3.......4..........................................1 3.........................3.....................................1............................................................................4...........5......................................1 3................................................................................. 36 Carrier Grade Ethernet ..............................1 3.....5....................1.......... 57 IP-10 Nodal Stacking Method ................................................. 55 IP-10 Nodal Stacking Concept – Advantages ....................... 33 Implementation .........................7. 32 XPIC support ......................7 ABR (Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery) ..........................................2 3..................................................3.......................................................5................. 66 3......................6.......6......................... 60 XC Basics..............4.. 36 Carrier Ethernet solution overview ...........................2 3.......................................3 Multi-Radio with ACM support..........................................................................................5...................5 Integrated Nodal Solution ............................6 3........................... 66 Overview ....7.....................................3 3............................. 57 Nodal Enclosure Design .........3 3.............5 3.......................................... 46 End to End Multi-Layer OA&M ............................................ 60 XC Features....4.......2 3............6 Cross-Connect (XC) Unit ............................................8 3..........................2 3............................................................... 62 Wireless SNCP....................2 3..................4........... 35 3...............................................6... 29 ACM with Adaptive Tx Power ...................................................................1..........................................................................4 Overview ........................

................1......7...7.......................................... 90 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 5 ............................................. 79 Wireless IP Synchronization Challenges ...... 87 1+0 with 64 E1s/T1s ..6 4................................................5 3.................................................................................. 80 Ceragon's Native2 Sync Solution .................8 3... 70 Protected Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (ABR) ........................... 85 1+1 HSB ............... no Multi-Radio..8...................11 3.......7............................................................................................7 3. 78 3............... “Multi-Radio” Mode ...................................................................... 81 PTP optimized Transport ...................... 75 Risk Free Bandwidth Re-allocation . 82 SyncE ...................................... 85 4................ 79 Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) ..............................................7 3....................................................... 83 “Native Sync Distribution” Mode .............1..................2 3...........10 3.................................... 88 2+0/XPIC Link........... 81 Synchronization using Native E1/T1 Trails ..... 85 1+0 ................14 A Novel Approach to Bandwidth Recovery .....12 3..................................8...................3 4............... 70 Dual Homing ............................ 86 1+0 with 32 E1s/T1s .........................................8.....7... 71 ABR – Case Study ..................................................................................7....6 3....... up to 168 E1/T1s over the radio ..2 4.............7................1.................................9 4 Typical Configurations.........................................1 3....................................9 3.....1........ 71 Hybrid Fiber / Microwave Networks .... 79 Wireless Network Synchronization ............................................7...............5 4............................................8.......3...................................8 3........................................13 3................................. 76 ABR Benefits ............7........................................................ 76 Summary ...................................... 72 Ethernet Ring Failure States .................................................... “no Multi-Radio” Mode ................................................. with 64 E1/T1s................. 89 4................................................................... 71 ABR with ACM .......7 2+0/XPIC Link.............................. 84 3...............................1 4......................7................. 79 ToP (Timing over Packet) .........3 3.............................................................................. 74 Comparison of Protection Methods – To Allocate or not to Allocate ...............1..................................8......................5 3........8..............................................................8....................................................................................7.......7..........6 3..........................................................................................................8 Synchronization support ......................................................................................................................................... 87 2+0/XPIC Link......................4 3.............................................................................................................8.............. with 32 E1/T1s + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface....................3 3......7............1.....................................1 Point to point configurations ................4 4........................................................1.. with 64 E1/T1s......................... 71 Trail Management.......8........................4 3....................

......................................4.................................................... with STM1/OC3 Mux .............................. 101 4...... 90 1+1 HSB with 64 E1s/T1s .............. with 2xSTM1/OC3 Mux (up to 168 E1/T1s over the radio) ................ 104 Web-based Management ..........................................6 4.....................1..................................................... with STM1/OC3 ..........5 Overview ...........................................12 Native2 2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link.......................................................................................................................................5 4......................................................1.........2..........10 Native2 Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (3 hops total).............................1............ 102 5 Network Management ... 93 Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink ...........7 4...3 5..................1. 103 Management System ..........................................4 4.............2............................2.........3 4.8 4........10 4.............2................ 104 PolyView ...................... 104 CLI (Command Line Interface) ....... with STM1/OC3 Mux ....2.............................................................................. with STM1/OC3 Mux .2 Nodal Configurations .4 5...............................................................9 Mux 4....2............................2 5....... 93 Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink............ 96 Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site... 99 Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0 ..9 4.................................... 92 4.................................................................11 radio) 1+1 HSB with 32 E1s/T1s ................................................................................................................................................. 103 5.................. 105 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 6 ....................................1 4........1................... 94 Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink..................... 91 1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1/T1s + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface (Up to 84 E1s/T1s over the ......2 4.............................................8 4... 97 Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink............................................2.............................................................................. 95 Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface at Main Site ...............2....2. 98 Native2 Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links. with STM1/OC3 Mux ........ with 2 x STM1/OC3 Mux ..................................2.......................................................... 100 Native2 Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops total)...................... 92 4................................. 91 1+1 HSB with 84 E1/T1s................................................1 5.............

IP-10 follows in the tradition of Ceragon's Native2. capacity deliverance.5 MHz to 56 MHz Supports throughputs of from 10 to 500 Mbps per radio carrier (QPSK to 256 QAM) Incorporates advanced integrated Ethernet switching capabilities In addition. dependable. Flexible bandwidth sharing between the TDM and Ethernet traffic ensures optimal throughput for all your media transfer needs. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 7 . while providing a broad range of software-configurable licensed channel schemes. and reliably. IP-10 is poised to fill in the gap and deliver high capacity IP communication quickly. nXT1/E1 n X T1/E1 MEN ETH Control IP-10 features impressive market-leading throughput capability together with advanced networking functionality.1 Introduction FibeAir IP-10 is Ceragon's comprehensive high capacity IP and Migration-to-IP network solution. which allows your network to benefit from both native TDM and native Ethernet using the same radio. With the Metro Ethernet Networking trend growing. from 6 to 38 GHz Supports channel bandwidths of from 3. easily. using unique Adaptive Coding & Modulation (ACM). Some of the quick points that place IP-10 at the top of the wireless IP offerings: Supports all licensed bands. The innovative IP-10 was designed as a native Ethernet microwave radio platform that can integrate smoothly in any network. your network benefits from non-stop.

The main features of the IP-10 G-Series are as follows: IP-10 G-Series Supported radio configurations 1+0.11/RS232 User Channel option Yes 500Mbps 1Gbps using 2+0/XPIC 2+0 and 2+2 HSB 5 x FE RJ-45+ 2 x GE combo (RJ-45/SFP) Yes 16 E1. 1+1 SD/FD.1 FibeAir IP-10 G-Series main features This product description covers FibeAir IP-10 G Series. 16T1.11/RS232 or 1 x Sync V. 2+0 with XPIC 2+2 HSB with XPIC XPIC option Max radio capacity Multi-radio support # of Ethernet interfaces Full Carrier Ethernet switching feature-set including ring protection # of E1/T1 integrated IDU interfaces option # of E1/T1s per radio carrier T-Card slot (additional 16 E1/T1 interfaces or STM1/OC3 Mux) Nodal/XC/SNCP 1+1 support ABR (SNCP 1:1) support Sync unit option V. 1+1 HSB. None 84 E1/T1s Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 x Async V.11 FibeAir IP-10 G-series FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 8 .1.

The FibeAir IP-10 platform supports multi-service and converged networking requirements for both legacy and the latest data-rich applications and services. video and voice traffic in the most optimum and cost-effective manner. The system is suitable for all migration scenarios where carrier-grade Ethernet and legacy TDM services are required simultaneously.2 Applications 1.1 Mobile Backhaul For Cellular Networks. For WiMAX Networks. within the same compact footprint. EVPL and E-LAN) making it the ideal platform for operators looking to provide high capacity Carrier Ethernet services meeting customers demand for coverage and stringent SLA. Operators can leverage FibeAir IP-10 to build a converged network infrastructure based on high capacity microwave to support multiple types of service. FibeAir IP-10 provides a robust and cost-efficient solution with advanced native Ethernet capabilities. 1.2. FibeAir IP-10 family supports both Ethernet and TDM for cellular backhaul network migration to IP. FibeAir IP-10 family enables connectivity between WiMAX base stations and facilitating the expansion and reach of emerging WiMAX networks.1. FibeAir IP-10 is fully compliant with MEF-9 & MEF-14 standards for all service types (EPL. FibeAir IP-10 family offers cost-effective.2.2 Converged Fixed/Wireless Networks Ceragon‟s FibeAir IP-10 delivers integrated high speed data. Figure 1: Typical FibeAir IP-10 Applications FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 9 . WiMAX and fixed markets. high-capacity connectivity for carriers in cellular.

Ring. Whenever needed. MAC address learning. Unique Full Range Adaptive Modulation: Provides the widest modulation range on the market from QPSK to 256 QAM with multi-level real-time hitless and errorless modulation shifting changing dynamically according to environmental conditions . Point-to-Point.15 ms @ 400Mbps): Suitable for delay-sensitive applications. It also dramatically improves overall network availability and reliability.3 Advantages IP-10 has many advantages that cover the many aspects of flexible and reliable network building. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 10 . additional functionality is enabled via upgrade license. such as VoIP and Video over IP. years of experience in high-capacity IP radios. Smaller Antennas: Reduces network costs and enables a farther reach to the other end. you get optimal all-IP or hybrid TDM-IP backhaul networking . Guaranteed Ultra Low Latency (< 0. With Ceragon's large install base. It is based on Ceragon‟s wellestablished and field-proven IP-MAX Ethernet microwave technology. Fully Integrated L2 Ethernet Switching Functionality: Including VLAN based switching. using the same hardware. IP-10 is poised to be an IP networking standard-bearer. Longer Transmission Distances. Each network node is optimized individually.ideal for any RAN evolution path! User-Management Traffic Integration: In-Band Management significantly simplifies backhaul network design and maintenance. reducing both CapEx and OpEx. Native2: With Native2.while ensuring zero downtime connectivity. and seamless integration with all standard IP equipment vendors. Extended Quality of Service (QoS) Support: Enables smart packet queuing and prioritization. a full duplex throughput of more than 400 Mbps over a single channel can be achieved. QinQ and Ring-RSTP support. Experience Counts: IP-10 was designed with continuity in mind. enabling support for services with stringent SLA (Service Level Agreement).1. Using this flexible economic approach. Incomparable Economic Value: The IP-10 pay-as-you-grow concept reduces network costs. with future capacity growth in mind. Multiple Network Topology Support: Mesh. Chain.

2 Overview 2.1 System Overview Split-mount architecture (IDU and RFU/ODU) Compatible with all existing Ceragon RFUs/ODUs.6 mm (1RU) Width: 439 mm (<19") Depth: 188 mm (fits in ETSI rack) DC input voltage nominal rating: -48V TDM interfaces add-on slot Fans drawer Craft Terminal (DB9) External Alarms (DB9) User Channel (optional) (RJ45) 16 x E1/T1s (optional) Protection Interface (RJ45) 2 x GE ”combo” ports Electrical (RJ45) or Optical (SFP) 5 x FE Electrical (RJ45) Engineering order-wire (optional) RFU interface (N-Type) GND Power -48V DC Figure 2: IP-10 G-Series Front Panel and Interfaces FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 11 . Dimensions    Height: 42.

