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5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.J.

171) Hastings Women's Law Journal Summer, 1994

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*171 AFFE T!"# THE $%LES F&$ THE P$&SE %T!&" &F $APE A"' &THE$ #E"'E$()ASE' *!&LE" E )EF&$E THE !"TE$"AT!&"AL $!+!"AL T$!)%"AL F&$ THE F&$+E$ ,%#&SLA*!AA FE+!"!ST P$&P&SAL A"' $!T!.%E Jenni/er #reen $0on1a o2elon Patri34 otter )et0 Ste20ens 5F"a6

o27rig0t 8 1994 Hastings ollege o/ t0e Law9 Jenni/er #reen, $0on1a o2elon, Patri34 otter, )et0 Ste20ens

P$EFA E W0at /ollows is a 2ro2osal su:mitte1 to t0e ;u1ges o/ t0e !nternational riminal Tri:unal /or t0e /ormer ,ugosla<ia =t0e >!nternational Tri:unal> or >Tri:unal>? 5F"16 /or t0e 2ur2ose o/ in/luen3ing t0e rules a1o2te1 :7 t0e Tri:unal /or t0e 2rose3ution o/ ra2e an1 ot0er se@ 3rimesA Pre2are1 :7 /eminist 0uman rig0ts law7ers an1 s30olars, it is :ase1 u2on 1e3a1es o/ /eminist wor4 (( 2s730ologi3al, re0a:ilitati<e, 2oliti3al, an1 legal (( wit0 women sur<i<ors o/ se@ual torture an1 a:useA T0e 2ro2osal a1<o3ates rules to en0an3e t0e 2ossi:ilit7 t0at w0at ma7 :e t0e /irst international 2rose3ution o/ ra2e will :e e//e3ti<e, tolera:le, an1 ;ust /or sur<i<ors wit0out sa3ri/i3ing t0e legitimate rig0ts o/ t0e a33use1A T0e 2ro2osal is 2re/a3e1 :7 a :rie/ 0istor7 o/ t0e international e//orts :7 women's grou2s an1 t0eir su22orters to ensure t0at t0e !nternational Tri:unal a11resses 3rimes o/ gen1er, t0us e@em2li/7ing t0e wa7s in w0i30 women 3an a//e3t an1 ma4e international lawA !n or1er to assist t0e rea1er, *172 t0e 2re/a3e also s4et30es t0e Tri:unal's stru3tureA T0e 2ro2osal itsel/ t0en a22ears in largel7 its original /orm wit0 :rie/ a11itional 3ommentar7 on international law in3lu1e1 in /ootnotesA 5F"B6 An a/terwor1 notes 0ow Tri:unal ;u1ges 0a<e in3or2orate1 3on3erns a:out se@ 3rimes an1 <i3tims an1 witnesses, as well as t0e areas o/ our 3ontinuing 3on3ernA A22en1i@ A sets /ort0 rules a3tuall7 a1o2te1 w0i30 are 2arti3ularl7 rele<ant to t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimes, an1 A22en1i@ ) 2ro<i1es t0e te@t o/ earlier re3ommen1ations ma1e 1uring t0e /ormulation o/ t0e Tri:unalA !A Feminist A1<o3a37 an1 t0e E<olution o/ t0e Tri:unal T0e esta:lis0ment o/ t0is Tri:unal is 0istori3A !t is t0e /irst international tri:unal 0el1 sin3e t0e "urem:erg an1 To47o Tri:unals 1ealt wit0 sele3te1 atro3ities 3ommitte1 :7 t0e A@is 2owers 1uring Worl1 War !!A !n t0e inter<ening 0al/(3entur7, nongo<ernmental organiCations ="#&s? 0a<e argue1 unsu33ess/ull7 /or t0e trial o/ ot0er war 3riminals (( %nite1 States go<ernment o//i3ials /or war 3rimes in *ietnam an1 t0e 1991 #ul/ War, an1 t0e D0mer $ouge /or geno3i1e in am:o1ia, /or e@am2le (( as well as /or t0e esta:lis0ment o/ an international 3riminal 3ourtA !n t0e a:sen3e o/ an o//i3ial res2onse, in1e2en1ent nongo<ernmental tri:unals su30 as t0e one organiCe1 :7 )ertran1 $ussell to >tr7> t0e %nite1 States /or war 3rimes in *ietnam 0a<e soug0t to ma4e <iolators a33ounta:le at least to t0e 2u:li3A 5F"E6 !t is 2ro:lemati3 t0at t0is new Tri:unal is a1 0o3, :ut its /ormation is nonet0eless o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s
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5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.J. 171)

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signi/i3ant as a ste2 towar1 t0e esta:lis0ment o/ *173 a33ounta:ilit7 /or 0uman rig0ts <iolatorsA T0e e@2ansion o/ t0e Tri:unal's ;uris1i3tion to in3lu1e t0e re3ent 0uman rig0ts atro3ities in $wan1a in3reases its signi/i3an3e in t0is regar1 5F"46A T0e Tri:unal on t0e /ormer ,ugosla<ia is t0e /irst international tri:unal to 2ut 2arties on trial 1uring an ongoing 3on/li3t an1 to tr7 t0e <i3tors as well as t0e <anJuis0e1A !ts <er7 e@isten3e re/le3ts t0e /a3t( /in1ing an1 a1<o3a37 wor4 o/ 0uman rig0ts "#&s an1 t0eir insisten3e, still more a 0o2e t0an a realit7, t0at im2unit7 s0oul1 not :e tra1e1 /or 2ea3e at t0e :argaining ta:leA T0e Tri:unal is also 0istori3 in t0at it is t0e /irst to gi<e 1istin3t attention to gen1er(:ase1 3rimesA 5F"56 T0is is in no small measure t0e result o/ t0e 2ersistent e//orts o/ sur<i<ors an1 t0eir a1<o3ates, as well as t0e growing glo:al 3am2aign /or women's 0uman rig0ts, w0i30 0as ma1e <iolen3e against women a ma;or international issueA 5F"K6 !t re/le3ts t0e wor4 *174 o/ /eminist ;ournalists w0o :ro4e t0roug0 me1ia :arriers wit0 testimonies o/ ra2e, /or3e1 2rostitution, an1 /or3e1 2regnan379 o/ women's su22ort grou2s :ase1 in t0e <arious 3ountries o/ t0e /ormer ,ugosla<ia, in Euro2e an1 outsi1e t0e region9 an1 o/ women's 2ro;e3ts at 0uman rig0ts organiCationsA !n res2onse to 1isregar1 /or ra2e in earl7 re2risal atro3ities in t0e /ormer ,ugosla<ia, a num:er o/ /a3t(/in1ing missions, :ot0 intergo<ernmental an1 nongo<ernmental, were esta:lis0e1 wit0 t0e e@3lusi<e or 2rimar7 2ur2ose o/ in<estigating t0e a:use o/ womenA $e2orts o/ ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual an1 re2ro1u3ti<e a:use were 1o3umente1 :7 a wi1e range o/ ;ournalists, "#&s, an1 go<ernmental an1 intergo<ernmental grou2sA 5F"76 )e3ause attention to ra2e in time o/ war 3an Jui34l7 1issi2ate, 2ersistent e//orts were reJuire1 to 4ee2 t0e issue on t0e international *175 agen1aA T0e 3all /or 0uman rig0ts monitoring was a33om2anie1 :7 a 1eman1 /or 0umanitarian inter<entions attenti<e to t0e se@(s2e3i/i3 nee1s o/ ra2e1 women w0o were re/ugees /rom :ot0 t0eir 0omelan1s an1 t0eir :o1iesA 5F"I6 T0e %nite1 "ations =>%A"A>? un1ertoo4 se<eral initiati<es to a11ress 0uman rig0ts atro3ities, in3lu1ing t0ose against women in t0e /ormer ,ugosla<iaA A S2e3ial $a22orteur =or in<estigator? was a22ointe1 to re2ort to t0e ommission on Human $ig0tsA 5F"96 !n &3to:er 199B, t0e Se3urit7 oun3il aut0oriCe1 t0e Se3retar7(#eneral to esta:lis0 a ommission o/ E@2erts to in<estigate 0uman rig0ts <iolations an1 a1<ise t0e Se3retar7(#eneral on /uture ste2sA )eginning in 'e3em:er 199B, t0e Se3urit7 oun3il an1 #eneral Assem:l7 2asse1 numerous resolutions s2e3i/i3all7 2rotesting t0e wi1es2rea1 ra2eA !n Fe:ruar7 1994, t0e ommission o/ E@2erts un1ertoo4 a s2e3i/i3 in<estigation o/ 3rimes against womenA 5F"1F6 A 2ronoun3e1 international out3r7 /or a3tion to 2unis0 t0e 2er2etrators o/ t0ese :rutal a:uses 2la3e1 tremen1ous 2ressure on t0e %A"A to esta:lis0 an international tri:unalA 5F"116 T0is out3r7 2rom2te1 t0e Se3urit7 oun3il to 2ass two resolutions 2ursuant to 0a2ter *!! o/ t0e %A"A 0arter, w0i30 gi<es t0e oun3il aut0orit7 to ta4e international a3tion to restore an1 maintain international 2ea3e an1 se3urit7A 5F"1B6 Se3urit7 oun3il $esolution IFI set out t0e oun3il's 1e3ision to esta:lis0 a tri:unal an1 as4e1 t0e %A"A Se3retar7( #eneral to su:mit a *176 3om2re0ensi<e re2ort to t0e Se3urit7 oun3il wit0in si@t7 1a7sA 5F"1E6 At t0is 2oint, man7 women's grou2s turne1 to t0e tas4 o/ ensuring t0at ra2e an1 relate1 3rimes against women woul1 :e re3ogniCe1 wit0in t0e ;uris1i3tion o/ t0e /uture Tri:unalA An international 3all /or >#en1er Justi3e> 5F"146 was wi1el7 3ir3ulate1 an1 0el2e1 to /o3us on t0e s2e3i/i3 issues raise1 :7 ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual an1 re2ro1u3ti<e a:uses o/ womenA onsultations were 0el1 wit0 t0e %A"A &//i3e o/ Legal ounsel an1 re2resentati<es o/ <arious go<ernments, in3lu1ing t0e %ASA State 'e2artment, w0i30 were a3ti<e in t0e 1e<elo2ment o/ t0e Tri:unalA T0e 2ressure o/ women's grou2s was 1esigne1 to ensure t0at a:uses against women 3oul1 not :e /orgotten as t0e7 0a1 :een in 2re<ious warsA T0e statute 3reating t0e Tri:unal an1 1e/ining its ;uris1i3tion, a1o2te1 as Se3urit7 oun3il $esolution IB7 =t0e Tri:unal Statute? on +a7 B5, 199E, name1 ra2e as a >3rime against 0umanit7A> 5F"156 $a2e was not, 0owe<er, e@2li3itl7 name1 in t0e Arti3le on gra<e :rea30es o/ 0umanitarian law :ase1 on t0e #ene<a on<entions or name1 as a <iolation o/ t0e >3ustoms an1 laws o/ warA> 5F"1K6 T0us, t0e status o/ ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual an1 re2ro1u3ti<e 3rimes against women will nee1 to :e litigate1 in t0e 3onte@t o/ s2e3i/i3 in1i3tments an1 will reJuire t0e 3ontinuing in2ut o/ women as t0e Tri:unal 1e<elo2s its legal anal7ses an1 :egins to 0ear 3asesA Arti3le BB o/ t0e Tri:unal Statute arti3ulate1 :roa1 2rin3i2les /or 2rote3ting t0e rig0ts o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses, an1 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s
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5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.J. 171)

