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Engineering Guide

Socket Products

Advantages built into every detail.
THE UNBRAKO DIFFERENCE
Your application demands a fastener which outperforms all others. We build our products for life, to help you build your products for life. What’s holding your product together?
HIGHER MIN ULT TENSILE 10,000 PSI stronger than industry standard COMPOUND FILLET RADIUS Doubles fatigue life at critical head-shank juncture WIDE RADIUS THREADS Maximizes fatigue resistance where it’s needed most 3R (RADIUSED ROOT RUNOUT) THREAD Increases fatigue life up to 300% E CODE “LOT CODE” MARKINGS The ultimate in fastener traceability

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Unbrako BUILT FOR LIFE.
R

UNBRAKO (IRELAND) Deepak Fasteners (Shannon) Ltd. BAYS 25-30, Shannon Industrial Estate County Clare, IRELAND

ireland@unbrako.com Ph: +353 - 61 - 716 - 500 Fax: +353 - 61 - 716 - 584

UNBRAKO (UK) Deepak Fasteners (U.K) Ltd. 12-14 TOWER STREET, Newtown, BIRMINGHAM (U.K), B19 3RR uk@unbrako.com Ph: +44-121-333-4610 Fax: +44-121-333-4525

UNBRAKO (INDIA) Deepak Fasteners Ltd. 4th Floor, First Mall, The Mall Ludhiana-141001(PB.) INDIA india@unbrako.in Ph: +91 - 161 - 3911111 Fax: +91 - 161 - 2774400

UNBRAKO (INDIA) Deepak Fasteners (Australia) Pty Ltd. 70 Norcal Road, Nunawading, Victoria 3131 AUSTRALIA info@unbrako.com Ph: +61 - 3 - 98750729 Fax: +61 - 3 - 98940038

UNBRAKO (USA) INTERFAST U.S.A. 4444 Lee Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44128-2902 USA usa@unbrako.com Ph: 216 - 581 - 3000 Fax: 1 - 800 - 225 - 5777

A comprehensive catalog of UNBRAKO® socket screws and related products In this catalog you will find complete information about UNBRAKO socket screws and such related products as shoulder screws, dowel pins, pressure plugs and hex keys. Everything you need to select, specify and order these precision products is at your finger tips except actual prices. Furthermore, all data has been organized to let you find the facts you want with the greatest speed and the least effort. Wherever possible, all data for a particular product is presented in a two-page spread for your convenience. Included in this catalog are: UNBRAKO fastener product descriptions Technical discussions for application and use Features and technical data about each product

For prices of stock items, see current UNBRAKO fastener price lists or call your local UNBRAKO fastener distributor. For non-stock items, consult your UNBRAKO fastener distributor, or contact the UNBRAKO Engineered Fastener Group by phone at +91 - 161 - 3911111 or by fax on +91 - 161 - 2774400 or Internet at http://www.unbrako.com. Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Code 71838

Referenced consensus standards can change over time. UNBRAKO products are manufactured in accordance with revisions valid at time of manufacture. This guide refers to products and sizes that may not be manufactured to stock. Please consult an UNBRAKO distributor or UNBRAKO to determine stock status. The technical discussions represent typical applications only. The use of the information is at the sole discretion of the reader. Because applications vary enormously, UNBRAKO does not warrant the scenarios described are appropriate for any specific application. The reader must consider all variables prior to using this information. Products modified other than by UNBRAKO are not guaranteed and not subject to return.

IMPORTANT

LIMITED WARRANTY AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY
Unbrako Division warrants that these product conform to industry standards specified herein and will be free from defects in materials and workmanship. THIS WARRANTY IS EXPRESSLY GIVEN IN LIEU OF ANY AND ALL OTHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND IN LIEU OF ANY OTHER OBLIGATION ON THE PART OF Unbrako Group. Unbrako Group will, at its option, repair or replace free of charge (excluding all shipping all shipping and handling costs) any products which have not been subject to misuse, abuse, or modification and which in its sole determination were not manufactured in compliance with the warranty given above. THE REMEDY PROVIDED FOR HEREIN SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY BREACH OF WARRANTY OR ANY CLAIM ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE MANUFACTURE, SALE, OR USE OF THESE PRODUCTS. In no event shall Unbrako Group be liable for consequential, incidental or any other damages of any nature whatsoever except those specifically provided herein for any breach of warranty or any claim arising in any way out of the manufacture, sale, or use of these products. No other person is authorized by Unbrako Group to give any other warranty, written or oral, pertaining to the products.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Short Arm and Long Arm Wrenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND UNBRAKO® are registered trademarks of Unbrako SPS Technologies Group *Reg. . . . . . . . . . . The recommended seating torques listed in the catalog tables serve as guidelines only. . . . . . . . . . 4 Low Heads – Alloy Steel . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . 42 Metric Dowel Pins . 32 Size Selector Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Many application problems such as self-loosening and fatigue can be minimized by adequate tightening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Technical Section Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knurled Cup Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 NOTE: The proper tightening of threaded fasteners can have a significant effect on their performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard and Pull-Out Type . . . . . . 43 Metric Socket Set Screws . . . . . . . . . 24 LEVL-SEAL® Pressure Plugs . . . . . . . . . .M. Dryseal Pressure Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Metric Flat Head Cap Screws . . . . . 48 Metric Conversion Chart . . . . . 46 Metric Hexagon Keys and Size Selector Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Hexagon Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Du Pont T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Socket Head Cap Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Pressure Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the induced loads obtained may vary as much as ±25% depending upon the uncontrolled variables such as mating material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Metric Low Head Cap Screws . . . . . . . . . . 16 Square Head Set Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Metric Socket Head Cap Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Metric Table of Contents. . . . . etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS UNBRAKO® Socket Screw Products Page Quick Selector Guide – Inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hardness. . . . 12 Flat Head Socket Screws . . . . . . . . . . 47 Metric Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Button Head Socket Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . surface finish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Metric Button Head Cap Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 PTFE/TEFLON*-coated Levl Seal Pressure Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Socket Set Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . bolt/joint compliance. . . . . . . Even when using the recommended seating torques. . . . . . . . . 26 Dowel Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVL-SEAL®. . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Metric Shoulder Screws . . . 11 Shoulder Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Thread Conversion chart . . . . . . . .

000 20. also replace costly special partsshafts. 2 .000 30.000 107 cycle dynamic fatigue (psi) 20. use in materials too thin to countersink.000 550°F 11 Shoulder Screws Tool and die industry standards. hygienic cleanliness. also for non-critical loading requiring heat treated screws heat treat level psi shear strength in psi 550°F 12–13 160.000 psi.PERFORMANCE (See Note 1) tensile psi (room temp. controlled 82° underhead angle for maximum flushness and side wall contact.000 96. Uniform. highest of any socket cap screw 180.000 800°F 4–10 Socket Head Cap Screws Low Head Series Use in parts too thin for standard height heads and where clearance is limited 170. linkages. clevis pins. etc. 95.000 96.000 550°F 14.) 190.000 Flat Head Socket Screws Alloy/ Stainless 160. pivots. 16 800°F Button Head Cap Screws Alloy/ Stainless 160.000 550°F 15–16 800°F NOTE 1: Performance data listed are for standard production items only.000 4–10 Socket Head Cap Screws 1960 Series Stainless Steel Use stainless for corrosive.000 96. cryogenic or elevated temperature environments. It is suggested that the user verify performance on any non-standard parts for critical applications. Non-stock items may vary due to variables in methods of manufacture. up to 190. non-slip hex socket prevents marring of material Low heads streamline design. guides.000 operating temperatures (unplated) 550°F TYPES APPLICATIONS/FEATURES COUNTERBORED PROTRUDING page Socket Head Cap Screws 1960 Series Alloy Steel Use alloy for maximum tensiles. trunnion mountings.

gears. 1. for high torquing. Same physicals. flush with surface within 1/2 pitch. flat. also used as bearings. surface: Rc 60 (min. Easily removed without special tools. oval. Other styles on special order Rb96-Rc33 800°F 18–23 Pressure Plugs 3/4” Taper Dryseal Features common to 3/4” and 7/8” tapers: Dryseal threads for positive seal without sealing compound. Use where maximum tightening torques are required Rc 45 (min.2 to 276. LEVL-SEAL plug is an UNBRAKO original PTFE/TEFLON coated plugs seal at 60% lower seating torques without tape or compound.000 8 microinch (max) 30–31 NOTE 1: Performance data listed are for standard production items only.000 32–33 Dowel Pins (Standard) Formed ends.INCH QUICK SELECTOR GUIDE PERFORMANCE (See Note 1) operating temperatures (unplated) TYPES APPLICATIONS/FEATURES hardness page Square Head Set Screws Half-dog or self-locking cup points only.) 450° F 17 Socket Set Screws Alloy Steel Fasten collars. LEVL-SEAL plug type for 100% flush seating PTFE/ TEFLON** Coated Rc 35-40 450°F (uncoated) 26–27 Hex Keys Tough. 26 Rb 82 Typical Rc 35-40 Rb 82 Typical 400°F Brass 550°F 25–27 400°F Brass 7/8” Taper LEVL-SEAL® Pressure Plug LEVL-SEAL® plug features: controlled 7/8” tape in 3/4” taper hole seats plug level. 3 . gages. standard for die work.000 surface 8 microinch (max) 28–29 Dowel Pins Pull-Out Type For use in blind holes. size marked for quick identity Rc 47-57 torsional shear in-lb. Locate machine parts. Cone. half-dog. No need for knock-out holes. etc. finish. cup and self-locking cup points standard Rc 45-53 450°F 18–23 Socket Set Screws Stainless Steel Use stainless for corrosive. Save money.) 150. install faster at lower cost. controlled chamfer for faster starting Rc 34-40 550°F 800°F 24. sheaves. knobs on shafts. It is suggested that the user verify performance on any non-standard parts for critical applications. Plain cup point standard. close tolerances. cryogenic or elevated temperatures environments. ductile. Non-stock items may vary due to variables in methods of manufacture. min. controlled heat treat. core: Rc 50-58 calculated shear psi 150. accurate fit in all types socket screws. Reusable. precision parts. accuracy and tolerances as standard UNBRAKO dowel pins. smaller sizes can be power installed.

higher pressures. are valuable assets to designers. stresses and speeds in todays machines and equipment demand stronger. textile. cleanliness – Corrosion resistant characteristics of UNBRAKO screws are useful in chemical. Ⅲ Rising costs make failure and downtime intolerable. and good shock and impact resistance to temperatures as low as –300°F. organic substances. A joint requiring twelve 1-3/8” Grade 5 hex heads would need only 7 UNBRAKO socket head cap screws.” Ⅲ UNBRAKO socket cap screws offer resistance to a greater degree than any other threaded fasteners you can purchase “off-the-shelf. non-tarnishing qualities add to appearance and salability of many products.S. and that is due to their superior strength and advanced design. and there is also weight saving. other fasteners. take less energy to drive.” TENSILE STRENGTH Ⅲ U. Ⅲ Three major factors account for the greater fatigue resistance of UNBRAKO socket screws – design improvements. FATIGUE STRENGTH Ⅲ Joints that are subject to external stress loading are susceptible to fatigue failure. appliance. UNBRAKO stainless screws offer excellent resistance to rust and corrosion from acids.000 and 180.SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS. eye-appeal – Bright.02 by bright annealing. Smaller diameter socket head cap screws vs.000 psi (depending on screw diameter). Ⅲ The higher tensile strength of UNBRAKO socket screws can be translated into savings. food processing. . more reliable fasteners to hold them together.2 Can be reduced to 1. and to keep them together joints must stay tight. Standard processing of UNBRAKO stainless steel socket screws includes a passivation surface treatment which removes any surface contaminations. All three reasons are directly traceable to the superior performance of socket screws vs. more reliable joints and stronger. UNBRAKO socket cap screws offer this to a greater degree than any other threaded fastener you can purchase “off-the-self. Ⅲ This is why the reliability of every component has become critical. UNBRAKO socket cap screws are consistently maintained at 190. without scaling or oxidation. . etc. reliability and economy. AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL STANDARD SERIES UNBRAKO stainless socket screws are made from austenitic stainless steel. larger hex screws cost less to drill and tap. salt solutions and atmospheres. Maximum permeability is 1.000 and 170. Using fewer socket screws of the same size can achieve the same clamping force in the joint. However. more complex units break down more frequently despite every effort to prevent it. Ⅲ Reliability. UNBRAKO socket screws have distinct advantages that give you an extra bonus of protection against this hazard. packaging and pharmaceutical industries. non-magnetic – Valuable in certain electrical applications. hospitals. Superior properties attained with stainless steel include retention of a high percentage of tensile strength and good creep resistance up to 800°F. Components must stay together to function properly. Why Socket Screws? Why UNBRAKO? The most important reasons for the increasing use of socket head cap screws in industry are safety. paper. 4 . Use them size for size and there are fewer holes to drill and tap and fewer screws to buy and handle. Bigger. Ⅲ The size of the component parts can be reduced since the cylindrical heads of socket screws need less space than hex heads and require no additional wrench space.000 psi to current industry standards. Ⅲ Joint reliability and safety with maximum strength and fatigue resistance. mechanical properties and closely controlled manufacturing processes. standard alloy steel socket head cap screws are made to strength levels of 180. as well as laboratories.

“3-R” (radiused-root runout) increases fatigue life in this critical head-shank juncture. . SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Elliptical fillet doubles fatigue life at critical head-shank juncture. permits full tightening without cracking or reaming the socket. adds to fatigue strength. maximum strength. Fully formed radiused thread increases fatigue life 100% over flat root thread forms. SHANK ROOT BODY CONVENTIONAL THREAD RUNOUT – Note sharp angle at root where high stress concentration soon develops crack which penetrates into body of the screw. Accurate control of socket depth gives more wrench engagement than other screws. uniform grain flow. makes heads stronger. Controlled heat treatment produces maximum strength without brittleness. Marked for easier identification. Contour-following flow lines provide extra shear strength in threads. Head with increased bearing area for greater loading carrying capacity. UNBRAKO “3-R” (RADIUSED ROOT RUNOUT) THREAD – Controlled radius of runout root provides a smooth form that distributes stress and increases fatigue life of thread run-out as a much as 300% in certain sizes. 5 . The large root radius UNBRAKO socket screw development doubles fatigue life compared to flat root thread forms. accurate socket for high torque wrenching. resist stripping and provide high fatigue resistance.Why Socket Screws?. unbroken flow lines. Controlled head forging. yet provides ample metal in the crucial fillet area for maximum head strength. minimizes failure in vital fillet area. Precision forged for symmetrical grain flow. Knurls for easier handling. Why UNBRAKO Ⅲ “Profile” of Extra Strength PROFILE OF EXTRA STRENGTH Deep. .

875 2.235 1.214 .6185 .073 .312 .324 2.050 .250 6.073 .125 .750 2.120 1.875 1.625 .031 .020 .061 .1329 .000 body diameter max.827 .070 .183 .3125 .185 .1585 .238 .437 .045 1.750 4.554 .265 . G T H head height min.9780 2.562 .086 .855 .750 2.500 .360 1.500 2.000 2.111 1.689 .375 .245 .625 .SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Ⅲ 1960 Series Ⅲ Dimensions Ⅲ Mechanical Properties H 30° T G "LT" THREAD LENGTH UNB A F D APPROX. .303 .2280 2.375 1.5538 .188 .000 min.500 2.843 .130 .213 . 6 .190 .505 1.125 1.093 2.495 .112 .250 .159 .143 .562 .109 .500 2. * 1-14 is UNRS (special) standard thread form.140 min.875 1.4375 .099 .368 .720 2.717 4.875 .415 .370 1.262 .121 .457 .562 .142 .656 .000 1.500 .464 D Head markings may vary slightly depending on manufacturing practice.828 .4818 1.875 1.620 .495 .078 .625 .760 .495 max.060 .570 .750 1.492 .552 .102 .500 1.095 .190 .500 2.798 .000 1. UNBRAKO.864 .750 .681 .060 .107 1.215 .044 .557 . and UNB are recognized identifications for 1/4” diameter and larger.190 .375 1.118 .138 .469 .750 2.180 2.047 .120 .125 .074 .550 .438 .182 . It is suggested that the user verify performance on any non-standard parts for critical applications.979 nom.500 min.750 .086 .094 . .000 1.108 .745 .4919 .750 .138 .051 .625 3.125 .161 .312 1. .375 5.500 1.250 1.750 .812 3.000 1.375 .388 .375 1.609 1.038 .250 2.750 3.245 1.250 . .375 3.112 .062 2.750 3.750 .250 2.750 .256 1.038 .000 1.260 min . Diamond knurls.750 4.843 2. Non-stock items may vary due to variables in methods of manufacture.450 2.688 1.100 1.479 1.625 .307 .479 1.750 .500 .285 .125 3.2435 .056 .250 2.0822 .446 .0695 .950 1.750 .750 3.306 .500 .141 .988 1.914 1.642 .970 3.125 1.7295 1.500 2.116 .125 1.134 .087 .078 .870 .250 1.190 .375 .073 .077 .244 .160 .625 .134 .205 .500 .484 .500 1.125 1.5625 .095 .164 .057 .125 4.000 2.735 .730 2.333 .000 3.293 1.437 .156 .910 2.750 2.562 .430 .090 4.166 .250 1.3568 1.025 .875 1.665 .099 .597 2.0568 .232 2.164 .852 2.6163 .3678 . .988 .1202 .625 1.176 .083 .990 3.640 1.107 .875 1.1075 .625 . 45° J LENGTH DIMENSIONS threads per inch UNRC – 64 56 48 40 40 32 32 24 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 – 7 7 6 6 5 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 4 4 UNRF 80 72 64 56 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 24 20 20 18 18 16 14 12 14* 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 A head diameter max.064 .375 .154 .000 2. .151 .023 1. .2336 1.250 .740 .750 .236 1. size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 basic screw dia.0949 .428 .7262 2.370 .000 1.734 1. .115 .375 .090 .164 .062 .9762 Performance data listed are for standard production items only.073 .250 2.1086 1.7406 .112 .523 .3053 .375 .347 .485 1. .000 5.057 .312 .084 .921 1.437 3.1840 . .983 2.000 1.065 .094 .682 .273 .140 .278 .875 7. .665 1.525 .099 .344 3.000 2.000 1.000 1.4294 .481 2.250 J F fillet diameter max.125 1.148 1.198 .250 1.475 .060 .625 .038 2.365 .119 .380 .100 1.9886 .091 .043 .625 6.029 .432 .574 2.250 2.250 .158 .312 .250 1.025 .750 2.218 .218 .938 1.051 .034 .616 .380 .312 .138 .112 .094 .188 .331 .224 2.4762 2.914 .500 1.875 .500 1.381 1.000 2.8647 .750 .145 .086 .995 1.226 .500 1.500 LT nom.096 .9886 1.370 1.375 1.500 1.000 min.963 1.824 basic .270 .

100 UNRF 342 528 749 994 1.000 180.000 95.000 190.000 57.000 170.000 339.700 22.000 155.000 193.000 180.000 190.150 1.800 6.100 22.600 27.000 521.800 40.000 32.000 30.000 155.000 95.000 190.700 20. 7 .000 tensile strength pounds UNRC – 250 352 463 574 756 864 1.400 6.000 30.200 19.000 259.000 95.000 170.500 71.700 60. min.000 155.000 190.000 330.000 585.980 7.000 1.000 33.000 375.800 9.000 180.000 155.600 8.000 107.000 170.500 UNRF plain 3 5 8 13 19 25 36 60 91 240 475 850 1.500 82.270 2.100 91.R.000 170. size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 UNRC – 499 702 925 1.204. and hole preparation.000 180.000 828.000 190.000 170.120 13.000 132.000 95.000 248.I.050 1.I.350 28.000 95.260 3.000 155.050 9.000 394.000 429.400 1.000 180.000 170.660 3.000 95.006.000 1. – 3A.500 46.300 35. The plane of the bearing surface shall be perpendicular to the axis of the screw within a maximum deviation of 1°.000 720.900 3.000 *Seating torques for alloy steel calculated in accordance with VDI 2230.000 84.000 35.000 30.000 95.000 253.000 95.280 2.000 30.120 1.300 21.000 290.230 109.000 154.500 – 14. min.R. or .000 186.000 320 475 660 875 1.350 11.000 30.000 recommended seating torque* in-lbs UNRC plain – 5 7 12 18 24 34 59 77 200 425 750 1.000 450.500 31.260 1.000 190.I.D.700 44.700 minimum minimum single shear tensile yield strength strength strength of body psi psi lbs.400 36.000 190.800 3.000 190. Seating torques for stainless steel are calculated to induce approximately 40. 190.000 155.000 170.900 16.000 155.000 30.000 STAINLESS STEEL recommended seating torque* in-lbs minimum minimum single tensile yield shear strength strength strength 95.300 24.000 180. For body and grip lengths see pages 8 and 9.0 3.000 30. for zinc plated screws multiply by 1.460 5.200 13.020 4. “Systematic Calculation of High Duty Bolted Joints.500 3.850 2.000 30.000 95. See note.000 – 122.000 108.730 2.000 170.600 17. or .510 8.790 5.000 237.330 6.500-inch diameter.450 2.950 47. and 115.000 170. Concentricity: Body to head O.000 285. 10% min.200 27.000 95.000 16.900 25.000 160.000 107.300 15.000 30.000 155.3 4 6 9 14 17 29 45 110 190 345 545 850 1.000 95.400 48.000 190. 30% min.225 5.500 180.000 155.000 95.300 34.000 530.100 67.000 170.000 155.000 155.7 8. whichever is greater.800 180.200 3.500 17.100 35.660 3.000 95.000 30. whichever is greater.000 119.000 170.000 30.000 30. Thread Class: #0 through 1” dia. (sizes over 1/2” – within 6% of body diameter).580 1. 35% min. For cadmium plated screws.400 1.006 T.000 125.000 155.180 6.000 PSI in the screw threads through 0.700 64.520 4.40.000 180.000 664.000 43.510 1.750 12.000 763.R.000 180.000 95. installation.000 208.470 6.000 180.000 170.360 10.200 83.000 PSI over 0.700 2.000 170.000 175.8 5.400 3.930 2.000 342. – 2A.000 1.000 888.690 UNRF plain 1. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ALLOY STEEL tensile strength pounds nom.3 Hardness: Alloy Steel – Rc 38-43 Stainless Steel – Rb 80 – Rc 33 Elongation in 2 inches: Reduction of area: Typical values for test specimens: Alloy Steel Stainless Steel SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS 10% min.910 11.000 95.000 155.000 155.000 30.074.840 11.000 170.000 190.000 190.000 30.005 T.000 641.000 130 190 260 350 440 550 670 850 1.000 215.400 63.000 190.500-inch diameter.000 PSI stress.1960 Series Ⅲ Dimensions Ⅲ Mechanical Properties Ⅲ Application Data NOTES Material: ASTM A574 – alloy steel ASTM F837 – stainless steel Dimensions: ANSI/ASME B18. – within 2% of body diameter T.000 8.450 4.000 190.100 13.150 2.R. See Technical Guidelines section for additional information on torques.200 1. Values are for plain screws.300 UNRC plain – 2.500 180.850 27.000 95.400 12.I.000 30. Body to hex socket – (sizes through 1/2”) – within 3% of body diameter T.0 12 15 28 40 95 170 300 485 750 920 1.800 19.000 155.760 8.350 2.000 95.330 1.000 190.75.000 137.000 180.820 6.000 430. multiply recommended seating torque by .3 2.960 14.000 155.000 180.000 30.000 155.000 30.000 47.000 30. min. page 1.200 13.600 UNRF 171 264 374 497 628 789 964 1.” to induce approximately 120.000 30. over 1” dia.700 3.600 30.000 180.500 180.000 95.

167 .625 .000 1. to 6” incl.500 .750 .437 .000 .000 1.625 .000 .521 .125 1.500 .875 1.000 1.187 .875 #1 LB .250 4.125 1.786 .250 #3 LB .167 1.500 1.219 .750 1.667 2.125 1.250 1.250 .500 1. LENGTH up to 1” incl.375 2.14 –.375 2. –.021 .24 1/4 LB 7/8 to 1-1/2 incl.750 LB .844 .146 LG #4 LB #5 LG LB LG #6 LB LG #8 .375 2.250 1.08 –.719 .036 1.750 4.667 2.750 3.219 .500 .750 .687 LG .375 .375 .000 .750 8 .875 . –.667 .250 .04 –.250 .500 2.625 .375 1.219 1.161 LG .125 . over 1 1/2 BODY and GRIP LENGTHS #0 length 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 3 1/4 3 1/2 3 3/4 4 4 1/4 4 1/2 4 3/4 5 5 1/4 5 1/2 5 3/4 6 6 1/4 6 1/2 6 3/4 7 7 1/4 7 1/2 7 3/4 8 8 1/2 9 9 1/2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 LG .SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Ⅲ 1960 Series Ⅲ Body and Grip Lengths LG LB LENGTH TOLERANCES diameter #0 thru 3/8 incl.271 1.000 3.875 1.750 2.000 2.000 2.750 3.12 –.344 1.750 2.187 .250 1.18 –.375 .625 1.06 –.625 .875 .797 LG .500 .000 .667 1.250 2.125 1.250 3.172 .500 3.875 .875 .625 .375 .375 1.500 .05 over 1” to over 2 1/2” 2 1/2” incl.161 .547 .250 #2 LB .250 .12 –.344 .750 .750 1.536 .625 .250 .875 2.250 .875 1.167 2.250 3.844 1.375 1.375 1.500 1.250 .000 3.750 .03 –.875 1.125 .500 3.167 1.250 2.146 .667 1.875 .10 –.20 #10 LB LG LB LG over 6” –.172 .20 –.500 2.250 .344 .719 1.771 1.06 –.719 1.719 1.219 2.844 .250 .250 .250 1.344 1.250 .750 1.219 1.03 –.125 1.167 .125 .875 .375 1.250 . 7/16 to 3/4 incl.625 1.125 .500 1.167 2.