2.1.1 Interfaces Main Interfaces: 5 x 10/100Base-T 2 x GbE combo ports: 10/100/1000Base-T or SFP 1000Base-X 16 x T1/E1 (optional) RFU/ODU interface. N-type connector Additional Interfaces: TDM T-Card Slot options: 16 x E1 16 x T1 1 x STM-1/OC-3 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 12 .

and add a new dimension to the FibeAir IP-10 migration flexibility.11 Asynchronous. RS-232) External alarms (4 inputs & 1 output) PROT: Ethernet protection control interface (for 1+1 HSB mode support) FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 13 .16 x E1/T1 T-Card STM-1/OC-3 Mux T-Card The T-cards are field-upgradable. TDM interfaces add-on card (T-Card) Terminal console AUX package (optional): Engineering Order Wire (EOW) User channel (V.

2 Available Assembly Options * TDM options: o o o Ethernet only (no TDM) Ethernet + 16 x E1 + T-Card Slot Ethernet + 16 x T1 + T-Card Slot Sync unit XPIC support With or without AUX package . each of the FE traffic interfaces can be configured to support an alternate mode of operation: MGT: Ethernet out-of-band management (up to 3 interfaces) WS: Ethernet wayside 2.In addition.EOW.1. User channel FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 14 .

modulation schemes.2. The RFUs operate in the frequency range of 6-38 GHz. and configurations for various network requirements. IP-10 works with: FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 15 . including: FibeAir 1500HP (FibeAir RFU-HP) FibeAir 1500HS (FibeAir RFU-HS) FibeAir 1500SP (FibeAir RFU-SP) FibeAir 1500P (FibeAir RFU-P) FibeAir RFU-C FibeAir RFUs support multiple capacities. for TDM and IP interfaces. and support capacities of from 10 Mbps to 500 Mbps. and can be installed together with any FibeAir RFU. frequencies.2 RF Unit FibeAir IP-10 is based on the latest Ceragon technology.

The FibeAir IP-10 offers the following Value structure: Software license keys Assembly options Add-ons Additional IDUs (IDU stacking) • Radio ACM • Carrier Ethernet Switch • Network resiliency • Sync.2.11/RS-232) • EOW • SFPs • Cables • T-Cards • 16 E1 • 16 DS1 • STM1-Mux • Capacity doubling • XPIC • Multi-radio FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 16 . Unit • TDM interfaces • 16 E1 • 16 DS1 • Nodal enclosures • Main • Expansion • Redundancy • Diversity • Addition radio directions in node • T-card slot • XPIC support • AUX • UC (V. Unit • Enhanced QoS • Radio Capacity • 10M • 25M • 50M • 100M • 150M • 200M • 300M • All / 500M • Sync.3 FibeAir IP-10 Value Structure FibeAir IP-10 offers a pay-as-you-grow concept to reduce network costs. Future capacity growth and additional functionality is enabled with license keys and an innovative stackable nodal solution using the same hardware.

7-56MHz E1/ DS1 Ch-STM1/ OC3 Terminal Mux RFU (6-38GHz) Figure 3: FibeAir IP-10 – functional block diagram FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 17 .2. OA&M Service Management Security Carrier Ethernet Switch ACM Gigabit Ethernet Fast Ethernet TDM Cross Connect XPIC Multi Radio Diversity Native2 Radio Ethernet + TDM 10-500Mbps.4 FibeAir IP-10 Functionality The diagram below provides a high level functional block diagram of FibeAir IP-10.

U6. 18. 7. using the same hardware. including the same ODU/RFU! Configurations: 1+0 or 1+1 Hot Standby (fully redundant).Polarization F2 Figure 4: FibeAir IP-10 . 23. 15. 2+0 XPIC. 11. 8. 32.5 Features 2.With the n x E1/T1 option.Supported configurations FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 18 . XPIC Same Frequency Different Polarization Multi-Radio Ultra High Capacity Link Space /Frequency Diversity Increase Availability and Avoid Multipath Fading Space Diversity Frequency Diversity V .2. 10. 2+2 XPIC hot-standby (fully redundant).Polarization F1 Multi GbE H . 13.1 High Spectral Efficiency Modulations: QPSK to 256 QAM Radio capacity: ETSI – up to 50/100/220/280/500 Mbps over 7/14/28/40/56 MHz channels FCC – up to 70/140/240/320/450 Mbps over 10/20/30/40/50 MHz channels All licensed bands: L6. TDM Voice Transmission with Dynamic Allocation . 28. 38 GHz Highest scalability: From 10 Mbps to 500 Mbps. only enabled E1/T1 ports are allocated with capacity. 1+1 SD/FD.5. 26. The remaining capacity is dynamically allocated to the Ethernet ports to ensure maximum Ethernet capacity.

5.5G/4G all-IP installations). the microwave carrier supports native IP/Ethernet traffic together with optional native PDH. This unique approach allows you to plan and build optimal all-IP or hybrid TDM-IP backhaul networks which make it ideal for any RAN (Radio Access Network) evolution path selected by the wireless provider (including Green-Field 3. Very low overhead mapping for both Ethernet and TDM traffic. With this technology. Figure 5: Native Microwave Radio Technology 2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 19 . Native2 ensures: Very low link latency of <0. to the microwave radio frame.2 Native2 Microwave Radio Technology At the heart of the IP-10 solution is Ceragon's market-leading Native2 microwave technology.15 msecs @ 400 Mbps.2. Neither traffic type is mapped over the other. In addition. while both dynamically share the same overall bandwidth. High precision native TDM synchronization distribution.

5. which may be from QPSK to 256 QAM.2. based on signal quality Adaptive Radio Tx Power per modulation for maximal system gain per working point Configurable drop priority between E1/T1 traffic and Ethernet traffic An integrated QoS mechanism enables intelligent congestion management to ensure that your high priority traffic is not affected during link fading Each E1/T1 is assigned a priority to enable differentiated E1/T1 dropping during severe link degradation Figure 6: Adaptive Coding and Modulation with 8 working points FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 20 . The benefits of this dynamic feature include: Maximized spectrum usage Increased capacity over a given bandwidth 8 modulation/coding work points (~3 db system gain for each point change) Supports both Ethernet and E1/T1 traffic Hitless and errorless modulation/coding changes.3 Adaptive Coding & Modulation ACM employs the highest possible modulation during changing environmental conditions.

an improvement factor of more than 20 dB is required so that cross-interference does not limit performance anymore.Polarization H . but using alternating polarities. While lower spectral efficiency systems (with low SNR requirements such as QPSK) can easily tolerate such interferences.4 Enhancing Spectral Efficiency using XPIC XPIC (Cross Polarization Interference Canceller) is one of the best ways to break the barriers of spectral efficiency.Polarization The relative level of interference is referred to as cross-polarization discrimination (XPD).2. higher modulation schemes cannot and require cross-polarization interference canceler (XPIC). a dual polarization radio transmits two separate carrier waves over the same frequency. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 21 . Despite its obvious advantages. Using dual-polarization radio over a single-frequency channel.5. This is done by adaptively subtracting from each carrier the interfering cross carrier. V . XPIC implementation involves system complexity and cost since the XPIC system requires each demodulator to cancel the other channel interference. The XPIC algorithm allows detection of both streams even under the worst levels of XPD such as 10 dB. at the right phase and level. For high-modulation schemes such as 256 QAM. one must also keep in mind that typical antennas cannot completely isolate the two polarizations.

The following table lists the different aspects of IP-10 functionality.5. support  Hierarchical scheduling schemes  Traffic shaping  Tail-drop or WRED  Advanced Ethernet statistics  802.1ag and Y.1ad provider bridges (QinQ)  Scalable nodal solution  Scalable networks (1000’s of NEs)  Wireless Ethernet Ring/Mesh support  802. EVPL and E-LAN) Scalability Quality of Service  Advanced CoS classification  Advanced traffic policing/rate-limiting  CoS based packet queuing/buffering with 8 queues Reliability Service Management  Extensive multilayer management capabilities  Ethernet service  Up to 500Mbps per radio carrier  Up to 1Gbps per channel (with XPIC)  Highly reliable & integrated design  Fully redundant 1+1/2+2 HSB & nodal configurations  Hit-less ACM (QPSK – 256QAM) for enhanced radio link availability  RSTP/MSTP  Multi-Radio  Integrated non-blocking switch with 4K VLANs OA&M – 802.In this mode. Standardized services  MEF-9 & MEF-14 certified for all service types (EPL.1731.2.5 Integrated Carrier Ethernet Switching IP-10 supports two modes for Ethernet switching: Smart Pipe . The unit effectively operates as a point-to-point Ethernet microwave radio.In this mode. Ethernet switching functionality is disabled and only a single Ethernet interface is enabled for user traffic.3ad link aggregation  Fast link state propagation  <50msec restoration time (typical)  Colorawareness (CIR/EIR support) FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 22 . Ethernet switching functionality is enabled. Carrier Ethernet Switch .

1p VLAN ID. Two levels of QoS are supported – “Standard QoS” and “Enhanced QoS”. IPv6 TC Per port.) SP.2.5. CoS and traffic type (Broadcast. Multicast. etc.6 Integrated Quality of Service (QoS) IP-10 integrated QoS enables support for differentiated Ethernet services with SLA assurance. VLAN 802. Multicast. Feature # of CoS queues per port Standard QoS 4 Source Port. etc. WRR or Hybrid Enhanced QoS* 8 Also: UDP port. IPv4 DSCP/TOS.) Hierarchical scheduling: 4 scheduling priorities + WFQ between queues in same priority Also: Statistics per CoS queue (Transmitted & Dropped frames) CoS classification criteria ingress traffic rate-limiting (policing) Scheduling method Ethernet statistics Shaping Congestion management CIR/EIR support (“Color-awareness” ) RMON Per port Tail-drop CIR only Also: per queue Also: Weighted Random Early Discard (WRED) CIR + EIR * A software license key is required to enable “Enhanced QoS” FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 23 . CoS and traffic type (Broadcast. The table below lists the main QoS features supported. MAC SA/DA. MPLS EXP bits Per port.

during which active modulation was below the user-configured threshold Utilization statistics: Maximal radio link utilization in an interval Average radio link utilization in an interval -# of seconds in an interval.7 Intelligent Ethernet Header Compression (patent-pending) Intelligent Ethernet Header Compression improves effective throughput by up to 45% and does not affect user traffic. during which radio link utilization was above the user-configured threshold 2.5.5. via its radio and Ethernet interfaces.5. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 24 .9 In-Band Management IP-10 can optionally be managed in-band. This method of management eliminates the need for a dedicated interface and network. Ethernet packet size (bytes) Capacity increase by compression 64 96 128 256 512 45% 29% 22% 11% 5% 2.8 Extensive Radio Capacity/Utilization Statistics Statistics are collected at 15-minute and 24-hour intervals Historical statistics are stored and made available when needed Capacity/ACM statistics: Maximum modulation in interval Minimum modulation in interval # of seconds in an interval. which is user-configurable. In-band management uses a dedicated management VLAN.2.

etc.05 msec per hop) Unique support ACM and narrow channels SyncE support (G. up to 84 E1s or 84 T1s per radio carrier.5.  Same 1RU IP-10 unit can be used for terminal and nodal solution  The solution is stackable and modular  Forms a single unified nodal device  Common Ethernet Switch  Common E1s Cross Connect  Single IP address  Single element to manage FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 25 .5. Any combinations of the following techniques can be used:   Synchronization using native E1/DS1 trails “PTP optimized transport” transport o o o  Support IEEE-1588. radio carriers.11 Integrated Nodal Solution The Nodal solution features integrated Native2 networking functionality between all ports/radios.8262) 2. with native Ethernet switching and native E1/Ti cross-connect.10 Synchronization Solution FibeAir IP-10 synchronization solution ensures maximum flexibility by enabling the operator to select any combination of techniques suitable for the network. NTP. Guaranteed ultra-low PDV (<0.2. including Cross-connect/switching elements. control/management elements. and TDM/Ethernet interfaces. and full high-availability support.