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Arti3le 15 le/t to /uture Tri:unal mem:ers t0e 1e<elo2ment o/ /urt0er rules, 2ro3e1ures, an1 su:stanti<e lawA A11itional resolutions 1ealt in more 1e2t0 wit0 t0e :u1get, 5F"176 t0e a22ointment o/ a 2rose3utor an1 registrar, an1 3ontinuing 3on3ern a:out ongoing 0uman rig0ts a:usesA 5F"1I6 W0ile women's 0uman rig0ts /a3t(/in1ing an1 0umanitarian grou2s 3ontinue1 to su22ort sur<i<ors in t0e /ormer ,ugosla<ia, attention :egan to /o3us on t0e 3om2osition o/ t0e Tri:unalA 'es2ite 3alls /or gen1er 2arit7, t0e list o/ BE 2eo2le nominate1 :7 t0e mem:er states /or t0e ele<en Tri:unal ;u1ges0i2s 3ontaine1 onl7 two womenA Feminist grou2s imme1iatel7 mo:iliCe1 to insist u2on t0e ele3tion o/ t0e two women nomineesA T0e %ASA 3an1i1ate, #a:rielle Dir4 +3'onal1, an A/ri3an( *177 Ameri3an /ormer /e1eral ;u1ge, was 0an1il7 ele3te1 on t0e /irst :allotA An7 assum2tion t0at two women woul1 :e easil7 ele3te1 was a:an1one1 w0en t0e osta $i3an 3an1i1ate, EliCa:et0 &1io()enito, a +inister o/ Justi3e wit0 a long 0istor7 in %A"A 0uman rig0ts wor4 an1 a 3urrent mem:er o/ t0e %A"A ommittee Against Torture, was ele3te1 late in t0e :alloting an1 onl7 a/ter 0ea<7 2oliti3al negotiations eliminate1 /ar less Juali/ie1 nominees /rom ot0er Latin Ameri3an 3ountriesA A/ter t0e Tri:unal was 3om2ose1, t0e ne@t issue was t0e 1e<elo2ment o/ t0e $ules o/ Pro3e1ure an1 E<i1en3eA At a Fall 199E meeting in )oston w0i30 s2e3i/i3all7 /o3use1 on 3rimes against women, t0e Tas4 For3e /or A33ounta:ilit7 /or War rimes in t0e )al4ans 1e3i1e1 t0at a su:(grou2 s0oul1 1ra/t a 2ro2osal to t0e Tri:unal on t0e su:stanti<e, 2ro3e1ural, an1 e<i1entiar7 rules reJuire1 /or t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimes against womenA W0ile a num:er o/ 0uman rig0ts "#&s, go<ernments, an1 ot0er organiCations, in3lu1ing t0e Ameri3an )ar Asso3iation, 2lanne1 to ma4e su:missions to t0e Tri:unal in3lu1ing t0e issue o/ se@ 3rimes, t0e Tas4 For3e :elie<e1 t0e issues at 0an1 reJuire1 /o3us as well as t0e assuran3e t0at /eminist legal t0eor7 an1 2ra3ti3e woul1 :e /ull7 e@2lore1 an1 in3or2orate1 w0ere rele<antA T0e !nternational Women's Human $ig0ts Law lini3 at t0e it7 %ni<ersit7 o/ "ew ,or4 = %",? S30ool o/ Law an1 sta// an1 stu1ents at t0e Har<ar1 Law S30ool Human $ig0ts Program un1ertoo4 t0e res2onsi:ilit7 o/ organiCing t0is su:missionA We 1rew toget0er a <ariet7 o/ legal e@2erts w0o 3ontri:ute1 in 1i//erent 3riti3al wa7s to s0a2ing t0e 2ro2osalA Toget0er we 0a1 e@2erien3e in /eminist anti(<iolen3e wor4, general 0uman rig0ts a1<o3a37, litigation o/ 0uman rig0ts 3laims, in3lu1ing ra2e, in t0e %ASA 3ourts, 1ire3t /a3t(/in1ing e@2erien3e in t0e /ormer ,ugosla<ia, /amiliarit7 wit0 t0e testimonies o/ ra2e1 women, an1 e@2erien3e as :ot0 2rose3utor an1 1e/ense 3ounsel in ra2e an1 organiCe1 3rime 3ases in /e1eral an1 state 3ourts in t0e %nite1 StatesA We soug0t t0e a1<i3e o/ ot0er law7ers, an1 o/ women e@2erien3e1 in t0e treatment an1 su22ort o/ traumatiCe1 witnesses an1 ra2e sur<i<ors, an1 were generousl7 assiste1 :7 law stu1ents w0o t0rew t0emsel<es into t0is 2ro;e3t on <er7 s0ort noti3eA Dnowing t0at t0e Tri:unal woul1 loo4 to "urem:erg 2ro3e1ures as 2re3e1ent an1 woul1 1raw /rom :ot0 3ommon law an1 3i<il law s7stems, we e@amine1 t0e strengt0s an1 wea4nesses o/ t0ese s7stems /rom t0e 2ers2e3ti<e o/ e//e3ti<e, /air, an1 res2e3t/ul 2rose3ution o/ gen1er 3rimesA &ur 2ro2osal is re2ro1u3e1 0ere largel7 in its original /ormA 5F"196 &ur goal was to 2ro2ose rules s2e3i/i3 to t0e wars in t0e /ormer ,ugosla<iaA *178 At t0e same time, gi<en t0e in3reasing attention in t0e %A"A s7stem to gen1er <iolen3e, we re3ogniCe1 t0at t0e Tri:unal rules woul1 ser<e as a mo1el /or /uture international an1 national 2rose3utions o/ se@ual 3rimes against women an1 2ro<i1e international stan1ar1s /or national law re/orm regar1ing t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimes in 3i<il so3iet7A 5F"BF6 entral to our e//orts was t0e nee1 to stri4e a /air an1 res2e3t/ul :alan3e :etween t0e interests o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses an1 t0ose o/ t0e a33use1A &ur 2ro2osal /o3uses on t0e nee1s an1 rig0ts o/ <i3timsA T0is /o3us meant 1e<elo2ing stan1ar1s an1 2ro3e1ures w0i30 woul1 /airl7 s3reen out se@( stereot72e1 an1 1is3riminator7 2resu22ositions an1 2rote3t <i3tims an1 witnesses against t0e in/lammator7 an1 0arassing e@aminations so t72i3al o/ ra2e 2rose3utionsA We soug0t to re3ogniCe <i3tims' 1ignit7 an1 3ourage, an1 to a11ress t0e 2ro/oun1 207si3al, emotional, an1 so3ial ris4s =in3lu1ing t0e reli<ing o/ trauma an1 t0e se2aration /rom an1 2ossi:l7 re;e3tion :7 /amilies an1 3ommunities, an1 t0e ris4 o/ retaliation against t0emsel<es or lo<e1 ones, 0eig0tene1 :7 an ongoing <i3ious war? t0at 2arti3i2ation woul1 entailA !n :rie/, our goals in 2re2aring t0is 2ro2osal were to (( en3ourage <i3tims o/ a:use to 2arti3i2ate :7 3reating rules an1 2ro3e1ures t0at allow t0em to /eel sa/e, o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s
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5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.J. 171) (( lea1 to t0e 2ro2er 3on<i3tion o/ t0e guilt7, (( mitigate t0e trauma /or <i3tims an1 witnesses, an1 (( 2ro<i1e t0e a33use1 wit0 a /ull an1 /air 1e/enseA