444 1.250 2. and the total thread length including imperfect threads shall be basic thread length plus five pitches.847 . Larger diameters shall be threaded as close to the head as practicable.625 4.444 10.375 4.708 6.000 3.768 6.847 1.444 6.208 4.000 1.500 1.268 .615 7.000 3.500 1.687 3.750 3.125 1.500 1.125 6.000 3.000 .000 10.375 5.000 5.375 4.000 5.500 2.000 2.000 2.500 6.768 3.000 5.045 1.458 7.545 6.444 1.115 4.045 1.500 1.768 4.708 5.444 2.375 16.045 1.000 6.768 4.000 9.375 11.625 4.625 3.208 1.375 15.000 1.500 2.000 11.444 7.625 1.500 4.347 4.768 1. 1960 Series Ⅲ Body and Grip Lengths 5/16 LG LB LG 3/8 LB LG 7/16 LB LG 1/2 LB LG 9/16 LB LG 5/8 LB LG 3/4 LB LG 7/8 LB LG 1 LB .125 3.795 4.000 11.000 3.375 1.458 6.444 3.444 5.500 3.000 7.687 1.000 2.000 4.000 5.125 1.375 13.250 .000 9.750 .500 4.795 1.500 5.500 3.125 3.125 4.250 6.500 1.687 4.000 10.500 . For sizes larger than 1” the minimum complete thread length shall be equal to the basic thread length.125 3.750 4.375 2.500 5.295 .444 4.000 9.625 5.444 15.SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS LG is the maximum grip length and is the distance from the bearing surface to the first complete thread.958 1.208 4.268 1.000 3.444 9.187 5.615 2.615 5.000 2.375 5.500 4.458 4.000 5.000 2.000 4.865 4.187 2.187 1.375 9 .458 .000 8.268 3.750 1. Screws of longer lengths than those tabulated shall have a thread length conforming to the formula for sizes larger than 1”.187 3.500 11.500 4.768 5.500 4.268 2.000 7.795 2.045 4.375 6.875 .500 4.458 1.375 2.000 8.250 2.958 4.000 5.000 3.847 4.500 6.365 4.444 2.375 .444 4.865 5.795 1.000 .000 5.750 3.375 3.375 1.750 1.000 10. LB is the minimum body length and is the length of the unthreaded cylindrical portion of the shank. Lengths too short to apply formula shall be threaded to head.847 2.000 1.250 6.000 1.625 3.000 3.500 1.500 3.268 1.375 1.750 .000 3.000 14.000 4.500 8.125 3.295 4.000 5.750 6.768 5.000 5.958 4.000 3.625 1.444 3.708 9.375 2.000 6.208 8.625 3.250 5.500 4.865 4.625 1.500 .847 3.768 7.500 6.687 3.115 1.000 15.795 4.000 5.347 1.958 5.295 .347 2.250 5.444 12.000 4.000 4.615 6.000 .125 2.347 2.750 4.375 4.375 4.847 2.125 .295 3.000 1.000 6.000 6.444 1.625 2.250 2.045 4.615 .500 1.545 2.000 6.875 4.444 3.750 9.375 .500 4.187 4.000 4.000 8.545 2.500 7.687 .375 17.000 13.500 2.458 3.875 .500 2.625 4.000 16.250 3.500 2.000 7.687 2.187 4.000 2.750 .500 5.000 1.625 4.687 .375 2.625 2.000 4.375 6.458 .000 8.958 2.000 7.268 5.375 13.847 .000 5.750 .875 3.000 3.250 2.125 1.295 8.000 2.000 2.444 1.125 5.000 1.000 3.375 2.000 13.295 6.625 1.500 2.795 10.365 3.125 4.750 3.500 1.000 8.000 9.375 14.000 1.958 1.187 .795 5.125 3.375 12.125 4.615 2.847 1. Complete threads shall extend within two pitches of the head for lengths above the heavy line on sizes up to and including 5/8” diameter.000 3.000 1.625 7.000 2.000 1.875 3.708 .500 10.250 5.444 .458 3.444 11.000 7.000 3.000 6.444 2.250 3.187 3.115 1.268 4.375 3.687 2.625 9.875 7.687 5.250 5.000 8.125 4.208 4.444 3.625 2.865 1.125 7.375 5.000 11.500 4.208 1.000 .000 2.000 4.000 .000 6.795 1.625 3.750 7.347 3.500 5.000 7.625 2.750 7.208 1.125 3.347 4.115 4.187 5.115 4.295 1.365 .625 4.000 5.444 2.625 1.000 3.865 1.615 6.444 6.187 1. Thread length for the sizes up to and including 1” diameter shall be controlled by the grip length and body length as shown in the table.500 12.268 4.500 3.500 5.000 4.000 4.000 7.875 6.208 7.500 .295 7.875 1.625 2.615 5.000 5.847 3.750 3.625 5.347 3.268 2.625 .125 .625 1.615 7.125 1.125 9.000 12.000 8.000 4.768 2.125 5.768 2.444 14.000 12.295 3.708 2.708 2.125 6.865 2.000 2.347 .125 6.500 3.000 4.500 2.615 3.125 2.125 6.000 3.625 .000 6.268 .250 10.768 3.375 10.000 3.500 1.625 6.625 7.000 5.125 2.768 1.545 5.375 2.625 4.375 3.444 4.000 3.295 7.545 3.444 .708 3.000 9.347 .444 13.500 3.444 5.365 1.500 4.375 .375 6.268 6.000 2.000 3.000 14.375 5.375 7.444 4.768 .500 1.500 2.500 1.000 12.687 1.000 4.125 2.187 .268 5.500 .500 5.365 3.187 2.687 4.365 .268 3.268 .375 3.625 5.444 .625 .000 2.625 5.115 1.000 3.444 1.000 3.000 7.375 1.000 5.187 1.125 3.045 4.000 1.000 2.000 4.

less wrenching space needed 10 . load old method 12–3/4-16 hexagon head screws @ 120.000 x .000 psi yield = 3 x 170.000 lbs.000 x . yield = 13.200 lbs. UNBRAKO method 16–3/4-16 socket head cap screws @ 180.000 psi yield = 5 x 85.000 lbs. 1/2-20 UNBRAKO Shear strength = 22.600 lbs. HIGH TENSILE AND YIELD STRENGTH ordinary bolts socket head cap screws HIGH SHEAR STRENGTH ordinary bolts socket head cap screws old method 120.400 lbs. yield = 27.000 psi. max.000 psi.0775 = 39.074.000 lbs.000 psi tensile strength Total strength = 1.000 psi tensile 85. 1/2-20 bolt tensile = 19. Extra UNBRAKO shear strength = 8.400 lbs.0775 = 33. UNBRAKO method 190.100 lbs. UNBRAKO method 190. load UNBRAKO method 3–3/8-16 screws @ 190.200 lbs. 1/2-20 bolt Shear strength = 14.000 psi tensile strength Total strength = 537.FEWER HOLES TO DRILL AND TAP three screws do the work of five COMPACT SPACING clearance for socket wrench no wrench clearance necessary old method 5–3/8-16 screws @ 120.200 lbs.300 lbs.000 psi. max. Extra UNBRAKO joint strength: tensile – 58% increase yield – 100% increase old method 120.000 psi tensile 170.000 psi 1/2-20 UNBRAKO tensile = 30.

900 27.007 .450 1. Non-stock items may vary due to variables in methods of manufacture.450 13. Fillet under head increases fatigue life of head-to-shank junction. .1875 .5000 F min. 11 .072 . uniformly concentric and usable to full depth for correct wrench engagement. Low head height for thin parts and limited space.570 2.085 . High strength.250 .100 25 35 80 157 278 667 DIMENSIONS nom.1640 0.000 psi min. nominal size #8 #10 1/4” 5/16” 3/8” 1/2” UNRC 2.127 . tensile strength – lbs.079 . min.0938 .090 4.009 . manufacture and performance.092 .094 . size #8 #10 1/4” 5/16” 3/8” 1/2” basic screw diameter .700 3.LOW HEAD CAP SCREWS SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Ⅲ Low Head Type Smooth.012 .098 .164 .375 .015 .012 .750 A min.0781 .437 .009 .312 . .115 .192 .200 single shear strength in threads recommended* (calculated lbs.04 over 2 1/2” –. It is suggested that the user verify performance on any non-standard parts for critical applications.562 . Highest standards of quality.03 over 1” to 2 1/2” –.870 14.369 .06 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES UNB A Material: ASTM A574 – alloy steel Hardness: Rc 38–43 Tensile Strength: 170.180 9.910 13.151 max.014 . precision fasteners for use in parts too thin for standard height socket cap screw and for applications with limited clearances.190 . page 1).600 1.110 .307 .500 3. .000 psi min.200 24. .1900 0.410 8. material.060 .121 .380 2.1562 . burr-free sockets. . W NOTE: Performance data listed are for standard production items only.210 9.014 . Threads: Threads are Class 3A UNRC and UNRF.017 .254 H min.2500 0.930 7.743 B basic 0.980 5.3750 0.1250 .500 threads per inch UNRC 32 24 20 18 16 13 UNRF 36 32 28 24 24 20 max. .026 min.244 R fillet extension max.375 . .400 17.2500 Thread Length: On all stock lengths the last complete (full form) thread measured with a thread ring gage extends to within two threads of the head. LENGTH TOLERANCE Diameter All to 1” –.152 .900 6.000 psi tensile stress in the screw threads (See Note.431 . Class 3A rolled threads with radiused root to increase fatigue life of threads by reducing stress concentrations and avoiding sharp corners where failures start.182 .400 6. Yield Strength: 150. .270 .020 W nom.140 3.158 .556 . *Torque calculated to induce approximately 50.265 .312 .) seating torque UNRC UNRF inch-lbs 1.020 .3125 0.100 UNRF 2.

750 . 12 .980 1.496 1. .177 .610 .281 .125 . option T F 32 I E UNB A K D G J 45° APPROX.502 .250 .996 T min.477 . .125 2.250 . .094 .117 .500 .156 .750 .375 .727 .964 1.853 .234 .227 . .998 D min.998 1.748 1.312 .000 1.250 1.141 .SHOULDER SCREWS Ⅲ Dimensions Ⅲ Mechanical Properties Ⅲ Seating Torques Precision hex socket for maximum wrenching strength Knurled head for sure finger grip and fast assembly Neck to allow assembly with minimal chamfering Controlled concentricity between head and body for easier.312 .248 1.002 inch tolerance Concentricity controlled between body and thread Finished threads close to body for maximum holding power Head sidewall may have straight knurls at mfrs.750 1.287 1.875 1.289 .498 1.602 . .750 .498 .237 .996 1.438 . .227 1.977 1.625 .496 .500 UNRC 24 20 18 16 13 11 10 9 7 7 6 max.365 .735 .977 1.188 .490 .248 .746 1.375 .562 .246 .125 1. H LENGTH ± .133 .250 .375 .500 .750 A min.357 .875 1.375 2.250 K min.059 1. Non-stock items may vary due to variables in methods of manufacture. .397 .419 .246 1.720 max.209 .625 .277 nom. It is suggested that the user verify performance on any non-standard parts for critical applications.219 .095 2.188 .190 .469 . .723 2.249 .352 .000 1.105 1. shoulder diameter 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 NOTE: Performance data listed are for standard production items only.616 .375 .250 H min.3085 .746 .521 .125 1.291 .193 .750 2.188 .230 J nom.500 .000 1.748 .3105 .304 .142 .875 1.240 .478 1.934 1.005 DIMENSIONS threads per inch thread size . .638 .182 .625 .726 .621 .414 .312 1.307 G min. .543 .375 .089 1.728 1.978 max.729 .345 2.750 .373 .937 max. .312 .623 .371 .302 . more accurate assembly Shoulder diameter held to .656 .

such as the location and retention of stripper plates. min. Bearing surface of head – perpendicular to axis of body within 2° maximum deviation. They’re used for a wide range of punch and die operations.125 I max.375 .125 .-* mended seating torque inch-lbs. *See Note.020 .333 T +.469 . allowing a close fit. 2.182 .060 10.975 3.200 . and stud bolts.000 30.000 205. The included angle of the point should be approximately 90°.ASTM A574 – alloy steel Heat treatment: Rockwell C 36-43.600 19.438 .000 1.” Thread class: 3A Screw point chamfer: The point shall be flat or slightly concave.I.500 18.234 . 45 112 230 388 990 1.093 .500 recom.656 .000 16.094 .” Shear strength based on shoulder diameter “D.Dimensions Ⅲ Mechanical Properties Ⅲ Seating Torques APPLICATIONS SHOULDER SCREWS stationary guide moving shaft or pivot pulley shaft uses Shoulder screws have an undercut portion between the thread and shoulder. and act as a guide in blanking and forming presses.937 ult.004 T.410 75.286 .3 Concentricity: Head to body – within .R.093 .850 29.810 31.160 7. pivots.490 5.093 .750 2.500 231.000 141.117 .500 .875 1. Tensile strength based on minimum neck area “G. The plane of the point shall be approximately normal to the axis of the screw.000 –. Dimensions: ANSI/ASME B18. . and the edge between flat and chamfer may be slightly rounded. tensile strength lbs.000 NOTES Material: ANSI/ASME B18. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND SEATING TORQUES E thread length .000 F max.093 . The chamfer shall extend slightly below the root of the thread. Other applications for shoulder screws include: bearing pins for swing arms.610 12.375 . resulting from their use with stripper plates and springs.625 .220 4.093 .188 .450 42.286 .281 .400 117.154 . min. Shoulder screws are sometimes referred to as stripper bolts. Shoulder must rest against face of shoulder of standard “GO” ring gage.125 .000 psi tensile strength.111 .R.093 .710 7.222 .750 .500 1. page 1 13 . when checked in “V” block equal to or longer than body length.125 1.230 110. Pitch diameter to body – within .I.000 301.100 . and chamfered.125 .125 .141 . links and levers.083 .680 66.3. 160.670 47.125 .800 169. shafts for cam rolls and other rotating parts.005 T. .000 single shear strength of body lbs. when held in threaded bushing and checked at a distance of 3/16” from shoulder at threaded end. 4.360 10.750 .

060 .06 –. .086 .500 3. accurate socket for maximum key engagement Uniform 82° angle under head for maximum contact Fully formed threads for greater strength and precision fit Continuous grain flow throughout the screw for increased strength Heat treated alloy steel for maximum strength without brittleness or decarburization See page 16 for mechanical properties and applications.161 .0949 .750 P protrusion max.112 .220 .051 .03 –.025 .066 .411 1.015 .0625 .1329 .14 Dimensions: ANSI/ASME B18.035 .539 .307 .112 .124 .168 .015 J nom.015 .101 .625 .123 .0568 .750 .781 .1250 .0781 .313 .480 .3 Thread Class: 3A SOCKET DEPTH H T (GUAGE DIA. size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 basic screw dia.143 .006 .099 .149 .078 .634 H max.000 1.689 .255 .438 1.251 .500 .135 .688 1.123 . .037 .962 1.038 . .2500 .437 .2187 .1202 .240 .168 .3053 .396 .355 1.084 .000 2.312 . .1840 . ref.190 .000 threads per inch UNRC – 64 56 48 40 40 32 32 24 20 18 16 14 13 11 10 9 8 UNRF 80 72 64 56 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 24 20 20 18 16 14 12 A head diameter max.9886 T min.015 .250 .054 .220 .250 2.159 . 7/16 to 3/4” incl.1075 .015 .750 .111 .03 –.875 1.034 .138 .198 .266 .3125 .073 .164 .060 . . 14 .171 .136 .044 .468 .375 . .049 .046 .050 .656 .359 .015 .034 .096 .112 .1562 .064 .267 .086 . -2 IMPERFECT THREADS T SOCKET DEPTH UNB 82° +0° A -2° D G F LENGTH J P HEAD PROTRUSION APPROX. ref.281 .) THREAD LENGTH MAX. .844 .099 .029 .226 .039 .961 1.190 .121 .015 .872 1.044 .739 .06 –.7406 .012 .531 .875 1.738 .875 .1585 .312 .0625 .195 .750 2.031 .110 .037 .059 .186 1.125 .605 1.185 1.410 1.375 .188 1.3678 .411 . Non-stock items may vary due to variables in methods of manufacture.5625 .100 .04 –.172 .148 .08 –.234 .6250 * maximum – to theoretical sharp corners ** minimum – absolute with A flat *** maximum product length. .250 1.117 .538 .146 F max.220 .4375 .000 min.147 .138 .750 .127 .3750 .423 .162 min.0822 .050 .875 .FLAT HEAD SOCKET SCREWS Dimensions Deep.424 .193 .047 .250 3.008 .248 .500 . to 1” –.073 .219 .112 1.056 .196 .0695 .500 .10 over 2 1/2” to 6” –.015 .5000 .625 .720 .3125 .218 . LENGTH TOLERANCE Diameter #0 to 3/8” incl.015 .234 .076 .015 .038 .044 . . It is suggested that the user verify performance on any non-standard parts for critical application.083 .164 .2435 .172 .297 G protrusion gage diameter max.010 . .090 . .037 .653 .014 .061 .108 .087 .050 .041 .125 .937 1.855 D body diameter max.032 .750 .000 3.055 .1875 .063 . thread to head NOTE: Performance data listed are for standard production items only.054 .134 .359 .600 .042 .324 .** .652 .311 .048 .138 .035 . 45° MACHINED SOCKET (MANUFACTURER’S OPTION) DIMENSIONS and APPLICATION DATA nom.250 .540 *** thd-to-hd max.250 1.097 .0937 .635 min.781 . 7/8 to 1” incl.263 .015 .0781 .071 .6163 .197 .4294 .938 min.500 1.05 over 1” to 2 1/2” –.750 .* .159 .875 1.069 .8647 .010 .690 .077 .015 .073 .4919 . .

051 .010 .000 1.175 .110 . max.1840 .000 2.199 . .190 .119 .114 . .262 .070 .625 min.105 .3678 .020 .112 .04 –. ref.091 .312 .2187 .066 .0949 .311 thd-to-hd max.250 . LENGTH TOLERANCE Diameter To 1” incl.112 .249 .527 .656 .044 .685 J min.331 min.481 .158 .031 . Over 1” to 2” SOCKET DEPTH T THREAD LENGTH 2 IMPERFECT THREADS to 1” incl.220 .309 .058 .1875 .500 .135 .073 .158 .185 .213 .077 . .238 .070 .375 .361 .086 .0625 .087 .164 . . .523 F fillet dia.152 .164 .500 .080 .145 .970 D body diameter max.0568 . .547 .010 .015 .3750 15 .176 .06 Dimensions: ANSI/ASME B18.141 .028 .122 .560 .1075 .2435 .035 .035 .500 .044 .132 . .500 .050 .250 .347 .851 .750 1.1562 .0781 . .0625 .028 .099 .086 . .194 .3 Thread Class: 3A SOCKET DEPTH T UNB A R D F S J H LENGTH APPROX.625 .000 1.080 .000 min.052 .046 .059 . .500 .104 .3125 .500 .245 .210 H head height max. 45° MACHINED SOCKET (MANUFACTURER’S OPTION) DIMENSIONS and APPLICATION DATA nom.010 .062 R ref.190 .020 .125 .1202 .368 .063 .032 .1250 .132 .139 .353 .290 .0822 .138 .026 .000 1.000 S max.031 . .6163 T min.185 . –.138 .213 .03 over 1” to 2” incl.4919 .015 .046 . 3053 .419 .060 . –.031 . .122 .0695 .099 .087 .500 .164 .101 .437 .BUTTON HEAD CAP SCREWS Dimensions Precision hex socket for maximum key engagement Low head height for modern streamline design Fully formed threads rolled under extreme pressure provide greater strength Continuous grain flow makes the whole screw stronger Heat treated alloy steel for maximum strength without brittleness or decarburization See page 16 for mechanical properties and applications.106 .166 .415 .375 .625 threads per inch UNRC – 64 56 48 40 40 32 32 24 20 18 16 13 11 UNRF 80 72 64 56 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 24 20 18 A head diameter max.010 .154 .1329 .015 .0937 .226 .188 .050 .044 .073 .052 .03 –. size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 basic screw dia.1585 .073 .035 .099 .093 .033 .636 .125 . .129 .265 .312 .038 .298 .250 .250 2.060 .875 1.0781 .3125 .201 .015 .500 .039 .

500 96.000 psi stress in alloy steel and 30.390 18.900 25.200 5. 93 137 191 253 325 403 491 693 931 1.000 106.680 14. min.300 20.000 7.610 2.440 2.310 1. hinges.040 1.240 3.000 18.440 8.780 5.200 UNRF 1.400 57.620 4.0 8.100 41.150 10.000 1.180 1.260 1.620 2.8 4.800 59.030 2.575 2.450 42.900 3.200 2. 271 402 556 739 946 1.400 18. For cadmium plated screws.800 3.250 14. 16 . covers.880 3.400 7.900 10.700 3.200 73.340 5. size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 ultimate strength lbs.3 12 21 34 81 136 247 388 600 856 1. UNRC – 237 333 438 544 716 818 1.060 1.030 4. UNRC – 390 555 725 1.5 7 8 12 15 30 40 100 200 350 560 850 1.000 PSI min.520 3.800 59.6 9.500 54.300 40.570 12.600 14.710 7.770 16.700 75.000 53.40.5 4.716 6.5 7 8 13 17 31 45 110 220 400 625 1.180 5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ALLOY STEEL nom.300 UNRF 265 390 555 725 1.600 32.000 *Torques values listed are for plain screws to induce 65.360 1.440 2.770 4. min.* UNRC – 2.600 45.040 1.0 1.100 3.0 4. multiply recommended seating torque by .8 3.500 19.400 seating torque inch-lbs.000 PSI min.000 psi tensile stress in stainless steel screw threads.200 1.000 single shear strength of body lbs.862 4.260 1.930 6.FLAT HEAD AND BUTTON HEAD SOCKET SCREWS Mechanical Properties NOTES Material: ASTM F835 – alloy steel ASTM F879 – stainless Hardness: Rc 38–43 for alloy steel Rb 96–Rc 33 for stainless steel Tensile Strength: 160.700 25. ultimate tensile strength for alloy steel 90.75.600 ultimate tensile strength lbs.9 11 20 30 71 123 218 349 532 767 1.220 7.850 23.6 6.100 14.070 8. for zinc plated screws multiply by 1.800 28.800 seating torque inch-lbs. etc.300 81.975 9.3 6.500 UNRF 162 250 355 471 595 747 913 1.400 16. They are not suggested for use in critical high strength applications where socket head cap screws should be used.900 22.220 2.900 29.000 33. ultimate tensile strength for stainless steel Heat Treatment: Stainless steel is in cold-worked (CW) condition unless otherwise requested.300 30.790 9.900 36. GENERAL NOTE Flat.350 12.* UNRC – 1.550 UNRF 1.276 5.5 4.327 1.700 STAINLESS STEEL single shear strength of body lbs.000 5. page 1.7 2.360 10.5 2.300 23. See Note. countersunk head cap screws and button head cap screws are designed and recommended for moderate fastening applications: machine guards.

656 .03 –.544 .750 .469 .375 1.078 .648 .091 R nom.000 44.579 .729 .600 20.250 . . through heat treated Thread: Class 2A.415 .219 .125 1.18 up to 5/8” 3/4” and over DIMENSIONS and APPLICATION DATA nom.505 1.361 .2 800 600 400% more Vibrational Holding Power 400 200 CARBON STEEL SQUARE HEADS (Plain Cup Point) SEATING TORQUE (Inch Lbs.000 1.031 1.302 .270 .344 .241 .581 .844 . over –. UNBRAKO Square Head Set Screws deliver up to 400 percent more Vibrational Holding Power.817 . 100 212 420 830 1.156 .563 .938 1.606 .437 .194 .000 1. ..850 4.270 .000 1.250 1.125 . provide 50% more axial holding power than ordinary carbon steel square heads.635 .966 1.252 .808 .549 .118 .920 1.06 –.875 1.172 .180 .875 1.484 .250 1.6.102 .315 .545 .06 –.178 .689 . therefore thread stripping strength of mating material must be considered.375 max.562 . incl.120 .241 . **See Note. page 1.437 .452 .665 . ANSI B18.774 .SQUARE HEAD SET SCREWS Heat treated alloy steel for maximum strength without brittleness or decarburization Dimensions Ⅲ Application Data VIBRATIONAL HOLDING POWER vs.848 .000 *#10 may have head dimensions from 1/4 nominal size furnished at Unbrako option.312 .582 .250 .148 .375 .045 .334 .332 .870 . because of the increased torque plus the Knurled Cup Point.500 W min.609 .224 .734 .149 .450 .297 .188 . made of high quality alloy steel.750 .852 .000 32.678 .530 .188 .190 .109 .09 –.974 1.425 .250 7.337 1.011 1.371 . size #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 basic screw diameter .291 .423 . .500 .642 .247* .281 .245 . .464 recom.293 .342 1.389 .341 .344 . .350 2.379 .625 .407 .886 max.600 16.726 .156 .500 threads per inch 24 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 A min.826 .** torque inch-lbs. SEATING TORQUE Size: 5/16”–18x1/2” GREATER TIGHTENING TORQUES of UNBRAKO Square Heads.437 .010 .203 .655 .700 12.125 1.063 1. 17 .485 .12 –.1. D min. .195 .312 .833 1.159 H min.502 .063 .212 . .652 .312 . .497 . And.140 . Handbook H-28.096 1.674 1.170 1.287 . .843 2.375 .250 .362 .105 F ±.134* . These torques are appreciably higher than socket set screw torque values.156 .125 NOTES Material: ASTM A574 – alloy steel Heat treatment: Rc 45 min.232 .908 1.767 .733 .456 .250 .010 max.562 .309 .391 .219 1.800 25.500 .347 .196 .100 2.094 .750 .127 .132 .) 0 100 200 300 400 LENGTH TOLERANCE Diameter SELF-LOCKING KNURLED CUP POINT INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL KNURL FURNISHED AT UNBRAKO OPTION up to 1” 1” to 2” 2” and incl.375 1. Seconds Fully formed threads with continuous grain flow for greater strength and precision fit Knurled cup point for positive self-locking and vibration resistance 1000 UNBRAKO ALLOY STEEL SQUARE HEADS VIBRATIONAL HOLDING POWER (Endurance) Threads per ANSI B 1.331 .001 1.926 C min.88 . 31/64 5/8 25/32 15/16 1 3/32 1 1/4 1 13/32 1 9/16 1 7/8 2 3/16 2 1/2 2 13/16 3 1/8 3 7/16 3 3/4 max.

6129 .4375 . .1136 1.2500 .7406 .2435 .920 1.0695 .02 over 2” to 6” ±.062 .076 .297 .06 A C J APPROX. 30° SEE NOTE** LENGTH – SEE NOTE APPROX.0819 .000 1.070 .3656 .033 .312 .750 .844 .088 .4886 max.232 .733 .5625 .1250 .078 .027 .689 .938 1.047 .033 .1900 .195 .0568 .105 NOTE: Performance data listed are for standard production items only.332 .060 .0000 1.734 .207 . 45° APPROX.609 .1580 .066 .1640 .040 .3750 .3568 1.808 .3750 1.0730 .0822 .0990 .2500 1.061 .0692 .371 .252 .112 .1329 .5000 A UNRC – .0945 .03 over 6” ±. 45° APPROX.194 .437 .7371 .125 P min.4919 .075 .250 .057 .8750 1.118 .067 .1380 .149 .9850 1.054 .655 .579 .530 .63 and under ±.390 .1075 .7500 .425 .011 1.379 .049 .767 .2386 1.287 .500 .656 .1840 .875 1.092 .250 1.4294 .848 .212 .086 .826 . It is suggested that the user verify performance on any non-standard parts for critical applications.469 .750 .886 max.125 1.375 1.562 .375 .347 .344 .0860 .045 . 18 .3053 .8611 .109 .1250 1.01 over .172 .502 .1199 .127 .4272 .334 .3636 1.0949 . 45° Q R C 118° SEE NOTE** PLAIN CUP FLAT HALF-DOG SEE NOTE 1 CONE C P 90° C 118° SEE NOTE 2 KNURLED CUP OVAL DIMENSIONS nom.120 .5000 .926 C min. Non-stock items may vary due to variables in methods of manufacture.037 .064 .190 . . .5538 .087 .1202 .4818 UNRF .2419 .057 .63 to 2” ±.562 .5511 .1320 .SOCKET SET SCREWS Ⅲ Dimensions Ⅲ Application Data Ⅲ Seating Torques T APPROX.6250 . .0600 .4891 .103 .456 .642 .045 .073 .500 threads per inch UNRC – 64 56 48 40 40 32 32 24 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 UNRF 80 72 64 56 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 24 20 20 18 18 16 14 12 12 12 12 12 max.291 .083 .625 .3125 . .102 .031 1. 45° LENGTH TOLERANCE 118° Diameter All .039 .125 .3038 .087 .156 .309 .450 .6163 .1086 1.9886 1.051 .250 .138 .074 .2336 1.3678 .203 .1585 .164 .1120 .099 .1069 .156 .053 .132 .1825 .241 .8647 . size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 basic screw diameter .040 .549 .