The stackable nodal solution offers many advantages. For green-field deployments:   Low initial investment without compromising future growth potential Risk-free deployment in face of unknown future growth pattern: o o o    Additional capacity Additional sites Additional redundancy

For migration/replacement deployments: Optimized tail-site solution Low initial foot-print required for node sites Additional foot-print only required gradually as legacy equipment is being swapped

2.5.12 TDM Cross-Connect Unit
The FibeAir IP-10 Cross Connect (XC) is a high-speed circuit connection scheme for transporting TDM traffic from any given port "x" to any given port "y". The system is composed of several inter-connected (stacked) IDUs, with integrated and centralized TDM traffic switching. The XC capacity is 180 E1 VCs (Virtual Containers) or 180 T1 VCs, whereby each E1/T1 interface or "logical interface" in a radio in any unit of the stack can be assigned to any VC. Integrated TDM Cross Connect is performed by defining end to end trails. Each trail consists of segments represented by Virtual Containers (VCs). The XC functions as the forwarding mechanism between the two ends of a trail.

FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 26

2.5.13 ABR - Capacity Doubling Innovation
Ceragon‟s native support for TDM traffic leverages the resiliency advantages of wireless SDH rings, with their intrinsic Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP) path-protection capabilities. In SNCP, information is redundantly transmitted on the ring in both “east” and “west” directions, while the receiver selects which transmission to receive. In today‟s super-competitive mobile industry, many carriers wish to reallocate the redundant protection bandwidth for other uses, such as low-priority, high-volume data transfer. The benefits are clear – exciting sales opportunities arise as newly-generated capacity can be sold to support the interpersonal communications shift to Facebook, as well as the ever-growing demand for YouTube access. No less importantly, this reallocation of bandwidth from TDM to Ethernet – and back – must be risk-free, with no interruption of revenue-generating services. In response to the needs described above, Ceragon proposes a novel approach to improve the efficiency of ring-based protection, using a technique called Protected Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (“ABR”), which enables full utilization of the bidirectional capabilities inherent in ring technologies. With ABR, the TDM-based information is transmitted in one direction only, while the unused protection capacity is allocated for Ethernet traffic. In the event of a failure, the unused capacity is re-allocated for TDM transmission. This technique extends the Native2 approach to dynamic allocation of link capacity between TDM and Ethernet flows to the network level.

Free bandwidth for broadband

E1 Main path

E1 alternate path. Reserved & allocated

Doubling capacity

E1 alternate reserved path, no allocated bandwidth

Conventional Protection
Based on SNCP 1+1 • Each E1/T1 flow consists of a primary and protection path • Both paths RESERVE & ALLOCATE capacity • All allocated bandwidth is consumed and cannot be used by other applications

ABR (Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery) Protection based on SNCP 1:1
• Each E1 flow consists of a primary and a protection path • Capacity is RESERVED but NOT ALLOCATED . Capacity allocation happens only on demand during failure • In normal state, primary path consumes capacity while the rest can be used for other applications, such as mobile broadband

ABR - Protect critical services. Free bandwidth for broadband

FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 27

3 Main Features
3.1 Adaptive Coding and Modulation
3.1.1 Overview
Adaptive Coding and Modulation refers to the automatic adjustment that a wireless system can make in order to optimize over-the-air transmission and prevent weather-related fading from causing communication on the link to be disrupted. When extreme weather conditions, such as a storm, affect the transmission and receipt of data and voice over the wireless network, an ACM-enabled radio system automatically changes modulation allowing real-time applications to continue to run uninterrupted. Varying the modulation also varies the amount of bits that are transferred per signal, thereby enabling higher throughputs and better spectral efficiencies. For example, a 256 QAM modulation can deliver approximately four times the throughput of 4 QAM (QPSK). Ceragon Networks employs full-range dynamic ACM in its new line of high-capacity wireless backhaul product - FibeAir IP-10. In order to ensure high transmission quality, Ceragon solutions implement hitless/errorless ACM that copes with 90 dB per second fading. A quality of service awareness mechanism ensures that high priority voice and data packets are never “dropped”, thus maintaining even the most stringent service level agreements (SLAs). The hitless/errorless functionality of Ceragon‟s ACM has another major advantage in that it ensures that TCP/IP sessions do not time-out. Lab simulations have shown that when short fades occur (for example if a system has to terminate the signal for a short time to switch between modulations) they may lead to timeout of the TCP/IP sessions – even when the interruption is only 50 milliseconds. TCP/IP timeouts are followed by a drastic throughput decrease over the time it takes for the TCP sessions to recover. This may take as long as several seconds. With a hitless/errorless ACM implementation this problem can be avoided. So how does it really work? Let's assume a system configured for 128 QAM with ~170 Mbps capacity over a 28 MHz channel. When the receive signal Bit Error Ratio (BER) level arrives at a predetermined threshold, the system will preemptively switch to 64 QAM and the throughput will be stepped down to ~140 Mbps. This is an errorless, virtually instantaneous switch. The system will then run at 64 QAM until the fading condition either intensifies, or disappears. If the fade intensifies, another switch will take the system down to 32 QAM. If, on the other hand, the weather condition improves, the modulation will be switched back to the next higher step (e.g. 128QAM) and so on, step by step .The switching will continue automatically and as quickly as needed, and can reach all the way down to QPSK during extreme conditions.

FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 28

Adaptive Modulation can work with them via the flow control mechanism supported in the radio. If the user wishes to rely on external switches QoS. All classes use 4 levels of prioritization with user selectable options between strict priority queuing and weighted fair queuing with user configurable weights.999 % QPSK 200 170 200 140 100 200 120 Unavailability 200 Mbps Capacity (@ 28 MHz channel) Figure 7: Adaptive Coding and Modulation 3. VLAN 802.2 Adaptive Modulation and Built-in Quality of Service Ceragon's Adaptive Modulation has a remarkable synergy with the equipment's built-in Layer 2 Quality of Service mechanism.1p.95 % 64 QAM 99.1. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 29 . The FibeAir IP-10 platform can classify packets according to the most external header.99 % 32 QAM 99.995 % 16 QAM 99.9 % 128 QAM 99.Rx level 256 QAM 99.IP precedence and VLAN ID. Since QoS provides priority support for different classes of service. TOS / TC . according to a wide range of criteria (see below) it is possible to configure the system to discard only low priority packets as conditions deteriorate.

operators can automatically adjust power levels. Figure 8: Ceragon’s unique ACM with Adaptive Power vs.1. optimizing the available capacity at every modulation point.3 ACM with Adaptive Tx Power When planning ACM-based radio links. in this case. most radio systems cannot increase transmit power to compensate for the signal degradation. plain ACM FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 30 . In the diagram. Ceragon‟s FibeAir IP-10 is capable of adjusting power on the fly. achieving the extra 4 dB system gain that is required to maintain optimal throughput levels under all conditions. 18 dB for all the other modulations as well.3. resulting in a deeper reduction in capacity. During fade conditions requiring a modulation drop. With FibeAir IP-10. it is shown that operators that want to use ACM to benefit from high levels of modulation (say. 256 QAM) will have to settle for low system gain. the radio planner attempts to apply the lowest transmit power that will perform satisfactorily at the highest level of modulation. as illustrated in Figure 8: below.

1. Optimally. while other. one E1/DS1 can be given a higher priority connection to maintain synchronization and a minimum level of service at all times (higher than five-9s). one of the channels can be given a higher priority in order to maintain network synchronization as well as a minimum level of service. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 31 . Both E1/DS1 and Ethernet services can have configurable priority. Additional data E1/DS1s are easily offloaded in this virtual link to a channel offering slightly lower availability. this model can still be effectively applied. It is important to note that it is possible to define packet-based services at a higher priority than for TDM services. best-effort data services are forwarded over legacy TDM networks. When more than one E1/DS1 channel is connected to a cell site. When migrating to a packet network.3. as some real-time services may run on new Ethernet ports. TDM/packet model. Using Ceragon‟s innovative Native2 migration solution. The rest of the E1s/DS1s may be associated with a lower priority. An operator may increase capacity on an existing link while maintaining the same availability for its existing revenuegenerating services. The rest of the E1/DS1 channels may be forwarded at a lower priority. Figure 9: Ceragon’s unique Adaptive Coding & Modulation adaption for TDM There are substantial benefits to be reaped from applying ACM in TDM networks as well.4 ACM for E1/DS1 services Another unique advantage of the FibeAir system is its ability to use these sophisticated adaptive techniques also in a hybrid. in which TDM and Ethernet traffic is natively and simultaneously carried over a single microwave link.

the number of traffic flows or on their momentary traffic capacity. Typical 2+0 “multi-radio” Link Configuration F1 + F2 GE/FE (protected) 2+2 Up to 1Gbps F1 + F2 FE connection for HSB protection signaling Typical 2+2 “multi-radio” Terminal Configuration with HSB protection FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 32 . Traffic is divided among the two carriers optimally at the radio frame level without requiring Ethernet Link Aggregation.3.2 Multi-Radio with ACM support When operating in a dual-carrier configuration the system can be optionally configured to work in “multiradio” mode. While in this mode. increasing capacity over a given bandwidth and maximizing spectrum utilization. traffic load is balanced based on instantaneous radio capacity per carrier and is independent of data/application characteristics (# of flows. each carrier fluctuates independently with hitless switchovers between modulations. and is not dependent on the number of MAC addresses. During fading events which causes ACM modulation changes. capacity per flow etc.). The result is 100% utilization of radio resources.

the interference that results may lead to BER in the desired channel. section D. (ETSI EN 302 217-2-2 V1. XPIC implementation involves system complexity and cost since the XPIC system requires each demodulator to cancel the other channel interference. The relative level of interference is referred to as cross-polarization discrimination (XPD).1 Implementation In a single channel application.1. an improvement factor of more than 20 dB is required so that cross-interference does not limit performance anymore. However. These polarizations. the required co-channel interference sensitivity is 37 dB. The ETSI standard specifies that for systems that carry a bit rate of STM-1 (155Mb/s) over a channel separation of 27.3 (2004-12).3) This means that if the interfering channel is 37 dB below the desired channel. Figure 10: XPIC .3. making cross-polarization interferences unavoidable. the typical antennas cannot completely isolate the two polarizations.3. in order to prevent interferences between the two transmitters. in theory. are orthogonal to each other.4. 3. This is done by adaptively subtracting from each carrier the interfering cross carrier. higher modulation schemes cannot and require cross-polarization interference canceller (XPIC).Orthogonal polarizations FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 33 .3 XPIC support Using dual-polarization radio over a single-frequency channel means transmission of two separate carrier waves over the same frequency. but using alternating polarities. as shown in the figure below . when an interfering channel is transmitted on the same bandwidth as the desired channel. While lower spectral efficiency systems (with low SNR requirements such as QPSK) can easily tolerate such interferences. propagation effects such as rain can cause polarization rotation. the receiver will be at a threshold of BER=10e-6. When applying XPIC.5 MHz. For high-modulation schemes such as 256 QAM. at the right phase and level. and isolation better than 30 dB is hard to achieve. In addition. Ceragon products support a co-channel sensitivity of 33 dB at a BER of 10e-6. The XPIC algorithm allows detection of both streams even under the worst levels of XPD such as 10 dB. the system transmits the data using two polarizations: horizontal and vertical.