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Alt0oug0 t0is is not a mo1el 3o1e /or t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimes, we 0o2e t0at t0ose wor4ing on t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimes in ot0er international /ora or in 1omesti3 3ourts ma7 /in1 t0e re3ommen1ations 0el2/ul in t0eir wor4A We 0o2e t0ese re3ommen1ations raise issues an1 3ontri:ute to t0e e//orts o/ /eminist a3ti<ists, law7ers, an1 ;u1ges to mo<e t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimes /orwar1 in a wa7 t0at is more sensiti<e to t0e nee1s o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses in or1er to ma4e t0e 2ro3ess more a33essi:le to t0em an1 more insulate1 /rom gen1er(:ase1 stereot72esA !!A +an1ate an1 &rganiCation o/ t0e Tri:unal T0e Tri:unal is em2owere1 to 2rose3ute 2ersons a33use1 o/ /our 3ategories o/ 3rimes- gra<e :rea30es o/ t0e #ene<a on<entions o/ 1949, 5F"B16 <iolations o/ t0e laws or 3ustoms o/ war, 5F"BB6 geno3i1e, 5F"BE6 an1 3rimes *179 against 0umanit7A 5F"B46 &nl7 t0e arti3le on 3rimes against 0umanit7 in3lu1es a s2e3i/i3 re/eren3e to ra2e9 we a1<o3ate1 t0e e@2li3it in3lusion o/ ra2e in t0e ot0er arti3les as 2art o/ a greater /o3us on gen1er( :ase1 3rimesA 5F"B56 T0e Tri:unal Statute 1i<i1es t0e Tri:unal into t0ree se3tions- t0e ;u1i3ial :ran30, t0e 2rose3utor's o//i3e, an1 a registr7A 5F"BK6 T0ere are still man7 o2en Juestions a:out t0e /un3tioning o/ t0e Tri:unalA "one o/ t0e t0ree :ran30es is /ull7 o2erational- sta// are still :eing 0ire1, an1 2ro3esses an1 lines o/ aut0orit7 are as 7et un1etermine1A Howe<er, signi/i3ant 2rogress 0as :een ma1e an1 all t0ree :ran30es 0a<e :een res2onsi<e to t0e inJuiries an1 suggestions o/ nongo<ernmental organiCationsA AA Ju1i3ial )ran30 T0e ele<en Tri:unal ;u1ges are 1i<i1e1 into two trial 30am:ers o/ t0ree ;u1ges ea30 an1 an a22ellate 30am:er o/ /i<e ;u1gesA 5F"B76 T0e ;u1ges were sele3te1 :7 t0e %A"A #eneral Assem:l7 on Se2tem:er 17, 199E, /or /our(7ear terms e@2iring "o<em:er 17, 1997A 5F"BI6 At t0eir /irst meeting, 0el1 in t0e Hague /rom "o<em:er t0roug0 'e3em:er 199E, t0e ;u1ges were sworn in, ele3te1 a 2resi1ent 5F"B96 an1 a <i3e(2resi1ent 5F"EF6 an1 :egan wor4 on t0e rules o/ e<i1en3e an1 2ro3e1ure a22li3a:le to t0e 3ases :e/ore t0e Tri:unalA T0ese rules were a1o2te1 at t0e 3lose o/ t0e se3on1 session, w0i30 was 0el1 in Januar7 an1 Fe:ruar7 1994A 5F"E16 At t0e t0ir1 session, 0el1 in A2ril an1 +a7 1994, t0e ;u1ges re<ise1 t0e rule 2ertaining to e<i1en3e in 3ases o/ se@ual assault =$ule 9K?, esta:lis0e1 rules 2ertaining to t0e 1etention o/ *180 t0e a33use1, an1 esta:lis0e1 gui1elines /or t0e assignment o/ 3ounsel /or in1igent 1etaineesA 5F"EB6 At t0e /ourt0 2lenar7 meeting, 0el1 in Jul7 1994, t0e ;u1ges /o3use1 on 2ra3ti3al arrangements /or trials an1 ot0er a1ministrati<e matters an1 wor4e1 on t0e /irst annual re2ort o/ t0e Tri:unal, issue1 in late August 1994A 5F"EE6 At t0at session t0e ;u1ges set u2 a /i<e(mem:er !nter(Session Wor4ing #rou2 to 1is3uss /urt0er 2ro2osals /or re<isions to t0e rules o/ 2ro3e1ure an1 e<i1en3eA &n "o<em:er I, 1994, t0e Tri:unal 0el1 its /irst 0earing on a motion :7 t0e 2rose3utor as4ing t0at t0e #erman go<ernment 1e/er ;uris1i3tion o<er an allege1 war 3riminal in 3usto17 in #erman7A T0e 2rose3utor's a22roa30 to ra2e raise1 serious JuestionsA 5F"E46 T0e /i/t0 2lenar7 meeting was 0el1 in Januar7 1995A T0is session /o3use1 on in/rastru3ture arrangements to allow t0e Tri:unal to 2ro3ee1A T0e ;u1ges re<ise1 t0e $ules o/ Pro3e1ure an1 E<i1en3e, in3lu1ing $ule 9K, an1 a11e1 one a11itional ruleA T0e7 also a1o2te1 a 1e3laration e@2ressing t0eir >3on3ern a:out t0e urgen37 wit0 w0i30 a22ro2riate in1i3tments s0oul1 :e issue1A> 5F"E56 )A &//i3e o/ t0e Prose3utor A33or1ing to t0e Tri:unal Statute, t0e 2rose3utor's o//i3e is res2onsi:le /or all in<estigations an1 2rose3utions o/ o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s
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t0e /un3tioning o/ t0e <i3tim an1 witness unit. t0e 3a2a3it7 o/ t0e Tri:unal to 2ro<i1e 3om2ensation /or t0e /ull range o/ 0uman rig0ts <iolations. was name1.J. 0e 0a1 :een t0e 0ea1 o/ in<estigator7 3ommissions on et0ni3 <iolen3e an1 2oli3e 3orru2tionA #ra0am )lewitt. t0ree in1i3tments against allege1 2er2etrators 0a1 :een issue1A T0e Tri:unal e@2e3ts trials to :egin in earl7 1995A A $egistr7 T0e $egistr7 is t0e unit res2onsi:le /or t0e a1ministration an1 ser<i3ing o/ t0e Tri:unal. /ormerl7 t0e 0ea1 o/ t0e Australian go<ernment's unit to 2rose3ute "aCi war 3riminals. t0e unit is ina1eJuate at 2resent :e3ause its /un1ing 0as :een le/t almost e@3lusi<el7 to ><oluntar7 3ontri:utions> :7 go<ernments rat0er t0an allo3ations /rom general %A"A /un1sA T0e %A"A 0as agree1 to 2ro<i1e /un1ing /or a s4eletal unit to 3oor1inate all 2rote3tion an1 3ounselling /un3tionsA T0us /ar. gat0ering e<i1en3e. 1o re/le3t sensiti<it7 to t0e 2ro:lems o/ 1is3rimination an1 0arassment in t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ual <iolen3eA T0eir 2ro2er a22li3ation will reJuire 3onstant monitoring an1 inter<entions :7 women. was name1 'e2ut7 Prose3utor an1 too4 u2 *181 0is 2ost in Fe:ruar7 1994A 5F"EI6 Sin3e Fe:ruar7. w0i30 /ollowsA *183 P$&P&SALS $ELAT!"# T& THE P$&SE %T!&" &F $APE A"' &THE$ #E"'E$()ASE' *!&LE" E T& THE J%'#ES &F THE !"TE$"AT!&"AL $!+!"AL T$!)%"AL F&$ THE F&$+E$ . an1 t0e sta// 3ontinues to growA +ost o/ t0e legal sta// are w0ite an1 male.ugosla<ia sin3e 1991A 5F"EK6 !t 0as t0e 2ower to initiate in<estigations9 Juestion sus2e3ts. t0e 2rose3utor's o//i3e 0as :een 2utting toget0er 2rose3ution an1 in<estigation teams.u1ge.u1ges esta:lis0es a mo1el /or t0e 2ro2er treatment o/ se@ual <iolen3e against women un1er 0umanitarian law. a long( time 0uman rig0ts s30olar. an1 t0e Prose3utor's 30ara3teriCations o/ se@ual <iolen3eA T0ese 3on3erns are :rie/l7 1is3usse1 in t0e A/terwor1 to t0e original 2ro2osal. a/ter mu30 1ela7. <i3tims an1 witnesses9 3olle3t e<i1en3e9 3on1u3t on(site in<estigations9 an1 issue in1i3tmentsA 5F"E76 T0e 0ie/ Prose3utor. or 0ea1 o/ t0e unit.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. as well as /or >2u:li3 in/ormation an1 e@ternal relationsA> 5F"E96 T0e /irst $egistrar. we remain 3on3erne1 a:out t0e gen1er an1 ra3ial 3om2osition o/ t0e Prose3utor's sta//. 1rawn /rom more 1e<elo2e1 Anglo(Ameri3an 3ountriesA T0e o//i3e issue1 its /irst in1i3tments in late 1994A As o/ Fe:ruar7 1995. /un1ing 0as :een allo3ate1 /or onl7 t0ree sta// 2ositions an1 L14F. was T0eo <an )o<en. t0e 3reation o/ t0e Tri:unal is a waters0e1 an1 will 0o2e/ull7 2a<e t0e wa7 /or a 2ermanent !nternational riminal Tri:unal to 2rose3ute gra<e <iolations o/ 0umanitarian an1 0uman rig0ts lawA !t is our 0o2e t0at *182 t0e <igilan3e o/ /eminist a1<o3ates will ensure t0at t0e wor4 o/ :ot0 Prose3utor an1 . w0ile not 2er/e3t. *i3e(Presi1ent o/ t0e ourt o/ A22eal o/ t0e HagueA 5F"4F6 T0e $egistr7 in3lu1es a *i3tims an1 Witnesses %nitA Howe<er. in/ormall7 an1 as ami3i 3uriae. an1 /or t0e 2ro2er treatment in 2ra3ti3e o/ t0e women w0o en1ure t0is <iolen3e an1 su//er its traumasA T0e rules a1o2te1 :7 t0e Tri:unal. $i30ar1 #ol1stone. to w0i30 :ot0 t0e Tri:unal an1 t0e Prose3utor 0a<e :een 0ereto/ore res2onsi<eA )e7on1 t0e rules. in our o2inion.%#&SLA*!A 5F"4B6 !A !ntro1u3tion T0is 1o3ument i1enti/ies a num:er o/ issues relating to 2rose3utions :7 t0is Tri:unal 5F"4E6 o/ ra2e an1 ot0er o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . an1 anal7Cing t0e m7ria1 legal an1 2ra3ti3al Juestions t0at 3on/ront t0emA A:out 1FF 2ersons 0a<e alrea17 :een 0ire1. in Jul7 1994A A Sout0 A/ri3an . 171) Page 5 2ersons a33use1 o/ serious <iolations o/ international 0umanitarian law 3ommitte1 in t0e territor7 o/ t0e /ormer . /ormer 1ire3tor o/ t0e %A"A Human $ig0ts entre in #ene<a an1 /ormer re2resentati<e o/ t0e "et0erlan1s to t0e Su:( ommission /or Pre<ention o/ 'is3rimination an1 Prote3tion o/ +inoritiesA At t0e en1 o/ 1994. <an )o<en resigne1A He was re2la3e1 in Januar7 1995 :7 'orot0ee 1e Sam2a7o.FFF /or 3onsultants to 2ro<i1e 3ounselling ser<i3esA 5F"416 M M M !n sum.