094 .750 *CAUTION: Values shown in column T are for minimum stock length cup point screws.140 .050 .050 .500 .625 .045 . . withstand higher tightening torques Class 3A threads – Formed with closest interchangeable fit for maximum crosssection with smooth assembly.043 .049 .600 9.075 .320 stainless .240 .060 . **See Note.156 . not cut or ground.142 .750 J nom.123 . When length equals nominal diameter or less.375 .** Applicable only to nominal minimum lengths shown or longer alloy steel 1.0937 . When length equals nominal diameter or less. key engagement .120 . . .050 . (#4 x 1/8 and #8 x 3/16 also have 118 angle) 2.200 9.450 .625 .265 .055 .250 .271 .035 .032 .075 .625 .105 .090 .281 .0625 .375 .000 4.105 .196 .100 . page 1.700 .234 .125 .562 .028 .5625 .037 .656 .750 R basic .060 . included angle is 118°.562 .4 1.140 .164 .600 11.250 . key or mating threads.700 .038 .064 .2187 .422 .031 1.100 nom.080 .067 .074 .330 .084 .075 .211 .323 .625 .035 .146 .400 3.650 .469 .938 1.0 1. included angle is 130°.312 .0781 .030 .750 .500 .3 Hardness: Rc 45-53 (alloy steel only).219 .080 .1875 . Metal is compressed.023 .188 .000 7.303 .562 .136 .291 .114 .148 .021 .035 .700 9.089 .125 1.385 min.035 . Screws shorter than nominal minimum length shown do not have sockets deep enough to utilize full key capability which can result in failure of socket.325 2.334 .188 . .017 .550 . screw length 3/32 1/8 1/8 5/32 5/32 5/32 3/16 3/16 3/16 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 11/16 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/4 min.075 .600 5.180 .074 .Dimensions Ⅲ Application Data Ⅲ Seating Torques Deep socket – Key fits deeply into socket to provide extra wrenching area for tighter tightening without reaming the socket or rounding off corners of key SOCKET SET SCREWS Continuous grain flow – Flow lines of rolled threads follow closely the contour of the screw Fully formed threads – are rolled.035 .082 . Threads resist shearing.227 .027 .8 5 5 10 10 20 36 87 165 290 430 620 620 1.0625 .2 1. Rb 96-Rc 33 (stainless steel) Thread class: 3A DIMENSIONS Q max.017 .260 . RECOMMENDED SEATING TORQUES – INCH-LBS.375 .210 .059 .104 .265 .099 .020 .000 5.013 .1562 .250 .365 T* min.354 .250 .2 4 4 7 7 16 26 70 130 230 340 500 500 980 1.190 .026 .700 3. 19 .060 .027 .033 .8 1.024 .5625 .600 7.070 .041 .125 . min.700 7. making it extra strong. Assure better mating of parts Counterbored knurled cup point NOTES Material: ASTM F912 – alloy steel ASTM F880 – stainless steel Dimensions: ASME/ANSI B18.844 .130 .328 .070 .3125 .104 .

collars. Relative hardness between set screw and shaft is also a factor. 20 . By its penetration. flat.) Additional design considerations appear below. Holding power can be increased by increasing seating torque. plain cup Use against hardened shafts. As much as 15% loss in holding power can result from a lower differential. A 10-point differential between the screw’s normal Rockwell C 50 and shaft should be maintained for full holding power. Reviewed here are standard point types. the least. with deepest penetration. and vibrational. in zinc. the set screw point can add as a much as 15% to total holding power. give the greatest increase.90 for oval point. (For more specific size data see pages 18–19. The screw diameter should be roughly 1/2 that of the shaft as a rule-of-thumb. knurled cup For quick and permanent location of gears. holding power values from tables on pages 22 and 23 can be multiplied by 1. Cone points. frequency of assembly and re-assembly and other factors.07 for cone point.92 for flat or dog points. Greater holding power reduces the number of screws required and the assembled cost of the application. The UNBRAKO knurl cup set screw offers additional mechanical locking resistance when required. axial (resistance to lateral movement). their relative hardness. Exclusive counterclockwise locking knurls resist screw loosening. Holding power is almost directly proportional to seating torque in a cup.SOCKET SET SCREWS Ⅲ Point Selection According to Application Socket set screws offer three types of holding power: torsional (resistance to rotation). oval points. Size selection is an important factor in holding power. 0. and oval point screws. their general features and most frequent areas of application of each type. Making 1 the index for cup point. die castings and other soft materials where high tightening torques are impractical. and 0. pulleys or knobs on shafts. with minimum penetration. Resists most severe vibration. even in poorly tapped holes. POINT SELECTION According to Application Point selection is normally determined by the nature of the application – materials. Vibration resistance can be achieved by correct size and proper tightening.

also for seating against an angular surface. Point is spotted in hole drilled in shaft or against flat (milled). half dog Used for permanent location of one part to another. Works well against hardened members or hollow tubing. 21 . Ⅲ Non-magnetic.SOCKET SET SCREWS Point Selection According to Application STAINLESS STEEL ADVANTAGES Ⅲ Corrosion resistance. Circular U-grooves or axial V-grooves sometimes put in shaft to permit rotational or longitudinal adjustment. oval Use for frequent adjustment without deformation of part it bears against. as it causes little or no damage to part it bears against. a valuable property in certain electrical and electronic applications.2 and can be reduced to 1.02 by bright annealing. Can be used against hardened shafts (usually with ground flat for better contact) and as adjusting screw. cone For permanent location of parts. flat Use where parts must be frequently re-set. Freedom from scaling or oxidation.) Corrosion-resistance useful where cleanliness is important. Deep penetration gives highest axial and holding power. Preferred for thin wall thickness and on soft plugs. (Maximum permeability is 1. Wide temperature range (–300° F to +800° F). In material over Rockwell C15 point is spotted to half its length to develop shear strength across point. Used for pivots and fine adjustment. Often replaces dowel pins. Ⅲ Standard processing of these socket set screws includes a passivation treatment which neutralizes surface contamination.

0 11.0 62 96 135 250 375 500 625 750 56.0 13.2 39 60 84 156 234 16.000 3.000 50 65 85 120 160 200 250 385 540 1.2 2. Good results have been obtained with a factor of 1.6 7.500 shaft diameter (shaft hardness Rc 15 to Rc 35) 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 nom.5 10. HOLDING POWER (percent of single set screw assembly) 200 a 100 60 120 180 Fig.500 4.5 3.0 31.5 2.500 3.3 3.0 2. Shafting used was hardened to Rockwell C15.5 30.0 20.5 3.0 37.5 15.9 5. Data was determined experimentally in a long series of tests in which holding power was defined as the minimum load to produce 0.2 18.5-2.3 7. seated at recommended installation torques. size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 torsional holding power inch-lbs. values can be modified by percentage factors to yield suitable design data for almost any standard set screw application.000 5. The data in this chart offers a simplified means for selecting diameter and seating torque of a set screw on a given diameter shaft.325 2.8 1. 1.5 21.) NOTES Tabulated axial and torsional holding powers are typical strengths and should be used accordingly.5 47 72 101 187 280 375 26.600 6.0 5.4 7.600 5. From this basic chart.7 25. 1 ANGLE BETWEEN SCREWS.3 35.1 9. Test involved Class 3A screw threads in Class 2B tapped holes.6 19 30 4.0 17.2 8.6 15.7 23 36 51 5.500 2.6 3.0 12.1 10.2 70 108 152 281 421 562 702 843 985 22 .010 inch relative movement of shaft and collar.3 13.0 6..000 2. Values in bold type in the chart indicate recommended set screw sizes on the basis that screw diameter should be roughly one-half shaft diameter.400 3.000 1.0-8.1 8.0 under static load conditions (i. Torsional holding power in inch-pounds and axial holding power in pounds are tabulated for various cup point socket screws. a (deg.7 6.0 for various dynamic situations.8 27 42 59 6.000 5. TORSIONAL and AXIAL HOLDING POWER (Based on Recommended Seating Torques – Inch-Lbs.e.0 43.0 31 48 68 125 10.) axial seating holding power torque inch-lbs.8 5 5 10 10 20 36 87 165 290 430 620 620 1.0 4. where a collar is supporting a vertical load on a post) and of 4.0 25.1 4.SOCKET SET SCREWS Ⅲ Torsional and Axial Holding Power SIZE SELECTION OF SOCKET SET SCREWS The user of a set-screw-fastened assembly is primarily buying static holding power.0 50. (pounds) 1.7 55 84 118 218 327 437 545 40.0 5. with specific safety factors appropriate to the given application and load conditions.6 9.0 22.3 15.0 18.3 12.0 1.

whose locking knurls bite into the shaft and resist the tendency of the screw to back out of the tapped hole. The thread form itself has the radiused root that increases the strength of the threads and resistance to shear. with the least contact area. maintaining the necessary controlled Rc 45-53 hardness for maximum strength. there is one cup point that can give you both a maximum of holding power and of resistance to vibration. closest interchangeable fit. But there’s a limit to how much you can tighten the average socket set screw. Finally. Design – Deeper UNBRAKO sockets give more key engagement to let you seat the screws tighter. With UNBRAKO set screws it’s a different story. Also. Controlled Manufacturing – The fully-formed threads of UNBRAKO set screws are rolled under extreme pressure to minimize stripping and handle the higher tightening torques. size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 torsional holding power inch-lbs. UNBRAKO knurled cup point self-locking set screws give you excellent performance under conditions of extreme vibration.600 6.500 2. It is the exclusive UNBRAKO knurled cup point. even strip the threads. but is by far the most commonly used.000 50 65 85 120 160 200 250 385 540 1. Too little carbon in the furnace atmosphere (decarburization) makes screws soft.000 3. As much as 15% more can be contributed. Controlled Heat Treatment – This is the third element of the combination.500 4. A unique combination of design and carefully controlled manufacturing and heat treating gives these screws extra strength that permits you to tighten them appreciably tighter than ordinary screws with minimal fear of reaming or cracking the socket. the better they hold and the more they resist loosening from vibration.000 5. you can ream or crack the socket.0 1. So you’re never quite sure whether or not it will actually stay tight. 62 78 120 169 312 468 625 780 937 1090 1250 94 144 202 357 562 750 937 1125 1310 1500 1875 109 168 236 437 656 875 1095 1310 1530 1750 2190 2620 192 270 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2500 3000 3500 338 625 937 1250 1560 1875 2190 2500 3125 3750 4375 750 1125 1500 1875 2250 2620 3000 3750 4500 5250 1310 1750 2210 2620 3030 3750 4500 5250 6120 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 5000 6000 7000 3125 3750 4370 5000 6250 7500 8750 4500 5250 6000 7500 9000 10500 6120 7000 8750 10500 12250 8000 10000 12000 14000 23 . If you’re not careful. Corners are radiused to safeguard against reaming or cracking the socket when the extra tightening torque is applied. stripped threads and sheared points when screws are tightened. with rolled threads. tolerances can be more closely maintained. point style affects holding power. The oval point.SOCKET SET SCREWS Torsional and Axial Holding Power If you know set screws.8 1. this extra strength represents a substantial bonus of extra holding power and the additional safety and reliability that goes with it. By eliminating the corners. (pounds) 1. The cone point (when used without a spotting hole in the shaft) gives greatest increase because of its greater penetration.325 2.000 1.600 5. and in some cases. depending on the depth of penetration. the radii distribute tightening stresses to reduce the chance of splitting to a minimum. Too much carbon (carburization) makes screws brittle and liable to crack or fracture. causing reamed sockets. you know that the tighter you can tighten them. However. The chart on this page shows clearly how much better the UNBRAKO set screws resist vibration in comparison with plain cup point set screws.400 3.500 shaft diameter (shaft hardness Rc 15 to Rc 35) 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 nom. The cup point lies in between.000 2. affords the least.500 3. UNBRAKO set screws have Class 3A threads.8 5 5 10 10 20 36 87 165 290 430 620 620 1.000 5. because of the wide range of applications to which it is adaptable. UNBRAKO SOCKET SET SCREWS – UNRC or UNRF Thread – Seated Against Steel Shaft axial seating holding torque power inch-lbs. The sharp corners of other set screws create high stress concentrations and can cause cracking. giving maximum cross-section with smooth assembly. even at lower tightening torques. The heat treatment is literally tailored to each “heat” of UNBRAKO screws.

156 .37360 .77843 .250 .375 .812 .218 .55713 1.312 .061 1.82234 2.23863 1.49163 .312 .312 .005 .411 .29627 L1 .000 threads per in.395 F min.240 .420 .562 .750 for LEVL-SEAL 24 .375 .003 .250 .PRESSURE PLUGS DRYSEAL TYPE with 3/4-inch taper per foot Precision hex socket with maximum depth for positive wrenching at higher seating torques Dryseal-thread form achieves a seal without need for compound Heat treated alloy steel for strength Roundness-closely controlled for better sealing Uniform taper of 3/4 inch per foot Controlled chamfer for faster starting Threads NPTF per ANSI B1.010 basic thread dimension E0 .2278 .140 .420 .684 .58338 1.918 2.27118 .005 .437 L ±.1615 .010 .125 .250 1.125 . . .007 .26902 E1 .500 .847 1.47739 .250 .312 .084 .400 . .062 . 27 27 18 18 14 14 11 1/2 11 1/2 11 1/2 11 1/2 A ref.073 .812 .312 .79609 2.375 .28118 .125 .545 .437 .156 G min.75843 . .625 .095 .875 W nom.339 .003 .160 .156 .188 .436 **.156 .320 .21363 1.62701 .007 .96768 1.010 .500 2.333 1.36351 .3 See Notes on page 25 See Application Data on page 26 DIMENSIONS nominal thread size 1/16 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 .010 .750 1.003 .750 1.000** 1.625 .750 .20.437 .98887 1.062 .437 .318 .140 .000 1.500 .062 .562 .000** X note 4 .61201 .679 1.

37360 .I.067 .667 .112 .29627 NOTES 1.62701 .250 . Six equally spaced identification grooves (1/16-27 plug to have 3 identification grooves) on alloy steel plugs. Material: ASTM A574 alloy steel.529 . Dimensions apply before plating and/or coating.885 2.58338 1.360 L +.307 . Undercut in socket at mfrs. w nom. 5.250 .102 . 2. 25 .054 . Large end of plug to be flush with face of special 7/8 taper ring gages within one-half thread.531 . (LEVL-SEAL) 7.015 .23863 1.28118 . 4.329 . .PRESSURE PLUGS LEVL SEAL TYPE Dryseal Thread Form with 7/8-inch per foot ® Precision hex socket with maximum depth for positive wrenching at higher seating torques Heat treated alloy steel for strength Roundness closely controlled for better sealing High pressure is developed through a deliberate difference of taper between the plug and the tapped hole having standard 3/4” taper Flush seating is achieved through closer control of thread forms. Fully formed PTF dryseal threads for better sealing without the use of a compound Controlled chamfer for faster See Application Data on page 27 DIMENSIONS* nominal thread size 1/16 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 .500 2. .266 . austenitic stainless steel or brass.500 . .656 . and X.656 E note 3 ref. Bottom of plug to be flat within “X” T.830 1.141 .045 .000 A ref.750 1.77843 . Hardness: Rc 35-40 for steel.647 1. E1 – pitch diameter at L1 distance from end of plug.360 F min.062 . L2 and tapered ring). at a distance of one-half pitch from large end of plug.141 .401 .406 .052 . Basic pitch diameter: E-pitch dia. option 6. *Dimensions before coating for PTFE/TEFLON-coated LEVL-SEAL pressure plugs.040 . See page 24 for threads per inch.041 1. .266 .360 . E0 – pitch diameter at small end of plug.250 . DRY-SEAL and LEVL-SEAL: Small end of plug to be flush with face of standard NPTF ring gages within one thread (L1.R.250 1.82234 2.360 . 3. PTF thread from 7/8-inch taper per foot.000 –.406 .102 . L1 – length of hand-tight engagement.302 1.084 G min..656 .656 .049 .531 .125 .329 .360 .000 1.375 .98887 1. sizes and taper-improves safety and appearance.49163 .

Pressure plugs are made to closer tolerances. The tightening force must be low enough to cause no galling in this range. size 1/16 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 threads per inch 27 27 18 18 14 14 11 1/2 11 1/2 11 1/2 11 1/2 tap drill size+ 15/64 21/64 27/64 9/16 11/16 57/64 1 1/8 37. Pipe plugs (plumber’s fittings) are limited to pressures of 600 psi. 26 . and almost all have taper threads. Properly made and used. it will tend to gall in the hole.PRESSURE PLUGS Ⅲ Application Data Pressure plugs are not pipe plugs. and thread finish. this thread form was developed for aircraft use. If too much of compressive force is required to torque the plug.5mm 43. The standard which applies is ANSI B1. Too little force will not deform the crest of threads enough to produce a seal. How Pressure Plugs Seal Sealing is achieved by crushing the crest of one thread against the root of the mating thread. are generally of higher quality.5mm 2 3/16 tap drill size ++ 1/4 11/32 7/16 37/64 23/32 59/64 1 5/32 – – – recommended torque in. ++Without use of tapered reamer.3. APPLICATION DATA – DRYSEAL TYPE nom. Multiply by . are sealed with a compound. A lubricant and sealer are generally used.-lbs* 150 250 600 1200 1800 3000 4200 5400 6900 8500 Unbrako recommends using a tapered reamer with corresponding size tap drill (see page 27).50 for brass. *Recommended torques for alloy steel only. TYPES OF PRESSURE PLUG THREADS Three thread forms are commonly used for pipe plugs and pressure plugs: NPT: National Pipe thread. +With use of reamer (taper thread). Tapered. they will seal at pressures to 5000 psi and without a sealing compound (pressure tests are usually at 20. Galling and seizure are caused by metal pickup on the mating surfaces and are directly related to force on the surface. Tapered. They make pressuretight joints without a sealant. This is the thread form commonly used for commercial pipe and fittings for low pressure applications. Tapered. Increasing the hardness of the material will reduce galling but will also increase the required sealing force.20. It is basically the same as the NPT thread except that tolerances have been reduced about 50 percent. material hardness. For a satisfactory seal. Covered by MIL-S7105. Tolerances are about 1/4 those for NPT threads. especially where reuse is frequent. Generally a hardness range of Rc 30 to 40 will meet most requirements.) they are often used in hydraulic and pneumatic designs. This is the standard thread for pressure plugs. ANPT: Aeronautical National Pipe thread. NPTF fully formed Dryseal threads achieve seal in tapped holes without need for sealing compounds.65 for stainless steel and . the threads of the plug and those in the mating hole must not gall or seize up to maximum possible tightening torque. Applicable for fluid power applications. Performance Requirements Pressure plugs used in industrial applications should: Ⅲ not leak at pressures to 5000 psi Ⅲ need no sealing compounds Ⅲ be reusable without seizure Ⅲ give a good seal when reused Ⅲ seal low viscosity fluids Ⅲ require minimum seating torque Ⅲ require minimum re-tooling or special tools. Cost Considerations Dryseal plugs are more frequently used. They are also preferred in soft metals to reduce of over-torquing.000 psi. and are made of cast iron with cut threads and protruding square drive. lubrication used. Reason: more threads are engaged and they therefore resist leakage better. Fuel. NPTF: National Pipe thread. They are not to be used for hydraulic applications. Plugs made with this thread should be used with lubricants and sealers.

5mm 2 3/16 150 250 600 1200 1800 3000 4200 5400 6900 8500 *For taper thread (using tapered reamer). Suited for in assembly line production.397 . Higher hydraulic and pneumatic working pressures can be effectively sealed. then held peak pressure for 6 full hours without trace of leakage. Seal is effective without use combination of extra hardness and abrasion resistance which permit reuse up to 5 times without apprecia-ble loss of seal.772 . The coating is serviceable to +450°F without deterioration. Idealfor use in assemblies where clearanceis limited and in hydraulic lines near moving parts.8165 tapping information tap projection thru L1 ring max.5655 . LEVL-SEAL plugs seat These are available in the same range of sizes as the alloy steel plugs.375 . .761 .500 psi 8times in 5 minutes. . Flush seating– Design of LEVL-SEAL plug permits seating within half a pitch in a normally tapped hole.250 . Temperatures lower than –100° F Flush seating improves appear-ance require the use of stainless steel plugs.6905 .375 .PTFE/TEFLON-Coated LEVL-SEAL Type Dryseal Thread Form with 7/8-inch Taper per Foot Deliberate difference in taper between the plug and the tapped hole.4794 1.4249 .) size alloy steel 15/64 21/64 27/64 9/16 11/16 57/64 1 1/8 37. coating material because of its APPLICATION DATA – LEVL-SEAL and LEVL-SEAL with PTFE/TEFLON nom.605 .1240 1. . The coating reduces any tendency of the plug hole is 3/4” per foot. of tapes or sealing compounds. Installation of the new plugs is faster with the coating of PTFE/TEFLON which acts as a lubricant as well as seal. High load placed on the few mating threads near the top of the hole.592 .641 .6865 .7116 2.780 .3271 . while that of the system or equipment. and (2) a deliberate difference in taper between the plug and a involved.5615 .516 .2334 . even with liquids of very low viscosity. . there is no danger of foreign normally tapped NPTF hole. min. Power equipment can be used to install the smaller sizes instead of the manual wrenching required by higher torques of uncoated plugs.521 .584 .) PTFE/TEFLON was selected for the to“freeze” in the hole because of rustor corrosion.8896 1. PTFE/TEFLON CoatedLEVL-SEAL Type Typical thickness is 0. size 1/16 1/8 1/4 3/8 ½ 3/4 1 1 1/4 1½ 2 threads per inch 27 27 18 18 14 14 11 ½ 11 ½ 11 ½ 11 ½ recommended hole diameter max. PRESSURE PLUGS High pressure seal– Achieved through metal-to-metal contact at the large end of the plug.503 . Unbrako Laboratories have tested these plugs with surges up to 13. Conventional plugs have the greater tolerance of a full pitch and usually protrude above the surface.5mm 43. For tap drill size (without using tapered reamer) see table and corresponding comment on page 26.392 . PTF fully formed Dryseal threads designed to achieve seal in tapped holes without need for sealing com-pounds. **Maximum for PTFE/TEFLON-coated but can be reduced as much as 60% in most applications.793 .7165 2.3271 . corrosion-resistantPTFE/TEFLON.2374 . and adds safety.627 .573 Imperfect threads allowable 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 tap* drill recommended torque (inch-lbs.8836 1.0005-inchLEVLSEAL precision coated with tough.517 . (The taper of matter entering and contaminating the the plug is 7/8” per foot .1905 min.4754 1. Designed for use in hard materials and in thick-walled sections as well as for normal plug applications.250 .280 1.4209 . flush because of a combi-nation of (1) With no tape or sealing compound gaging procedures.

0009 max.1565 .000 psi x π (nom.7503 .0947 .031 .1870 .0001 .4378 .1259 . .023 .125 B D R calculated single shear strength (pounds) 465 1.0003 min.2509 .7495 . . nom.DOWEL PINS Ⅲ Dimensions Ⅲ Application Data Formed ends resist chipping Surface hardness: Rockwell “C” 60 minimum Surface finish: 8 microinch maximum Core hardness: Rockwell “C” 50–58 Case depth: .1250 .6245 .008 .039 .370 11.540 29.000 psi (calculated based on conversion from hardness) Heat treated alloy steel for strength and toughness Material.3761 .0634 . A)2 ‫ נ‬4 4° .059 min.8761 1.5620 .059 .001 over nom.018 .2495 .1573 .190 117.365 .2 .150 .1886 .016 .022 .2503 .0636 . Use safety shield or glasses when pressing chamfered end in first.016 . .7511 .0000 min.5626 .16° 8 D R A B LENGTH .4375 .0011 min.270 90.0937 .5628 .7500 .8750 1.0620 .735 .0941 . Single shear load calculated as 150.0002 over nom.580 22.6259 .4370 .3745 .5000 .1562 .4376 .020-inch minimum Shear strength: 150.6261 .1876 .1571 .6250 .078 .2500 .5001 .9995 28 .8751 1.180 .140 7.1557 .0932 .3126 .1878 .3753 .034 .7501 .1563 .8. .2511 . max.1884 .8745 .270 46.5009 .1251 .035 1.0625 .3136 .3125 .0002 – inch oversize typically used for first installation.022 .1245 . Dimensions: ASME B18.6251 .031 .5625 . .063 .5003 .548 .070 .058 .020 66. .120 .3750 .047 .7509 .5011 .8759 1.845 2.047 .047 .4386 .3751 .059 . Installation Warning – Do not strike. .094 .0010 – inch oversize typically used after hole enlarges.5636 .038 .± .1253 .047 .023 .500 16.424 .0949 .0939 . 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 max.109 .020 .810 recommended hole size (.2501 .460 37. .4384 .0002 over nom.047 .860 .3759 .3128 .880 4.1261 .0626 . .089 .302 .0628 . Heat Treatment.010 DIMENSIONS and APPLICATION DATA A .5634 . .) max.3134 .611 .240 .486 .1875 .980 min.6253 .3120 .4995 .012 .8753 1.055 .

wrist pins. as fasteners for laminated sections and machine parts. as valves and valve plungers on hydraulic equipment. Surface finish to 8 microinch maximum. as feeler gages in assembly work.Dimensions Ⅲ Application Data Continuous grain flow resists chipping of ends. hinges and shafts. Chamfered end provides easier insertion in hole. DOWEL PINS APPLICATIONS Widely used as plug gages in various production operations. stops. Precision heat treated for greater strength and surface hardness. and as roller bearings in casters and truck wheels. Also used as position locators on indexing machines. and as guide pins. 29 . for aligning parts.

