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# MODELS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

ARISTOTLE
• Greek philosopher (384-322 BC)

• He promoted an earth centered called geocentric, model of solar system
• He said the sun, stars and the planets revolved around sun • Didn’t explain retrograde motion- some planets appear to reverse direction and move backward

CLAUDIUS PONTIUS
• Greek astronomer (approx. 722 BC)

• He proposed that the earth had two motions
• Planets revolved around earth • Planets rotated in circles called epicycles; this motion caused earth to appear to move backward

COPERNICUS’S MODEL
Proposed a heliocentric, sun centered, model of solar system

Earth and other planets revolve around sun
All planets orbit in same direction, but each at own speed and distance from sun Confirmed in 1600s by Galileo Galilei, Italian scientist, with telescope

KEPLER’S LAWS
• Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, made detailed observations of positions of stars and planets • Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer who was hired by Brahe, developed three laws that explain planetary motion

LAWS OF ELLIPSES
• Kepler’s first law

• States that each planet orbits the sun in a path called an ellipse
• An ellipse is an elongated oval whose shape is determined by two points within the figure; each point if called a focus • Sun is at one focus of a planet • Orbits are ellipses, planets are not always same distance form sun • Perihelion - point in orbit closest to sun • Aphelion - point in orbit farthest from sun

• Average distance between earth and sun is known as one astronomical unit (AU)

LAW OF EQUAL AREAS
• Kepler’s second law

• Describes speed at which planets travel at different points in their orbits
• Orbit of earth almost nearly a perfect circle, sun is off-center

• Earth moves fastest when closest to earth

LAW OF PERIODS
• Kepler’s third law

• Describes the relationship between average distance of a planet from sun and orbit period of planet
• Orbit period is time it takes for planet to make one revolution around the sun • Kepler’s third law : K x r3 = p2 • K is mathematical constant • r is distance of planet from sun • p is period

• Radius of earth’s orbit (distance from sun) is 1AU and its period is one year

NEWTON’S APPLICATION OF KEPLER’S LAWS
• Isaac Newton explained why planets move the way Kepler described

• A moving body will only change its motion if an outside force causes it to do so
• Tendency of body to move in a strait line at constant speed until outside forces act upon it is called inertia (tendency of a body to stay at rest until outside force acts on it) • Planets do not travel in strait line, must have a force acting upon them • Outside force acting on planets is gravity, attractive force that exist between objects in universe

• Gravitational pull of sun keeps planets in orbit