5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. as 1is3usse1 :elow. su30 as /or3e1 im2regnation an1 /or3e1 *186 maternit7. re/le3t t0e gen1er(s2e3i/i3 nature o/ 3ertain <iolations. 3ontaine1 in Arti3le 5 o/ t0e Tri:unal StatuteA Howe<er. !n0uman or 'egra1ing Treatment or Punis0mentA 5F"546 T0e /ormer .u1ges o/ t0e !nternational Tri:unal in 1e<elo2ing rules an1 me30anisms w0i30 ma4e e@2li3it t0e a22li3ation o/ esta:lis0e1 international law 2rin3i2les to <iolations o/ women's 0uman rig0ts. in Arti3les B(5. to <i3tims o/ t0ese 3rimesA T0ese suggestions are 2resente1 to assist t0e .ugosla<ia was a 2art7 to :ot0 o/ t0ese 3on<entions.> gi<es t0e Tri:unal 2ower >to 2rose3ute 2ersons res2onsi:le /or serious <iolations o/ international 0umanitarian law 3ommitte1 in t0e territor7 o/ t0e /ormer . are 2ro0i:ite1 a3tsA 5F"5E6 !nternational 0uman rig0ts 2rin3i2les t0at are wi1el7 re3ogniCe1 as 2art o/ 3ustomar7 international law are a22li3a:le in 30ara3teriCing t0e nature o/ ra2e an1 ot0er gen1er(s2e3i/i3 <iolationsA $a2e an1 ot0er gen1er(s2e3i/i3 3rimes <iolate t0e 2ro0i:ition against >torture an1 ot0er 3ruel. or 1egra1ing treatment or 2unis0ment. an1 Arti3le 5 = rimes against Humanit7?A 5F"5F6 !t is 3riti3al t0at t0is im2li3it aut0orit7 :e ma1e e@2li3it. in0uman. t0e Tri:unal must guar1 against a1o2ting stan1ar1s w0i30 are t0e 2ro1u3t o/ se@ 1is3rimination an1 se@(stereot72ingA !nternational guarantees against se@ 1is3rimination 2re3lu1e 3ountries.uris1i3tion. trial.J.uris1i3tion o/ t0e Tri:unal /or gen1er(s2e3i/i3 <iolations un1er international law9 =B? 1e<elo2ing 3ertain rules o/ 2ro3e1ure an1 e<i1en3e /or t0e Tri:unal9 =E? a1o2ting me30anisms /or 2rote3tion o/ witnesses an1 <i3tims w0o 2ro<i1e testimon7 to t0e Tri:unal. in 1e<ising t0e su:stanti<e rules /or t0e 2rose3ution o/ t0ese o//enses. an1 t0e un1erstan1ing :7 all t0e . t0ere/ore. 171) Page K gen1er(:ase1 <iolen3e 2er2etrate1 in t0e /ormer . Arti3le 4 =#eno3i1e?. t0at as it 1ra/ts t0e rules a:out t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimes. an1 2rote3tion o/ witnesses. an1 2ro2erl7 im2lement t0e im2erati<es o/ 2re3lu1ing gen1er *184 :ias to 2rote3t :ot0 t0e 1ignit7 an1 se3urit7 o/ witnesses an1 t0e rig0ts o/ t0e a33use1A S2e3i/i3all7. w0ile maintaining /air 1ue 2ro3ess stan1ar1s /or t0e a33use19 an1 =4? 2ro<i1ing a22ro2riate re1ress.uris1i3tionA 5F"496 $a2e is e@2li3itl7 i1enti/ie1 as a 3rime onl7 in t0e 1e/inition o/ rimes Against Humanit7. t0e Tri:unal see4 t0e a1<i3e o/ 2ersons 0a<ing e@2ertise in t0e /air an1 e//e3ti<e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimesA Se@(stereot72e1 mis3on3e2tions a:out 3rimes o/ se@ual <iolen3e are 3ommon in t0e a:sen3e o/ 2arti3ular e@2erien3e an1 e@2ertise in t0is area o/ 3riminal lawA T0e rules esta:lis0e1 /or t0e in<estigation. /rom em2lo7ing se@( stereot72e1 or se@(1is3riminator7 rulesA 5F"446 +oreo<er. will 1etermine w0et0er war 3rimes o/ se@ual <iolen3e will :e /airl7 re1resse1 wit0 1ue regar1 /or :ot0 t0e rig0ts o/ t0e a33use1 an1 t0e 2rote3tion o/ t0e <i3timsA T0ese rules will t0us :e a <er7 signi/i3ant /a3tor in w0et0er women ultimatel7 3ome /orwar1 as 3om2lainantsA !!A S3o2e o/ Juris1i3tion AA !ntro1u3tion Arti3le 1 o/ t0e Tri:unal Statute.Arti3le B =#ra<e )rea30es?. t0roug0 a1o2tion o/ rules o/ 2ro3e1ure w0i30 in3or2orate an1 arti3ulate 3ustomar7 an1 3on<entional international law 2rin3i2les re3ogniCing t0at ra2e an1 ot0er gen1er(:ase1 <iolen3e 3onstitute international law <iolationsA 5F"516 ustomar7 an1 3on<entional international law 5F"5B6 re3ogniCes t0at ra2e an1 ot0er gen1er(s2e3i/i3 3rimes.> set /ort0 in :ot0 t0e !nternational o<enant on i<il an1 Politi3al $ig0ts an1 t0e on<ention Against Torture an1 &t0er ruel.ugosla<ia sin3e 1991 in a33or1an3e wit0 t0e 2ro<isions o/ t0e 2resent StatuteA> 5F"4I6 T0e Statute t0en 1elineates.e3t(matter .u1ges o/ t0e nee1 *185 /or t0ose rules. Arti3le E =*iolations o/ t0e Laws an1 ustoms o/ War?. an1 t0e su33essor states 0a<e o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . an1 t0roug0 t0em t0e !nternational Tri:unal. t0e 3ategories o/ <iolations o<er w0i30 t0e Tri:unal 0as . t0us un1ers3oring t0e o:ligation o/ t0e Tri:unal to 3are/ull7 /as0ion t0ese rules on t0e 2rose3ution o/ gen1er(:ase1 3rimesA 5F"456 T0is 2ro2osal :uil1s on t0e su:stanti<e anal7ses an1 suggestions alrea17 2ut /ort0 :7 ot0er nongo<ernmental organiCations an1 go<ernmental entitiesA 5F"4K6 !t onl7 i1enti/ies 2ro:lems an1 suggests solutions9 it 1oes not 2ur2ort to :e a t0oroug0 anal7sis o/ t0e 2ro:lem or a 3om2re0ensi<e sur<e7 o/ newer a22roa30es to t0e issueA 5F"476 We urge. se<eral arti3les 3ontain 2ro<isions w0i30 im2li3itl7 aut0oriCe 2rose3uting ra2e an1 ot0er gen1er(s2e3i/i3 <iolations as 3rimes un1er t0e Tri:unal's . in3lu1ing 3om2ensation. title1 > om2eten3e o/ t0e !nternational Tri:unal. t0e 199E Worl1 on/eren3e o/ Human $ig0ts in *ienna re3ogniCe1 t0e 2er<asi<eness an1 gra<it7 o/ gen1er(:ase1 <iolen3e an1 t0e 1ut7 o/ all international an1 national institutions to eliminate it.ugosla<iaA !t suggests a22roa30es /or =1? arti3ulating an1 1e/ining t0e su:.