.810 recommended hole diameter max.8.243 .270 90.8753 1.6250 .3125 .4378 .875 .237 . 30 . .000 psi x π (nom. Lengths equal to or shorter than “P” max.243 .R. .4315 .500 . A)2 ‫ נ‬4 4°–16° 8 B DIA. 2.6251 .0002-inch on diameter and roundness to 50 millionths of an inch (T.8750 1. A DIA.190 117.243 .047 .315 .2 Single shear load calculated as 150.390 .4376 .390 .302 .000 psi (calculated based on conversion from hardness) Heat treated alloy steel for strength and toughness Held to precise tolerance – . values may be drilled through.020 66.7501 .3753 .PULL-OUT DOWEL PINS Ⅲ Dimensions Ⅲ Application Data Tapped hole for easy pull-out (ANSI B1.625 . Point angle (approx. 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 thread size #8-32 UNC-2B #10-32 UNF-2B #10-32 UNF-2B #10-32 UNF-2B 1/4-20 UNC-2B 1/4-20 UNC-2B 5/16-18 UNC-2B 3/8-16 UNC-2B 3/8-16 UNC-2B max.) 5° on point for lengths equal to or longer than X.) Formed ends resist chipping Material and Heat Treatment: ASME B18. use 15° angle.460 46.611 .370 11.I.2501 .5003 .7495 .8745 .212 .2500 . .6245 . .047 .034 .059 P note 1 max.315 .5000 .4370 . .3750 .750 .625 .3120 .8751 1.860 .3745 .486 .4995 .750 . .7503 .0001 D min.735 .424 .059 .9995 NOTES 1. For shorter lengths. .1 DIMENSIONS and APPLICATION DATA B size nom. THREADS PER ANSI B1.6253 .3128 .500 16.1) Exclusive spiral grooves afford uniform relief for insertion and removal.390 X note 2 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 3/4 13/16 13/16 13/16 calculated single shear strength (pounds) 7.3751 .2503 .0003 A min.7500 .0000 min.365 .875 T min.3126 .5001 .047 .2495 .580 22.031 .875 .980 max.038 .625 .059 .540 29. reduce chances of hole-scoring Surface hardness-Rockwell C60 minimum Surface finish-8 microinch maximum Core hardness-Rockwell C 50–58 Shear strength: 150.

YOU MUST SAVE COST OF NEW PINS EACH TIME DIE IS SERVICED OR DISMANTLED. more accurate and more economical than “do-it-yourself” modifications of standard dowels. You can remove them without turning the die over. 5. UNBRAKO pull-out dowel pins are identical and interchangeable with standard UNBRAKO dowels. 3. Time-consuming “do-it-yourself” modification of standard pin eliminated. The hole tapped in one end for a removal screw or threaded “puller” makes it easy and fast to remove the pin without damage to pin or hole. accuracy and tolerances. YOU SAVE MODIFICATIONS COSTS. They save you money FIVE ways: 1. assuring more uniform pull-out values. YOU AVOID HEADACHES AND YOU SAVE YOUR SKILLED PEOPLE FOR PROFITABLE WORK. No need for annealing (to make pins soft enough to drill and tap) and re-hardening. finish. YOU SAVE MONEY IN REDUCED DOWNTIME AND LOSS OF PRODUCTION UNBRAKO pull-out dowel pins speed up die servicing and reworking.” NO SPECIAL PREPARATION OF INDIVIDUAL HOLES NEEDED-YOU CAN BE SURE OF ACCURATE FIT EVERY TIME. easy to remove. You don’t need any special tools to remove UNBRAKO pull-out dowels-just an ordinary die hook and a socket head cap or button head socket screw. 31 .PULL-OUT DOWEL PINS Dimensions Ⅲ Application Data 5 WAYS TO SAVE UNBRAKO Pull-Out Dowel Pins are easier. 4. UNBRAKO pull-out dowel pins have tapped holes and relief grooves built in. and you can take out individual sections of the die for rework or service without removing entire die assembly from the press. They have the same physical. which can result in damage to finish. UNBRAKO pull-out dowel pins are reusable. YOU SAVE COST OF SEPARATE KNOCK-OUT HOLES IN BLIND HOLES WHERE PINS MUST BE REMOVED. permits repeated re-use. Exclusive spiral grooves release trapped air for insertion or removal without danger of hole-scoring. YOU SAVE TIME AND MONEY BECAUSE OF THIS QUALITY “REPEATABILITY. UNBRAKO pull-out pins are easy to install in blind holes. and in inaccuracies and distortion. 2. And they are consistently uniform. Their exclusive spiral relief grooves provide more uniform relief than other types of removable pins.

630 4.938 1.938 1.156 5.000 .281 2.3735 .156 11.1235 .516 .656 3.844 3.000 13.719 3.781 2.281 3.500 71.094 9.000 15.844 7.094 3.8720 .312 1.9 2.656 1.656 14.609 .650 10.743 1.5 21 35 60 85 125 165 295 460 670 1.156 4.344 2.656 5.594 1.797 .0771 .200 19.156 12.656 4.531 1. 1.4975 .781 5.969 2.125 .625 .906 9.500 13.156 5.156 7.344 7.469 2.250 3.219 2.094 3.656 2.750 .3110 .312 .656 7.094 3.6225 .406 2.250 3.9970 1.0275 .5600 . tough and ductile clear through for longer life and retention of dimensional accuracy Size stamped for easy identification – 5/64”-1” across flats Square cut end engages the socket full depth for better tightening of screw GGG-K-275.500 2.000 172.469 3.2172 .156 2.703 .562 1.281 2.750 min.800 24.1547 .594 4.500 108.2 25 43 68 98 146 195 342 535 780 1.900 124.938 3.844 .344 4.0 5.906 2.900 12.035 .050 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 min.260 3.219 2.156 9.125 1.370 2.3 B C DIMENSIONS key size W dash number size page 87 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 C length of long arm short series max.594 8.125 1. .906 3.344 8.688 2.4355 .000 276.344 1.344 12.250 32 .844 .906 6.049 .719 1.344 6.438 .031 4.031 1.312 1.094 2.844 4.600 2.031 2.438 .406 1.028 .031 4. .000 max.656 3.281 3.000 43.969 2.844 5.500 6.906 3.891 .870 5. ANSI B18.156 8.500 15.250 .300 8.094 6.406 4.400 62.781 1.344 11.6 10.500 min.000 long series max. B length of short arm MECHANICAL PROPERTIES torsional shear torsional strength yield inch-lbs.969 5.1079 .1391 .993 .219 1.750 2.2485 .578 2.844 1.562 .156 8.500 29. 2.750 4.844 1.531 2.766 2.844 14.243 1.750 1. .031 1.5 12.594 2.7470 .750 .656 .156 max.156 3. 2.750 4.344 min.3 6.844 6.469 3.000 17.420 7.031 2.750 3. min.250 4. min.844 4.656 .0615 .656 1.HEX KEYS Ⅲ Dimensions Ⅲ Mechanical Properties Ⅲ Screw Size Table Accurately sized across flats and corners to insure snug fit and full wall contact Heat treated alloy steel-key is hard.656 11.0927 .469 1.1860 .156 1.500 17.469 .844 4.0345 .125 1.844 11.000 240.1 2.500 16.344 3. inch-lbs.703 . 1. 1.900 37.656 6.493 1.406 8.344 9.469 2.219 4.281 1.000 198.344 5.344 9.

1/8 1 1/4.#2 #3. Still the UNBRAKO screw has not been harmed.3. especially true of the smaller sizes (5/32” and under) which are normally held in the hand. 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 1/2. It can be lifted out with a small magnet. Note the extension bar illustrated for test purposes only. flush with the top of the socket. the key shears off clean. Twisted to about 270°.#6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8. NOTE: The use of an extension in these illustrations is for demonstration purposes only.1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8. Broken section can be lifted out with a magnet. convincing proof that the socket has not been reamed or otherwise damaged.HEXAGON KEYS Why UNBRAKO keys tighten socket screws tighter. A 5/64” UNBRAKO key will twist up to 180° without weakening. 1 1/4 1 3/8.2 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1. 1-1/2 33 . The broken piece of the key is not wedged into the socket. 2 1/2 2 3/4 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 1 1-1/4.#2 #3.#6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2. and it can be done safely.#6 #8 #10 flat head screws #0 #1. This is an important feature. safely An UNBRAKO key is not an ordinary hexagon key – it is a precision internal wrenching tool of great strength and ductility. alloy steel pressure* plugs button head screws #0 #1. 1 3/8 1 1/2 1/16 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 NOTES Material: ANSI B18. The socket hasn’t been reamed or damaged. #4 #5.#3 #4. 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4. SCREW SIZE SELECTOR TABLE 1960 Series socket head cap screws low heads and socket set screws #0 #1. With an UNBRAKO key.1 1 1/8. Photographs of a destruction test show what we mean.#5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16.#4 #5. leaving no jagged edge to gash a hand. #4 #5. At this point it shears off clean. The manufacturer does not recommend the use of extensions with any hex key product under normal conditions. 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 shoulder screws Heat treat: Rc 47-57 #0 #1 #2. #2 #3. far more tightening torque than is needed can be applied without damaging the screw or the key. Under excessive torque a 5/64” UNBRAKO key twists but does not shear until a torque has been reached that is approximately 20% greater than can be applied with an ordinary key.

35 74 Size Dia.236 0.945 3 8.393 1.157 0.) METRIC Pitch (mm) TPI (Approx) 34 .196 0.5 17 0.8 1.250 0.315 1.5 0.5 #3 #4 0.7 36 0.096 56 M2.(In.138 40 32 M4 #8 #10 0.098 0.375 16 M10 7/16 0.063 0.6 #1 0.125 0.5 10 0. (In.551 2 12.5 0.5 51 0.45 56 0.112 48 40 M3 #5 #6 0.) 0.164 0.437 14 M12 1/2 0.25 20 0.079 0.118 0.5 0.5 0.500 13 M14 5/8 0.75 14.00 32 25 0.190 32 24 M5 M6 1/4 5/16 0.060 TPI 80 M1.THREAD CONVERSION CHARTS DIAMETER/THREAD PITCH COMPARISON INCH SERIES Size #0 Dia.625 11 M16 3/4 0.63 2 12.4 64 0.750 10 M20 7/8 0.875 9 M24 1 1.787 2.5 0.472 1.312 20 18 M8 3/8 0.063 3 8.099 0.073 64 M2 #2 0.000 8 M27 1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel . . . Standards – Alloy Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Button Head Socket Screws . . . . 42 Dowel Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel . . . . . . . 41 Shoulder Screws . Standards – Alloy Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Socket Head Cap Screws . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS UNBRAKO® Socket Screw Products (Metric) Page Metric Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Flat Head Socket Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Conversion Chart. . . . . . . 44 Low Head Cap Screws . . . . . . 50 35 . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Low Heads – Alloy Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Hex Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Socket Set Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low Heads – Alloy Steel . . 47 ISO Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloy Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ⅲ ISO (International Standards Organization) is a standards group comprising 70 member nations. ASTM and ISO committees.UNBRAKO Metric Fasteners UNBRAKO Metric Fasteners are the strongest off-the-shelf threaded fasteners you can buy. ANSI. Precision in manufacturing and careful control in stress areas insure strength in such critical areas as heads. Many ANSI documents list dimensional information but refer to ASTM specifications for materials. including the three most common-ANSI. Their exclusive design features and closely controlled manufacturing processes insure the dimensional accuracy. Unbrako is represented on several ASME. 36 . They are manufactured with the same methods and features as their inch-series counterpart. mechanical properties. strength and fatigue resistance needed for reliability in today’s advanced technology. Its objective is to provide standards that will be completely universal and common to all countries subscribing. and bearing areas. sockets. Ⅲ ANSI (American National Standards Institute) documents are published by ASME (The American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and are familiar to almost all users of socket screw products in the U. you can be sure that they meet or exceed the strength levels of all current standards. Ⅲ DIN (Deutsche Industries Normen) is the German standards group. When you purchase UNBRAKO metric socket screw products. ISO and DIN. threads. Ⅲ ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). NOTE: The proper tightening of threaded fasteners can have a significant effect on their performance. Strength UNBRAKO metric socket head cap screws are made into property class 12.A. fillets.9 with a minimum ultimate tensile strength of 1300 or 1250 MPa depending on screw diameter. and test criteria.S.

Different standards are the responsibility of various organizations and are not always identical. which are however subject to change by any standards organization at any time.9 Property Class 12. UTS min. This Engineering Guide was published with the most current values.S. material. inch socket screws.8 Property Class 10.A WARNING TO METRIC FASTENER USERS Metric socket cap screws are NOT sold in a single strength level like U. These standards specify the fastener requirements: dimensions. inspection. MPa (KSI) Property Class 8. etc.9 USA Standards ASTM A574M Unbrako Standards ASTM A574M Carbon Steel Alloy Steel Alloy Steel 800 (116) < M16 830 (120) ≥ M16 1040 (151) 1220 (177) Alloy Steel 1220 (177) Alloy Steel 1300 (189) ≤ M16 1250 (181) > M16 STANDARDS The use of metric fasteners in the worldwide market has led to the creation of many standards. ISO Strength Level. Property Class General Material International Standards Organization. 37 . Unbrako supplies metric fasteners for maximum interchangeability with all standards. strength levels.

470 2.0 2.5 1. M1. 4.6 6.54 0.0 12.0 10.000 single shear strength of body min.5 5.7 ±1.0 ±0.83 5.0 16.700 45.85 1.5 5.0 48.0 24.7 ±1.9-ISO 898/1 D A H J T G L THREAD LENGTH SEE STOCK TABLE APPROX 45° THREAD SIZE 30° NOTES 1.6 2. Thread Class: 4g 6g LENGTH TOLERANCE nominal screw diameter M1.0 5.0 max.57 2.6 5. ISO 262 (coarse series only) Property Class: 12.6 thru M10 M12 thru M20 tolerance on lgth.METRIC SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Dimensions Threads: ANSI B1.960 8.000 756 315. Over 120 to 200 mm.0 12.0 18. incl.28 3. Over 16 to 50 mm. 2.5 3.4 16.0 10.5 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 *(M14) M16 M20 M24 *M30 *M36 *M42 *M48 A pitch 0.0 13.0 36.0 30.900 5.0 5.0 30. kN 1.0 30. Hardness: Rc 38-43 3.5 3.90 2.0 over 20 nominal screw length Up to 16 mm.0 J nom.000 650 76.5 0.5 550 860 1240 2.0 2.60 1.0 17. (See Note.0 8. **Torque calculated in accordance with VDI 2230.100 158.500 3850 233.800 13.0 36.0 48.0 8.5 3.5 16 39 77 135 215 330 in-lbs. DIN ENISO4762-alloy steel 2.750 9.0 24.0 4.75 2. Over 200 mm DIMENSIONS thread size nom.0 14.0 12.0 5.25 1.750 19.8 4.6 9.0 24.4 18.0 2.0 14.900 68. 1. Yield Stress: 1170 MPa thru M16 size.0 4. 1250 MPa over M16 size.0 8. “Systematic Calculation of High Duty Bolted Joints.0 2.0 3.0 72.800 53. 0. incl.3 ±0.0 16.000 1355 All dimensions in millimeters.0 8.80 1.0 14.0 54.0 4.5 2.5 ±2. incl.05 39. 1.65 2.0 ±2.0 36.0 6.700 17. MPa 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 tensile strength min.2 61 88 120 157 235.4 ±0.7 0.13M.02 1.0 20.000 2250 171.21 2.8 1. 352.0 2.900 2.0 9.0 20.0 2.” to induce approximately 800 MPa stress in screw threads.0 24.5 10. Over 50 to 120 mm.4 ±1. Torque values listed are for plain screws.69 4.5 2.41 6.0 7.0 10.) 38 .0 27.8 19.0 8.445 4.8 5.870 10.1 47.0 32.0 12.52 1.0 ±1. Material: ASTM A574M.000 8560 229. 1125 MPa over M16 size.100 55.500 1100 119.0 H max.0 4.0 42.45 3.0 6. 3.0 6.5 1.6 75.0 36.5 3.0 21.700 19.0 18. Tensile Stress: 1300 MPa thru M16 size.0 45.5 7.700 33.0 1.0 10.205 3..40 0.5 339 530 lbs.0 21.6 M2 M2.4 8.800 99.0 19.68 0. mm ±0.0 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES UTS min. page 1.250 APPLICATION DATA recommended ** seating torque plain finish N-m 0.0 5.850 27.6 12.0 4. 1.5 9.580 75.000 24.5 4.0 1.900 34.3 22.2 4.0 42.560 4. ISO 261.1 4. incl.5 26.000 35.3 ±0.0 3.45 0. 370 605 990 1.500 6270 305.8 15. kN 1.5 3.0 4.6 2.54 11.0 14.5 ±2.0 6. 5.2 T min.3 11 19 41 85 140 350 680 1.000 1040 413.200 1. Sizes in brackets not preferred for new designs.0 15. *Non-stock diameter.0 63.0 16.0 ±3. 0.25 1.35 0.0 G min.0 22.5 – ±0.4 110 150 204 306 441 701 1020 1400 1840 lbs.0 D max.29 0.160 5.

. . ..0 145.. ..5 28...0 22.0 148. .. ..5 15.0 115. .. .. .. ....0 195.5 55. .5 LG LB M3 LG LB M4 LG LB M5 LG LB M6 LG LB M8 LG LB M10 LG LB M12 LG LB M14 LG LB M16 LG LB M20 LG LB M24 LG LB LB 3..0 16....0 36..5 85.0 40.. .0 65. .0 100. . .. .....0 46.5 50.0 27. .. ..... . ... ..0 85.0 41..0 16.6 LG 4...5 40. ....0 68..0 45..0 148.0 206.5 120....0 58.....0 30... .0 168..0 200 220 240 260 300 . 33.0 196.. ... ....5 114.7 75. .0 125....0 140.0 96.0 106.5 164. .. .0 96.0 65...5 104. .2 34.0 235... .0 98. .5 75.. .5 37.. . ... ..7 128.0 186.. .0 46...5 94... . .0 80. ....0 120.......0 8. .5 23....... ..0 30............2 54..... ......0 150.0 90. .0 190. .0 135. . .0 14.0 12.. ..0 70...0 .0 78.....0 135.5 42...5 33.7 50 55 60 65 70 . . ...0 46..... .0 38.... ... . 95. . .... . ..5 10..7 25.5 124.. .0 22. ..0 78..0 50.. . ..0 26....7 48.0 40.. ...0 175.0 61. . .SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Ⅲ Metric Ⅲ Body and Grip Lengths LG LB LG is the maximum grip length and is the distance from the bearing surface to the first complete thread.5 25.. .0 28.5 160..0 64. . 220...0 25. .0 185.7 30.0 170....0 43.. . .0 48. . .0 51. . ..0 4....0 248..... ... . .0 60. ... ..... ... .. ..5 140.0 130 140 150 160 180 .0 76.0 36..0 126.7 .0 66.... .7 18.7 85....0 56.. . . .0 80. .....2 120.... . .5 47.. ...0 68..5 24. 184.0 66..0 86.0 ....... .0 31.. .0 37..0 45. .0 75. . . .0 41.8 14. .0 125. .0 188... . . . .0 29..0 46.7 65..... . .. .0 130. .0 88... . ... ...0 100.5 70.0 105. ...0 195.. ...0 80..0 108..... ..2 100.....0 29.5 22....0 60.0 31..5 44. ...0 86. 58..2 74.5 35. 17....1M-1986 39 .0 60... 102.0 26.0 176.0 39...5 240. .. .0 246.0 110.7 10.0 225.. . .. .... ...0 .2 40. . ..0 21.. .2 84. ..0 21..5 100..0 SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS (METRIC SERIES) PER ASME/ANSI B18..5 58. ....0 26. . ...0 91... . .. .... .5 200..0 19.0 175......0 10....0 42.0 95. .0 34...0 155. . .0 82.... .5 68. .5 180..0 80.0 115.5 144.0 210.0 105....... . 54.5 35.0 34.0 ..8 ....2 25..... .5 78....5 13.0 6..0 81. .7 15.5 45.0 15. .0 65.0 96.0 208..0 25. .0 85...2 64..0 45.0 12.. ..0 92.0 .... ..0 112..0 165.0 26..0 30.7 35..0 70. . ....0 52...0 128.0 136..0 33.0 55.... .0 72..0 156.... ..0 75...2 160. .0 76..... .. ..0 44.0 . .0 17.5 9. .. LENGTH BODY and GRIP LENGTHS BODY AND GRIP LENGTH DIMENSIONS FOR METRIC SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Nominal Size Nominal Length 20 25 30 35 40 45 M1.....0 19. .0 10. LB is the minimum body length and is the length of the unthreaded cylindrical portion of the shank...0 38.0 13.0 26. .. ... .. .0 32......0 11..0 166.5 ... .. 56.. . .0 19..0 115.0 55. .7 25..0 105.0 146. ..0 18. . . .0 21..0 86........0 41. .....0 23.. .. ..0 36. .. . ..... ..0 132. . . 60.0 9. . ..0 17.. ..0 15..0 . .....0 66..0 74.0 36.0 7.0 90. ..0 204. ...... .0 160..0 50.0 56.0 106. . ..7 20..5 16. 32...5 20..... .0 50.2 140... ..0 14... .... .5 27.8 9..0 23.. .0 14... .. .... . .... .. .0 15.0 25. . .. .0 13.0 76..0 20. .0 50. . . . .0 110...0 44.0 56.2 110. .. ..0 ..0 116..0 216..0 70. .... .0 48. 30.0 24. 30..7 7.2 200. ......0 18. . . . .5 28. ..0 20.0 35... . .....2 90.... 256.. .5 88..0 15.7 20.0 25. . ..0 20...7 108. . LB 2.0 36. ......0 155.5 45.....0 95..0 62. .0 5..5 38..0 24. ...0 ...0 80 90 100 110 120 .2 29. ..0 11.0 16.0 60..0 M2. . ....0 11.. 168. . .0 8... ......0 35.. .7 98..... . M2 LG 4.. .. ..5 .. .0 6....0 24.0 9.5 40..0 122.0 39. ..0 31.. ...7 118. ...0 90.. .3.0 71.7 55. .2 180. . ... . . .

89 5. Over 16 to 60 mm.50 1.80 4. NOTES 1. countersunk head cap screws and button head cap screws are designed and recommended for moderate fastening applications: machine guards. 0.3 ±0.9 4.13M.00 2.2 2.8 5. Sizes: For sizes up to and including M20.32 40.15 ref.5 6.50 3.20 1.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 N-m 1. Tensile Stress: 1040MPa 6. They are not suggested for use in critical high strength applications where socket head cap screws should be used..METRIC SOCKET FLAT HEAD CAP SCREWS Dimensions Threads: ANSI B1.3 2. For larger sizes head angle shall be 62°/60°. Dimensions: B18. Over 60 mm M3 thru M24 tolerance on lgth.70 0.5 9. incl. thread size M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 *M24 D H T S LT J APPLICATION DATA recommended seating torque** plain pitch 0.5 7. Hardness: Rc 38-43 (alloy steel) 5.42 max. 1. Torque values are for plain screws.3.44 17.45 10.40 26.92 22.25 3.70 0.20 min. mm ±0.10 1.85 1.*** 6. etc. 2 2.5 8.35 4.0 1. 11 25 50 85 210 415 725 1800 3550 5650 All dimensions in millimeters.0 min.5 24 47 82 205 400 640 in-lbs. Yield Stress: 945 MPa 8.7 2. page 1.8 DIMENSIONS A nom.4 5.3 4. Shear Stress: 630 MPa 7. head angle shall be 92°/90°.72 8.85 1. Property Class: 12.50 1.20 3. 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 ref. *Non-stock Diameter **Torque calculated to induce 420 MPa in the screw threads. incl. covers.5 0. Thread Class: 4g 6g L J T APPROX 45° D A THREAD SIZE S Head Angle See Note 8 LT H LENGTH TOLERANCE nominal screw diameter nominal screw length Up to 16 mm.88 33.85 1.75 2.8 1.5 14.7 0.55 2.60 40. (See Note. 1.05 2. 18 20 22 24 28 32 36 44 52 60 nom.85 2.) ***Maximum to theoretical sharp corner 40 .5 ±0.25 1.50 0.8 3. Material: ASTM F835M 2. 9.20 13. hinges.96 11.5M 3. ISO 262 (coarse series only) Applicable or Similar Specification: DIN ENISO10642 General Note: Flat.00 max.

ISO 262(coarse series only) Similar Specifications: ISO 7380 General Note: Flat.45 . 2.0 in-lbs. 2. Over 60 mm M3 thru M16 tolerance on lgth.70 7.0 N-m 1.45 .60 min.3 ±0. etc.92 2.60 8.40 5. Shear Stress: 630 MPa 7. incl. Material: ASTM F835M 2.20 2.35 .60 7.METRIC SOCKET BUTTON HEAD CAP SCREWS Dimensions Threads: ANSI B1.65 2.0 4.4M 3. countersunk head cap screws and button head cap screws are designed and recommended for moderate fastening applications: machine guards.2 2.60 .30 4.13M.. *Non-stock Diameter **Torque calculated to induce 420 MPa in the screw threads.0 8.50 6. 9. Dimensions: ANSI B18.0 max.00 21.00 18.75 3. mm ±0. NOTES 1.0 2.75 2.00 15.0 10.3. Bearing surface of head square with body within 2°. Torque values are for plain screws.10 5.) 41 . thread size M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 *M16 H T R S J APPLICATION DATA recommended seating torque** plain pitch 0.0 5.45 . .95 4.8 DIMENSIONS A nom.285 1. 5.08 2.7 0.60 nom.35 1.20 5. They are not suggested for use in critical high strength applications where socket head cap screws should be used.5 0.00 max. 11 25 50 85 210 415 725 1800 All dimensions in millimeters.0 47. hinges. Yield Stress: 945 MPa 8.5 3.05 1. (See Note. Tensile Stress: 1040 MPa 6. Over 16 to 60 mm. incl.00 28. Property Class: 12.35 .8 5.5 ±0.75 3.60 9.00 ref.60 .00 11. 1.16 5.9 4.0 205.8 1.50 1. Hardness: Rc 38-43 5.35 4. covers.0 1. page 1.5 9.0 6.0 82. Thread Class: 4g 6g H J T S L APPROX 45° A THREAD SIZE R LENGTH TOLERANCE nominal screw diameter nominal screw length Up to 16 mm.50 14.50 10.50 10.5 24.20 ref. 1.

967 23. Squareness.00 13.5 3. 2.6 8.973 15. Material: ASTM A574M alloy steel 2.00 4. 4. ISO 7379.50 7.5 1.60 2.00 G min.D. size 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 thread size M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 pitch 0.978 9.42 19.).8 E APPROX 45¡ 30¡ A K D G J THREAD SIZE 30¡ F I DIMENSIONS A nom.00 30.40 18.0 8.00 24. 9.1 TIR when checked at a distance of 5mm from the shoulder at the threaded end.96 16.00 16. parallelism.0 I max.25 1. Squareness: The bearing surface of the head shall be perpendicular to the axis of the body within a maximum deviation of 2°.00 10. Tensile Stress: 1100 MPa based on minimum thread neck area (G min. 3.5 2.69 9.68 4.0 1.00 16.40 6.5 2.80 5.15 TIR when checked in a “V” block.0 20.00 14.978 11. 6.25 13.0 2.00 8. within 0. and bow of body to thread pitch diameter shall be within 0.3M.3 4.4 3.42 11.967 K min.0 16. 5.0 10. concentricity. 5.8 10.35 12.60 E max. page 1. Shear Stress: 660 MPa 5.5 max.5 2.03 7. 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 APPLICATION DATA recommended seating torque** N-m 7 12 29 57 100 240 470 in-lbs.42 H max.0 12.42 23.25 16.0 max.75 11.METRIC SOCKET HEAD SHOULDER SCREWS Threads: ANSI B 1. 6.05 TIR per centimeter of body length with a maximum of 0.40 22. 2.2 4.5 2.50 5. ISO 262 Similar Specifications: ANSI B18. *Shoulder diameter tolerance h8 (ISO R 286) **See Note.0 24.30 F max.42 7.40 J nom.5 when seated against the shoulder in a threaded bushing and checked on the body at a distance of 2. 7.40 27.5 2.9 6.42 9. Body to thread pitch diameter within 0.5 “D” from the underside of the head.75 2.00 T min.973 19.00 36.8 1. Concentricity: Body to head O. 2.80 3.25 -0.00 H J T LENGTH 45¡ 0.13 M.3. 4.982 7.00 18. DIN 9841 NOTES 1. 42 . Hardness: Rc 36-43 3. 60 105 255 500 885 2125 4160 All dimensions in millimeters.00 4.0 D* min. Thread Class: 4g 6g +.42 15.40 2. 10.