misalignments and/or channel degradation impact Note that at the right side of the figure you can see that “CarrierR” receives the “H+v” signal. The XPIC mechanism takes the data from “CarrierR” and “CarrierL” and.1.5. with or without the XPIC mechanism. and due to misalignments and/or channel degradation. there is a separation of 30 dB of the antenna between the polarizations. for the system to be at a BER of 10e-6. the polarizations are no longer orthogonal. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 34 .3 (2004-12). using a cost function. This is shown in the following illustration.In a link installation. According to the ESTI standard. produces the desired data. The XPIC mechanism takes the data from “CarrierR” and “CarrierL” and. (ETSI EN 302 217-2-1 V1. using a cost function. Figure 11: XPIC .1). The same happens in “CarrierL” = “V+h”. the limits of the co-channel interference sensitivity are 17 dB at 1 dB degradation and 13 dB at 3 dB degradation. section 6. which is the combination of the desired signal “H” (horizontal) and the interfering signal “V” (in lower case.misalignments and/or channel degradation impact Ceragon XPIC reaches a BER of 10e-6 at a co-channel sensitivity of 5 dB! The improvement factor in an XPIC system is defined as the SNR@threshold of 10e-6. produces the desired data. Figure 12: XPIC .2. to denote that it is the interfering signal).

as shown at Figure 4b. The latest case requires a de-multiplexer to split the stream into two transmitters.2 XPIC and Multi-Radio XPIC radio may be used to deliver two separate data streams. delivering a single data stream ("Multi-Radio") V data stream De-Mux V transmitter H transmitter H OMT OMT V reciever xpic H reciever Alignment & Mux data stream Figure 13: (a) XPIC system delivering two independent data streams. (a) XPIC system.3. (b) XPIC system delivering a single data stream (multi-radio). delivering two independant data streams V data stream 1 data stream 2 V transmitter H transmitter H OMT OMT V reciever xpic H reciever data stream 1 data stream 2 (b) XPIC system. such as 2xSTM1 or 2xFE.3. But it can also deliver a single stream of information such as gigabit Ethernet. This feature is called “Multi-radio". or STM-4. as shown at Figure 4a. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 35 . and it also needs a multiplexer to join it again in the right timing because the different channels may experience a different delay.

is currently the primary focus of carrier Ethernet activity. The first native Ethernet services to emerge were point to point-based. Services were first defined and limited to metro area networks. the goal of one particular standards organization is to accelerate the development and deployment of services that live up to the name. It defines native Ethernet packet access to the Internet and is today being deployed more and more in wireless networks. Figure 14: E-Line Service Type FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 36 . The term "carrier Ethernet" implies that Ethernet services are "carrier grade". which uses IP Layer 3 MPLS forwarding.4. Carrier Ethernet is poised to become the major component of next-generation metro area networks. which serve as the aggregation layer between customers and core carrier networks.3.999%)" uptime. They have now been extended across wide area networks and are available worldwide from many service providers.1 Carrier Grade Ethernet Carrier Ethernet is a high speed medium for MANs (Metro Area Networks). and Ethernet Internet access. virtual private lines.4 Integrated Carrier Ethernet support 3. Although it is debatable whether carrier Ethernet will reach that level of reliability. to describe services that achieve "five nines (99. followed by emulated LAN (multipoint to multipoint-based). A metro Ethernet network. The benchmark for carrier grade was set by the legacy TDM telephony networks. The standard service types for Carrier Ethernet include: E-Line Service: This service is employed for Ethernet private lines.

and other services. In addition. WiMAX. Access networks employ Ethernet to provide backhaul for IP DSLAMs. offer new revenue streams. Flexible Layer 2 VPN services. Figure 15: E-LAN Service Type 3. The five attributes include: Standardized Services Quality of Service (QoS) Service Management Scalability Reliability 3.1. such as private line. transparent LAN service. and direct Ethernet over fiber/copper. and launched a Carrier Ethernet Certification Program to facilitate delivery of services to end users. The MEF 6 specification defines carrier Ethernet as "A ubiquitous. a reduction in cost is achieved through converged networks for VoIP. or emulated LAN.2 The Benefits For service providers. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 37 . In 2005. data. virtual private line. PON. video conferencing.4. carrier-class Service and Network defined by five attributes that distinguish it from familiar LAN based Ethernet". foundation for IPTV. Ethernet standardization reduces network complexity.1 Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) is a global industry alliance started in 2001.1.4. For Enterprises.E-LAN Service: This service is employed for multipoint L2 VPNs. the MEF committed to this new carrier standard. standardized. and multicast networks. the technology convergence of Carrier Ethernet ensures a decrease in CAPEX and OPEX.

FibeAir IP-10 is equipped with an extensive Carrier Ethernet feature set which eliminates the need for an external switch. IP-10 Ethernet User Interfaces Carrier Ethernet Switch Radio Interface Metro Switch Mode Smart Pipe .3. only a single Ethernet interface is enabled for user traffic and IP-10 acts as a point-topoint Ethernet microwave radio.Carrier Ethernet is active. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 38 .4.2 Carrier Ethernet solution overview Ceragon's FibeAir IP-10 includes a built-in Carrier Ethernet switch. The switch operates in one of two modes: Carrier Ethernet Switch . IP-10 Ethernet User Interface Radio Interface Smart Pipe Mode Using Smart Pipe.Carrier Ethernet is not active.

<50 msec restoration time (typical) .Scalable networks (1000s of NEs) Advanced CoS classification Advanced traffic policing/rate-limiting CoS based packet queuing/buffering Flexible scheduling schemes Traffic shaping Quality of Service (QoS) Reliability .1ad provider bridges (QinQ) . and ELAN) .256 QAM) for enhanced radio link availability .Hitless ACM (QPSK .Extensive multi-layer management capabilities .Highly reliable & integrated design .Advanced Ethernet statistics Service Management FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 39 .4.Fast link state propagation .802. The program covers the following areas: MEF-9: Service certification MEF-14: Traffic management and service performance FibeAir IP-10 is fully MEF-9 & MEF-14 certified for all Carrier Ethernet services (E-Line & E-LAN).Integrated non-blocking switch with 4K VLANs . MANs.3ad link aggregation . in each category: Standardized Services Scalability MEF-9 and MEF-14 certified for all service types (EPL.Fully redundant 1+1 HSB & nodal configurations .802. and WANs.Up to 500 Mbps per radio carrier .Scalable nodal solution .Wireless Ethernet Ring (RSTP based) .3 MEF Certified The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) runs a Certification Program with the aim of promoting the deployment of Carrier Ethernet in Access Networks. EVPL. The program offers certification for Carrier Ethernet equipment supplied to service providers.3.802. IP-10 meets all Carrier Ethernet Service specifications.1ag Ethernet service OA&M .

Basically. The number of levels depends on the router. including generated by applications themselves. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 40 . and then goes down the line in priority until it runs out of data to send. Importance is determined by the priority of the packet. calculates how much of the highest priority data it has. QoS works by slowing unimportant packets down. As the names imply. Two levels of QoS are supported in IP-10 – “Standard QoS” and “Enhanced QoS”.3.4 Integrated QoS Support 3. Ethernet Port. and TCP/IP Port. QoS packets may be prioritized by a number of criteria. or. while High/Premium packets get the highest priority. or the buffer fills up.4. in cases of extreme network traffic. then using any leftover space to fill the pipe in descending order of importance. puts that in the buffer. Any excess data is held back or "re-queued" at the front of the line. it can "shape" traffic by delaying unimportant packets and "filling the pipe" with important packets first. Low/Bulk priority packets get the lowest priority. but the most common techniques are MAC Address.4. Since QoS cannot speed up packets. once the router knows how much data it can queue on the modem at any given time. where it will be evaluated in the next pass.1 Overview QoS is a method of classifications and scheduling employed to ensure that Ethernet packets are forwarded and discarded according to their priority. it takes the total available upstream bandwidth.4. discarding them entirely. This leaves room for important packets to reach their destination as quickly as possible.

Figure 16: Smart Pipe Mode QoS Traffic Flow 3.4. Figure 17: Metro Switch Mode QoS Traffic Flow FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 41 .3 Carrier Ethernet Switch Mode QoS Traffic Flow The following illustration shows the QoS flow of traffic with IP-10 operating in Metro Switch mode.4.4.2 Smart Pipe Mode QoS Traffic Flow The following illustration shows the QoS flow of traffic with IP-10 operating in Smart Pipe mode.4.3.

Then.4. Shaping is supported per interface on egress FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 42 .4. the next lowest priority queue‟s frames egress. This approach ensures that high priority frames are always transmitted as soon as possible.3. Hybrid: One or two highest priority queues as "strict" and the other according to WRR.4 Standard QoS .Queuing and Scheduling The system has four priority queues that are served according to three types of scheduling. as follows: Strict priority: all top priority frames egress towards the radio until the top priority queue is empty. and so on. The user has the following classification options: Source Port VLAN 802.5 Standard QoS . low priority packets will be discarded first. In case of congestion in the ingress port.4. 3.Traffic Classification and Policing The system examines the incoming traffic and assigns the desired priority according to the marking of the packets (based on the user port/L2/L3 marking in the packet). Weighted Round Robin (WRR): each queue can be assigned with a user-configurable weight from 1 to 32.4.1p VLAN ID MAC SA/DA IPv4 TOS/DSCP IPv6 Traffic Class After classification traffic policing/rate-limiting can optionally be applied per port/CoS.

4.3.1p bit in the frame VLAN header (optional). It is supported in both “Smart Pipe” and “Carrier Ethernet Switch” modes. Configurable frame buffer size per queue Congestion management o Tail-drop or WRED o Color awareness (EIR/CIR support) Tx and dropped traffic counters per queue Hierarchical scheduling scheme o 4 scheduling priorities (each queue can be independently configured to any of the 4 priorities) o WFQ between queues in same priority with configurable weights Shaping per port and per queue       FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 43 . o Criteria – Same as standard QoS with addition of:  MPLS EXP bits  UDP port Remarking of 802. The following main features are supported:   8 queues Classification o Classifier assigns each frame a queue + CIR/EIR designation.4.6 Enhanced QoS “Enhanced QoS” is additional functionality that can optionally be enabled (requires SW license key) on the egress path towards the radio interface in addition to the “standard QoS” processing.