ra2e is *188 e@2li3itl7 2ro0i:ite1 in t0e #ene<a on<ention o/ 1949 an1 its two su:seJuent Proto3olsA 5F"KE6 EA $a2e. /or3e1 im2regnation. an1 /or3e1 maternit7 s0oul1 :e e@2li3itl7 re3ogniCe1 as >gra<e :rea30es> un1er Arti3le BA Page 7 $a2e is en3om2asse1 in 2ro<isions o/ t0e #ene<a on<entions 1esignating as a >gra<e :rea30> 5F"5K6 o/ t0e on<entions. s0oul1 :e e@2li3itl7 a34nowle1ge1 as geno3i1al a3ts un1er Arti3le 4A To t0e e@tent t0at ra2e. ea30 o/ t0ese 3rimes s0oul1 also :e re3ogniCe1 as 2erse3ution :ase1 on gen1erA 5F"K76 W0ere. /or3e1 im2regnation. t0e Se3urit7 oun3il 0as re2eate1l7 re/erre1 to t0ese 2ro<isions as a22li3a:le to t0e /ormer . or et0ni3 grou2 >as su30. t0e7 also 3onstitute >ra3ial or religious> 2erse3utionA 5F"KI6 !!!A Suggeste1 Pro3e1ural $ules AA Su:stanti<e 'e/initions &/ #en1er(S2e3i/i3 &//enses o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . as t0e7 =li4e ra2e? are in0umane a3ts on t0e same le<el o/ se<erit7 as mur1er an1 tortureA 5F"KK6 Stan1ing alone.ugosla<iaA 5F"KF6 For3e1 2regnan37 an1 /or3e1 maternit7 resulting /rom ra2e s0oul1 :e 1esignate1 as a11itional <iolations o/ t0ese gra<e :rea30 2ro<isionsA 5F"K16 BA $a2e. internal. as in t0e /ormer . religious. an1 /or3e1 maternit7 s0oul1 :e re3ogniCe1 as <iolations o/ t0e laws an1 3ustoms o/ war un1er Arti3le EA T0e laws an1 3ustoms o/ war a1o2te1 :7 Arti3le E o/ t0e Tri:unal Statute. inter alia.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.ur7 to :o17 or 0ealt0> 5F"5I6 w0en 3ommitte1 against >2rote3te1 2ersonsA> 5F"596 Signi/i3antl7. 3ertain a3ts (( su30 as torture an1 will/ull7 3ausing great su//ering or serious in.> t0ese a3ts also 3onstitute geno3i1e as 1e/ine1 un1er t0e on<ention on t0e Pre<ention an1 Punis0ment o/ t0e rime o/ #eno3i1e an1 un1er 3ustomar7 international lawA 5F"K46 *189 4A T0e 3rimes o/ /or3e1 2rostitution an1 /or3e1 im2regnation s0oul1 :e s2e3i/i3all7 enumerate1 as 3rimes against 0umanit7 3o<ere1 :7 Arti3le 5 o/ t0e Tri:unal StatuteA As 1e/ine1 un1er 3ustomar7 international law. ma4e it 3lear t0at. 171) re3ogniCe1 t0at t0e7 are :oun1 :7 t0ese treaties' 2ro<isionsA 5F"556 )A Pro2osals an1 ommentar7 1A $a2e. an1Gor /or3e1 maternit7 0a<e :een 3ommitte1 as 2art o/ a 3am2aign >to 1estro7. >3rimes against 0umanit7> in3lu1e ra2e 3ommitte1 on a wi1es2rea1 or s7stemati3 s3aleA 5F"K56 W0ere 3ommitte1 on a wi1es2rea1 or s7stemati3 s3ale. in w0ole or in 2art. w0en 3ommitte1 as 2art o/ a 3am2aign o/ geno3i1e. /or3e1 im2regnation.J. /or3e1 im2regnation an1 /or3e1 maternit7 s0oul1 also :e re3ogniCe1 as 3rimes against 0umanit7. ra2e an1 ot0er se@ 3rimes are ta3ti3s o/ geno3i1e. or some 07:ri1 t0ereo/?. irres2e3ti<e o/ t0e nature o/ t0e 3on/li3t =international.> a national.ugosla<ia. /or3e1 im2regnation an1 /or3e1 maternit7. >torture or in0uman treatment> 5F"576 an1 >will/ull7 3ausing great su//ering or serious *187 in.ur7 to :o17 or 0ealt0 (( are stri3tl7 2ro0i:ite1A $a2e 0as 3onsistentl7 :een treate1 as a <iolation o/ t0ese laws an1 3ustoms o/ warA 5F"KB6 Furt0ermore.

su30 as w0ere t0e international instrument s2e3i/i3all7 reJuires it or w0ere a state 2art7 to t0e instrument s2e3i/i3all7 reJuests itA 5F"7E6 'e<elo2ing international law in t0is area is im2ortant to 2ro<i1ing sta:ilit7. on newer 1e<elo2ments in national laws relating to t0e 2rose3ution o/ se@ual <iolen3e as well as on t0e writings o/ . a22li3a:le law in3lu1es international 3on<entions. t0e Tri:unal /ollows Arti3le EI=l? o/ t0e Statute o/ t0e !nternational ourt o/ Justi3e =! J?A A33or1ing to t0e ! J statute. w0ere a22ro2riate. t0ere is no issue o/ retros2e3ti<e res2onsi:ilit7A !n 1is3erning an1 a22l7ing international law stan1ar1s /or t0e 2rose3ution o/ t0ese re3ogniCe1 o//enses. 2ermanen3e.ugosla<ia. :e3ause 3riminal res2onsi:ilit7 is at issue. as well as t0e laws o/ t0e /ormer . none o/ w0i30 ser<es a legitimate 2rose3utorial 2ur2ose or 2rote3ts legitimate rig0ts o/ t0e a33use1A *192 T0e 3rimes w0i30 3onstitute or are 3onstituti<e o/ se@ual torture 5F"IF6 =an1 t0eir su:stanti<e 1e/initions? in3lu1e1A $a2eaA $a2e is an7 /orm o/ /or3e1 se@ual inter3ourseA T0e reJuisite 3oer3ion 3an :e s0own t0roug0 e<i1en3e o/ /or3e. >t0e general 2rin3i2les o/ law re3ogniCe1 :7 3i<iliCe1 nations9 A A A . guar1ing against t0e intro1u3tion o/ 2re.urists o<er t0e 2ast B5 7ears w0o 0a<e elu3i1ate1 2ro:lems an1 2otential solutionsA T0is a22roa30 is entirel7 3onsistent wit0 t0e 2rin3i2le against retros2e3ti<e lia:ilit7A &ur re3ommen1ations are limite1 to assuring /air 2rose3ution o/ t0ese atro3ious an1 re3ogniCe1 3rimes.u1i3ating ra2e an1 ot0er se@ 3rimes.e3ts into t0e <agina or anus o/ t0e <i3timA 5F"IB6 3A $a2e o33urs w0en t0ere is intro1u3tion =1es3ri:e1 a:o<e? to an7 e@tentA Proo/ o/ ra2e 1oes not reJuire 2enetration or t0e emission o/ semenA 5F"IE6 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . 1e3eit. as well as 2romise o/ :etter treatmentA 5F"I16 :A $a2e en3om2asses a range o/ non(3onsensual se@ual a3ts or 3on1u3t in3lu1ing t0e intro1u3tion o/ t0e 2enis into t0e mout0.ugosla< 3riminal 3o1es not *191 onl7 2unis0e1 t0e se@ 3rimes at issue 0ere as 1omesti3 3rimes9 5F"7I6 t0e7 also i1enti/ie1 t0em se2aratel7 an1 2unis0e1 t0ese se@ 3rimes more 0ars0l7 as war 3rimesA 5F"796 A33or1ingl7.u1i3ial. 171) Page I 'e/ining ra2e an1 ot0er gen1er(s2e3i/i3 3rimes is a 3riti3al tas4 /or t0e Tri:unalA )e3ause ra2e an1 ot0er gen1er( s2e3i/i3 3rimes 0a<e not :een se2aratel7 30arge1 an1 trie1 :e/ore ot0er international tri:unals.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. in1e2en1en3e. <agina or anus o/ t0e <i3tim or t0e intro1u3tion o/ ot0er 2arts o/ t0e :o17 or o/ wea2ons or o:. 2ro<i1e 3lear noti3e t0at t0e a3ts 1e/ine1 a:o<e 3onstitute gra<e wrong1oingA !nternational law <iolations were e@2li3itl7 en3om2asse1 in . an1. 3are must :e ta4en not to 2er2etuate t0e tra1itional se@(stereot72e an1 se@(1is3riminator7 treatment o/ 3rimes o/ se@ual <iolen3eA Attention s0oul1 /o3us. international 3ustom. international law. e//e3ti<eness. t0e 1e:ate among t0e 1ra/ters ma4es 3lear t0at national law was inten1e1 to a22l7 onl7 in <er7 limite1 3ir3umstan3es. t0e Tri:unal must inter2ret an1 1e<elo2 international law 3onsistent wit0 t0e 2rin3i2le nullem 3rimen sine legeA 5F"7F6 #ui1an3e /or t0is 1e/initional tas4 3an :e /oun1 in t0e $e<ise1 'ra/t Statute /or an !nternational riminal ourt an1 t0e 195E $e2ort o/ t0e 1ra/ting 3ommitteeA 5F"716 T0e $e2ort o/ t0e ommittee ma4es t0e e@2osition *190 o/ international law t0e 2rimar7 3on3ernA For e@am2le. national lawA> 5F"7B6 Furt0er. or t0reats o/ an7 o/ t0e a:o<e. an1. international law 1oes not 2ro<i1e s2e3i/i3 3o1i/i3ations /rom w0i30 to 1rawA T0e $e2ort o/ t0e Se3retar7(#eneral 2ro<i1es t0at t0e Tri:unal s0all a22l7 international lawA 5F"K96 T0us. 1e2ri<ation. t0e Tri:unal must 1e<elo2 3riteria 3onsistent wit0 t0e 2rin3i2le against retros2e3ti<e res2onsi:ilit7A 5F"7K6 !n t0is res2e3t. in3lu1ing international 3riminal law. in 1e<elo2ing rules an1 2ro3e1ures /or a1. Arti3le B o/ t0e $e<ise1 'ra/t 2ro<i1es.u1i3ial 1e3isions an1 t0e tea30ings o/ t0e most 0ig0l7 Juali/ie1 2u:li3istsA> 5F"756 +oreo<er.J. in some 3ases. t0ere/ore. as note1 in t0e Se3retar7( #eneral's $e2ort an1 Part ! o/ t0is arti3le. an1 uni<ersalit7A 5F"746 !n a22l7ing international law. an1 2rote3ting t0e 3om2lainants an1 witnesses /rom 0arassment an1 0umiliation.>T0e ourt s0all a22l7 international law. in/lammator7 an1 irrele<ant e<i1en3e. t0e 1omesti3 1e/inition o/ o//enses in3lu1e1 a wi1er range o/ elements t0an 1i1 international lawA 5F"776 T0e .ugosla<ia's 3onstitutional an1 3riminal laws.