METRIC DOWEL PINS
Hardened and Ground Ⅲ Dimensions
Applicable or Similar Specifications: ASME B18.8.5M, ISO 8734 or DIN 6325. NOTES 1. Material: ASME B18.8.5M-alloy steel 2. Hardness: Rockwell C60 minimum (surface) Rockwell C 50-58 (core) 3. Shear Stress: Calculated values based on 1050 MPa. 4. Surface Finish: 0.2 micrometer maximum

Installation warning: Dowel pins should not be installed by striking or hammering. Wear safety glasses or shield when pressing chamfered point end first.

A
0.2

+0 L -0.5

C

B
10°–16°

R

DIMENSIONS
nominal size 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 A pin diameter max. 3.008 4.009 5.009 6.010 8.012 10.012 12.013 16.013 20.014 25.014 min. 3.003 4.004 5.004 6.004 8.006 10.006 12.007 16.007 20.008 25.008 B point diameter max. 2.9 3.9 4.9 5.8 7.8 9.8 11.8 15.8 19.8 24.8 min. 2.6 3.6 4.6 5.4 7.4 9.4 11.4 15.3 19.3 24.3 C R crown height crown radius max. min. 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.0

APPLICATION DATA
calculated single shear strength kN 7.4 13.2 20.6 29.7 52.5 82.5 119.0 211.0 330.0 515.0 pounds 1,670 2,965 4,635 6,650 11,850 18,550 26,700 47,450 74,000 116,000 recommended hole size max. 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 16.000 20.000 25.000 min. 2.987 3.987 4.987 5.987 7.987 9.987 11.985 15.985 19.983 24.983

All dimensions in millimeters.

43

METRIC SOCKET SET SCREWS Ⅲ Knurled Cup Point and Plain Cup Point Ⅲ Dimensions
Threads: ANSI B 1.13M, ISO 261, ISO 262 (coarse series only) Grade: 45H Applicable or Similar Specifications: ANSI B 18.3.6M, ISO 4029, DIN 916, DIN 915, DIN 914, DIN 913 NOTES 1. Material: ASTM F912M 2. Hardness: Rockwell C45-53 3. Angle: The cup angle is 135 maximum for screw lengths equal to or smaller than screw diameter. For longer lengths, the cup angle will be 124 maximum 4. Thread Class: 4g 6g

KNURLED CUP POINT

PLAIN CUP POINT

LENGTH TOLERANCE
nominal screw diameter nominal screw length Up to 12 mm, incl. Over 12 to 50 mm, incl. Over 50 mm M1.6 thru M24 tolerance on lgth., mm ±0.3 ±0.5 ±0.8

DIMENSIONS
nom. thread size D pitch max. J max. plain cup knurled cup K max. L min. preferred plain cup knurled cup W nom.

APPLICATION DATA
recommended* seating torque N-m in-lbs.

MICROSIZE – Plain Cup Only M1.6 M2 M2.5 0.35 0.40 0.45 1.0 1.32 1.75 0.80 1.00 1.25 – – – – – – 2.0 2.5 3.0 – – – 0.7 0.9 1.3 0.09 0.21 0.57 0.8 1.8 5.0

STANDARD SIZE – Knurled Cup Point Supplied Unless Plain Cup Point Is Specified M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 2.5 3.0 2.10 2.75 3.70 4.35 6.00 7.40 8.60 12.35 16.00 18.95 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 14.00 16.00 1.40 2.10 2.50 3.30 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 14.00 16.00 2.06 2.74 3.48 4.14 5.62 7.12 8.58 11.86 14.83 17.80 3.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 14.0 18.0 20.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 0.92 2.2 4.0 7.2 17.0 33.0 54.0 134 237 440 8.0 19.0 35.0 64 150.0 290 480 1190 2100 3860

All dimensions in millimeters. *Not applicable to screws with a length equal to or less than the diameter. See Note, page 1.

44

METRIC SOCKET SET SCREW

Flat Point, Cone Point, Dog Point Styles Ⅲ Dimensions

REF. ISO 4026

FLAT POINT

REF. ISO 4027

CONE POINT

REF. ISO 4028 ISO 7435

DOG POINT

DIMENSIONS
flat point nom. thread size M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 D pitch 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.50 3.00 max. 2.10 2.75 3.70 4.25 6.00 7.40 8.60 12.35 16.00 18.95 J max. 2.0 2.5 3.5 4.0 5.5 7.0 8.5 12.0 15.0 18.0 L min. preferred 3.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 12.0 14.0 20.0 J max. 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 cone point L min. preferred 4.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 14.0 18.0 20.0 H nom. short lgth. 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 long lgth. 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 dog point L min. preferred 5.0 5.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 22.0 V max. 2.00 2.50 3.50 4.00 5.50 7.00 8.50 12.00 15.00 18.00

45

5 14. Material: ASTM A574M-alloy steel 2. (See Note.) 46 . 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 N-m 4.9 Similar Specifications: DIN 7984.5 8.0 12. ISO 262 (coarse series only) Property Class: 10.65 2.0 1.5 max. Thread Class: 4g 6g J H G T L APPROX 45° D A THREAD SIZE LT DIMENSIONS A nom.75 2.5 8. *Torque calculated to induce 620 MPa in the screw threads.91 6.46 4. Hardness: Rc 33-39 3.5 4. 20 22 24 28 32 36 44 52 nom.13M.8 1.39 1. Yield Stress: 940 MPa 5.07 max.0 10.24 2.48 1.5 35 70 120 300 575 in-lbs. 1.06 1. thread size M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 D G T H LT J APPLICATION DATA recommended* seating torque plain pitch 0.METRIC LOW HEAD CAP SCREWS Threads: ANSI B 1. 2.48 3.0 2.5 1.76 6. 7 8. DIN 6912 NOTES 1.86 3.10 min.0 5. Torque values are for plain screws.7 0.85 2. Tensile Stress: 1040 MPa 4.5 10 13 16 18 24 30 max. page 1.5 min.09 2.0 6. 1.26 4. 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 min.25 1.8 3. 40 75 130 310 620 1060 2650 5100 All dimensions in millimeters.36 4.

698 0.900 73. which may not properly torque Class 12.4 9.5 9 13.1 2.0 22. ISO 2936 METRIC HEXAGON KEYS W C B METRIC KEY APPLICATION CHART socket cap screws size W 0.950 9.930 21.2.5 2.830 7.600 104.7 0.7 74 183 345 634 945 1.800 In-lbs.160 3.889 1.9 5.300 90.870 8.0 5.0 8.73 1.0 19.950 11.000 8.0 10.000 14.000 32.960 5.0 12.5 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 DIMENSIONS key size W max.26 0.63 1.900 32.200 12.960 7.000 31.3 6.690 2.5 14 16 18 20 25 28 32 36 40 45 55 60 70 80 90 100 125 140 C nominal short arm 31 31 42 45 50 56 63 70 80 90 100 112 125 140 160 180 *200 *224 *250 *315 *355 long arm *69 71 75 78 83 90 100 106 118 140 160 170 212 236 250 280 *335 *375 *500 *630 *710 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES torsional shear strength minimum N-m 0.470 2.050 5.500 36.500 2.300 All dimensions in millimeters.3.0 M1.0 4.700 63.19 2.470 1.670 4.Dimensions Ⅲ Mechanical Properties Ⅲ Socket Applications These UNBRAKO keys are made to higher requirements than ISO or DIN keys.500 44.8 36. Material: ANSI B18.000 6.000 10.360 3.5 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M14 M16 M20 M24 M30 M36 M42 M48 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 std.820 31. 0. *Non-stock sizes 47 .4 4.244 1.0 32.000 22.5 3.3 1. 0.960 3.000 torsional yield strength minimum N-m 0.6/M2 M2. 18.9 2.600 51.820 B mominal 5.000 28.930 16.620 4.000 2.960 4.610 8.1 0.140 5.000 4.0 14.200 In-lbs.9 1.876 1. 21 39 71 166 326 566 1.0 2.450 2.0 6.000 19.2.6 9.930 18.970 2.270 1. 1.360 15.030 3.5 26 48 82 196 378 655 1.620 3. 5.150 10.2 42.000 min.950 13.02 2.23 .930 26.000 12.500 3.3 22.8 64 158 296 546 813 1.820 35.400 2.000 20.000 27.3. head height low head socket cap screws flat head socket cap screws button head shoulder screws socket set screws M1. 0.4 8.000 36.9 cap screws.12 0.M Similar Specifications: DIN 911.5 10.M alloy steel Dimensions: ANSI B18. The strength and dimensional requirements are necessary to properly install the products in this catalog.6 M2 M2.050 7.0 17.320 11.930 23.000 24.800 18.560 5.000 5.0 36.711 0.0 27.000 17.

014 +0.775 ±1.30 0 +0.040 +0.60 0 ±0. The table is intended to assist in the design with metric fasteners.0125 ±0.14 0 –0.010 +0.50 –1.84 0 –1.002 +0.025 +0.55 ±0.05 +0.26 ±0.60 +0.05 +0.18 ±0.31 ±0.110 0 0 0 0 –0.05 ±1.125 ±0.29 –0.31 +0.015 +0.0015 0 0 0 0 0 ±0.33 +0.30 ±2.20 0 –1.02 +0.87 0 –0.14 +0.39 0 +0.030 D10 +0.50 ±0.033 –0.020 +0.30 0 ±0.46 0 –0.008 0 0 0 0 0 ±0.36 0 +0.060 0 0 0 0 –0.020 +0.025 +0.060 +0.07 D9 +0.75 ±2.033 +0.032 Js9 ±0.018 –0.075 +0.15 ±0.074 +0.052 +0.39 0 –0.48 0 –0.130 +0.25 0 +0.115 +0.040 tolerance zone in mm D12 +0.048 –0.60 0 ±0.80 ±0.011 –0.90 +0.25 ±1.24 +0.020 +0.19 +0.74 0 –0.040 –0.130 +0.52 0 –0.62 0 +0.020 +0.375 –0.060 +0.45 ±0.2 +0.27 0 –0.70 –2.60 ±0.10 +0.06 C14 +0.100 +0.060 0 0 0 0 –0.27 +0.014 +0.006 –0.009 –0.30 –0.03 +0.43 0 –0.008 0 0 0 0 0 ±0.18 +0.08 +0.54 0 +0.140 +0.25 ±0.40 +0.212 +0.43 0 +0.027 –0.020 +0.030 0 -0.078 +0.52 0 +0.014 +0.030 +0.012 +0.060 +0.030 +0. For tolerances not listed here refer to the complete standards.010 +0.008 –0.15 +0.65 ±0.06 +0.004 +0.40 0 ±0.58 0 –0.065 +0.87 0 ±0.22 +0.925 ±1.50 +0.002 +0.24 ±0.110 +0.00 0 –1.62 0 –0. 48 .90 0 ±0.032 E12 +0.075 +0.74 0 +0.006 –0.50 ±1.030 –0.65 ±1.022 +0.022 –0.15 ±0.80 ±2.40 0 –0.006 +0.115 +0.575 ±0.0014 +0.20 ±0.14 +0.115 +0.37 +0.040 –0.37 ±0.80 ±1.095 +0.18 0 –0.018 E11 +0.30 0 –0.20 ±0.028 +0.22 0 –0.435 ±0.10 EF8 +0.045 +0.46 0 +0.45 ±0.275 +0.142 +0.084 –0.012 0 0 0 0 0 ±.14 0 –0.60 –1.00 ±2.130 0 –0.90 0 ±0.70 ±1.60 ±2.018 K9 0 -0.007 +0.075 0 0 0 0 –0.070 –0.060 +0.12 +0.080 +0.015 ±0.030 D11 +0.70 0 –0.40 +0.15 +0.25 0 –0.025 0 -0.35 –1.043 +0.33 +0.10 0 ± 0.014 –0.008 +0.018 0 0 0 0 0 ±1.024 +0.33 0 –0.85 ±3.014 –0.ISO TOLERANCES FOR METRIC FASTENERS nominal dimension over 0 1 3 6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250 315 400 to 1 3 6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250 315 400 500 h6 h8 h10 tolerance zone in mm (external measurements) h11 h13 0 –0.014 +0.025 +0.010 +0.036 References ISO R 286 ISO 4759/I ISO 4759/II ISO 4759/III Notes ANSI standards allow slightly wider tolerances for screw lengths than ISO and DIN.021 +0.00 ISO TOLERANCES FOR SOCKET SCREWS nominal dimension over to 3 3 6 10 18 30 50 6 10 18 30 50 80 C13 +0.018 +0.036 +0.025 +0.058 –0.06 +0.027 +0.42 –1.021 0 0 0 0 0 ±1.090 0 0 0 0 –0.018 +0.090 +0.36 0 –0.95 ±1.20 +0.215 ±0.75 0 ±0.54 h14 h15 h16 js14 js15 js16 js17 m6 H7 tolerance zone in mm H8 H9 H11 H13 H14 0 0 0 0 –0.25 ±1.

greater than 10 x diameter or 150 mm.3 1.7 to 1.7 0. Product grade B applies to the sizes above M24 and all sizes with lengths. whatever is shorter.ISO TOLERANCES Tolerances for Metric Fasteners The tolerances in the tables below are derived from ISO standard: ISO 4759 The tables show tolerances on the most common metric fasteners.5 2 2. However. E11 E12 D12 49 . Feature Hexagon Sockets s 0. Item DIN Item DIN 913 914 916 912 7991 915 966 Notes Product grade A applies to sizes up to M24 and length not exceeding 10 x diameter or 150 mm.3 the actual allowance in the product standards has been slightly modified for technical reasons. whichever is shorter.9 1.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 >14 Tolerance * EF8 JS9 K9 D9 D10 D11 D10 D11 E11 ** *Tolerance zones for socket set screws **Tolerance zones for socket head cap screws Note: For S 0. occasionally some slight modifications are made.

1m = 39.4 N•m = 1 ft. sq.ft. lb.35 .2 lb.2 16400mm3 = 1 in.113 1.CONVERSION CHART SI UNITS & CONVERSIONS FOR CHARACTERISTICS OF MECHANICAL FASTENERS conversion property length unit meter centimeter millimeter kilogram gram tonne (megagram) kilogram per cubic meter deg. in.895 . 1N•m = 9 in. yd. 300mm = 1ft. Fahr.4 2. ft.4536 907. 16kg/m = 1 lb/ft. cu. = 35 oz. deg.02832 .3 1N = 3.3 1m3 = 1.00706 . 1kg = 2. oz.54 304. 1.02 (°F – 32) x 5/9 645.278 .75 ft. cu. Celsius square meter square millimeter cubic meter cubic centimeter cubic millimeter newton kilonewton meganewton megapascal newtons/sq.3 0°C = 32°F 100°C = 212°F 645mm2 = 1 in. cu.0069 6.4N = 1 lbf 1kN = 225 lbf 1MPa = 145 psi 7MPa = 1 ksi 1N•m = 140 in. lb. 1t = 2200 lbs.3 yd. 28g = 1 oz. sq.6 ozf 4.2 16. mass density temperature area volume force stress torque 50 . ft.8 28.37 in.00445 .356 approximate equivalent 25mm = 1 in.0929 16387 .3 1m3 = 35 ft. 1N•m = . in. ounce (Force) pound (Force) Kip pound/in2 (psi) Kip/in2 (ksi) inch-ounce inch-pound foot-pound to mm cm mm g kg kg kg/m °C mm2 m2 mm3 m3 m3 N kN MN MPa MPa N-m N-m N-m multiply by 25.00445 .7645 .m newton-meter symbol m cm mm kg g t kg/m3 °C m2 mm2 m3 cm3 mm3 N kN MN MPa N/m2 N•m from inch inch foot once pound ton (2000 lb) pounds per cu.2 1m2 = 11 ft. lb.2 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Joint Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Product Engineering Bulletin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 High-Temperature Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Hardness-Tensile Conversion Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Through-Hole Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Impact Performance . 56 The Torque-Tension Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The use of the information is at the sole discretion of the reader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Stripping Strength of Tapped Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Metric Threads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 thru 89 IMPORTANT The technical discussions represent typical applications only. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Optional Part Numbering System . . . . . . . . . 82 Drill and Counterbore Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Thread Stress Area . . . . . . Because applications vary enormously. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNBRAKO does not warrant the scenarios described are appropriate for any specific application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Technical Section Page Screw Fastener Theory and Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The reader must consider all variables prior to using this information. . 68 Corrosion In Threaded Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thread Stripping Strength Considering the material in which the threads will be tapped or the nut used. An estimate. The proper selection will be based upon the severity of the corrosive environment.2. SPS Unbrako R=0. therefore. In design.000 10. standard alloy steels are useful to about 550°F–600°F. Safety factors. Austenitic stainless steels (300 Series) may be useful to 800°F. . the maximum temperature may be less (eg. the greater the total elongation will occur in the bolt to produce the desired clamp load or preload. the number of cycles will reach 10 million cycles. This is usually R =. For alloy steel. cadmium should not be used over 450°F. the test stress is shown on the ordinate (y-axis) and the number of cycles is shown on the abscissa (x-axis) in a lograthmic scale. which means the low load in all tests will be 10% of the high load. On this type curve. Shear loading may be single. Corrosion Environment A plating may be selected for mild atmospheres or salts. Corrosion resistant steels (e. The safety factor selected will have to take into consideration the consequence of failure as well as the additional holes and fasteners.INSTALLATION CONTROL Several factors should be considered in designing a joint or selecting a fastener for a particular application. 300-Series stainless steels) have a lower tensile/shear relationship and it is usually 50-55% Single/Double Shear Single shear strength is exactly one-half the double shear value.1 105 Cycles to Failure 106 107 Effect of Preload Increasing the R to . This is considered the 52 .000 90. In many cases.000 40. have to be determined by the designer. the length of thread engagement should be sufficient to break the fastener in tension. if plating is used. However. FATIGUE STRENGTH S/N Curve Most comparative fatigue testing and specification fatigue test requirements are plotted on an S/N curve. the high load to low load ratio must be shown. the shear strength is 60% of its tensile strength. there must be sufficient engagement length to carry the load. must also be selected. less sensitive to loss of preload as a result of brinelling. Typical Unbrako Socket Head Cap Screws S-N Curve for Finite Fatigue Life Curve represents 90% probability of survival 100.000 80. double or multiple loading. Joint Material If the joint material is relatively stiff compared to the bolt material.000 0 104 SHEAR APPLICATIONS Shear Strength of Material Not all applications apply a tensile load to the fastener. Joint Length The longer the joint length. the potential loss of preload is decreased.000 Maximum Stress (psi) 70. The size bolt and the number necessary to carry the load expected. along with the safety factor.000 20. the wall thickness of the nut as well as its length must be considered. Single Shear JOINT DESIGN AND FASTENER SELECTION.000 50. Ideally. They can maintain strength above 800°F but will begin to oxidize on the surface.g. Shear strength listed in pounds per square inch (psi) is the shear load in pounds multiplied by the cross sectional area in square inches. a calculation or joint evaluation will be required to determine the tension loads to which the bolt and joint will be exposed.3 or higher will change the curve shape.000 60. if the joint length is increased. When a nut is used. In this curve.000 30. the load is perpendicular to the fastener in shear. If plating is unsatisfactory. relaxation and even loosening. a corrosion resistant fastener may be specified. it will compress less and therefore provide a less sensitive joint. There is a relationship between the tensile strength of a material and its shear strength. At some point in this curve. Double Shear OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Application Temperature For elevated temperature.1.

anti-seize compounds. etc. The snugging produces a large variation in preload. Second. Modified Goodman/ Haigh Soderberg Curve The S/N curve and the information it supplies will not provide the information needed to determine how an individual fastener will perform in an actual application. Ⅲ higher thread stripping strength per given length. direct measurements are only possible where both ends of the fastener are available for measurement after installation. the modified Goodman Diagram and/or the Haigh Soderberg Curve are more useful.000 psi is the desired preload. we can use that relationship just as the elongation change measurements were used previously. Thread Pitch The thread pitch must be considered when a given stress is to be applied.001 in/in of length for every 30. Other methods of measuring length changes are ultrasonic. molybdenum disulfide. If this is not taken into consideration. therefore. Therefore.000 (thirty million) psi means that a fastener will elongate . the proper torque specified for a plain unlubricated bolt may be sufficient to yield or break a lubricated fastener. if 90. This method of preloading is very accurate but it requires that the ends of the bolts be properly prepared and also that all measurements be very carefully made. The output from these gages need instrumentation to convert the gage electrical measurement method. Fastener manufacturers usually have recommended seating torques for each size and material fastener. Differences between coarse and fine threads. however. for application information. a conscientious operator and the proper torque requirement. which influence this relationship.000 psi in applied stress. Turn of the Nut The nut turn method also utilizes change in bolt length. however. Ⅲ less critical of tap drill size. Ⅲ easier to assemble because of larger helix angle. The change in the coefficient of friction for different conditions can have a very significant effect on the slope of the torque tension curve. Coarse Threads are… Ⅲ more readily available in industrial fasteners.). the preload should be higher than any of the preloads on the S/N curve. the bolt must be stretched . Now. In application. So 85% of the torque is overcoming friction and only 15% is available to produce bolt load. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 120 Stress (ksi) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Mean Stress (ksi) METHODS OF PRELOADING Elongation The modulus for steel of 30. an expensive method and not always practical.003 inches for every inch of length in the joint.SCREW FASTENER THEORY & APPLICATIONS endurance limit or the stress at which infinite life might be expected. the strain can be detected from strain gages applied directly to the outside surface of the bolt or by having a hole drilled in the center of the bolt and the strain gage installed internally. MODIFIED GOODMAN DIAGRAM UNBRAKO TYPICAL SHCS 5 x 106 Cycles Run-Out 90% Probability of Survival #8–32 3/8–16 180 VDI 2230 Prediction for #8 RTBHT (99% PS) VDI 2230 Prediction for 5/8 RTBHT (99% PS) 160 3/8–24 5/8–11 Strain Since stress/strain is a constant relationship for any given material. First. In theory. These curves will show what fatigue performance can be expected when the parts are properly preloaded. are slightly higher for fine threads than for coarse threads to achieve the same stress. Approximately 50% of the torque applied will be used to overcome this head-bearing friction and approximately 35% to overcome the thread friction. There are at least two variables. strain gages and turn of the nut. Therefore. It is. joint compression is also taking place so the relative stiffnesses of the joint and bolt influences the load obtained. the friction to be overcome is the head bearing area and the thread-tothread friction. The torque recommendations. In addition. If these interfaces are lubricated (cadmium plate.000. In a standard unlubricated assembly. no bolt elongation can be measured. since the cross-sectional area used for stress calculations is the thread tensile stress area and is different for coarse and fine threads. Ⅲ not as easily damaged in handling. one bolt revolution (360° rotation) should increase the bolt length by the thread pitch. the amount of friction present is important. The only requirement is the proper size torque wrench. however. the most popular method of preloading is by torque. Torque By far. 53 . Unbrako SPS 1/4–20 (2 x 106 cycles) 140 VARIABLES IN TORQUE Coefficient of Friction Since the torque applied to a fastener must overcome all friction before any loading takes place. Ⅲ require fewer turns and reduce cross threading. until a snug joint is obtained. the friction is reduced and thus greater preload is produced with the same torque.