5 Ethernet Statistics The FibeAir IP-10 platform stores and displays statistics in accordance with RMON and RMON2 standards.3. The following groups of statistics can be displayed: Ingress line receive statistics Ingress radio transmit statistics Egress radio receive statistics Egress line transmit statistics The statistics that can be displayed within each group include the following: Ingress Line Receive Statistics Sum of frames received without error Sum of octets of all valid received frames Number of frames received with a CRC error Number of frames received with alignment errors Number of valid received unicast frames Number of valid received multicast frames Number of valid received broadcast frames Number of packets received with less than 64 octets Number of packets received with more than 12000 octets (programmable) Frames (good and bad) of 64 octets Frames (good and bad) of 65 to 127 octets Frames (good and bad) of 128 to 256 octets Frames (good and bad) of 256 to 511 octets Frames (good and bad) of 512 to 1023 octets Frames (good and bad) of 1024 to 1518 octets Frames (good and bad) of 1519 to 12000 octets Ingress Radio Transmit Statistics Sum of frames transmitted to radio Sum of octets transmitted to radio Number of frames dropped Egress Radio Receive Statistics Sum of valid frames received by radio Sum of octets of all valid received frames Sum of all frames received with errors Egress Line Transmit Statistics FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 44 .4.

All counters can be cleared simultaneously.Sum of valid frames transmitted to line Sum of octets transmitted Notes: Statistic parameters are polled each second.four utilizations: ingress line receive. from system startup. egress radio receive. ingress radio transmit.ingress line receive FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 45 . The following statistics are displayed every 15 minutes (in the Radio and E1/T1 performance monitoring windows): o o o Utilization . egress radio receive Seconds with errors . and egress line transmit Packet error rate .ingress line receive.

6 Ethernet resilient networks support IP-10 supports the following Ethernet resiliency protocols:  RSTP (802. or the need for manual enabling/disabling of the backup links. before each bridge propagates the information. and scalability. FibeAir IP-10 is a superb choice for Carrier Ethernet ring development. and processing of the BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units). The backup paths can be included with no danger of bridge loops. 3.4. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 46 .6. and a self-healing architecture that can repair potential problems before they reach end users. For this reason. providers are able to expand their LANs to WANs. stability. By implementing Carrier-Class Ethernet rings. and therefore more than one bridge with ports in a blocking state. performance. Such rings are designed for increased capacity.4. This "serial" processing increases the convergence time. which makes it sub-optimal to ring topologies. needed for cases in which an active link fails.6.1s) 3. and a reduction in costs. RSTP/MSTP defines a negotiation protocol between each two bridges.4.3. redundancy throughout the core.2 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Rings Carrier-class Ethernet rings offer topologies built for resiliency.1w)  Carrier Ethernet Wireless Ring-optimized RSTP  MSTP (802. Spanning tree allows a network design to include spare (redundant) links for automatic backup paths. with beneficial increased value.1 RSTP/MSTP support RSTP/MSTP (Rapid/Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) ensures a loop-free topology for any bridged LAN. In a general topology. RSTP/MSTP algorithms are designed to create loop-free topologies in any network design. there can be more than one loop. Bridge loops must be avoided since they result in network "flooding". distribution and access.

4.3 Basic IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring The following illustration is a basic example of an IP-10 wireless Carrier Ethernet ring.6. Figure 18: Basic IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 47 .3.

4 IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring with "Dual-Homing" (redundant site connection to fiber aggregation network) Figure 19: IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring with "Dual-Homing" FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 48 .3.4.6.

Aggregation Site Figure 21: IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring .IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring .1+0 IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring .1+0 Figure 20: IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring .Aggregation Site FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 49 .

We can therefore enhance the protocol for ring topologies.3. only one port is in a blocking state. Figure 22: Ring-optimized RSTP Solution FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 50 . Ceragon's ring solution enhances the RSTP algorithm for ring topologies. and can reach Gigabit capacity in a 2+0 configuration with XPIC. A typical ring constructed by IP10 is shown in the following illustration. the bridges that have ports in alternate states immediately place them in the forwarding state. and transmit the notification of the failure to all bridges in the ring (by broadcasting the BPDU). the failure is propagated in parallel to all bridges. In this way. Ceragon's IP-10 supports native Ethernet rings of up to 500 Mbps in 1+0. Ceragon's IP-10 G supports Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring topologies.4. after the convergence of RSTP.6. The following illustration shows an example of such a ring. Instead of serially propagation link by link. so that failure propagation is much faster than the regular RSTP.5 Carrier Ethernet Wireless Ring-optimized RSTP – Theory of operation In a ring topology.

The standard facilitates the discovery and verification of a path through 802.1 Overview FibeAir IP-10 provides complete OA&M functionality at multiple layers. including: Alarms and events Maintenance signals (LOS.1 bridges and local area networks (LANs). Defines the relationship between maintenance domains and the services offered by VLAN-aware bridges and provider bridges.3. Describes the protocols and procedures used by maintenance points to maintain and diagnose connectivity faults within a maintenance domain. AIS. link trace.7 End to End Multi-Layer OA&M 3.4. FibeAir IP-10 utilizes these protocols to maintain smooth system operation and non-stop data flow. IEEE 802.1ag standard defines Service Layer OAM (Connectivity Fault Management). RDI. …) Performance monitoring Maintenance commands (Loopbacks.1ag Ethernet CFM (Connectivity Fault Management) protocols consist of three protocols that operate together to aid in debugging Ethernet networks: continuity check.7.4. APS commands. Provides means for future expansion of the capabilities of maintenance points and their protocols.7. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 51 . the standard: Defines maintenance domains.2 Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) The IEEE 802. and the managed objects required to create and administer them.4. …) Figure 23: OA&M Functionality 3. In addition. and loopback. their constituent maintenance points.

4. Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10 Figure 24: Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 52 . The second and third illustrations show how IP-10 handles a node failure.3.8 FibeAir IP-10 Carrier Ethernet Services Example The following is a series of illustrations showing how FibeAir IP-10 is used to facilitate Carrier Ethernet Services.

Node Failure FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 53 .Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10 .Node Failure Figure 25: Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10 .

Node Failure (continued) Figure 26: Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10 .Node Failure (continued) FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 54 .Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10 .

each IDU can be considered a "blade" within a nodal enclosure. 1+1. and radio and line interfaces. TDM traffic cross-connect. management. The role an IDU plays is determined during installation by its position in the traffic interconnection topology.1 IP-10 Nodal Design Each IDU can be configured as a "main" or "extension" unit. and 2+0/XPIC.5. 3. A main unit includes a Central controller. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 55 . The role an IDU plays is determined during installation by its position in the traffic interconnection topology.5 Integrated Nodal Solution Up to six IP-10 Native2 radios can be stacked with FibeAir IP-10 operating within nodal enclosures. A main unit includes the following functions: Central controller. This configuration supports any combination of 1+0. The same IP-10 unit can be used for both terminal and nodal solutions.3. An extension unit includes radio and line interfaces. management TDM traffic cross-connect Radio and line interfaces An extension unit includes the following functions: Radio and line interfaces IP-10 design for the nodal solution is based on a "blade" approach. Each IDU can be configured as a "main" or "extension" unit. Viewing the unit from the rear.

The solution is stackable and modular and forms a single unified nodal device.Figure 27: IP-10 Rear View Figure 28: IP-10 Nodal Enclosure A "blade" can operate as a stand-alone unit at a tail site. and efficient installation. and expansion. for optimum economical future upgrade. and a single element to manage. single IP address. with a common Ethernet Switch. The "rack chassis" is also modular. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 56 . common E1 Cross-Connect. network design flexibility. maintenance.

3 IP-10 Nodal Stacking Method IP-10 can be stacked using 2RU nodal enclosures. Up to six 1RU units (three adapters) can be stacked to form a single unified nodal device. the stacking concept offers Low initial investment without compromising future growth potential. Each enclosure includes two slots for hot-swappable 1RU units. or single fullyredundant 1+1 HSB links.5. Units located in nodal enclosures other than the one on the bottom act as expansion units. and an optional standby main unit can be installed in the other slot. Radios in each pair of units can be configured as either dual independent 1+0 links. additional sites. Figure 29: IP-10 Stacking Method FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 57 . Using the stacking method.2 IP-10 Nodal Stacking Concept – Advantages For migration. including additional capacity.3. 3. Additional nodal enclosures and units can be added in the field as required. units in the bottom nodal enclosure act as main units. The switchover time is <50 msecs for all traffic affecting functions. the stacking concept offers an optimized tail-site solution and low initial foot-print requirement for node sites. whereby a mandatory active main unit can be located in either of the two slots.5. Additional foot-print is only required gradually as legacy equipment is being swapped For Greenfield. without affecting traffic. and additional redundancy. and Risk-free deployment in face of unknown future growth pattern.

Figure 30: Extension Nodal Enclosure Figure 31: Main Nodal Enclosure The nodal enclosure is a scalable unit. Figure 32: Scalable Nodal Enclosure FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 58 .5.3.4 Nodal Enclosure Design The following photos show the Nodal Enclosures and how they are stacked. Each enclosure can be added to another enclosure for modular rack installation.

5. Other features are configured individually in each extension unit: radio parameters. the management system provides access to other network equipment through in-band or outof-band network management. 3. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 59 . Ethernet switch configuration. the system time should be synchronized to the main unit‟s time. The node has a single IP management address. sending to radio) is performed by the switches. The main unit‟s control CPU is the node‟s central controller. in accordance with learning tables. Traffic flow (dropping to local ports. To ease the reading and analysis of several IDU alarms and logs.3.5.5 Nodal Solution Management The nodal solution management enables users to control the node as an integrated system. user registration. Feature Configuration Some features configuration is done through the main unit only: TDM XC. and provides the means for the exchange of information between the IDUs in the stack. Each IDU in the stack can individually be configured for "smart pipe" or "carrier Ethernet switch" modes. which is the address of the main unit (two addresses in case of main unit protection). Several methods can be used for IP-10 node management: Local terminal CLI CLI via telnet Web based management SNMP PolyView NMS represents the node as a single unit The Web EMS allows access to all IDUs in the stack from main window In addition. and all management frames received from or sent to external management applications must pass through it. alarms. The node is managed in an integrated manner through centralized management channels. login.6 Nodal solution Ethernet connectivity Ethernet traffic in a nodal configuration is supported by interconnecting IDU switches with external cables.

6 Cross-Connect (XC) Unit 3. XC functionality is fully flexible. The XC capacity is 180 E1 VCs or 180 T1 VCs. trails are defined from one end of a line to the other. can be connected. If a failure occurs. Each VC is timed independently by the XC. The XC forwards signals generated by the radios to/from the IDUs based on their designated VCs.3. VC 3 to Radio 4. or radio "logical interfaces". Each trail consists of segments represented by Virtual Containers (VCs). As in the example. Integrated TDM Cross Connect is performed by defining end to end trails.6. the backup main unit takes over (<50 msecs down time). The XC functions as the forwarding mechanism between the two ends of a trail. VC 1. Each E1/T1 interface or "logical interface" in a radio in any unit in the stack can be assigned to any VC. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 60 . Basic XC Operation As shown in the illustration.1 XC Basics E1/T1 VC (Virtual Container) trails are supported. The XC is performed between two interfaces or "logical interfaces" with the same VC. The XC (cross-connect) function is performed by the active main unit. The following illustration shows the basic XC concept. The cross connect may forward signals on Trail C from Radio 1. based on the integrated E1/T1 cross-connect. Any pair of E1/T1 interfaces.