re3ommen1 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . /or3e1 2rostitution an1 /or3e1 2regnan37 are not onl7 war 3rimes an1 3rimes against 0umanit7 in an1 o/ t0emsel<es9 in t0e 3onte@t o/ t0e war in t0e /ormer .e3ting a 2erson to re2eate1 a3ts o/ ra2e9 Page 9 *193 :A For3ing a 2erson to 3om2ort 0ersel/ or 0imsel/ in su30 a wa7 as to in<ite or soli3it an1 engage in se@ in an a22arentl7 <oluntar7 wa79 or 3A 'etaining a 2erson /or t0e 2ur2ose o/ or un1er t0reat o/ su:. s2e3i/i3all7 t0reatening to im2regnate women wit0 30il1ren o/ anot0er et0ni3it7 an1 using ra2e to 1ri<e women /rom t0eir /amilies an1 3ommunities are measures >inten1e1 to 2re<ent :irt0s wit0in t0e grou2> as well as a means o/ >/or3i:l7 trans/erring 30il1ren to anot0er grou2A> 5F"I96 For t0ese reasons.e3ting 0er or 0im to re2eate1 a3ts o/ ra2e or to 3om2orting 0ersel/ or 0imsel/ so as to in<ite. attem2ts.ugosla<ia un1ers3ores t0e im2ortan3e o/ t0ese 2rose3utionsA We. in3lu1ing /or3e1 inseminationA 5F"I56 :A As long as t0e intent to im2regnate 3an :e esta:lis0e1.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. t0e 3rime o/ attem2te1 /or3e1 im2regnation ma7 :e s0own e<en i/ 2regnan37 1oes not resultA 4A A:1u3tion or 'etention /or Se@ual Pur2oses A:1u3tion or 1etention a33om2anie1 :7 se@ual a:use or t0e t0reat t0ereo/ is an e@a3er:ate1 /orm o/ unne3essar7 1etentionA 5F"IK6 5A #eno3i1e As 2re<iousl7 1is3usse1. !n3itement. soli3it. an1 3om2li3it7 s0oul1 also :e 2rose3ute1 /or gen1er(:ase1 3rimesA Su30 2rose3utions are 3onsistent wit0 t0e %A"A Se3urit7 oun3il $esolution esta:lis0ing t0is Tri:unal.J. an1 0istori3 2re3e1entA 5F"9F6 T0e 4nown e<i1en3e a:out t0e nature an1 e@tent o/ t0e 3rimes in t0e /ormer .ugosla<ia. international law. t0ere/ore. t0e7 are also one o/ t0e *194 most 2otent means o/ a33om2lis0ing geno3i1eA 5F"I76 T0ese 3rimes >3aus5e6 serious :o1il7 an1 mental 0arm to t0e mem:ers o/ t0e grou2> an1 >1eli:eratel7 in/li3t A A A on t0e grou2 3on1itions o/ li/e 3al3ulate1 to :ring a:out its 207si3al 1estru3tion in w0ole or in 2artA> 5F"II6 T0e7 1o t0is to women an1 t0roug0 women wit0 t0e intent to 1estro7 t0e grou2A +oreo<er. ra2e. an1 om2li3it7 S0oul1 )e 0arge1 As #en1er(S2e3i/i3 rimes 1A Pro2osal T0ose w0o 0a<e 3ommitte1 a3ts o/ 3ons2ira37. 171) BA For3e1 Prostitution For3e1 Prostitution ma7 3onsist o/ an7 o/ t0e /ollowingaA Su:. Attem2ts. in3itement. it is im2ortant t0at se@ 3rimes :e re3ogniCe1 as 2otential a3ts o/ geno3i1eA )A ons2ira37. or engage in se@ in an a22arentl7 <oluntar7 wa7A EA For3e1 !m2regnation an1 Attem2te1 For3e1 !m2regnation For3e1 im2regnation ma7 :e s0own :7 t0e /ollowing.5F"I46 aA An im2regnation t0at results /rom an assault or series o/ assaults on a woman 2er2etrate1 wit0 t0e intent t0at s0e :e3ome 2regnantA T0e assault ma7 ta4e t0e /orm o/ ra2e.

/or3e1 2regnan37. :ut also against all 2ersons w0o 3ons2ire1 to 3arr7 out su30 3rimes. an1 /or3e1 2rostitution 0a<e :een an1 3ontinue to :e use1 as a militar7 an1 2oliti3al tool in t0e /ormer . attem2te1. 2u:li3 o//i3ials or 2ri<ate in1i<i1ualsA> 5F"976 :A Su2erior o//i3ers :ear a 0ig0 le<el o/ res2onsi:ilit7 /or t0e a3tions o/ t0eir /or3esA &ne ana1ian 3ase 3on3lu1e1 t0at t0e /a3t t0at a war 3rime 0a1 :een 3ommitte1 :7 a su:or1inate esta:lis0e1 2rima /a3ie e<i1en3e o/ t0e 3omman1er's res2onsi:ilit7A 5F"9I6 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . 171) Page 1F a1o2tion o/ a rule 3om2ara:le to t0at em:o1ie1 in t0e 0arter /or t0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal /or t0e Far East =t0e To47o 0arter?.usti3e an1 woul1 /ail to ser<e t0e legitimate goal o/ 1eterring /uture war 3rimes. to set /ort0 t0e :asis o/ its 3om2eten3eA 5F"946 )e3ause t0e 3rimes o/ 3ons2ira37. as well as t0e militar7 3o1es o/ man7 nationsA 1A Pro2osals aA i<ilian lea1ers as well as militar7 3omman1ers must :e 0el1 res2onsi:le /or t0e a3tions o/ t0eir su:or1inatesA T0e #eno3i1e on<ention states t0at t0ose res2onsi:le s0all :e 2unis0e1 >w0et0er t0e7 are 3onstitutionall7 res2onsi:le rulers. in3itement. w0i30 e@ten1e1 t0e . an1 all t0ose w0o in3ite1. su30 30arges /all wit0in t0e Tri:unal's . 1emonstrate1 3om2li3it7 or 0a1 3omman1 res2onsi:ilit7 in t0ose 3rimesA Failure to so 30arge woul1 result in 3ul2a:le 2arties e<a1ing . in3lu1ing >torture5. instigators an1 a33om2li3es 2arti3i2ating in t0e /ormulation or e@e3ution o/ a 3ommon 2lan or 3ons2ira37 to 3ommit an7 o/ t0e /oregoing 3rimes are res2onsi:le /or all a3ts 2er/orme1 :7 an7 2erson in e@e3ution o/ su30 2lanA 5F"916 BA ommentar7 T0e enormit7 an1 nature o/ t0e e<i1en3e s0owing t0at mass or s7stemati3 ra2e. as man1ate1 :7 t0e Tri:unal StatuteA !n esta:lis0ing t0is Tri:unal. t0e %A"A re3ogniCe1 t0e 2ro2riet7 o/ 30arges o/ 3ons2ira37. an1 3om2li3it7 as to all t72es o/ war 3rimes are re3ogniCe1 in :ot0 3ustomar7 an1 3on<entional international law. t0e Tri:unal 0as t0e 2ower to 2unis0 2ersons res2onsi:le /or 3rimes against 0umanit7.ugosla<ia *195 1eman1s t0at t0ese 3rimes :e 2rose3ute1 not onl7 against t0e in1i<i1ual 2er2etrators o/ t0e atta34s.J. attem2ts.> an1 international 3ustomar7 an1 3on<entional law. an1 3om2li3it7 wit0 regar1 to war 3rimesA Arti3le 4 o/ t0e Tri:unal Statute esta:lis0es t0at t0e Tri:unal >s0all 0a<e t0e 2ower to 2rose3ute 2ersons 3ommitting geno3i1e.> in3lu1ing t0ose 3ommitting >3ons2ira37 to 3ommit geno3i1e9 1ire3t an1 2u:li3 in3itement to 3ommit geno3i1e9 attem2t to 3ommit geno3i1e9 3om2li3it7 in geno3i1eA> 5F"9B6 Furt0er. organiCers.uris1i3tionA 5F"956 A omman1 $es2onsi:ilit7 For #en1er(S2e3i/i3 *iolations T0e Tri:unal Statute states t0at a su2erior will :e 0el1 res2onsi:le /or t0e a3ts o/ 0is su:or1inate.6 ra2e. i/ 0e 4new or 0a1 reason to 4now t0at t0e su:or1inate was a:out to 3ommit su30 a3ts or 0a1 1one so an1 t0e su2erior /aile1 to ta4e t0e ne3essar7 an1 reasona:le measures to 2re<ent su30 a3ts or to 2unis0 t0e 2er2etrators t0ereo/A 5F"9K6 *196 T0is stan1ar1 is a1a2te1 /rom t0e one a22lie1 in t0e "urem:erg an1 To47o 2ro3ee1ings an1 0as :een in3or2orate1 into t0e #ene<a on<entions an1 t0eir su:seJuent Proto3ols. attem2t.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. in3itement.> an1 >ot0er in0umane a3tsA> 5F"9E6 T0e Tri:unal Statute also e@2li3itl7 relies u2on >international 0umanitarian law.uris1i3tion o/ t0e +ilitar7 Tri:unal toLea1ers.