Ⅲ tap drill size slightly more critical. hot forging is more expensive then cold forging. For materials that do not have enough formability for cold forging. the following considerations are important to the proper use of high-strength fasteners. which is ground into the surface during the manufacture of the die. lower forging pressures due to lower yield strength and reduced work hardening rates. Also.Their disadvantages are… Ⅲ lower tensile strength. For large quantities of bolts. It is the most practical method for producing thin wall parts and the only technique available for producing large diameter parts (over 3 inches in diameter). Ⅲ higher tensile strength. Machining is the oldest method and is used for very large diameters or small production runs. Ⅲ Adequate thread engagement should be guaranteed by use of the proper mating nut height for the system. Critical Fastener Features Head-Shank-Fillet: This area on the bolt must not be restricted or bound by the joint hole. the material is caused to flow into the thread die contour. The largest cold forging 54 . The bolt and nut should be selected as a system. The temperature of forging can vary from room temperature to 2000°F. Ⅲ Specify nut of proper strength level. but in all cases should be adequate to prevent stripping. By far. FABRICATION METHOD Head There are two general methods of making bolt heads. and not just of the bolt alone. is a problem of the joint. The shape or contour of the thread has a great effect on the resulting fatigue life.. Ⅲ slightly lower thread stripping strength. machines can make bolts up to 1-1/2 inch diameter. thus creating planes of weakness at the critical head-to-shank fillet area. Ⅲ finer adjustment. Thread cutting requires the least tooling costs and is by far the most popular for producing internal threads. Fine Threads provide. Ⅲ reduced vibrational resistance. PROCESSING CONTROL The quality of the raw material and the processing control will largely affect the mechanical properties of the finished parts. Ⅲ Specify compatible mating female threads. This can be a matter of galvanic action between dissimilar metals. decarburization and internal flaws. are warm forged at temperatures up to 1000°F. Fillets The head-to-shank transition (fillet) represents a sizable change in cross section at a critical area of bolt performance. Minimum length of engagement recommended in a tapped hole depends on the strength of the material.. MATERIAL SELECTION The selection of the type of material will depend on its end use. It is important that this notch effect be minimized. However. Corrosion of the fastener material surrounding the bolt head or nut can be critical with high-strength bolting. added fatigue life can result when the rolling is performed after heat treatment. The heating results in two benefits. Ⅲ coarse adjustment. The material must yield reliable parts with few hidden defects such as cracks. In addition to the benefits of grain flow and controlled shape in thread rolling. Ⅲ threads damaged more easily by handling. Machines with two or three circular dies or two flat dies are most common. such as stainless steel. A generous radius in the fillet reduces the notch effect. a compromise is necessary because too large a radius will reduce load-bearing area under the head. The thread root should be large and well rounded without sharp corners or stress risers. cutting or rolling. the greatest number of parts are cold upset on forging machines known as headers or boltmakers. In a rolled thread. seams. Hot forging is also used for bolts too large for cold upsetting due to machine capacity. A sufficient chamfer or radius on the edge of the hole will prevent interference that could seriously reduce fatigue life. Other Design Guidelines In addition to the joint design factors discussed. Ⅲ greater vibrational resistance. However. hot forging is used. 2B tapped holes or 3B nuts are possibilities. Threads with larger roots should always be used for harder materials. Threads Threads can be produced by grinding. The economy and grain flow resulting from forging make it the preferred method. Ⅲ Corrosion. in general. Their disadvantages are… Ⅲ easier cross threaded. Care must be exercised in the compatibility of joint materials and/or coatings to protect dissimilar metals. Both machining and grinding have the disadvantage of cutting material fibers at the most critical point of performance. Some materials. The disadvantage is that machining cuts the metal grain flow. forging and machining. Thread grinding yields high dimensional precision and affords good control of form and finish. It is the only practical method for producing thread plug gages. Composite radii such as elliptical fillets. the control of the analysis and quality is a critical factor in fastener performance. if the bolt should seat on an unchamfered edge. maximize curvature on the shank side of the fillet and minimize it on the head side to reduce loss of bearing area on the load-bearing surface. there might be serious loss of preload if the edge breaks under load. This can reduce tension fatigue performance by providing fracture planes.

many things must be considered: The Application Requirements Strength Needed – Safety Factors Ⅲ Tension/Shear/Fatigue Ⅲ Temperature Ⅲ Corrosion Ⅲ Proper Preload The Fastener Requirements Ⅲ Material Ⅲ Fabrication Controls Ⅲ Performance Evaluations 55 . Tensile testing stresses the fastener in the axial direction. It requires loading the parts to a value higher than the expected service load and maintaining that load for a specified time after which the load is removed and the fastener examined for the presence of cracks. because the impact loading direction is transverse to a fastener's normal longitude loading. From this curve. However. it makes a good inspection check. Metallurgical Testing Metallurgical testing includes chemical composition. The microstructure and grain size can be influenced by heat treatment. making it softer. From this curve. or that involve the relationship between stress and strain. Since hardness is a relatively easy and inexpensive test. Checking hardness of parts is an indirect method for testing tensile strength. in order to prevent service failures. its usefulness for fastener testing is minimal. It can occur if heat treat furnace atmospheres are not adequately controlled. It can be performed by hand or machine. microstructure. some on the finished product. which will be acceptable for design purposes. Mechanical properties are those associated with elastic or inelastic reaction when force is applied. Some tests are conducted on the raw material. as previously mentioned. This value is usually 0. In hardness checking. All shear testing should be accomplished on the unthreaded portion of the fastener. consists of loading a fastener perpendicular to its axis.SCREW FASTENER THEORY & APPLICATIONS This is the accepted practice for high fatigue performance bolts such as those used in aircraft and space applications. It is not recommended for quality control or specification requirements. Torque-tension testing is conducted to correlate the required torque necessary to induce a given load in a mechanically fastened joint. Load is designated in pounds. stress in pounds per square inch and strain in inches per inch. a yield determination known as Johnson‘s 2/3 approximate method for determination of yield strength is used to establish fastener yield. a hydraulic tensile indicator or by a strain gage. 0 1 2 3 4 RELATIVE INTERNAL STRESS AT FIRST ENGAGED THREAD FASTENER HEAD END EVALUATING PERFORMANCE Mechanical Testing In the fastener industy. The force at which the fastener breaks is called the breaking load or ultimate tensile strength. In summary. Impact testing has been useful in determining the ductile brittle transformation point for many materials. Stress durability is used to test parts which have been subjected to any processing which may have an embrittling effect. and heat treat response. This method is not applicable to fasteners because of the variables introduced by their geomety. The chemical composition is established when the material is melted.2% on the strain ordinate. a load cell. a system of tests and examinations has evolved which yields reliable parts with proven performance. the chart obtained is called a Stress-Strain Curve. Carburization is the addition of carbon to the surface which increases hardness. we can obtain other useful data such as yield strength. Decarburization is the loss of carbon from the surface. The load may be measured by a tensile machine. The method of determining yield is known as the offset method and consists of drawing a straight line parallel to the stress strain curve but offset from the zero point by a specified amount. FASTENER POINT END Fatigue tests on threaded fasteners are usually alternating tension-tension loading. grain size. When a fastener tensile test is plotted. and most industrial standards allow it within limits. it is very important that the specimen be properly prepared and the proper test applied. a correlation of tensile strength to hardness has been obtained for most materials. Partial decarburization is preferable to carburization. See page 83 for more detailed information. When a smooth tensile specimen is tested. Over the years. carburization and decarburization. Shear testing. The yield point is the intersection of the stressstrain curve and the straight line. Nothing subsequent to that process will influence the basic composition. There always seems to be some confusion regarding mechanical versus metallurgical properties. a load/ elongation curve can be obtained. Most testing is done at more severe strain than its designed service load but ususally below the material yield strength. It has been shown that many fastener tension impact strengths do not follow the same pattern or relationship of Charpy or Izod impact strength.

3C represents a joint with insufficient preload. The article concludes with general design formulae that take into account variations in tightening. Fig. Several papers. changes in elastic strains produce force variations. 2 Joint diagram is obtained by combining load vs. preload loss during service. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various explanations that have been offered and to state the fundamental concepts which apply to forces and elastic deformations in concentrically loaded joints. The maximum bolt load is the sum of the load preload and the additional bolt load: FB max = Fi + FeB If the external load Fe is an alternating load. representing the spring characteristics of the bolt and joint. are combined into one diagram in Fig. 1 is subjected to the preload Fi the bolt elongates as shown by the line OB in Fig. If the bolted joint in Fig. Conversely. In Fig. For bolted joints this concept is usually demonstrated by joint diagrams. 3B and Fig. as shown in Fig. Comparing Fig. and external load divided into an additional bolt load FeB and reduction in joint compression FeJ (B). If a concentric external load Fe is applied under the bolt head and nut in Fig. Fig. 56 . 3B. what forces and elastic deformation really exist? The majority of engineers in both the fastener manufacturing and user industries still are uncertain. 3A the external load Fe is added to the joint diagram Fe is located on the diagram by applying the upper end to an extension of OB and moving it in until the lower end contacts OJ. 2B to show total elastic deformation. FJ min = FB max – Fe Fig. the bolt elongates an additional amount while the compressed joint members partially relax. the minimum clamping load FJ min is important. external loads and bolt loads. When seating requires a certain minimum force or when transverse loads are to be transformed by friction. Joint diagram (C) shows how insufficient preload Fi causes excessive additional bolt load FeB.AN EXPLANATION OF JOINT DIAGRAMS When bolted joints are subjected to external tensile loads. the increased stress levels on the bolt produce a greatly shortened fatigue life. which unloads the compressed joint members. and the excess load must then be applied to the bolt. the external load changes the total bolt elongation to ∆lB + λ and the total joint compression to ∆lJ – λ. and the relation between preloads. 1 (above) Joint components Fig. Under this condition. Since the total amount of elastic deformation (bolt plus joint) remains constant for a given preload. 3C. 1. 2A and the joint compresses as shown by the line OJ. This joint diagram also illustrates that the joint absorbs more of the external load than the bolt subjected to an alternating external load. reflecting various stages of research into the problem have been published and the volume of this material is one reason for confusion. The Joint Diagram Forces less than proof load cause elastic strains. articles. 3 The complete simple joint diagrams show external load Fe added (A). The importance of adequate preload is shown in Fig. and books. 3B the external load Fe is divided into an additional bolt load FeB and the joint load FeJ. FeB is that part of Fe working as an alternating bolt load. These changes in deformation with external loading are the key to the interaction of forces in bolted joints. deformation diagrams of bolt and joints. These two lines. If the external load is alternating. In Fig. the amount of external load that the joint can absorb is limited. 3C. The most important deformations within a joint are elastic bolt elongation and elastic joint compression in the axial direction. it can be seen that FeB will remain relatively small as long as the preload Fi is greater than FeJ.

In general. Fig 5.JOINT DIAGRAMS Spring Constants To construct a joint diagram. of each section are added: 1 KB = 1 K1 1 E + 1 K2 + ..4d + l1 + l2 + l3 + 0. the stress distribution is in the shape of a barrel. it is necessary to determine the spring rates of both bolt and joint. 5 Lines of equal axial stresses in a bolted joint obtained by the axisymmetric finite element method are shown for a 9/16–18 bolt preloaded to 100 KSI. or compliances.4d I1 -30 -35 -40 I2 d Ij Fig.. i. 4 Analysis of bolt lengths contributing to the bolt spring rate. the reciprocal spring rates..as in a thin bushing. spring rate is defined as: K= F ∆l From Hook’s law: ∆l = lF EA Therefore: K = EA l To calculate the spring rate of bolts with different cross sections. the spring rate of a clamped part is: KJ = EAS lJ where As is the area of a substitute cylinder to be determined. Positive numbers are tensile stresses in KSI.4d Fig. 60 80 -40 -35 40 ( 0. Calculation of the spring rate of the compressed joint members is more difficult because it is not always obvious which parts of the joint are deformed and which are not. 4: 1 = KB where d = the minor thread diameter and Am = the area of the minor thread diameter This formula considers the elastic deformation of the head and the engaged thread with a length of 0. for the bolt shown in Fig. I3 0. 57 . When the joint diameter DJ is greater than DH but less than 3DH.4d A1 A1 A2 Am Am ) 0 20 -20 -40 -60 100 -30 -25 100 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0. negative numbers are compressive stresses in KSI. Thus.4d each. + 1 Kn When the outside diameter of the joint is smaller than or equal to the bolt head diameter. A series of investigations proved that the areas of the following substitute cylinders are close approximations for calculating the spring contents of concentrically loaded joints.e. In general.. the normal cross sectioned area is computed: As = π (Dc2 – Dh2) 4 where Dc = OD of cylinder or bushing and Dh = hole diameter When the outside diameter of the joint is larger than head or washer diameter DH.

This distance may be expressed as the ratio of the length of clamped parts to the total joint length. see Fig. 10. it is assumed that the external load is applied at a plane perpendicular to the bolt axis. both joints having the same preload Fi and the same external load Fe . Preload Fi and external load Fe are the same but diagrams show that alternating bolt stresses are significantly lower with a spring bolt in a stiff joint. Second. Fig. both the additional bolt load FB max decrease significantly when the loading planes of Fe shift from under the bolt head and nut toward the joint center. In general. To consider the loading planes in calculations. Fe KB FeB = KB + KJ KB Defining Φ = KB + KJ FeB = FeΦ and F Φ. Fig. The Force Ratio Due to the geometry of the joint diagram. When a preloaded joint is subjected to an external load Fe at loading planes 2 and 3 in Fig. These diagrams demonstrate the desirability of designing with springy bolt and a stiff joint to obtain a low additional bolt load FeB and thus a low alternating stress. the joint material between planes 2 and 3 is the clamped part and all other joint members. the distance of the loading planes from each other has to be estimated. 8. the joint diagram changes from black line to the blue line.25lJ for joint B. however. 7. fastener and remaining joint material. The remainder of the system. However. and 0. First. called the Force Ratio. Determination of the length of the clamped parts is. the external bolt load is somewhere between FeB = 1ΦFe for loading planes under head and nut and FeB = 0ΦFe = 0 when loading planes are in the joint center.As = π (DH2 – Dh2) 4 π + 8 Effect of Loading Planes DHlJ l2 + J 5 100 ( DJ – 1 DH )( ) When the joint diameter DJ is equal to or greater than 3DH: As = π [(DH + 0. 9 shows the effect of two different loading planes on the bolt load. because the external load usually affects the joint somewhere between the center of the joint and the head and the nut. 58 . Fig. 7. 6 shows joint diagrams for springy bolt and stiff joint and for a stiff bolt and springy joint.1 lJ)2 – Dh2] 4 These formulae have been verified in laboratories by finite element method and by experiments. = eB Fe For complete derivation of Φ. under the bolt head and the nut. feel additional load due to Fe applied planes 2 and 3. To assure adequate fatigue strength of the selected fastener the fatigue stress amplitude of the bolt resulting from an external load Fe is computed as follows: σB = ± FeB/2 or Am Φ Fe σB = ± 2 Am The joint diagram in Fig 3. the formula: Fe 2 Fe 2 Fe 2 Fe 2 Fe 2 Fe 2 Fe 2 Fe 2 Fig. Because of the location of the loading planes. is compared to a diagram of a stiff bolt in a springy joint (B). the bolt and the joint parts between planes 1-2 and 3-4. this is a rare case. Consequently. 6 Joint diagram of a springy bolt in a stiff joint (A). The lengths of the clamped parts are estimated to be 0. are clamping parts. as shown in Fig. 6 and 7 is applicable only when the external load Fe is applied at the same loading planes as the preloaded Fi. Fe relieves the compression load of the joint parts between planes 2 and 3.75lJ for joint A. not that simple.

Black diagram shows FeB and FB max resulting from Fe applied in planes 1 and 4. KB KB + KJ Fe B Fe Fe Fig. 9 When external load is applied relatively near bolt head. 59 . Orange diagram shows reduced bolt loads when Fe is applied in planes 2 and 3. 8 Joint diagram shows effect of loading planes of Fe on bolt loads FeB and FB max . A Fe Estimated: Multiplying both sides by tan α: Fe tan α = FeB (tan α + tan β) and Fe tan α FeB = tan α tan β Substituting KB for tan α and KJ for tan β FB FeB = Fe KB + KJ Defining Φ = FeB = Φ Fe Φ = FeB Fe and it becomes obvious why Φ is called force ratio. Fi Fi = KB and tan β = = KJ ∆lB ∆lJ FeB FeJ FeB F λ= = = = eJ tan α tan β KB KJ FeJ = λ tan β and FeB = λ tan α Since Fe = FeB + FeJ Fe = FeB + λ tan β FeB Substituting for λ produces: tan α tan α = Fe = FeB + FeB tan β tan α or Fig. 7 Analysis of external load Fe and derivation of Force Ratio Φ. joint diagram shows resulting alternating stress αB (A). When same value external load is applied relatively near joint center.JOINT DIAGRAMS Fe 2 Fe 2 1 2 nlj 3 4 Fe 2 Fe 2 Ij Fig. lower alternating stress results (B).

10 Force diagrams show the effect of the loading planes of the external load on the bolt load. 60 . 11 Modified joint diagram shows nonlinear compression of joint at low preloads.F1 F1 Fig. Fig.

) ∆lB Bolt elongation due to Fi (in.) ∆lJ Joint compression to Fi (in. Fmin>2Fe. construction of the joint diagram has assumed linear resilience of both bolt and joint members.) σB Bolt stress amplitude (± psi) 61 . the non-linear range of the joint spring rate is avoided and a linear relationship between FeB and Fe is maintained.10) Fi should be expected. The value of n can range from 1. Considering a the general design formulae are: Fi nom = FJ min = (1 – Φ) Fe Fi max = a [ Fj min + (1 – Φ) Fe + ∆Fi ] FB max = a [ Fj min + (1 – Φ) Fe + ∆Fi ] + ΦFe Conclusion The three requirements of concentrically loaded joints that must be met for an integral bolted joint are: 1.) Kx Spring rate of Bolt part lx (lb/in. The lower portion of the joint spring rate is nonlinear.) Outside diameter of bushing (cylinder) (in.005 to 0.) KB Spring rate of Bolt (lb/in.2) Area of substitute cylinder (in. the joint diagram is modified to Fig.) ∆l Change in length (in. a preload loss ∆Fi = – (0. Consequently the stress amplitude: σB = ± Φ Fe becomes 2 Am σB = ± n Φ Fe 2 Am General Design Formulae Hitherto. Taking these investigations into account. when Fe is applied under the head and nut.) l Length (in.) Diameter of Bolt head (in. For a properly designed joint. If the external load is alternating. By choosing a sufficiently high minimum load. The maximum bolt load FB max must be less than the bolt yield strength. the alternating stress must be less than the bolt endurance limit to avoid fatigue failures. 11 this formula is derived: Fi min = FJ min + ( 1 – Φ) Fe + ∆Fi where ∆Fi is the amount of preload loss to be expected. SYMBOLS A Am As Ax d Dc DH Dh DJ E F Fe FeB FeJ Fi ∆Fi Fi min Fi max Fj nom Area (in. when Fe is applies at the joint center.) Additinal Bolt Load due to external load (lb) Reduced Joint load due to external load (lb) Preload on Bolt and Joint (lb) Preload loss (–lb) Minimum preload (lb) Maximum preload (lb) Nominal preload (lb) FB max Maximum Bolt load (lb) FJ min Minimum Joint load (lb) K Spring rate (lb/in.2) Area of bolt part 1x (in. The joint will not lose any preload due to permanent set or vibration greater than the value assumed for ∆Fi .) lB Length of Bolt (in.) lJ Length of Joint (in. to O. 3. The higher Fi the longer the linear portion.JOINT DIAGRAMS FeB = Φ Fe must be modified to : FeB = n Φ Fe where n equals the ratio of the length of the clamped parts due to Fe to the joint length lj.) Length of clamped parts n Total Joint Length α Tightening factor Φ Force ratio λ Bolt and Joint elongation due to Fe (in. and the length of the linear portion depends on the preload level Fi.) Diameter of Joint Modulus of Elasticity (psi) Load (lb) External load (lb.2) Area of minor thread diameter (in.) KJ Spring rate of Joint (lb/in. The fluctuation in bolt load that results from tightening is expressed by the ratio: a = Fi max Fi min where a varies between 1. 2.0 depending on the tightening method.) Diameter of hole (in.25 and 3.2) Diameter of minor thread (in. recent investigations have shown that this assumption is not quite true for compressed parts. 11.) lx Length of Bolt part x (in. Also from Fig. However.

and only the remaining 15% inducing preload tension. Consequently. full friction reduction will not be achieved.5 3 7 15 20 62 . one of the least expensive techniques that provides a reasonable level of accuracy versus cost is by measuring torque.TIGHTENING TORQUES AND THE TORQUE-TENSION RELATIONSHIP All of the analysis and design work done in advance will have little meaning if the proper preload is not achieved. Several discussions in this technical section stress the importance of preload to maintaining joint integrity. it can be understood why some recommended torques induce preload reasonably lower than the yield point. calibrated hydraulic pressure sensors. Including the preload variation that can occur with various installation techniques. Another influence is where friction occurs. lbf. which acts like a lubricant. The K-value is not the coefficient of the friction (µ). e.g. a tensile test. T=K‫ן‬D‫ן‬P T = torque.” “tightening factor. One way that has been developed to reduce the complexity is to depend on empirical test results. One of the most critical criteria is the selection of the K-value. It is a recommend practice to contact the lubricant manufacturer for K-value information if a lubricant will be used. then the torque required to induce that preload is determined. cast iron. Within the elastic range.000 PSI for industry socket head cap screws at torsion-tension yield. it may actually cause the bolt to break.20 for as-received steel bolts into steel holes K = 0. Therefore. before permanent stretch is induced. Research has indicated the axial tension can range from 135. The following discussion is presented for those cases. coefficients of friction. to perform experiments under the application conditions by measuring the induced torque and recording the resulting tension. depending on diameter. up to 25%. rate of installation. TORSION-TENSION YIELD AND TENSION CAPABILITY AFTER TORQUING Once a headed fastener has been seated against a bearing surface. and the K-value for the application conditions is known. actual conditions at the time of installation can result in variations in the actual preload achieved (see Table 12). electric strain gages. If torque continues to be induced. temperature.g. lbf. This is why a bolt can fail at a lower tensile stress during installation than when it is pulled in straight tension alone. inches P = preload. K = “nut factor. then the necessary torque can be calculated. That is. eg. which keeps the joint clamped together. These stresses combine to induce twist. the stress along the angle of twist will be the largest stress while the bolt is being torqued. D = fastener nominal diameter. aluminum. the relationship between torque and tension is essentially linear (see figure 13). 35% by thread friction.000 to 145. if the material against which the fastener is bearing. approximately 50% of the installation torque is consumed by friction under the head. It is understandable the designer may need preloads higher than those listed. It is noted that even with a specified torque. It is readily apparent that if the torque intended for a zinc plated fastener is used for cadmium plated fastener. e. Some studies have found up to 75 variables have an effect on this relationship: materials. There are many methods for measuring preload (see Table 12). This leaves only the axial tension. eg .15 steel bolts with cadmium plating. Similarly. The values for Unbrako metric fasteners are calculated using VDI2230. Figure 13 also illustrates the effect of straight tension applied after installation has stopped. Once the data is gathered and plotted on a chart. it is an empirically derived correlation factor. Once the desired design preload must be identified and specified first. Table 12 Industrial Fasteners Institute’s Torque-Measuring Method Preload Measuring Method Feel (operator’s judgement) Torque wrench Turn of the nut Load-indicating washers Fastener elongation Strain gages Accuracy Percent ±35 ±25 ±15 ±10 ±3 to 5 ±1 Relative Cost 1 1. and the torsion component will drop toward zero. The recommended seating torques for Unbrako headed socket screws are based on inducing preloads reasonably expected in practice for each type.-in. the stress along the bolt axis (axial tension) will be something less. Immediately after stopping the installation procedure there will be some relaxation.” or “k-value” If the preload and fastener diameter are selected in the design process. a complex method utilized extensively in Europe. Accepted nominal values for many industrial applications are: K = 0. the inducement of torque will be translated into both torsion and tension stresses. For steel bolts holes. thread helix angle. the slope of the curve can be used to calculate a correlation factor.28 steel bolts with zinc plating. Once the torsion is relieved. The fundamental characteristic required is to know the relationship between torque and tension for any particular bolted joint. or piezoelectric load cells. However. is different than the internal thread material. the preload will be almost two times that intended. if lubricant is applied just on the fastener underhead. These examples illustrate the importance and the value of identifying the torque-tension relationship. the axial tension yield value and ultimate value for the fastener will be appropriate. K = 0. All values assume use in the received condition in steel holes. This can be done with relatively simple. the effective friction may be difficult to predict. etc. This technique has created an accepted formula for relating torque to tension.

) Fig.000 11.000 psi bearing stress under head of screw.800 *19.040 *1.1 *4.800 *15.900 brass Rb 72 note 2 UNF plain *2.8 *10.400 15. 63 .600 13.410 1. Torques based on 80.340 8.100 UNC plain – *3. *Denotes torques based on 100.200 32.3 *14. To convert inch-pounds to foot-pounds – divide by 12.8 *10.340 4.8 *6. and larger.230 8.400 15.410 1.8 *21 *28 *48 *76 113 190 397 570 1.370 12.000 psi bearing stress under head of screw.THE TORQUE-TENSION RELATIONSHIP Fig.100 27.030 1. 15 Recommended Seating Torques (Inch-Lb.820 *5.400 NOTES: 1.230 1. Torques based on 50.200 32.000 6.280 9.690 2.100 *13.900 24.8 *6.1 *6. 2. INDUCED LOAD UNBRAKO SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREW TYPICAL Unbrako Fig.000 psi bearing stress under head of screw.5 *20 *25 *46 *67 136 228 476 680 1.420 *2.690 2.000 *8.400 *21.8 *6.950 3..030 1.5 *20 *25 *46 *67 *158 *326 *580 *930 *1. 14 TORQUE VS.230 8.100 27.340 4.3 *9.900 UNC plain – *3.3 *9.400 aluminum Rb 72 (2024-T4) note 3 UNF plain *2.1 *6. 13 Torque/Tension Relationship Straight tension Bolt tension (lb.340 5.8 *21 *28 *48 *76 *180 *360 635 *1.600 UNF plain *2. To convert inch-pounds to inch-ounces – multiply by 16.800 20. Torques based on 60.590 2.6 *13. and 80.250 3.1 *4.200 *33.800 20.8 *21 *28 *48 *76 136 228 476 680 1.040 *2.950 3.600 *28.900 24.6 *13.3 *9.) for Application in Various Materials UNBRAKO pHd (1960 Series) Socket Head Cap Screws mild steel Rb 87 cast iron Rb 83 note 1 UNC screw size #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 plain – *3.800 *36.000 psi tensile stress in screw threads up to 1" dia.700 18.000 11.060 *12.) Straight tension after torquing to preload Torque-induced tension Elongation (in.000 6.000 psi for sizes 1 1/8" dia.3 *14.3 *14.280 9.230 1.5 *20 *25 *46 *67 113 190 397 570 1. 3.8 *10.340 5.1 *4.6 *13.600 13.120 5.1 *6.700 18.200 *25.

aluminum.40 gives a minimum length of engagement of 0. Therefore. through 5/8 in. it is apparent that stripping strengths for a wide range of screw sizes are close enough to be grouped in a single curve.40D is obtained.) Ⅲ Study of the test results revealed certain factors that greatly simplified the compilation of thread stripping strength data: Ⅲ Stripping strengths are almost identical for loads applied either by pure tension or by screw torsion. E505 is for screw sizes from #0 through #10. There is no curve for this steel in E506 but a design value can be obtained by taking a point midway between curves for the 80. (This is the same as using a bolt with a maximum tensile strength of 140. Conversely. Multiplying nominal bolt diameter (0.600 in. Attempts to compute lengths of engagement and related factors by formula have not been entirely satisfactory-mainly because of subtle differences between various materials.000 psi) of a 1/2–13 (National Coarse) Unbrako cap screw in cast iron having an ultimate shear strength of 30.06) = 0. it becomes a simple matter to determine stripping strengths and lengths of engagement for any condition of application. type of thread and bolt diameter. Ⅲ Test loads were applied slowly in tension to screws having standard Class 3A threads. Ⅲ Stripping strength values vary with diameter of screw. E508 and E509 for sizes from 3/4 in. will be obtained.000 psi. (Data.700 in.530. Hole depth in terms of bolt dia.20D.000psi. were: Ⅲ Tapped holes had a basic thread depth within the range of 65 to 80 per cent. bolts threaded into tapped specimens of the metal under study were stressed in tension until the threads stripped.500) (1.000 psi . For a given load and material. and covers a range of screw thread sizes from #0 to one inch in diameter for both coarse and fine threads. if only limited length of engagement is available. Ⅲ When engagement is plotted as a percentage of bolt diameter.600/0. a length of engagement of 0. these stripping strength values are valid for all other screws or bolts of equal or lower strength having a standard thread form. Ⅲ Minimum amount of metal surrounding the tapped hole was 2 1/2 times the major diameter.413 in. the data help determine the maximum load that can be safely applied without stripping the threads of the tapped hole.825D or 0. Example 2. Though developed from tests of Unbrako socket head cap screws having minimum ultimate tensile strengths (depending on the diameter) from 190. through 1 in. in the accompanying charts. E506 and E507 for sizes from 1/4 in. = 0. Example 3. Ⅲ Minimum length of engagement (as a percent of screw diameter) is a straight line function of load. A few examples are given below: Example 1. With these curves.) by 1.) From E506 obtain value of 1.500 in.. Threads of tapped holes were Class 2B fit or better. Calculate length of thread engagement necessary to develop the minimum ultimate tensile strength (190. Conditions of the tests.000 psi steels that are listed.000 to 180. 64 . Load at which stripping occurred and the length of engagement of the specimen were noted.06D Minimum length of engagement = (0.000 psi and 50.STRIPPING STRENGTH OF TAPPED HOLES Charts and sample problems for obtaining minimum thread engagement based on applied load. for that matter. will be equally applicable to Class 2A external threads as well. By working backwards in Chart E506. data for sizes #0 through #12 have been represented by a single set of curves. though. Data are based on static loading only. This permits easy interpolation of test data for any intermediate load condition. Under the conditions of the example. Example 4. (Charts E504-E509). In the test program.000 psi is to be applied. Suppose that the hole in Example 1 is to be tapped in steel having an ultimate shear strength 65. Thus . brass and cast iron. Knowledge of the thread stripping strength of tapped holes is necessary to develop full tensile strength of the bolt or. the minimum engagement needed for any lesser load. Thus data are equally valid for either condition of application. Calculate the length of engagement for the above conditions if only 140.500 = 1.000 psi. maximum load that can be carried is approximately 159. Suppose in Example 1 that minimum length of engagement to develop full tensile strength was not available because the thickness of metal allowed a tapped hole of only 0. Using E506 a value 1.000 psi. The design data is summarized in the six accompanying charts. all of which are met in a majority of industrial bolt applications. larger diameter bolts required greater engagement. strength data has been empirically developed from a series of tensile tests of tapped specimens for seven commonly used metals including steel. material.

