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ARISTOTLE

• Greek philosopher (384-322 BC)

**• He promoted an earth centered called geocentric, model of solar system
**

• He said the sun, stars and the planets revolved around sun • Didn’t explain retrograde motion- some planets appear to reverse direction and move backward

CLAUDIUS PONTIUS

• Greek astronomer (approx. 722 BC)

**• He proposed that the earth had two motions
**

• Planets revolved around earth • Planets rotated in circles called epicycles; this motion caused earth to appear to move backward

COPERNICUS’S MODEL

Proposed a heliocentric, sun centered, model of solar system

**Earth and other planets revolve around sun
**

All planets orbit in same direction, but each at own speed and distance from sun Confirmed in 1600s by Galileo Galilei, Italian scientist, with telescope

KEPLER’S LAWS

• Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, made detailed observations of positions of stars and planets • Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer who was hired by Brahe, developed three laws that explain planetary motion

LAWS OF ELLIPSES

• Kepler’s first law

**• States that each planet orbits the sun in a path called an ellipse
**

• An ellipse is an elongated oval whose shape is determined by two points within the figure; each point if called a focus • Sun is at one focus of a planet • Orbits are ellipses, planets are not always same distance form sun • Perihelion - point in orbit closest to sun • Aphelion - point in orbit farthest from sun

• Average distance between earth and sun is known as one astronomical unit (AU)

**LAW OF EQUAL AREAS
**

• Kepler’s second law

**• Describes speed at which planets travel at different points in their orbits
**

• Orbit of earth almost nearly a perfect circle, sun is off-center

• Earth moves fastest when closest to earth

LAW OF PERIODS

• Kepler’s third law

**• Describes the relationship between average distance of a planet from sun and orbit period of planet
**

• Orbit period is time it takes for planet to make one revolution around the sun • Kepler’s third law : K x r3 = p2 • K is mathematical constant • r is distance of planet from sun • p is period

• Radius of earth’s orbit (distance from sun) is 1AU and its period is one year

**NEWTON’S APPLICATION OF KEPLER’S LAWS
**

• Isaac Newton explained why planets move the way Kepler described

**• A moving body will only change its motion if an outside force causes it to do so
**

• Tendency of body to move in a strait line at constant speed until outside forces act upon it is called inertia (tendency of a body to stay at rest until outside force acts on it) • Planets do not travel in strait line, must have a force acting upon them • Outside force acting on planets is gravity, attractive force that exist between objects in universe

• Gravitational pull of sun keeps planets in orbit

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