su2erior o//i3ers 0a<e an o:ligation to in<estigate re2orts o/ wi1es2rea1 ra2es an1 2unis0 t0ose res2onsi:leA Failure to 1o so 3onstitutes a war 3rimeA /A omman1 res2onsi:ilit7 reJuires ta4ing all ne3essar7 ste2s to 2re<ent war 3rimes9 em2t7 gestures. su30 as issuing or1ers w0i30 t0e su:or1inates 4now are not serious. 171) Page 11 3A A 3omman1er 0as a 1ut7 to o:tain in/ormation a:out w0at is 0a22ening un1er 0is or 0er 3omman1A He or s0e >will not or1inaril7 :e 2ermitte1 to 1en7 4nowle1ge o/ re2orts re3ei<e1 at 0is 0ea1Juarters A A A 5or6 0a22enings wit0in t0e area o/ 0is 3omman1 w0ile 0e is 2resent t0ereinA> 5F"996 !n sum.u1ges o/ t0e Tri:unal :roa1 aut0orit7 to 1etermine t0e e<i1entiar7 stan1ar1s t0at will go<ern t0e 2rose3utorial 2ro3essA 5F"1F96 #i<en t0e e@traor1inar7 3ir3umstan3es t0at wartime im2oses on t0e gat0ering o/ e<i1en3e.J. 3onsistent wit0 t0e 1ue 2ro3ess rig0ts o/ 1e/en1ants. >506e 3annot ignore o:<ious /a3ts an1 2lea1 ignoran3e as a 1e/enseA> 5F"1FF6 1A omman1ing o//i3ers are res2onsi:le /or e1u3ating t0eir /or3es a:out t0e laws o/ warA 5F"1F16 T0e laws o/ t0e /ormer . 5F"1FI6 i/ su2erior o//i3ers allow 2aramilitar7 an1 3i<ilian grou2s to 3ommit ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual a:use. reJuire a 3omman1ing o//i3er to in/orm 0is or 0er su:or1inates t0at ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual a:use 3onstitute war 3rimes an1 t0at t0e7 are su:.u1gment o/ t0e To47o tri:unal. /rom t0e 2re(trial 20ase t0roug0 trials.ugosla<ia. an1 senten3ingA 1A Wit0 t0e e@3e2tions an1 3on1itions s2e3i/ie1 0ereina/ter.e3t to 2unis0ment s0oul1 t0e7 3ommit t0ese o//ensesA *197 eA Su2erior o//i3ers are 3riminall7 lia:le /or t0e /ailure to 2unis0 war 3rimes. it ris4s im2li3itl7 en/or3ing t0e 1angerous mis2er3e2tion t0at ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual a:use o/ women are a normal an1 un3ontrolla:le 2ro1u3t o/ war/areA T0is erroneous 2er3e2tion /lies in t0e /a3e o/ :ot0 3on<entional an1 3ustomar7 international law. t0at . as well as t0e /ailure to 2re<ent t0emA 5F"1FB6 At a minimum. an1 t0e 2arti3ular nee1s o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses o/ se@ 3rimes. w0i30 3on1emn su30 a:uses an1 0ol1 3omman1ing o//i3ers res2onsi:le /or 2re<enting an1 2unis0ing su30 :e0a<ior :7 t0eir /or3esA For a 1is3ussion o/ some o/ t0e e<i1entiar7 im2li3ations o/ t0is stan1ar1. as in t0e S0a:ra an1 S0atilla massa3res. a22eals. w0en a 3omman1er 4nows o/ t0e 3riminal a3tion o/ 0is /or3es. it is res2onsi:le /or t0e a3tions o/ all /or3es wit0in t0at area. see se3tion !*=A? an1 = ?. are not a1eJuateA As state1 in t0e .u1ges e@er3ise t0eir 1is3retion in /a<or o/ t0e 2rote3tion o/ <i3tims or ot0er witnesses at all stages o/ t0e 2ro3ee1ingsA All o/ t0e re3ommen1ations s0oul1 a22l7 t0roug0out t0e 2ro3ee1ings. t0e Tri:unal s0oul1 a1mit all rele<ant e<i1en3e an1 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 .5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. in/raA !*A Suggeste1 E<i1entiar7 $ules AA A1missi:ilit7 o/ E<i1en3e Arti3le 15 o/ t0e Tri:unal Statute grants . 3ontrol 3an :e *198 s0own t0roug0 e<i1en3e ot0er t0an t0at /or 30ain o/ 3omman1A 5F"1F76 Finall7. as well as 0umanitarian law treaties an1 3ustomar7 international law. t0e su2erior o//i3ers ma7 :e 0el1 res2onsi:le /or t0ose 3rimesA BA ommentar7 E@2li3itl7 a34nowle1ging t0at t0ese 2rin3i2les o/ 3omman1 res2onsi:ilit7 are a22li3a:le to ra2e an1 ot0er gen1er( s2e3i/i3 3rimes is 3riti3alA !/ t0e Tri:unal /ails to 1o so. it is ne3essar7 an1 a22ro2riate to a1o2t a /le@i:le stan1ar1A 5F"11F6 *199 We re3ommen1. 0is 1ut7 >is not 1is30arge1 :7 t0e mere issue o/ routine or1ersA> 5F"1FE6 gA !t is not su//i3ient to re2ort a:uses an1 sim2l7 rel7 on assuran3es :7 ot0ers t0at t0e 3riminal a3ti<it7 0as sto22e1A 5F"1F46 0A omman1 res2onsi:ilit7 3o<ers all /or3es un1er t0e su2eriors' 3omman1 an1 >un1er t0eir 3ontrolA> 5F"1F56 W0en a militar7 unit o33u2ies a territor7. e<en i/ t0e7 are not 1ire3tl7 un1er t0e o//i3er's 3omman1A 5F"1FK6 Furt0er.

in3lu1ing :ot0 207si3al 1anger =eAgA. e@ 2arte a//i1a<its s0oul1 :e allowe1 w0ere<er t0ere are su//i3ient in1i3ia o/ relia:ilit7 su30 as. 171) t0en assess its weig0tA Page 1B T0e /a3t t0at all 3ases will :e 0ear1 :7 . :ut not limite1 to. suggesti<e an1 0umiliating 3ross( e@amination o/ t0e 3om2lainant. a /ear o/ retaliation /or testi/7ing? an1 2s730ologi3al 0armA T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 also e@3lu1e e<i1en3e w0i30 is so tainte1 :7 se@ual stereot72es t0at it is o/ no e<i1entiar7 <alue. w0i30 0as :een in3reasingl7 re3ogniCe1 as e@3ee1ing t0e 1e/en1ant's legitimate rig0tsA 5F"11B6 Wit0out stri3t limits.usti/ie1 in/lammator7. 2re. 3ertain as2e3ts o/ t0e trial o/ se@ual <iolen3e reJuire stri3t limits to 2rote3t against t0e intro1u3tion o/ tra1itional stereot72es an1 mis3on3e2tions masJuera1ing as e<i1en3eA T0ese in3lu1e tra1itional :elie/s t0at women in<ite an1 /a:ri3ate ra2e an1 t0at t0e >goo1> woman is 30aste an1 resists to t0e utmostA T0ese 2re. t0e Tri:unal s0oul1. w0at 2rote3tion ma7 :e ne3essar7 /or t0e <i3tims. t0ere/ore. an1 1e/en1antsA *200 4A E//orts s0oul1 :e ma1e to 2ro<e 30arges against t0e 1e/en1ant wit0 a1missi:le e<i1en3e ot0er t0an t0e 1ire3t testimon7 o/ sur<i<ors o/ t0e allege1 atro3itiesA Su30 e<i1en3e mig0t in3lu1e.u1i3ial e//e3t :e3ause t0e Tri:unal is t0e *201 trier o/ /a3t.u1i3e. 1o3umentar7 e<i1en3e. me1i3al re3or1s. is in/lammator7. u2on motion o/ 3ounsel or u2on its own motion. women ine<ita:l7 will :e 1is3ourage1 /rom :ringing t0eir 3ases to t0e Tri:unalA E<en i/ e<i1en3e is insulate1 /rom some o/ its 2re. an1 s2ontaneous utteran3esA T0e su//i3ien37 o/ t0ese alternati<e /orms o/ 2roo/ s0oul1 :e 3onsi1ere1 :e/ore t0e Tri:unal reJuires t0e <i3tim to testi/7A 5A Hearsa7 e<i1en3e. or t0reatens 0arm to t0e <i3tim or witnessA EA To ensure a /air :ut /le@i:le stan1ar1 o/ a1missi:ilit7. to 3onsi1er t0e 2ro:ati<e <alue o/ 2ro//ere1 e<i1en3eA T0e Tri:unal s0all t0en 1etermine w0et0er t0e e<i1en3e s0oul1 :e e@3lu1e1 /or an7 o/ t0e reasons set /ort0 in 2oint !*=A?=B?=:? or. la34 o/ moti<e to lie. its <er7 soli3itation an1 intro1u3tion in/li3ts trauma an1 0arm on t0e <i3tim or witnessA )e7on1 t0at. stri3t rules are im2ortant :e3ause se@ual :iases a:out ra2e 0a<e 1ee2 roots an1 are 1i//i3ult to e@tir2ateA !t is.u1i3es 0a<e gi<en rise to rules reJuiring 3orro:oration o/ t0e <i3tim's testimon7 an1 2ermitting intro1u3tion o/ e<i1en3e o/ 0er 2rior se@ual 3on1u3t to s0ow 3onsent as well as la34 o/ 3re1i:ilit7A T0e7 0a<e also . in some 3ases. :ut is not limite1 to. unsworn statements. witnesses. t0e Tri:unal s0oul1 not a1mit e<i1en3e w0i30 t0reatens serious 0arm to a witness or <i3tim. 0ol1 a se2arate 0earing.J. or. i/ re3ei<e1.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. or signi/i3ant su22orting 3ir3umstantial e<i1en3eA Su30 a rule is in 4ee2ing wit0 t0e "urem:erg stan1ar1 w0i30 a1mits e<i1en3e o/ >an7 2ro:ati<e <alue> w0ile sa/eguar1ing t0e 1e/en1ants' interests in not 0a<ing to 3on/ront unrelia:le 0earsa7 e<i1en3eA KA E@2ert testimon7 s0oul1 :e a1mitte1 to e@2lain rele<ant as2e3ts o/ t0e im2a3t o/ 3oer3i<e 3ir3umstan3es an1 t0e resulting atro3ities on t0e <i3tims an1 witnessesA T0e use o/ e@2erts in international tri:unals is a34nowle1ge1 an1 well( a33e2te1A 5F"1116 )A S2e3i/i3 E<i1entiar7 onsi1erations For Se@ rimes )7 3ontrast to ot0er t72es o/ trials w0ere li:eral rules o/ a1missi:ilit7 are :ot0 /air an1 ne3essar7.u1ges ma4es it unne3essar7 to 2ro<i1e t0e t72e o/ rigi1 e<i1entiar7 rules o/ a1missi:ilit7 1e<elo2e1 to 2re<ent la7 . im2e1es t0e 2ro3ess o/ t0e 3ase. in 3amera i/ a22ro2riate. im2erati<e t0at t0e Tri:unal ma4e 3lear its re. e7ewitness testimon7. at an7 time.uries /rom misinter2reting t0e 2ro2er legal signi/i3an3e o/ e<i1en3eA BA "otwit0stan1ing t0e /oregoing general 2rin3i2le. an1 0arm t0at tra1itional a22roa30es to o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . ot0er 3orro:orating 0earsa7 statements.e3tion o/ se@(stereot72es an1 1is3rimination as :ases /or re3ei<ing e<i1en3e in t0e 2rose3ution o/ war 3rimesA T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 also 3onsi1er 3onsulting wit0 e@2erts w0o 3an 2ro<i1e training to ensure its own un1erstan1ing o/ t0e /alla3ies.