STRIPPING STRENGTH OF TAPPED HOLES THREAD STRIPPING STRENGTH IN VARIOUS MATERIALS FOR UNBRAKO SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS SIZES #0 THROUGH #10 COARSE AND FINE THREADS TYPICAL Unbrako THREAD STRIPPING STRENGTH IN VARIOUS MATERIALS FOR UNBRAKO SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS SIZES 1/4" THRU 5/8" DIAMETER COARSE THREADS TYPICAL Unbrako 65 .

THREAD STRIPPING STRENGTH IN VARIOUS MATERIALS FOR UNBRAKO SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS SIZES 1/4" THRU 5/8" DIAMETER FINE THREADS TYPICAL THREAD STRIPPING STRENGTH IN VARIOUS MATERIALS FOR UNBRAKO SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS SIZES 3/4" THRU 1" DIAMETER COARSE THREADS TYPICAL 66 .

STRIPPING STRENGTH OF TAPPED HOLES THREAD STRIPPING STRENGTH IN VARIOUS MATERIALS FOR UNBRAKO SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS SIZES 3/4" THRU 1" DIAMETER FINE THREADS TYPICAL THREAD STRIPPING STRENGTH IN VARIOUS MATERIALS FOR UNBRAKO SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS SIZES OVER 1" TYPICAL 67 .

HIGH-TEMPERATURE JOINTS
Bolted joints subjected to cyclic loading perform best if an initial preload is applied. The induced stress minimizes the external load sensed by the bolt, and reduces the chance of fatigue failure. At high temperature, the induced load will change, and this can adeversely affect the fastener performance. It is therefore necessary to compensate for high-temperature conditions when assembling the joint at room temperature. This article describes the factors which must be considered and illustrates how a high-temperature bolted joint is designed. In high-temperature joints, adequate clamping force or preload must be maintained in spite of temperatureinduced dimensional changes of the fastener relative to the joint members. the change in preload at any given temperature for a given time can be calculated, and the affect compensated for by proper fastener selection and initial preload. Three principal factors tend to alter the initial clamping force in a joint at elevated temperatures, provided that the fastener material retains requisite strength at the elevated temperature. These factors are: Modulus of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and relaxation. Modulus Of Elasticity: As temperature increases, less stress or load is needed to impart a given amount of elongation or strain to a material than at lower temperatures. This means that a fastener stretched a certain amount at room temperature to develop a given preload will exert a lower clamping force at higher temperature if there is no change in bolt elongation. Coefficient of Expansion: With most materials, the size of the part increases as the temperature increases. In a joint, both the structure and the fastener grow with an increase in temperature, and this can result,depending on the materials, in an increase or decrease in the clamping force. Thus, matching of materials in joint design can assure sufficient clamping force at both room and elevated temperatures. Table 16 lists mean coefficient of thermal expansion of certain fastener alloys at several temperatures. Relaxation: At elevated temperatures, a material subjected to constant stress below its yield strength will flow plastically and permanently change size. This phenomenon is called creep. In a joint at elevated temperature, a fastener with a fixed distance between the bearing surface of the head and nut will produce less and less clamping force with time. This characteristic is called relaxation. It differs from creep in that stress changes while elongation or strain remains constant. Such elements as material, temperature, initial stress, manufacturing method, and design affect the rate of relaxation. Relaxation is the most important of the three factors. It is also the most critical consideration in design of elevated-temperature fasteners. A bolted joint at 1200°F can lose as much as 35 per cent of preload. Failure to compensate for this could lead to fatigue failure through a loose joint even though the bolt was properly tightened initially.

If the coefficient of expansion of the bolt is greater than that of the joined material, a predictable amount of clamping force will be lost as temperature increases. Conversely, if the coefficient of the joined material is greater, the bolt may be stressed beyond its yield or even fracture strength. Or, cyclic thermal stressing may lead to thermal fatigue failure. Changes in the modulus of elasticity of metals with increasing temperature must be anticipated, calculated, and compensated for in joint design. Unlike the coefficient of expansion, the effect of change in modulus is to reduce clamping force whether or not bolt and structure are the same material, and is strictly a function of the bolt metal. Since the temperature environment and the materials of the structure are normally “fixed,” the design objective is to select a bolt material that will give the desired clamping force at all critical points in the operating range of the joint. To do this, it is necessary to balance out the three factors-relaxation, thermal expansion, and modulus-with a fourth, the amount of initial tightening or clamping force. In actual joint design the determination of clamping force must be considered with other design factors such as ultimate tensile, shear, and fatigue strength of the fastener at elevated temperature. As temperature increases the inherent strength of the material decreases. Therefore, it is important to select a fastener material which has sufficient strength at maximum service temperature. Example The design approach to the problem of maintaining satisfactory elevated-temperature clamping force in a joint can be illustrated by an example. The example chosen is complex but typical. A cut-and-try process is used to select the right bolt material and size for a given design load under a fixed set of operating loads and environmental conditions, Fig.17. The first step is to determine the change in thickness, ∆t, of the structure from room to maximum operating temperature. For the AISI 4340 material: ∆t1 = t1(T2 – T1)α ∆t1 = (0.50)(800 – 70) (7.4 x 10–6) ∆t1 = 0.002701 in. For the AMS 6304 material: ∆t2 = (0.75)(800 – 70)(7.6 ‫ ן‬10–6) ∆t2 = 0.004161 in. The total increase in thickness for the joint members is 0.00686 in. The total effective bolt length equals the total joint thickness plus one-third of the threads engaged by the nut. If it is assumed that the smallest diameter bolt should be used for weight saving, then a 1/4-in. bolt should be tried. Thread engagement is approximately one diameter, and the effective bolt length is:

68

HIGH-TEMPERATURE JOINTS
F w Fc Fc F w

200

AISI 4340 Fb AMS 6304

T 1 = 0.50 in.

150 Stress (1000 psi)
tre ss

T 2 = 0.75 in.

100
M a m xi

um

S

M

i

m ni

um

r St

es

s

F w

Fc

Fc

F w

50

44,000 psi 21,000 psi 150 50 100 Mean Stress (1000 psi) 200

d = Bolt diam, in. E = Modulus of elasticity, psi Fb = Bolt preload, lb Fc = Clamping force, lb (Fb=Fc) Fw = Working load=1500 lb static + 100 lb cyclic L = Effective bolt length, inc.

T1 = Room temperature= 70°F T2 = Maximum operatng temperature for 1000 hr=800°F t a = Panel thickness, in. = Coefficient of thermal expansion

Fig. 18 – Goodman diagram of maximum and minimum operating limits for H-11 fastener at 800°F. Bolts stressed within these limits will give infinite fatigue life.

Fig. 17 – Parameters for joint operating at 800°F. L = t1 + t2 + (1/3 d) L = 0.50 + 0.75 +(1/3 x 0.25) L = 1.333 in. The ideal coefficient of thermal expansion of the bolt material is found by dividing the total change in joint thickness by the bolt length times the change in temperature. αb = α= ∆t L ‫∆ ן‬t Because of relaxation, it is necessary to determine the initial preload required to insure 1500-lb. clamping force in the joint after 1000 hr at 800°F. When relaxation is considered, it is necessary to calculate the maximum stress to which the fastener is subjected. Because this stress is not constant in dynamic joints, the resultant values tend to be conservative. Therefore, a maximum stress of 44,000 psi should be considered although the necessary stress at 800°F need be only 41,200 psi. Relaxation at 44,000 psi can be interpolated from the figure, although an actual curve could be constructed from tests made on the fastener at the specific conditions. The initial stress required to insure a clamping stress of 44,000 psi after 1000 hr at 800°F can be calculated by interpolation. x = 61,000 – 44,000 = 17,000 y = 61,000 – 34,000 = 27,000 B = 80,000 – 50,000 = 30,000 A = 80,000 – C x = y A B 17,000 = 80,000 – C 27,000 30,000

.00686 = 7.05 ‫ ן‬10–6 in./in./deg. F (1.333)(800 – 70)

The material, with the nearest coefficient of expansion is with a value of 9,600,000 at 800°F. To determine if the bolt material has sufficient strength and resistance to fatigue, it is necessary to calculate the stress in the fastener at maximum and minimum load. The bolt load plus the cyclic load divided by the tensile stress of the threads will give the maximum stress. For a 1/4-28 bolt, tensile stress area,from thread handbook H 28, is 0.03637 sq. in. The maximum stress is Smax = Bolt load = 1500 + 100 Stress area 0.03637

C = 61,100 psi The bolt elongation required at this temperature is calculated by dividing the stress by the modulus at temperature and multiplying by the effective length of the bolt. That is: (61,000 ‫ ן‬1.333)/24.6 ‫ ן‬106 = 0.0033 Since the joint must be constructed at room temperature, it is necessary to determine the stresses at this state. Because the modulus of the fastener material changes with temperature, the clamping force at room temperature will not be the same as at 800°F. To deter-

Smax = 44,000 psi and the minimum bolt stress is 41,200 psi. H-11 has a yield strength of 175,000 psi at 800°F, Table 3, and therefore should be adequate for the working loads. A Goodman diagram, Fig. 18, shows the extremes of stress within which the H-11 fastener will not fail by fatigue. At the maximum calculated load of 44,000 psi, the fastener will withstand a minimum cyclic loading at 800°F of about 21,000 psi without fatigue failure.

69

mine the clamping stress at assembly conditions, the elongation should be multiplied by the modulus of elasticity at room temperature. .0033 ‫ ן‬30.6 ‫ ן‬106 = 101,145 psi The assembly conditions will be affected by the difference between th ideal and actual coefficients of expansion of the joint. The ideal coeffienct for the fastener material was calculated to be 7.05 but the closest material – H-11 – has a coefficient of 7.1. Since this material has a greater expansion than calculated, there will be a reduction in clamping force resulting from the increase in temperature. This amount equals the difference between the ideal and the actual coefficients multiplied by the change in temperature, the length of the fastener, and the modulus of elasticity at 70°F. [(7.1 – 7.05) ‫ ן‬10 ][800 – 70][1.333] ‫ן‬
–6

used to apply preload (the most common and simplest method available), a plus or minus 25 per cent variation in induced load can result. Therefore, the maximum load which could be expected in this case would be 1.5 times the minimum, or: (1.5)(102,635) = 153,950 psi This value does not exceed the room-temperature yield strength for H-11 given in Table 19. Since there is a decrease in the clamping force with an increase in temperature and since the stress at operating temperature can be higher than originally calculated because of variations in induced load, it is necessary to ascertain if yield strength at 800°F will be exceeded (max stress at 70°F + change in stress) ‫ ן‬E at 800°F E at 70°F [153,950 + (–1490)] ‫ ן‬24.6 ‫ ן‬106 = 122,565 30.6 ‫ ן‬106 This value is less than the yield strength for H-11 at 800°F, Table 19. Therefore, a 1/4-28 H-11 bolt stressed between 102,635 psi and 153,950 psi at room temperature will maintain a clamping load 1500 lb at 800°F after 1000 hr of operation. A cyclic loading of 100 lb, which results in a bolt loading between 1500 and 1600 lb will not cause fatigue failure at the operating conditions.

[30.6 ‫ ן‬106] = 1,490 psi The result must be added to the initial calculated stresses to establish the minimum required clamping stress needed for assembling the joint at room temperature. 101,145 + 1,490 = 102,635 psi Finally, the method of determining the clamping force or preload will affect the final stress in the joint at operating conditions. For example, if a torque wrench is

Table 16

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS USED TO MANUFACTURE ALLOY STEEL SHCS’S
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, µm/m/°K1
20°C to 68°F to Material 5137M, 51B37M2 41373 4140
3

Table 19 - Yield Strength at Various Temperatures
500 932 600 1112 Alloy Stainless Steels Type 302 Type 403 PH 15-7 Mo –––––––– Temperature (F) –––––––– 70 800 1000 1200 35,000 145,000 220,000 35,000 34,000 110,000 95,000 149,000 101,000 30,000 38,000 –

100 212

200 392

300 572

400 752

– 11.2 12.3 – 11.7 11.6

12.6 11.8 12.7 12.4 12.2 12.2

13.4 12.4 – – 12.8 12.8

13.9 13.0 13.7 13.6 13.5 13.5

14.3 13.6 – – – –

14.6 – 14.5 14.5 14.1 14.1

43403 8735
3

High Strength Iron-Base Stainless Alloys A 286 95,000 95,000 90,000 85,000 AMS 5616 113,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 Unitemp 212 150,000 140,000 135,000 130,000 High Strength Iron-Base Alloys AISI 4340 200,000 130,000 75,000 H-11 (AMS 6485) 215,000 175,000 155,000 AMS 6340 160,000 100,000 75,000 Nickel-Base Alloys Iconel X 115,000 Waspaloy 115,000 – – –

87403

Modulus of Elongation (Young’s Modulus) E = 30,000,000 PSI/in/in NOTES:

98,000 106,000 100,000

1. Developed from ASM, Metals HDBK, 9th Edition, Vol. 1 (°C = °K for values listed) 2. ASME SA574 3. AISI 4. Multiply values in table by .556 for µin/in/°F.

70

TABLE 1 – TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF CORROSION RESISTANT FASTENER MATERIALS Materials Stainless Steels 303.282 0.3 6.2 – 9.2% offset (1000 psi) 40 80 110 140 180 185 162 155 85 170 Maximum Service Temp (F) 800 800 400 400 600 600 800 600 1200 1200 Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expan. conditions of loading . However. Often. (in. less-costly fastener material will perform satisfactorily in a corrosive environment if given the proper protective coating.72 – Density (lbs/cu in. passive 431. and the various methods of protecting the fastener and joint from corrosion. Alloy steel is almost never used./deg F) 10. At times it is a case of economics.278 0. Frequently. Ⅲ Special design considerations: Need for minimum weight or the tendency for some materials to gall. For example. the presence of a specific corrosive medium requires a specific corrosion-resistant fastener material.6 6. Sometimes the nature of corrosion properties provided by these fastener materials is subject to change with application and other conditions.CORROSION IN THREADED FASTENERS All fastened joints are. 2. Basic factors affecting the choice of corrosion resistant threaded fasteners are: Ⅲ Tensile and fatigue strength.280 0.286 0. For example. Fastener Material The use of a suitably corrosion-resistant material is often the first line of defense against corrosion. or the entire joint may be sealed with a coat of paint after installation. Of course.7 6.3 5. cold worked 410. passive 303. passive. it is sometimes applied as a supplemental treatment at installation.2 10. In fastener design. even under mildly corrosive conditions. passive 17-4 PH 17-7 PH AM 350 15-7 Mo A-286 A-286.277 0. are listed in Table 1. subjected to corrosion of some form during normal service life. cold worked Tensile Strength (1000 psi) 80 125 170 180 200 200 200 200 150 220 Yield Strength at 0. In special cases. stainless steel and aluminum resist corrosion only so long as their protective oxide film remains unbroken. Three ways to protect against corrosion are: 1. Select corrosion-resistant material for the fastener.282 0. however. Design of a joint to prevent premature failure due to corrosion must include considerations of the environment. Design the joint to minimize corrosion.) 0. a selected material may minimize direct attack of a corrosive environment only to be vulnerable to fretting or stress corrosion. without some sort of protective coating. material choice may be only one of several important considerations. Factors which affect coating choice are: Ⅲ Corrosion resistance Ⅲ Temperature limitations Ⅲ Embrittlement of base metal Ⅲ Effect on fatigue life Ⅲ Effect on locking torque Ⅲ Compatibility with adjacent material Ⅲ Dimensional changes Ⅲ Thickness and distribution Ⅲ Adhesion characteristics Conversion Coatings: Where cost is a factor and corrosion is not severe. or both. the most corrosion-resistant material for a particular environment may just not make a suitable fastener./in. to some extent. a fastener may be painted and installed wet. 3.7 7.276 0. paint is normally not considered for protective coatings for mating threaded fasteners. Some of the more widely used corrosion-resistant materials. Ⅲ Position on the galvanic series scale of the fastener and materials to be joined. Economics often necessitate a compromise solution. Specify protective coatings for fastener.286 Base Cost Index Medium Medium Low Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium High Position on Galvanic Scale 8 9 15 16 11 14 13 12 6 7 71 . Protective Coating A number of factors influence the choice of a corrosionresistant coating for a threaded fastener. provided that design factors such as tensile and fatigue strength can be satisfied. For example.286 0. The solution to a specific corrosion problem may require using one or all of these methods. Frequently. certain conversion-type coatings are effective. These include a black-oxide finish for alloy-steel screws and various phosphate base coatings for carbon and alloy-steel fasteners. Ⅲ Susceptibility of the fastener material to other types of less obvious corrosion. the corrosion resistance of the coating is not a principal consideration. along with approximate fastener tensile strength ratings at room temperature and other pertinent properties. joint interfaces. Paint: Because of its thickness. a rust-preventing oil is applied over a conversion coating.286 0.

because of the high nobility of the silver. thick. Cadmium plating can be used at temperatures to 450°F. and sufficient baking to drive off any residual hydrogen. Hydrogen Embrittlement: A serious problem. Air trapped under a speck of dirt on the surface of the metal may form an oxygen concentration cell and start pitting. Surfaces should be clean and free of organic material and dirt. since they operate on a different principle. Because of screw-thread geometry. or at least minimize. and seams. high-hardness structural parts are particularly susceptible to this condition. Where fretting corrosion is likely to occur: 1. For Concentration-Cell Corrosion: Keep surfaces smooth and minimize or eliminate lap joints. Since electrolytic cell action liberates hydrogen at the cathode. For Galvanic Corrosion: If the condition is severe. at tensile levels far below the theoretical strength. Hydrogen generated during plating can diffuse into the steel and embrittle the bolt. where the metal of the coating is less noble than the base metal of the fastener. 1. Another form of hydrogen embrittlement. For Fretting Corrosion: Apply a lubricant (usually oil) to mating surfaces. zinc for example. A higher clamping force results in a more rigid joint with less relative movement possible between mating services. may occur after installation. proper plating procedure. This kind of plating corrodes sacrificially and protects the fastener. Frequently. 72 . it is possible for either galvanic or concentration-cell corrosion to lead to embrittling of the bolt material. a noble-metal coating must be at least 0. 2. A-286). zinc. which is more difficult to control. Joint Design Certain precautions and design procedures can be followed to prevent. the cadmium and zinc are rendered even more corrosion resistant by a post-plating chromate-type conversion treatment. Above this limit. are effective in layers as thin as 0. can develop in plated alloy steel fasteners. 2. The alloy may also be deposited directly from the plating bath. The fastener may be painted with zinc chromate primer prior to installation. Corrosion resistance can be increased by using a conversion coating such as black oxide or a phosphatebase treatment.0002 in.. Silver plating is frequently used in the higher temperature ranges for lubrication to prevent galling and seizing. When the joint material is anodic. The most important of these are: For Direct Attack: Choose the right corrosionresistant material. and in the 1200° to 1800°F range (high-nickel-base super alloys) are highly corrosion resistant and normally do not require protective coatings. To be effective. The most widely used sacrificial platings for threaded fasteners are cadmium. electrically insulate the bolt and joint from each other. galvanic action is most severe. however. bolts and nuts should have smooth surfaces. This plating can cause a galvanic corrosion problem. Specify materials of maximum practicable hardness. threaded fastener coatings. The barrier type-such as chrome plating-which sets up an impervious layer or film that is more noble and therefore more corrosion resistant than the base metal. Noble-metal coatings are generally not suitable for threaded fasteners-especially where a close-tolerance fit is involved. particularly on stainless steel. Fastener materials for use in the 900 to 1200°F range (stainless steel.0001 to 0. The result is often a delayed and total mechanical failure. The sacrificial type. For maximum protection. For an inexpensive protective coating. and tin. The problem can be controlled by careful selection of plating formulation. a nickel cadmium or nickel-zinc alloy plating is recommended. a sacrificial coating such as zinc plating is effective. or the entire joint can be coated with lacquer or paint. Usually a material can be found that will provide the needed corrosion resistance without sacrifice of other important design requirements. Flushhead bolts should be used where possible.Electroplating: Two broad classes of protective electroplating are: 1. Use fasteners that have residual compressive stresses on the surfaces that may be under attack. Be sure that the fastener material is compatible with the materials being joined. This consists of alternate deposits of the two metals which are heat-diffused into a uniform alloy coating that can be used for applications to 900°F. corrosion will spread over the greater area of the fastened materials. joints can be sealed with paint or other sealant material. Another protective measure is to use a bolt that is cathodic to the joint material and close to it in the galvanic series. each of the various types of corrosion likely to attack a threaded joint. lacquer or paint can be used where conditions permit. Steel Insulation washer Insulation gasket Copper Steel FIG.1 – A method of electrically insulating a bolted joint to prevent galvanic corrosion. Alternatively. Conversely. especially in the seating areas. 3. crevices. Further. Because of dimensional necessity. however. except under special environment conditions. such plating thickness will usually exceed the tolerance allowances on many classes of fit for screws. if the bolt is anodic. known as hydrogen embrittlement.001 in. Specify maximum preload in the joint.

gas. causes corrosive action in the galvanic couple. Although not fully understood. design the joint for high fatigue life. 2. For Corrosion Fatigue: In general. contains different amounts of dissolved oxygen at different points. or less noble material. Residual stresses resulting from sudden changes in temperature accelerate stress corrosion. It is a direct and general chemical reaction of the metal with a corrosive mediumliquid. 73 . or even a solid. which may be nothing more than an individual atmosphere. Further protection is provided by surface coating. further increases stress build-up. If possible. Under conditions of corrosion fatigue. Minimize crevices and stress risers in the bolted joint and compensate for thermal stresses. TYPES OF CORROSION Direct Attack…most common form of corrosion affecting all metals and structural forms. Application and maintenance of a high preload. As with stress and fretting corrosion. highly-loaded metal surfaces subjected to very slight (vibratory) motion. Reduce fastener hardness (if reduced strength can be tolerated). high-strength joints. When two or more areas on the surface of a metal are exposed to different concentrations of the same solution. If the solution consists of salts of the metal itself.merely the presence of air plus vibratory rubbing. fillet rolling. In threaded joints. Galvanic Corrosion…occurs with dissimilar metals contact. periodic inspection is recommended so that partial failures may be detected before the structure is endangered. It is most likely to occur in high tensile. it is probably a highly accelerated form of oxidation under heat and stress. in a highly stressed joint. Factors extending fatigue performance are: 1. at the bearing surfaces under the head of the screw. The effect is cumulative and. Concentration Cell Corrosion…takes place with metals in close proximity and. One of the worst galvanic joints would consist of magnesium and titanium in contact. It can even occur when only one of the materials in contact is metal. fretting can occur between mating threads. high-frequency. dynamic-load applications. induce residual compressive stresses into the surface of the fastener by shot-peening or pressure rolling. since this seems to be a factor in stress corrosion. Although the mechanism is not completely understood. and corrosion takes place. Corrosion Fatigue…accelerated fatigue failure occurring in the presence of a corrosive medium. stress corrosion cracking is believed to be caused by the combined and mutually accelerating effects of static tensile stress and corrosive environment. Hence. is the contributing agent. or between bolted materials) and is likely to advance without detection. rather than static tensile stress. Stress Corrosion Cracking…occurs over a period of time in high-stressed. The anodic. however. A variation of the concentration cell is the oxygen cell in which a corrosive medium. There need be no special environment to induce this form of corrosion.. Accelerated corrosion takes place between hidden surfaces (either under the bolt head or nut. or under the nut. a difference in electrical potential results. It differs from stress corrosion cracking in that dynamic alternating stress. is the sacrificial element. since the principal effect of this form of corrosion is reduced fatigue performance. Proper alignment to avoid bending stresses. Corrosion fatigue affects the normal endurance limit of the bolt. compressive stresses induced on the fastener surfaces by thread rolling.. in turn. unlike galvanic corrosion. a metalion cell is formed. or shot peening will reduce corrosion fatigue. such as moist air. The conventional fatigue curve of a normal bolt joint levels off at its endurance limit. Initial pitting somehow tales place which. or maximum dynamic load that can be sustained indefinitely without fatigue failure. If the environment is severe. in a joint of stainless steel and titanium. can result in sudden failure. Presence of an electrolyte. the curve does not level off but continues downward to a point of failure at a finite number of stress cycles. Fretting…corrosive attack or deterioration occurring between containing. does not require dissimilar metals. The corrosive solution between the two surfaces is relatively more stagnant (and thus has a higher concentration of metal ions in solution) than the corrosive solution immediately outside the crevice.CORROSION IN THREADED FASTENERS For Stress Corrosion: Choose a fastener material that resists stress corrosion in the service environment. and corrosion takes place on the surfaces in close contact. the stainless steel corrodes.

and MIL-N-20184 Nickel. 416. Leaded Bronze Commercial yellow Brass and Bronze. 6063. High-Nickel and High Cobalt Alloys Titanium Silver. 347. 7075 Lead. Molybdenum M M M M M M N B M M N N M N N M N N M N T M M B N N B M M N T M M N N M N B M M N N M N N M N M B M M M M B B B T N T T M M N T N B T N B N M M B B B B M M B B B B M M B B B B M M B B B B M M B B B B M M N N B B M M N N T B M M N T B B M M N B N B M M N N N M M N M M M Steel. Silver Solder per QQ-S-561 B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B N B B B B B N B B B B N B N N N N N N N N N KEY: M B B B B B N M B B Steel. 2024. AISI 410. Gold-Platinum Alloys LEGEND: N – Not compatible B – Compatible T – Compatible if not exposed within two miles of salt water M – Compatible when finished with at least one coat of primer FIG. Naval Brass. 303. QQ-B-611 Brass Copper. Cobalt. Brass. Tin-Lead Solder Steel. 420 Chromium Plate. QQ-B-671. PH Steels Leaded Brass. 1100. 302. 2014. Tungsten. Palladium Gold. Bronze. High-Silver Alloys Rhodium. 321. 304. QQ-N-286. 440. AM 355. 356 Steel. Indium. AISI 301. Platinum. 5052. 19 – Metals compatibility chart 74 . Lead-Tin Solder Tin. Galvanized Steel. AISI 431. MIL-C-20159. Monel. 3003. Graphite. Beryllium. 316. A 286 Nickel-Copper Alloys per QQ-N-281. Clad Aluminum Aluminum. (except corrosion-resistant types) Aluminum. 6061.GALVANIC CORROSION Magnesium Cadmium and Zinc Plate. Copper Alloys per QQ-C-551.

notch geometry and testing conditions and cannot be generalized to other sizes of specimens and conditions. that less importance be attached to Charpy impact properties of materials which are intended to be given to impact properties for threaded fasteners. The relationship of the fastener shank diameter to the thread area. it is advisable to investigate the tension impact properties of full size fasteners since this more closely approximates the actual application. It is recommended. 75 . the effect of strength and diameter on tension impact properties and the effect of test temperature. Only in shear loading on fasteners is the major stress in the transverse direction. The number of exposed threads B. D. Considerable testing has been conducted in an effort to determine if a relationship exists between the Charpy V notch properties of a material and the tension properties of an externally threaded fastener manufactured from the same material. Some conclusions which can be drawn from the extensive impact testing are as follows: 1. The tension impact properties of externally threaded fasteners do not follow the Charpy V notch impact pattern. therefore. In externally threaded fasteners. the loading usually is applied in a longitudinal direction. which should be applicable would be one where the applied impact stress supplements the major stress. Note the similar increase in tensile strength shown in figure 22. The Charpy and Izod type test relate notch behavior (brittleness versus ductility) by applying a single overload of stress. The results of these tests provide quantitive comparisons but are not convertible to energy values useful for engineering design calculations. The impact test. The hardness or fastener ultimate tensile strength Following are charts showing tension impact versus Charpy impact properties. Some of the variables which effect the tension impact properties are: A. This compares favorable with the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the tensile strength of the screws. therefore. 2. If any consideration is to be given to impact properties of bolts or screws. the tension impact strength of the same screws is increasing.IMPACT PERFORMANCE THE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF THREADED FASTENERS Much has been written regarding the significance of the notched bar impact testing of steels and other metallic materials. however. Please note from figure 21 that while the Charpy impact strength of socket head cap screw materials are decreasing at sub-zero temperatures. The length of the fastener C. The results of these tests are useful in determining the susceptibility of a material to brittle behavior when the applied stress is perpendicular to the major stress. The results of an individual test are related to that particular specimen size.