The XC capacity is 180 E1/T1 bi-directional VC trails.3.2 XC Features Cross Connect system highlights include: E1/T1 trails are supported based on the integrated E1/T1 cross-connect XC capacity is 180 E1/T1 trails XC is performed between any two physical or logical interfaces in the node. the backup main unit takes over (<50 msecs down time). backup main unit takes over (<50 msecs down time) Modularity and flexibility Modular design: pay-as-you-grow Simplicity. Multi-Radio. Each VC trail is timed independently by the XC. XC is performed between any two physical or logical interfaces in the node (in any main or expansion unit) such as E1/T1 interface. including: E1/T1 interface Radio “VC” (84 “VCs” supported per radio carrier) STM1/OC3 mux VC12 Each trail is timed independently by the XC XC function is performed by the “active” main unit In a failure occurs.6. radio VC (84 VCs supported per radio carrier). and Diversity The cross connect function provides connectivity for the following types of configurations: Line to Radio STM1/OC3 Interface Radio to Radio Line to Line STM1/OC3 Interface E1/T1 E1/T1 Interface s Interfaces E1/T1 trails are supported based on the integrated E1/T1 cross-connect (XC). FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 61 . backplane) Supports XPIC. The function is performed by the “active” main unit. and STM1/OC3 mux VC11/VC12. If a failure occurs. with minimum components (IDU.

) Trace ID for provisioning mismatch detection. Additional PM functionality provides end-to-end monitoring over data sent in a trail over the network.For each trail. RDI. but its identity across the network is maintained by a “Trail ID” defined by the user.3 TDM Trail Status Handling For trouble shooting end-to-end E1/T1 trails across the network. the following end-to-end OA&M functions are supported: Alarms and maintenance signals (AIS. A VC overhead is added to each VC trail to support the end-to-end OA&M functionality and synchronization justification requirements. additional PM (performance monitoring) is necessary. SES. A trail is defined as E1/T1 data delivered unchanged from one line interface to another. The following illustration is an example of XC aggregation: STM1/OC3 Interface IP-10 Integrated XC IP-10 integrated STM1/OC3 Mux MW Radio Link E1/T1 interfaces E1/T1 interfaces E1/T1 interfaces 3. etc. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 62 .6. through one or more radio links. data can be assigned to a different VC number.) Performance monitoring counters (ES. etc. In each node along the trail path. UAS.

With Wireless SNCP. For each backup VC. duplication of the traffic from the main VC to the backup VC. Wireless SNCP operation is shown in the following illustration.3. selection of traffic from either the main VC or the backup VC. E1 IP-10 B Backup VC Main VC IP-10 A E1 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 63 .6.4 Wireless SNCP IP-10 supports an integrated VC trail protection mechanism called Wireless SNCP (Sub network Connection Protection). At the second branching point. a backup VC trail can optionally be defined for each individual VC trail. Traffic from the backup VC is used if a failure is detected in main VC. the following is performed independently: At the first branching point. A path for the backup VC (typically separate from the path of the main VC that it is protecting). the following needs to be defined: Two “branching points” from the main VC that it is protecting. For each direction of the backup VC. Switch-over is performed within <50 msecs.

IP-10 Integrated XC IP-10 D IP-10 integrated STM-1/OC-3 mux STM1/OC3 fiber link E1 #2 IP-10 C IP-10 A MW radio link IP-10 B E1 #1 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 64 . Thits feature provides a fully integrated solution for protected E1/T1 services over a mixed wirelessoptical network.4.6.1 Support for Wireless SNCP in a Mixed Wireless-Optical Network Wireless SNCP is supported over fiber links using IP-10 STM-1/OC-3 mux interfaces.For each main VC trail. the branching points can be any XC node along the path of the trail. IP-10 D IP-10 B E1 #2 IP-10 C IP-10 A E1 #2 E1 #1 IP-10 B E1 #1 3.

mesh.6. A notification is sent to the management station when an automatic switch occurs.4.3. In the FibeAir product line. this capability is provided at the points where trails leave sub networks. The status of the selectors and the sub network connections are displayed on the NMS screen.4.2 TDM Rings SNCP replaces a failed sub network connection with a standby sub network connection. The NMS provides Manual switch to protection and Protection lockout commands. tree) All traffic distribution patterns are supported (excels in hub traffic concentration) Any mix of protected and non-protected trails is supported No hard limit on the number of nodes in a ring Simple provisioning of protection Performance Non traffic-affecting switching to protection (<50 msec) Switch to protection is done at the E1/T1 VC trail level. the scheme used is 1+1 singled-ended. and the protection lockout is not in effect. 3. works perfectly with ACM (no need to switch the entire traffic on a link) Optimal latency under protection Interoperability Protection is done at the end points. The switching criterion is based on SNCP/I.6.3 Wireless SNCP Advantages Flexibility All network topologies are supported (ring. independent of equipment/vendor networks Interoperable with networks that use other types of protection (such as BLSR) FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 65 . If neither AIS nor LOP faults are detected. This protocol specifies that automatic switching is performed if an AIS or LOP fault is detected in the working sub network connection.

Some microwave equipment vendors. the unused capacity is re-allocated for TDM transmission. without the need for external networking equipment such as switches and routers.1 Ethernet & Spanning Tree Protocol The rapid advance in Ethernet-based technologies has made the eventual migration of transport networks from SONET/SDH to packet a foregone conclusion. a range of alternative protection schemes are available for implementation.7. This technique extends the Native2 approach to dynamic allocation of link capacity between TDM and Ethernet flows to the network level. ring-based transport networks. With ABR. using a technique called Protected Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (“ABR”). we take a closer look at this solution.2. In this paper. While Pseudowire helped accomplish the goal of creating an Ethernet infrastructure for TDM services. For example. the widely-implemented SNCP 1+1 unidirectional protection scheme. while the unused protection capacity is allocated for Ethernet traffic. which enables full utilization of the bidirectional capabilities inherent in ring technologies. while adhering to the logical tree structure required by Ethernet networks. by creating TDM tunnels over the PSN.7. This move to packet transport has challenged the Ethernet community to exploit the resilience benefits of the physical ring structure. The techniques are described in the following sections. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 66 . as illustrated in the figure below. In the event of a failure. This logical tree topology increases the ring‟s efficiency. allowing operators to leverage the bidirectional characteristic of the ring in order to double its bandwidth capacity. 3. Pseudowire.7 ABR (Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery) 3. A number of techniques have been devised for recovering and utilizing the lost bandwidth.2 Comparing Ring Protection Schemes Having selected a ring topology for wireless backhauling. 3. and at the technologies that are used to implement it.3. These networks use a ring-optimized RSTP to form a logical tree over the physical wireless ring. the emulation of a native service over a Packet Switched Network (PSN). thus ensuring a loop-free topology and avoiding broadcast storms. which requires the simultaneous transmission of information in both directions on the ring. vendors have had to adopt Pseudowire technologies. In order to forward TDM-based traffic over Ethernet-based rings. it significantly raised network cost and reduced total capacity due to the heavy encapsulation requirements. causes a loss of up to 50% of the ring‟s total bandwidth capacity. the TDM-based information is transmitted in one direction only. including Ceragon.7. A major drawback of ring topology is the allocation of redundant bandwidth in order to ensure network availability.1 Overview Ceragon proposes a novel approach to improve the efficiency of ring-based protection. is used to map Legacy TDM or ATM services (such as E1 traffic). These conflicting requirements have led to the development and widespread adoption of the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and its variations. are able to provide complete.

in which both Carrier Ethernet and TDM traffic are carried natively over microwave links without using expensive encapsulation methods – resulting in significant cost savings.Doubling Ring Capacity using Spanning Tree Protocol 3. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 67 . the amount of redundant protection-path bandwidth can be significantly minimized. Native2 allows unparalleled flexibility in the dynamic allocation of the link‟s bandwidth into TDM and Ethernet flows. The bandwidth available to each flow can be easily re-allocated in real time using Ceragon‟s PolyView™ Network Management System – without resetting the link! As the volume of data transfer in mobile networks continues to grow. while smoothing the way to a future all-IP network.2 Hybrid TDM & Ethernet Systems Hybrid systems that support the native transmission of both TDM and Ethernet flows can also be used to reduce wasted protection bandwidth.7. By limiting native TDM traffic to a minimum. Ceragon‟s Native2 (“Native Squared”) migration strategy offers a unique hybrid approach.2. the percentage of time-critical voice & TDM traffic in these networks continues to drop.

3.7.2.3 Legacy TDM Systems As the trend toward packet-based networks gains momentum, there remains a huge demand for legacy E1 transport solutions that offer path protection. A variety of protection schemes are listed here: Diverse Path. Usually involving redundant equipment and/or links, this scheme depends on the availability of alternative ports, cell sites, and base stations. Bidirectional Line Switch Ring (BLSR). A bidirectional ring, in which logical “working” and “protection” rings forward traffic in opposite directions. Protection switching is performed on a per-link basis (not per E1), and is often wasteful of bandwidth capacity, while possibly increasing delay. SNCP 1+1 Unidirectional Protection. The most widely implemented of ring-based protection schemes. Each E1 flow consists of a primary path and a protection or standby path, represented in Error! Reference source not found. by the blue arrow and the green arrow, respectively. SNCP 1:1 Based. A protection scheme developed exclusively by Ceragon Networks (and described in detail in this paper). Each E1 flow consists of a primary path, and a protection path whose bandwidth is used for protection signaling and Ethernet traffic, represented in Error! Reference source not found. by the blue arrow and the gray-white arrow, respectively.

Protection based on SNCP 1+1

Protection based on SNCP 1:1

Graphical Depiction of TDM Ring Protection Schemes

FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 68

3.7.2.4 Comparison of Protection Mechanisms The following table compares each of the TDM-based ring protection schemes in regard to resiliency and capacity:

Protection Scheme
Diverse Path

Resilience
Handled at cell site or base station and core sites. Very Fast. Protection is per-link, and not per E1. Risk of increased delay and delay variation. Very Fast. Phone service and synchronization not affected. Very Fast. Phone and synchronization not affected.

Capacity Requirements
No spare capacity requirement. Some spare capacity is required. For 100% recovery, ring must reserve 50% spare capacity. No spare capacity requirement.

BLSR

SNCP 1+1 Unidirectional ABR (SNCP 1:1 Bidirectional)

Protection Scheme Comparison

These protections schemes must be able to deal with additional challenges that add complexity to TDM ring protection: Hybrid Fiber/Microwave Rings. Microwave rings containing fiber segments must be able to propagate E1 frames, fault indications, and other signals vital to the network. Dual Homing. Protection rings remain vulnerable in situations where a fiber node suffers an equipment failure. In order to ensure network availability, protection schemes must be able to handle the forwarding of primary and standby transmissions from 2 different points of entry, as shown in Error! Reference source not found. below.

Dual Homing with ABR-based Native

2

FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 69

3.7.3 A Novel Approach to Bandwidth Recovery
Ceragon‟s Native2 hybrid TDM & Ethernet technology, which allows for the transport of both TDM and packet traffic over a unified microwave link, offers additional tools for the optimization of TDM traffic over wireless rings. In a typical SDH network, the receiving node monitors the transmission quality at its “east” and “west” link interfaces, and selects the direction from which it will receive transmissions. The transmitting node, therefore, sends traffic in both the east and west directions, causing the redundant use of bandwidth. This form of protection is known as SNCP 1+1 Unidirectional Protection, and while it can generally provide 50 millisecond protection switching, it does so by reserving large quantities of bandwidth over a very expensive wireless spectrum. Ceragon‟s novel approach to the reduction of redundant protection bandwidth involves a change in the role of the transmitting element. In this approach, the transmitting element determines the direction of information transmission – east or west. The decision is based on the monitoring of status information that the transmitting node receives from the network. The receiving node continues to monitor both directions for the arrival of information, as described previously. This method achieves the goal of protecting traffic without wasting capacity on unused reserved bandwidth. The following section provides technological details on the implementation of this innovative feature, in which Protected Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (“ABR”) is applied to enable better spectrum utilization for Ethernet services.

3.7.4 Protected Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (ABR)
In Protected Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (ABR), a protection mechanism based on SNCP 1:1 technology, the transmitting node selects a single direction in which to transmit information. The direction is determined independently for each E1 path, based on status information sent periodically by the receiving node back to the transmitter. In the standby direction, the transmitting node – along with all the nodes in the standby path to the receiver – removes the E1 bandwidth allocation, and sends periodic signals to the receiver to help it monitor the transmissions from east and west. (Note: This requires special handling in hybrid fiber / microwave networks). The de-allocated (recovered) E1 bandwidth can now be utilized by Ethernet traffic. The receiving node continues to accept information flows from either the east or west direction, and detects the path in which the E1 payload is actually transmitted. When a failure occurs in the working direction, the receiving node sends a Reverse Defect Indication (RDI) signal to the transmitter, which automatically switches to the standby path. ABR can be selected for any number of E1 channels, and the resulting path co-exists with all other paths in the network – be they unidirectional, bidirectional, protected, or unprotected. The case study below describes a real-life example of how ABR delivers normal-state Ethernet capacity that may triple the Ethernet capacity delivered when using SNCP 1+1. While malfunctions under SNCP 1+1 automatically result in network degradation to a worst-case scenario (known as “failure state”), a network fault under ABR results in a level of degradation that depends on the exact location of the failure, and worst-case degradation is usually avoided.

FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 70

or manually. one transmission node sends the E1 payload. while the other transmission node sends “standby” signaling as mentioned earlier. and restored again on the next microwave segment.7. 3. For example. When the received Signal-toNoise Ratio (SNR) degrades to a predetermined threshold. PolyView. with full resource control. and it can be enhanced with QoS mechanisms to ensure that only pre-defined low-priority traffic is dropped. delete. and reducing the possibility of a total service outage. E1 frames must be propagated onto the optical cable.7.7. Trails can be built either automatically.8 Trail Management In order to enable full utilization of the FibeAir platform‟s networking capabilities. The same goes for fault indicators. user-friendly Network Management System (NMS).Ceragon‟s innovative. When a wireless E1 is de-allocated and its bandwidth freed for Ethernet traffic.6 Hybrid Fiber / Microwave Networks In segments of a microwave network that are connected by fiber-optic links. For both TDM traffic and Ethernet traffic. the system will pre-emptively switch to a lower modulation level. allocating capacity in favor of high-priority traffic. When implemented correctly.3. ACM allows the platform to adjust itself. and monitor TDM trails. based on user-defined trail endpoints. a fully integrated radio and networking management platform. provides complete trail management support. according to varying degrees of manual input. the periodic signals sent from the transmitter to the receiver are also propagated optically and then regenerated on the next microwave segment. modify. PolyView‟s efficient trail maintenance capabilities allow network technicians to create. In dual homing mode. and in path protection as well.7. designed for managing large-scale wireless backhaul networks. This provides added resiliency in case of failure in the transmitting node. 3. Ceragon offers PolyView™ .7 ABR with ACM Ceragon‟s Native2 technology enables the implementation of highly-efficient Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM) techniques in order to optimize network availability. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 71 .5 Dual Homing ABR can also be used in a dual homing configuration – in which there are 2 possible points of entry into the ring network. in new 3G Node Bs. voice traffic is carried by Ethernet. Ceragon‟s implementation enables hitless and errorless operation. requiring changes in drop precedence (giving higher priority to some Ethernet flows vis-a-vis TDM). 3. the operator can define traffic priorities based on network planning and on the current stage of migration.

making up a metro ring consisting of 28 MHz channels in a 1+0 configuration. From a capacity point of view.3. 2G BTSs support 4 E1s each. the traffic emanating from 18 cell sites is merged into 4 ggregation sites. This common legacy configuration leaves us with almost no capacity for Ethernet traffic – in this case. TDM and Ethernet Aggregation Case Study In this scenario. below.7. yielding a total of 72 E1s. SNCP 1+1 Protection is employed. meaning that 50% of the total capacity is reserved for failure states. there is no difference between normal state and failure state. E1s traffic is forwarded in the opposite direction.9 ABR – Case Study In Error! Reference source not found. In case of such a failure. TDM-only. SNCP 1+1 case presented in the figure above. the main question is how to migrate the network to support 3G-based data services. approximately 2. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 72 .3 Mbps per site of guaranteed Ethernet traffic (assuming 64 Bytes frame size). all E1s flow in both directions. given the severe spectrum limitations. In our basic scenario. TDM-only Aggregation Ring with 100% Protection Based on SNCP 1+1 In the simple.

but no capacity is allocated. one should compute the guaranteed traffic (Committed Information Rate – CIR).SNCP 1:1 Protection Bandwidth is used for Ethernet In the SNCP 1:1 scenario depicted in the above figure. the various failure state scenarios each have a different effect on capacity. TDM-only E1s flow only in one direction. up to 14. as well as the possible upside (Excess Information Rate – EIR). When planning a data network for broadband services. In Ethernet. we can determine the subscriber‟s overall Quality of Experience. Given the availability of bandwidth for both classes.TDM Aggregation Ring . receiving the non-allocated capacity. An alternate path is reserved.5 Mbps of Ethernet capacity are available per site. So if the 262 Mbps of protected path bandwidth is reserved but not allocated. A Native Ethernet Ring with 100% or partial protection based on STP In the scenario that appears in the figure above. as described in the next section. when applying 100% protection – or in case of a worst case failure. The whole ring can support 262 Mbps of traffic. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 73 . E1s are re-routed in the opposite direction over the reserved path. In case of a failure. Ethernet capacity is increased to 29 Mbps per cell site aggregated into 116 Mbps in aggregation site S2 etc.

Medium-Severity Failure. since at least one link in the ring is in any case out of service.7. as STP has in any case blocked this link. „3‟ and „4‟) Non-Affecting Failure.10 Ethernet Ring Failure States The figure below depicts 3 failure states of varying severities: ((denoted „2‟. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 74 . The failure in link A3 does not affect traffic.3. The link failure at A2 causes some traffic to flow normally. while some traffic uses the reserved alternate path. Worst-Case Scenario Failure – A failure in link A1 causes all traffic to flow over the reserved alternate path Ethernet rings: Different Severities of Failure States There is no need for an STP block in any of the failure scenarios (1-3). Ethernet traffic does not traverse this link.

higher processing speeds and improved network recovery algorithms allow products such as Ceragon‟s FibeAir IP-10 to restore connectivity instantly – without pre-allocation of capacity.7. Let‟s review an example: A Native Ring with Protected-ABR at work 2 While 72 E1s lines are delivered all the time.4 Mbps per cell site for A2/A4 failure In summary. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 75 . backup services. only the relevant 36 E1s are actually carried on each path. ABR can provide much higher capacities in all scenarios. while 41 Mbps guaranteed at failure (in the worst case scenario). and video streaming. content sharing. Therefore. but the unused capacity can be utilized for the delivery of broadband services. up to 262 Mbps of data are available in normal state. alternate path capacity is reserved. the network would not be able to restore connectivity in a timely fashion. with the exception of worst case failures. Much more. 2. On the Ethernet side.3 mbps in SNCP 1+1 17 Mbps per cell site for A3 failure 6.11 Comparison of Protection Methods – To Allocate or not to Allocate Traditional protection schemes include bandwidth reservation and actual allocation of capacity for the alternate path. Today. while high-priority E1 traffic is protected. The reasoning for this was simple – in failure state. The increased capacity allows operators to improve customer stratification. allowing data users to enjoy additional capacity when it becomes available. Facebook access. even in failures states:    17 Mbps of data per cell site vs.3. and enhance subscribers‟ overall Quality-of-Experience (QoE) with better performance in mail delivery.

7. with no Impact on TDM in Failure State Doubles ring capacity by using the TDM protection path to provide extra capacity for Ethernet services. It enables an operator to enjoy the inherent benefits of hybrid TDM and Ethernet Microwave environments: ABR Benefits: Double Data Capacity. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 76 . without the need to test and verify new clock recovery mechanisms.12 Risk Free Bandwidth Re-allocation Ceragon‟s ABR feature allows operators to reclaim unused E1 bandwidth and re-allocate it for Ethernet traffic – without putting critical revenue-generating services at risk. and therefore have a severe impact on the operator‟s deployment strategy. with no need for protocol conversion.7.3. Clock recovery techniques are sensitive to delay and delay variation. Synchronization and other critical signaling systems are preserved.13 ABR Benefits Ceragon‟s ABR approach has significant benefits over Pseudowire-based techniques when applied in a 2G-to-3G migration environment. often limiting the number of links in a chain or a ring. 3. Leaves revenue-generating 2G voice traffic unaffected in the migration process. Protects network synchronization and clock using currently deployed E1s.

or high priority – TDM or Ethernet FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 77 . QoS awareness enables the operator to associate the appropriate class of availability and class of service to each traffic type: Protected or not protected Special low delay considerations Low.Streamlines the phase-out of legacy E1s in the network. easing the preparation for deployment of allpacket backhaul networks. medium.

14 Summary Mobile carriers operating wireless backhaul networks are discovering the advantages of deploying ringbased topologies. and most reliable way to migrate to 3G while doubling capacity at “zero” incremental expense. Ceragon offers a range of solutions for capacity recovery. Ceragon‟s innovative ABR mechanism maintains TDM protection levels and bandwidth reservation. Designed to help carriers reach their IP migration goals. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 78 . which include enhanced quality and reduced costs. and on the Protected Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (ABR) feature described in the previous sections. While carriers can exploit the inherent strengths of such networks – such as unequalled reliability. and in a ring where a protection scheme such as SNCP 1:1 can be selected to recover capacity for 3G traffic.7. the cell site bandwidth capacity is significantly increased. most cost-effective. or a combination thereof. while the subscriber‟s overall quality of experience is enhanced as well. packet. based on its Native2 TDM-to-packet migration strategy. Ceragon‟s Native2 solution is an excellent platform for capacity optimizations – in any topology. it is understood that the price to be paid in bandwidth capacity may be too high. The flexibility of Ceragon‟s FibeAir® IP-10 family allows carriers to implement a wide range of backhauling strategies – whether TDM-based.3. These solutions enable a risk-free migration from 2G TDM-based communications. In short – Ceragon‟s solutions provide the simplest. They can be deployed both in a single link with dynamic allocation of capacity between TDM and Ethernet. but performs bandwidth allocation “just in time” when a fault condition occurs. As a result. to a mixed 2G and 3G network carrying both TDM and Ethernet. to an all-packet multi-RAN environment.