76 0.65 0.30 0.77 0.78 0.77 1.93 0.57 0. % AISI no.-lb –100°F O°F 100°F transition temp.11 0.45 0.91 1.56 0. Hardness F+ F Rc –300°F –200°F impact energy.22 1475 4380 0.70 0.67 1.85 0.62 0.69 1.61 0.78 0.21 1550 400 600 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 300 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 300 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 52 48 44 38 30 48 40 30 49 42 31 42 34 29 19 42 37 29 46 41 31 43 36 29 21 41 34 27 46 38 30 47 41 30 11 10 9 15 15 5 9 12 4 8 5 14 11 16 17 16 17 17 5 11 11 11 8 25 10 7 11 18 5 11 18 4 10 16 15 14 13 18 28 6 10 15 5 8 11 20 16 34 48 17 22 30 8 12 13 16 13 33 85 12 20 28 10 15 22 6 12 18 20 15 16 28 55 10 13 25 8 10 19 28 33 55 103 20 35 55 13 15 17 23 20 65 107 17 43 74 14 24 49 10 15 25 21 15 21 36 55 11 18 42 9 12 33 35 55 78 115 25 39 97 15 19 39 35 35 76 115 25 53 80 20 40 63 13 20 54 21 16 25 36 55 14 23 43 10 15 38 35 55 78 117 27 69 67 16 22 43 35 45 76 117 31 54 82 23 40 66 16 30 60 – – – –130 –185 – –10 –110 – 60 –50 – – – – – –190 –180 – – – – –20 –150 –195 0 –155 –165 – –110 –140 – –10 –90 4360 0.21 1450 8620 0.21 1450 4620 0.62 1.81 0.20 1550 8660 0.65 0.20 1550 4680 0.74 0.20 0.87 1.30 0. ft.29 0.67 1.68 0. temp.60 0.66 0.20 0.25 1475 76 .81 0.56 0.08 0.18 1650 4640 0. (50% brittle) °F 4340 0.89 0.TABLE 20 LOW-TEMPERATURE IMPACT PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ALLOY STEELS heat temperature* composition.22 1575 8640 0. C Mn Ni Cr Mo quenching tempering temp.34 0.20 1650 8630 0.43 0.77 1.38 0.

Date: 180 TENSION IMPACT FASTENER 160 TENSION IMPACT LBF.IMPACT PERFORMANCE TYPICAL TENSION IMPACT AND CHARPY IMPACT STANDARD UNBRAKO SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS TENSION ± 3/8" SIZE SCREWS TESTED FULL SIZE UNBRAKO ENGINEERING Chart No. 21 77 . F FIG.-FT. 140 120 100 80 60 40 CHARPY V NOTCH SPECIMEN 20 ±300 ±200 ±100 0 100 200 TEMPERATURE.

140 3/8 120 100 80 5/16 60 40 20 1/4 120 140 160 180 200 220 FASTENER RATED ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH – KSI FIG. 22 78 .-FT. EFFECT OF FASTENER STRENGTH AND DIAMETER UNBRAKO ENGINEERING ROOM TEMPERATURE Chart No. Date: 180 160 TENSION IMPACT LBF.TYPICAL TENSION IMPACT STRENGTH.

UTS KSI. min. SHCSs can be manufactured to meet Grade 8 requirements on a special order basis. Hardness. A person desiring a “high strength” SHCS may request a “Grade 8 SHCS”.1) 105 (1 1/8 . and head marking. The misconception is reasonable because “Grade 8” is a term generally associated with “high strength” fasteners. The list is not comprehensive but intended to provide a general understanding. Some basic differences between several fastener classifications are listed below.PRODUCT ENGINEERING BULLETIN UNBRAKO PRODUCT ENGINEERING BULLETIN Standard Inch Socket Head Cap Screws Are Not Grade 8 Fasteners There is a common. This is not true.1 1/2) C25-C34 C19-C30 Medium Carbon Steel Three Radial Lines Bolts Screws Studs Hex Heads Grade 8 SAE J429 150 (1/4 .1 1/2) B80-B100 B70-B100 Low or Medium Carbon Steel None Bolts Screws Studs Hex Heads Grade 5 SAE J429 120 (1/4 . Fastener Designation Applicable Standard Strength Level. alloy steel socket head cap screws are “Grade 8”. Rockwell General Material Type Identification Requirement Typical Fasteners Grade 2 SAE J429 74 (1/4-3/4) 60 (7/8 . Three of the most important characteristics are not consistent with requirements for industry standard SHCSs: tensile strength. hardness.11/2) Industry SHCS ASTM A574 180 (≤1/2) 170 (> 1/2) C39-C45 C37-C45 Medium Carbon Alloy Steel SHCS Configuration Socket Head Cap Screws Unbrako SHCS ASTM ASTM A574 A574 SPS-B-271 UNB-B-271 190 (≤ 1/2) 180 (> 1/2) C39-C43 C38-C43 Medium Carbon Alloy Steel Mfr’s ID Socket Head Cap Screws C33-C39 Medium Carbon Alloy Steel Six Radial Lines Bolts Screws Studs Hex Heads 79 . The term Grade 8 defines specific fastener characteristics which must be met to be called “Grade 8”. This is technically incorrect for standard SHCSs. yet reasonable. inch. misconception that standard.

as in the Inch system. and has a like connotation. but the pitch is really the pitch. etc. actually the number of threads is 1/pitch. M16 is a coarse thread designation representing a diameter of 16 mm with a pitch of 2 mm understood. 0. and several special series of various types. is designated by specifying the diameter and threads per inch along with the suffix indicating the thread series. a thread designated as M5 x 0. A similar fine thread part would be M16 x 1. These tolerances and fields are defined as shown below. with modifications as follows: For coarse threads. In common usage in U.S. UNRC or UNRF.8 – 4g6g Tolerance Position (Allowance) Tolerance Grade Tolerance Position (Allowance) Tolerance Grade ) ) ) ) ) ) Crest Diameter Tolerance Symbol Pitch Diameter Tolerance Symbol 80 .28 UNRF.. In the Inch series. The most common metric thread is the coarse thread and falls generally between the inch coarse and fine series for a comparable diameter. In Metric series. The International Standards Organization (ISO) metric system provides for this designation by adding letters and numbers in a certain sequence to the callout. the pitch is shown as a suffix.A. Also to be considered in defining threads is the tolerance and class of fit to which they are made. but the present unified thread form could be considered to be the standard for many threaded products.8 mm pitch. designated UNS. designated UNRF. This thread. COMPLETE DESIGNATIONS Metric Thread Designation Nominal Size Pitch Tolerance Class Designation M5 X 0. the diameters are in millimeters. only the prefix M and the diameter are necessary. Fine threads are referenced by a larger number than coarse threads because they “fit” more threads per inch. with a pitch diameter tolerance grade 6 and allowance “g”. Unified National Radius Fine series. Consequently the coarse thread has the large number.5 or 16 mm diameter with a pitch of 1. which defines all of the dimensions and tolerances for a thread in the inch series.5 mm. such as 1/4 .8 4g6g would define a thread of 5 mm diameter. similar to the Federal Standard H28 handbook. Standardization in the inch series has come through many channels. Canada and United Kingdom are the Unified National Radius Coarse series. For example. For instance. For threads in Metric units. but for fine threads. particularly high strength ones such as socket head cap screws. but with some slight variations. designated UNRC. there are a couple of differences that can be a little confusing. a similar approach is used. while we refer to threads per inch as pitch.THREADS IN BOTH SYSTEMS Thread forms and designations have been the subject of many long and arduous battles through the years. A diameter and pitch are used to designate the series. The callout above is similar to a designation class 3A fit. For someone who has been using the Inch system.

Comparision 5/16 UNC and M8. Medium tolerance grades – Pitch diameter.METRIC THREADS Example of thread tolerance positions and magnitudes. µm +200 +150 +100 +50 0 2B NUT THREAD 5/16 UNC M8 DEVIATIONS external h g e internal H G basic clearance none small large 6H Allowance –50 2A –100 –160 –200 µm NOTE: Lower case letters = external threads Capital letters = internal threads Allowance = 0 6g 6h After plating 5/16 UNC Plain BOLT THREAD 81 .

angularity between the axis of the tapped hole and that of the hole for the shank.1540 0.5000 close fit nom. 82 .370 1. Normally.0810 0. 0.6406 0. Note 2 Normal Fit: Intended for: (1) screws of relatively long length.4375 0.2055 0.0600 0. 0.1360 0.1406 0.1800 0.1380 0. Note 3 Chamfering: It is considered good practice to chamfer or break the edges of holes that are smaller than “F” maximum in parts in which hardness approaches.3125 1.4062 0. 51* 46* 3/32 36* 1/8 9/64 23* 15* 5* 17/64 21/64 25/64 29/64 33/64 41/64 49/64 57/64 1-1/64 1-9/32 1-17/32 dec.0730 0. equals or exceeds the screw hardness.0375 0.1935 0.2812 1.346 0.1200 0.0000 1.5625 X counterbore diameter 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 3/8 7/16 17/32 5/8 23/32 13/16 1 1-3/16 1-3/8 1-5/8 2 2-3/8 C countersink diameter D Max. The chamfers.145 0.483 0. the heads may not seat properly or the sharp edges may deform the fillets on the screws.115 0.0730 0.415 0. or the possiblity of brinnelling of the heads of the screws when the parts are harder than the screws.1250 0. 49* 43* 36* 31* 29* 23* 18* 10 2* 9/23 11/32 13/32 15/32 17/32 21/32 25/32 29/32 1-1/32 1-5/16 1-9/16 dec.2500 0.8750 1.2500 1.5mm #50 #47 #43 #38 #36 #29 #25 #7 F 5/16 U 27/64 35/64 21/32 49/64 7/8 1-7/64 34mm UNRF 3/64 #53 #50 #45 #42 #38 #33 #29 #21 #3 I Q 25/64 29/64 14.0990 0. If holes are not chamfered.1120 0.4687 0.5312 0.102 0.188 0.5mm 11/16 20.5mm 59/64 1-11/64 36mm **body drill size #51 #46 3/32 #36 1/8 9/64 #23 #15 #5 17/64 21/64 25/64 29/64 33/64 41/64 49/64 57/64 1-1/64 1-9/32 1-17/32 counterbore size 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 3/8 7/16 17/32 5/8 23/32 13/16 1 1-3/16 1-3/8 1-5/8 2 2-3/8 0.0937 0.689 0.0890 0.2812 0.074 0. or (2) assemblies that involve two or more screws and where the mating holes are produced by conventional tolerancing methods.963 1. such as deviations in hole straightness.1695 0.1900 0.) hole dimensions tap drill size UNRC – 1.7500 0.6250 0. It provides for the maximum allowable eccentricty of the longest standard screws and for certain deviations in the parts being fastened. + 2F(Max.3281 0.8906 1.087 0. making them susceptible to fatigue in applications that involve dynamic loading. however.5156 0.130 0.3906 0.2656 0.0156 1.218 0. A drill size for hole A nominal size 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 basic screw diameter 0.640 ** Break edge of body drill hole to clear screw fillet.278 0.1065 0.1640 0.1250 0.1540 0. Chamfers exceeding these values reduce the effective bearing area and introduce the possibility of indentation when the parts fastened are softer than screws. the chamfers do not need to exceed “F” maximum.5312 normal fit nom.7656 0. or (2) two or more screws are used and the mating holes are produced at assembly or by matched and coordinated tooling.552 0.1065 0. should not be larger than needed to ensure that the heads seat properly or that the fillet on the screw is not deformed.158 0.100 1.9062 1. (See “F” page 6).828 0.0860 0.5000 0.6562 0.THROUGH-HOLE PREPARATION DRILL AND COUNTERBORE SIZES FOR INCH SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Note 1 Close Fit: Normally limited to holes for those lengths of screws threaded to the head in assemblies in which: (1) only one screw is used. differneces in center distances of the mating holes and other deviations.4531 0.0312 1.0670 0.2210 0.3125 0.7812 0.3437 0.

2.25 14.6 52.6 B Counterbore Diameter 3.8 9.80 8.50 20.2 14.2 11.80 6.00 X Y Countersink Diameter [Note (3)] 2.8 9. Note 3 Chamfering: It is considered good practice to chamfer or break the edges of holes that are smaller than “B” maximum in parts in which hardness approaches. Max. angularity between the axis of the tapped hole and that of the hole for the shank.50 16.4 33. or the possiblity of brinnelling of the heads of the screws when the parts are harder than the screws.2 18.00 43.00 49.50 14.2 18. making them susceptible to fatigue in applications that involve dynamic loading.70 4. the heads may not seat properly or the sharp edges may deform the fillets on the screws.4 39.75 31.50 30.40 5.25 17.80 12.6 52.40 6.00 Transition Diameter.2 22.80 2.50 24.80 14.4 26. Chamfers exceeding these values reduce the effective bearing area and introduce the possibility of indentation when the parts fastened are softer than screws.75 16.50 4.50 56.6 3.80 5.50 37.25 9. such as deviations in hole straightness.75 37.75 11.40 3.50 47.40 6.00 3.4 45.00 75.50 8. Normally.50 31. should not be larger than needed to ensure that the heads seat properly or that the fillet on the screw is not deformed.6 M2 M2.75 20.40 4.6 4.4 33.4 45. or (2) two or more screws are used and the mating holes are produced at assembly or by matched and coordinated tooling. differneces in center distances of the mating holes and other deviations.40 10.6 3.4 39. Note 2 Normal Fit: Intended for: (1) screws of relatively long length.6 83 .50 12.40 5.40 8.7 6.25 22.0 2.2 11. It provides for the maximum allowable eccentricty of the longest standard screws and for certain deviations in the parts being fastened.25 19.7 6.4 26.75 24. the chamfers do not need to exceed “B” maximum. The chamfers.1 3.25 25.75 37. If holes are not chamfered.DRILL AND COUNTERBORE SIZES DRILL AND COUNTERBORE SIZES FOR METRIC SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS Note 1 Close Fit: Normally limited to holes for those lengths of screws threaded to the head in assemblies in which: (1) only one screw is used. A Nominal Drill Size Nominal Size or Basic Screw Diameter M1.2 16.95 2.0 50.80 10.2 14.2 16.50 66. or (2) assemblies that involve two or more screws and where the mating holes are produced by conventional tolerancing methods. equals or exceeds the screw hardness.1 3.6 4.7 5.50 44. however.70 3.7 5.5 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M14 M16 M20 M24 M30 M36 M42 M48 Close Fit [Note (1)] 1.00 Normal Fit [Note (2)] 1.20 2.2 22.0 2.

MPa 2.261 2.317 2.551 1.951 1. 1000 psi 123 120 118 115 112 110 107 104 103 102 100 99 97 96 93 91 90 METRIC ROCKWELL – BRINELL – TENSILE CONVERSION Rockwell “C” scale 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 Brinell hardness number 654 634 615 595 577 560 543 524 512 500 488 476 464 453 442 430 419 tensile strength approx.889 1.662 1.103 1.379 1.069 1.034 1.420 Rockwell “C” scale 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 Brinell hardness number 408 398 387 377 367 357 347 337 327 318 309 301 294 285 279 272 265 tensile strength approx.462 1. 1000 psi 200 194 188 181 176 170 165 160 155 150 147 142 139 136 132 129 126 Rockwell “C” “B” scale scale 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 (19) (18) (17) (16) (15) (14) (13) (12) (11) (10) 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 Brinell hardness number 259 253 247 241 235 230 225 220 215 210 206 201 197 193 190 186 183 tensile strength approx.HARDNESS – TENSILE CONVERSION INCH ROCKWELL – BRINELL – TENSILE CONVERSION Rockwell “C” scale 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 Brinell hardness number 654 634 615 595 577 560 543 524 512 500 488 476 464 453 442 430 419 tensile strength approx. MPa 1. 1000 psi 336 328 319 310 301 292 283 274 265 257 249 241 233 225 219 212 206 Rockwell “C” scale 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 Brinell hardness number 408 398 387 377 367 357 347 337 327 318 309 301 294 285 279 272 265 tensile strength approx.338 1.772 1.013 1.014 979 958 938 910 889 869 Rockwell “C” “B” scale scale 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 (19) (18) (17) (16) (15) (14) (13) (12) (11) (10) 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 Brinell hardness number 259 253 247 241 235 230 225 220 215 210 206 201 197 193 190 186 183 tensile strength approx.199 2.248 1.827 1.510 1. MPa 848 827 814 793 772 758 738 717 710 703 690 683 669 662 641 627 621 84 .606 1.213 1.137 2.296 1.138 1.172 1.717 1.075 2.

25 10 x 1.1063 0.88 19.90 2.89 3.405 1.40 28.25 4.00 4.00180 0.06 0.19 2.663 0.014957 0.45 50.63 0.0 x 0.5 x 0.007698 0.01 3.00604 0.75 14 x 2 16 x 2 Thread Tensile Stress Area (mm2) 1.00487 0.00830 0.07 12.073 1.9088 5.581 2. Diameter (in.18 2.0524 0.09 0.969 1.1419 0.0140 0.315 1.0 x 1 8.6 x 0.THREAD STRESS AREAS Inch and Metric STRESS AREAS FOR THREADED FASTENERS – INCH Threads Per in.606 0.856 1.6 19.1416 3.0200 0.00370 0.4053 3.97 Square Inches Tensile Stress Area Per H-28 UNRF 0.0364 0.373 0.0 x 0.3 50.01474 0.56 0.155 1.076699 0.78 14.8 6.51 2.69 4.6 58.19635 0.18 3.23 25.2272 1.13 1.0878 0.07 3.60 5.75 0.0686 STRESS AREAS FOR THREADED FASTENERS – METRIC Nominal Dia.009852 0.51 4.50 0.53 11.5 33 x 3.35 7.11 12.75 34.9396 7.85 2.0318 0.1187 0.00661 0.021124 0.75 3.59 6.31 0.5 24 x 3 27 x 3 30 x 3.75 2.93 5.509 0.5 20 x 2.50 2.25 1.39 5.00394 0.15 63.35 2.50 3.5 4.60132 0.763 0.69 Nominal Shank 0.11045 0.1599 0.5 22 x 2.00 1.7671 2. Thread and Pitch (mm) 1.5 113 154 201 Nominal Dia.44 0.00 84.19 0.7 5.99402 1.004185 0.03 8.226 0.002827 0.00278 0.16 0.462 0.5 48 x 5 Thread Tensile Stress Area (mm2) 192 245 303 353 459 561 694 817 1120 1470 Nominal Shank Area (mm2) 254 314 380 452 573 707 855 1018 1385 1810 85 .5 12 x 1.25 0.00523 0.) #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 0.012272 0.5 36 x 4 42 x 4.028353 0.50 69.80 57.14 0.83 6.20 UNRC – 64 56 48 40 40 32 32 24 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 4-1/2 4-1/2 4 4 4 UNRF 80 72 64 56 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 24 20 20 18 18 16 14 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 UNRC – 0. Thread and Pitch (mm) 18 x 2.85 76.3 115 157 Nominal Shank Area (mm2) 2.00263 0.4849 1.84 3.88 1.07 0.44179 0.0580 0.2 20.25 2.0175 0.1 36.10 0.31 0.70 14.256 0.6 28.00796 0.01015 0.0 x 0.15033 0.00 Diameter (mm) 1.4 2.58 31.25 0.29 15.50 1.049087 0.52 1.334 0.27 2.13 0.0 x 0.005809 0.203 0.00909 0.91 7.0775 0.38 1.11 0.17 4.45 3.05 22.182 0.94 9.0 x 1.00 2.38 0.3 78.79 0.93 38.14 4.10 44.9761 4.

F – fine DIAMETER* DIA.ENGINEERING PART NUMBERS – INCH Unbrako provides a stock number for every standard. The following part numbering system allows the engineer or designer to record a particular description for ordering. DIA. stocked item in its price list. DASH NO. Alloy Steel 20097 Drilled Head (3) H3 #4 -94 UNRC C 1 1/2" -24 Cadmium Plate C FINISH B – Chemical Black Oxide C – Cadmium Plate – Silver D – Cadmium Plate – Yellow S – Silver Plate U – Zinc Plate – Silver Z – Zinc Plate – Yellow No letter indicates standard black finish (Thermal Oxide) for alloy steel and passivation for stainless steel. there may be particular sizes or optional features the user may desire. #0 90 5/8 10 #1 91 3/4 12 #2 92 7/8 14 #3 93 1 16 #4 94 #5 95 #6 96 #8 98 #10 3 1/4 4 2 32 5/16 5 3/8 6 7/16 7 1/2 8 3 48 9/16 9 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 18 20 22 24 28 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 36 40 44 OPTIONAL FEATURES Cross Drilled Heads: H1 – 1 Hole Thru H2 – 2 Hole2 Thru H3 – 3 Holes Thru Self-Locking: E – LOC-WEL to MIL-DTL18240 L – LOC-WEL (Commercial) P – Nylon Plug TF – TRU-FLEX K – Nylon Plug to MIL-DTL18240 BASE NUMBER 20097 – socket head cap screw – alloy steel 20098 – socket head cap screw – stainless steel 72531 – low head cap screw 12705 – shoulder screw 16990 – flat head cap screw – alloy steel 16991 – flat head cap screw – stainless steel 38030 – button head cap screw – alloy 38031 – button head cap screw – stainless steel 05455 – square head cap screw – knurled cup 05456 – square head cap screw – half dog Set Screws Alloy Steel 28700 28701 28704 28702 28705 28706 Stainless Steel 28707 28708 28709 28710 28711 28713 flat point cup point knurled cup point cone point oval point half dog point * Shoulder screws are designated by shoulder diameter 86 . LENGTH in 16ths THREAD TYPE C – coarse. However. DASH NO.

OPTIONAL PART NUMBERING SYSTEM PRESSURE PLUG PART NUMBERS Basic Part No.001.001 oversize B 1/2" –8 The Part number consists of (1) a basic part number describing the item. and alloy only ** Standard stock available in austenitic stainless steel. Material 29466 A 1/4" -4 Finish C FINISH B – Chemical Black Oxide C – Cadmium Plate-Silver D – Cadmium Plate-Yellow S – Silver Plate U – Zinc Plate – Silver Z – Zinc Plate – Yellow A – Austenitic Stainless D – Aluminum E – Brass No letter – alloy steel NOMINAL SIZE IN 16ths OPTIONAL FEATURES BASIC PART NUMBER ** Standard stock available in austenitic stainless steel. (3) a dash number designating length. (2) a dash number and letter designating diameter and oversize dimension. C-. B-.0002. LENGTH in 16ths OVERSIZE A-.002 (see below) DIAMETER in thousandths BASIC PART NUMBER 28420 – Standard Dowel Pins 69382 – Pull-Out Dowel Pins HEX KEYS PART NUMBERS long arm 05854 1/4" –13 The Part number consists of (1) a basic part number describing the item. FINISH Standard Black Finish (Thermal Oxide) See dash number in dimension table page 32 BASIC PART NUMBER 05853 – short arm wrench 05854 – long arm wrench 78950-6" – long arm wrench 87 . brass. (2) a dash number designating size and a letter denoting finish. and alloy only 29466 – dry seal *38194 – LEVEL-SEAL **69188 – PTFE/TEFLON coated DOWEL PINS PART NUMBERS dowel pin 28420 1/4" –250 .

-M4 Thread Pitch -0.7 Length -12 Cadmium Plate C FINISH B – Chemical Black Oxide C – Cadmium Plate – Silver D – Cadmium Plate – Yellow S – Silver Plate U – Zinc Plate – Silver Z – Zinc Plate – Yellow No letter indicates standard black finish (Thermal Oxide) for alloy steel and passivation for stainless steel. LENGTH in mm THREAD TYPE STATE THREAD PITCH DIAMETER in mm* OPTIONAL FEATURES Cross Drilled Heads: H1 – 1 Hole Thru H2 – 2 Hole2 Thru H3 – 3 Holes Thru Self-Locking: E – LOC-WEL to MIL-DTL-18240 L – LOC-WEL (Commercial) P – Nylon Plug TF – TRU-FLEX K – Nylon Plug to MIL-DTL-18240 BASE NUMBER 76000 – metric socket head cap screw – alloy steel 76001 – metric socket head cap screw – stainless steel 76002 – metric low head cap screw – alloy 76032 – metric low head cap screw – stainless steel 76005 – metric flat head cap screw – alloy steel 76006 – metric flat head cap screw – stainless steel 76003 – metric button head cap screw – alloy 76004 – metric button head cap screw – stainless steel 76007 – metric shoulder screw – alloy Metric Set Screws Alloy Stainless Steel Steel 76010 76016 76011 76017 76012 76018 76013 76019 76014 76020 76015 76021 flat point cup point knurled cup point cone point oval point half dog point * Shoulder screws are designated by shoulder diameter 88 .ENGINEERING PART NUMBERS – METRIC Alloy Steel 76000 Drilled Head (3) H3 4MM Dia.

FINISH Standard Black Finish (Thermal Oxide) Key size in mm BASIC PART NUMBER 76022 – short arm wrench 76023 – long arm wrench DOWEL PINS PART NUMBERS (METRIC) dowel pin 76024 6mm –6 .0275mm DIAMETER in mm BASIC PART NUMBER 76024 – Standard Dowel Pins 76035 – Pull-Out Dowel Pins 89 . B-. LENGTH in mm OVERSIZE A-.METRIC HEX KEYS PART NUMBERS (METRIC) long arm 76023 5mm 5 The Part number consists of (1) a basic part number describing the item. (3) a dash number designating length. (2) a dash number designating size. (2) a dash number and letter designating diameter and oversize dimension.0055.0275 oversize B 8mm –8 The Part number consists of (1) a basic part number describing the item.