Typical performance target: frequency accuracy of < 20 . UMTS-TDD. CDMA-2000. and absolute time information across an asynchronous packet switched network.8. leading to “islands of TDM”. Two new approaches are being developed in an effort to meet the challenge of migration to IP: Various ToP (Timing over Packet) techniques Synchronous Ethernet 3. o o o Limits coding time division overlap.2 Wireless IP Synchronization Challenges Wireless networks set to deploy over IP networks require a solution for carrying high precision timing to base stations. The timing packet methods may employ a variety of protocols to achieve distribution.8. or RTP. phase.8. Several unique synchronization issues need to be addressed for wireless networks: Phase/Frequency Lock: Applicable to GSM and UMTS-FDD networks. o o Limits channel interference between carrier frequency bands.50 ppb. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 79 . 3. phase difference of < 1-3 msecs. and provides the only frame of reference between all devices in the network. with traceability to a PRS master clock carried over PDH/SDH networks. legacy SDH/PDH based TDM networks are being fragmented.3. Sync is the traditional technique used. Event timing determines how the network is managed and secured.1 Wireless Network Synchronization Synchronizing the network is an essential part of any network design plan. NTP. Typical performance target: frequency accuracy of < 50 ppb. and WiMAX networks. GPS is the traditional technique used. such as IEEE1588. or using GPS. Traditional TDM services are being carried over packet networks using Circuit Emulation over Packet techniques (CESoP).3 ToP (Timing over Packet) ToP refers to the distribution of frequency. Phase Lock with Latency Correction: Applicable to CDMA.8 Synchronization support 3. Throughout the globe.

and does not change the basic Ethernet standards.8261 and refers to a method whereby the clock is delivered on the physical layer. with similar performance. Figure 34: Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 80 .Figure 33: ToP (Timing over Packet) 3.8.4 Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) SyncE is standardized in ITU-T G. The method is based on SDH/TDM timing.

6 Synchronization using Native E1/T1 Trails Using this technique. complying with G.8262) 3.g. This implementation ensures high-quality synchronization while keeping cost & complexity low since it eliminates the need for sophisticated centralized SDH-grade "clock unit" at each node. Figure 35: Synchronization using Native E1/T1 Trails Ceragon's IP-10 implements PDH-like mechanism for providing the high precision synchronization of the native TDM trails.8. Combinations of the following techniques can be used: Synchronization using native E1/T1 trails “PTP optimized transport” transport o o o Support IEEE-1588. which is compliant with GSM and UMTS synchronization requirements. That means that user can use any (or all) of the system‟s E1 interfaces in order to deliver synchronization reference via the radio to remote site (e.05 msec per hop) Unique support ACM and narrow channels SyncE support (G. System is designed to deliver E1 traffic and recover E1 clock. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 81 . Node-B).5 Ceragon's Native2 Sync Solution Ceragon's synchronization solution ensures maximum flexibility by enabling the operator to select any combination of techniques suitable for the network. NTP. Guaranteed ultra-low PDV (<0.8. etc.823 “synchronization port” jitter and wander.3. each T1/E1 trail carries a native TDM clock.

7 PTP optimized Transport Ceragon's unique PTP optimized transport mechanism ensures that PTP control frames (IEEE-1588. This method eliminates the need to employ emerging PTP techniques. 3. Figure 36: PTP Optimized Transport FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 82 . (Meaning that each trail can have its own clock.) are transported with maximum reliability and minimum delay variation. Timing can be distributed over user traffic carrying T1/E1 trails or dedicated “timing” trails. etc.Each trail is independent of the other.8. Each E1 trail is mapped independently over the radio frame and the integrated cross-connect elements.). to provide the best possible timing accuracy (frequency and phase) meeting the stringent requirement of emerging 4G technologies (LTE. meaning that IP-10 does not imply any restrictions on the source of the TDM trails.05msec per hop for PTP control frames is supported including when ACM is enabled and when operation with narrow radio channels. etc. PTP control frames are identified using the advanced integrated QoS classifier. NTP. and no synchronization between trails is assumed). Frame delay variation of <0.

Ceragon's SyncE supports two modes: “Sync from Co-Located E1” Mode The clock for SyncE interfaces can be derived from any co-located traffic-carrying E1 interface at the BTS site. Figure 37: “Sync from Co-Located E1” Mode FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 83 . This method offers the same synchronization quality provided over E1 interfaces to legacy RBS.8 SyncE The SyncE technique supports synchronized Ethernet outputs as the timing source to an all-IP RBS.8.3.

no TDM trails or E1 interfaces at the tail sites are required! Synchronization is provided by the E1/STM-1 clock source input at the fiber hub site (SSU/GPS).9 “Native Sync Distribution” Mode Synchronization is distributed natively over the radio links.8.3. In this mode. Figure 38: Native Sync Distribution” Mode FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 84 .

1 Point to point configurations 4. 1 RFU unit required Integrated Ethernet switching can be enabled for multiple local Ethernet interfaces support Figure 39: FibeAir IP-10 G-Series Typical Configurations – 1:1+0 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 85 .1.4 Typical Configurations 4.1 1+0 1 IP-10.

1.2 1+1 HSB 2 IP-10. 2 RFU units required Integrated Ethernet switching can be enabled for multiple local Ethernet interfaces support Redundancy covers failure of all control and data path components Local Ethernet & TDM interfaces protection support via Y-cables or protection-panel <50mSecs switch-over time Figure 40: FibeAir IP-10 G-Series Typical Configurations 1+1 HSB FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 86 .4.

+0 with 32 E1s/T1s 4.4 1+0 with 64 E1s/T1s Figure 42: FibeAir IP-10 G-Series Typical Configurations .1+0 with 64 E1s/T1s FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 87 .1.4.1.3 1+0 with 32 E1s/T1s Figure 41: FibeAir IP-10 G-Series Typical Configurations .

Can be configured independently for “switch” or “pipe” operation No Ethernet traffic is shared internally between the 2 radio carriers TDM traffic Each of the 2 radio interfaces supports separate E1/T1 services E1/T1 Services can optionally be protected using SNCP Figure 43:2+0/XPIC Link. “no Multi-Radio” Mode FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 88 .4.1. with 64 E1/T1s. “no Multi-Radio” Mode Ethernet traffic .Each of the 2 units: o o o o o Feeding Ethernet traffic independently to its radio interface. with 64 E1/T1s.5 2+0/XPIC Link.

with 64 E1/T1s.6 2+0/XPIC Link. “Multi-Radio” Mode FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 89 .1.4. “Multi-Radio” Mode Ethernet traffic o o o o o o One of the units is acting as the "master" unit and is feeding Ethernet traffic to both radio carriers Traffic is distributed between the 2 carries at the radio frame level The "Master" IDU can be configured for switch or pipe operation. with 64 E1/T1s. The 2nd ("Slave") IDU has all its Ethernet interfaces and functionality effectively disabled. Each of the 2 radio interfaces supports separate E1/T1 services E1/T1 Services can optionally be protected using SNCP TDM traffic Figure 44: 2+0/XPIC Link.

1.7 2+0/XPIC Link.1. with 32 E1/T1s + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface. no Multi-Radio.4. with 32 E1/T1s + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface. up to 168 E1/T1s over the radio 4.8 1+1 HSB with 32 E1s/T1s Figure 46: 1+1 HSB with 32 E1s/T1s FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 90 . no Multi-Radio. up to 168 E1/T1s over the radio Figure 45:2+0/XPIC Link.

10 1+1 HSB with 84 E1/T1s Figure 48: 1+1 HSB with 84 E1/T1s FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 91 .1.4.9 1+1 HSB with 64 E1s/T1s Figure 47: 1+1 HSB with 64 E1s/T1s 4.1.

4.1. with 2xSTM1/OC3 Mux (up to 168 E1/T1s over the radio) Figure 50: Native 2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link. with 2xSTM1/OC3 Mux (up to 168 E1/T1s over the radio) 2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 92 .1.12 Native2 2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link.11 1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1/T1s + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface (Up to 84 E1s/T1s over the radio) Figure 49: 1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1/T1s + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface (Up to 84 E1/T1s over the radio) 4.

1 Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink.2.4. with STM1/OC3 Mux FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 93 .2 Nodal Configurations 4. with STM1/OC3 Mux Figure 51: Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink.

2.4.2 Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink Figure 52: Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 94 .

3 Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink.2.4. with STM1/OC3 Mux FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 95 . with STM1/OC3 Mux Figure 53: Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink.

4 Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface at Main Site Figure 54: Native Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface at Main Site 2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 96 .4.2.

5 Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site Figure 55: Native Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site 2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 97 .4.2.

FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 98 .4.2. with STM1/OC3 Mux Figure 56: Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink.6 Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink.

4.2. with STM1/OC3 Mux 2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 99 . with STM1/OC3 Mux Figure 57: Native Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links.7 Native2 Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links.

8 Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0 Figure 58: Native Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0 2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 100 .2.4.

2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 101 .9 Native2 Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops total).2.4. with STM1/OC3 Mux Figure 59: Native Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops total).

10 Native2 Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (3 hops total). with 2 x STM1/OC3 Mux Figure 60: Native Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (3 hops total).4. with 2 x STM1/OC3 Mux 2 FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 102 .2.

The application is written in Java code and enables management functions at both the element and network levels. provide statistical and inventory reports. Ethernet. define end-to-end traffic trails. In addition. its friendly and powerful client graphical interface. With the Integrated Web Based Element Manager. PolyView can be used to update and monitor network topology status. RF. alarm reports. it can integrate with Northbound NMS platforms. remote diagnostics. to provide enhanced network management. Figure 61: Integrated IP-10 Web EMS and PolyView NMS FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 103 . and PDH performance monitoring. and more.1 Overview Ceragon provides state-of-the-art management based on SNMP and HTTP. download software and configure elements in the network. It runs on Windows 2000/2003/XP/Vista and Sun Solaris.5 Network Management 5. PolyView™ is Ceragon's NMS server that includes CeraMap™ . each device includes an HTTP based element manager that enables the operator to perform element configuration.

whereby configuration and software download operations can only be performed by authorized system administrators. CeraMap helps manage the network from its building stage to its ongoing maintenance and configuration procedures. Using PolyView. CeraMap™. enables fast and easy design of multi-layered network element maps.5.3 Web-based Management The FibeAir IP-10 Web Based Management is used to perform configuration operations and obtain statistical and performance information related to the system. It provides management functions for Ceragon‟s FibeAir systems at the network level. and compliments Ceragon‟s CeraView® and CeraWeb by providing a higher (network) level of management support. PolyView is security-protected.FibeAir IP-10 Management System Command Line Interface 5. PolyView is implemented in Java. you can perform the following for Ceragon elements in the network: Performance Reporting Inventory Reporting Software Download Configuration Management Trail Management View Current Alarms (with alarm synchronization) View an Alarm Log Create Alarm Triggers PolyView's user interface.2 Management System FibeAir is managed by Ceragon's management applications: PolyView™ . which enables it to run on different operating systems. as well as at the individual network element level. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 104 . PolyView supports all Ceragon FibeAir products. 5.4 PolyView PolyView is Ceragon‟s powerful yet user-friendly NMS (Network Management System) that integrates with other NMS platforms and systems in which no NMS is used.End-to-End Network Manager Web-based Management .

as well as configure several IP-10 units in a single batch command.5. all commands are available both in the main and extension units unless otherwise stated. FiberAir IP-10 G-Series (R2) – Product Description 105 . In a stacked configuration. you can perform configuration operations for stand-alone IP-10 units or units connected in a stacked configuration.5 CLI (Command Line Interface) CLI (Command Line Interface) is used to perform IP-10 configuration and obtain system statistical and performance information. Using the CLI.