e@2loitation. unless 0e /irst su:mits to t0e Tri:unal in 3amera e<i1en3e o/ 3onsent a2art /rom t0e <i3tim's 2ro2ose1 testimon7. or t0e 3on1u3t o/ t0e a33use1 an1 ot0ers a3ting in 3on3ert wit0 0imA T0e <i3tim nee1 not resist to esta:lis0 3oer3ionA :A W0en e<i1en3e o/ 3oer3ion 0as :een 2resente1. in3lu1ing t0e alien nature an1 /ormalit7 o/ t0e legal 2ro3ess9 t0e anti3i2ation o/ re2eate1 an1 0ostile Juestioning9 t0e trauma o/ 3on/rontation wit0 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . t0e 2ossi:ilit7 t0at /alse 30arges will :e :roug0t or t0at t0e7 will sur<i<e t0e in<estigati<e 2ro3ess is ma1e more remote :7 t0e 2ower/ul o:sta3les /a3e1 :7 3om2lainantsA Paramount among t0ese are t0e emotional e//e3t on sur<i<ors. :ut rat0er must s3rutiniCe t0e 3ir3umstan3es to assure t0at ea30 o33asion o/ se@ual inter3ourse was 3onsensualA E<i1en3e o/ se@ual 3on1u3t wit0 an7one ot0er t0an t0e a33use1 s0all not :e a1mitte1A 1A orro:oration o/ <i3tim testimon7 as to t0e elements o/ t0ese o//enses is not reJuire1A *202 eA E@2ert e<i1en3e relating to trauma s0oul1 :e a1missi:le to in/orm t0e Tri:unal a:out t0e 2arti3ular im2a3t o/ traumaA 5F"11E6 !ts a:sen3e s0oul1 not :e seen as esta:lis0ing t0e 1e/en1ant's inno3en3eA BA ommentar7 aA oer3ion. 3an :e esta:lis0e1 :7 e<i1en3e o/ t0e totalit7 o/ t0e 3ir3umstan3es o/ t0e war. 171) se@ 3rime 3ases ma7 3ause traumatiCe1 witnessesA 1A Pro2osals Page 1E aA !n 1etermining w0et0er t0e 30arge1 se@ual 3on1u3t is /or3e1 or 3oer3e1. 5F"1146 as well as 2ro2ose1 %A"A #eneral Assem:l7 rules 3on3erning t0e treatment o/ 2risoners outsi1e t0e 3onte@t o/ war. e<en w0ere some /orm o/ 3onsent is gi<en. t0e a22earan3e o/ aut0orit7. e@3e2t e<i1en3e w0i30 ten1s to 1emonstrate <oluntar7 se@ual relations wit0 t0e 1e/en1ant wit0in a reasona:le 2erio1 o/ timeA T0e Tri:unal s0all not in/er /rom su30 an a3t or a3ts o/ <oluntar7 inter3ourse t0at su:seJuent se@ual a3ts are <oluntar7. an1 t0e Tri:unal ma4es a 1etermination t0at 0e 0as 2resente1 su//i3ient e<i1en3e to /in1 t0at 3onsent was li4el7 in t0e 2arti3ular 3aseA 3A !/ t0e Tri:unal 1etermines t0at t0e 1e/ense o/ 3onsent ma7 :e raise1. as well as t0e well(/oun1e1 /ear o/ 2u:li3it7. in t0e 3ir3umstan3es o/ se@ 3rimes in t0e /ormer . o/ten s0are1 :7 1ire3t witnessesA Human rig0ts re2orts 0a<e em20asiCe1 t0e 2ro/oun1 s0ame. an1 re(traumatiCationA )ringing a 3laim :e/ore t0e Tri:unal 3arries a11itional o:sta3les w0i30 <i3tims or witnesses ma7 e@2erien3e. or 2romise o/ rewar1 or :etter treatment.J. w0i30 1o not re3ogniCe t0e 2ossi:ilit7 o/ >3onsent> to illegal treatmentA 5F"1156 *203 3A A strong 2resum2tion against 3onsent is a22ro2riate :e3ause. w0i30 in3lu1es /or3e. as well as t0e e@tremel7 small 2ro:a:ilit7 o/ 3onsent un1er su30 3oer3i<e 3ir3umstan3esA E@am2les o/ similar 2resum2tions o/ non(3onsent /oun1 in international law in3lu1e t0e 2ro<isions o/ t0e #ene<a on<entions w0i30 treat as a >gra<e :rea30> an7 /orm o/ me1i3al e@2erimentation on 2risoners.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. 1etention. it was more li4el7 t0an not t0at t0ere was no 3onsent?A 'e/en1ants ma7 2resent e<i1en3e in an in 3amera 2ro3ee1ing =1es3ri:e1 su2ra? to re:ut t0e 2resum2tionA Su30 a 2resum2tion re/le3ts t0e li4eli0oo1 o/ intimi1ation o/ 3i<ilians :7 2ersons wit0 o//i3ial aut0orit7. an1 ot0er a3ts o/ terror against t0e 3i<ilian 2o2ulationA !t also ma7 :e esta:lis0e1 :7 e<i1en3e o/ 3oer3i<e 3on1u3t 1ire3te1 at 2arti3ular <i3tims or witnessesA :A A /in1ing o/ 3oer3i<e 3ir3umstan3es s0all gi<e rise to a re:utta:le e<i1entiar7 2resum2tion against 3onsent =iAeA. an1 trauma. 1enial. t0reats o/ /or3e. 1e2ri<ation. it is su//i3ient i/ t0e woman sa7s >no> or i/ t0e a3t=s? were 3ommitte1 un1er 3on1itions w0ere t0e <i3tim reasona:l7 :elie<e1 t0at s0e was not /ree to lea<e or re/use wit0out ris4 o/ 0arm to 0ersel/ or anot0er 2ersonA oer3ion ma7 :e esta:lis0e1 :7 t0e /a3t o/ 1etention. o33u2ation. it s0all e@3lu1e all e<i1en3e o/ 2rior se@ual 3on1u3t o/ t0e <i3tim wit0 t0e a33use1 or ot0ers. 1e3eit.ugosla<ia. t0e Tri:unal s0all not 2ermit t0e 1e/en1ant to 3ross(e@amine t0e <i3tim as to t0e 2ossi:ilit7 o/ 3onsent or ot0erwise raise a 3onsent 1e/ense. t0e 2ossi:ilit7 o/ non(3oer3i<e or <oluntar7 se@ual inter3ourse is e@tremel7 remoteA )e7on1 t0at.

tolerating. e<i1en3e s0oul1 also :e a1mitte1 to s0ow 3ontem2oraneous <iolations o/ international 0umanitarian law in 2rison 3am2s. t0e a22earan3e o/ <oluntar7 meetings or a 2ersonal >relations0i2> :etween t0e a33use1 an1 t0e 3om2lainant must :e stri3tl7 s3rutiniCe1 :e/ore a 3onsent 1e/ense is 2ermitte1. 4nowle1ge o/ t0e o33urren3e o/ gen1er( s2e3i/i3 3rimesA T0e e@isten3e o/ wi1el7 1isseminate1 me1ia re2orts o/ mass ra2es an1 ot0er gen1er s2e3i/i3 3rimes in 2arti3ular areas o/ t0e /ormer . or1ere1 ra2es. or s0oul1 0a<e 0a1. at a minimum. ra1io. or /ailing to 2unis0 ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual a:use ma7 2ro<e 3omman1 res2onsi:ilit7 /or t0e 3rimesA T0is e<i1en3e 3an :e /oun1 in witnesses' testimonies stating t0at 3omman1ers 0a1 4nowle1ge o/ ra2es an1 1i1 little or not0ing to sto2 t0em.J. an1 <i1eo? s0oul1 :e a1mitte1 to s0ow t0at 3omman1ers 0a1. en3ouraging. aut0oriCing. 171) Page 14 t0e 2er2etrator9 t0e nee1 to lea<e one's 0ome or 3ommunit79 t0e 2ossi:ilit7 o/ not :eing :elie<e19 t0e la34 o/ 3on/i1en3e in t0e 2ossi:ilit7 o/ re1ress9 an1 t0e /ear o/ retaliationA 1A Stri3tl7 limiting t0e 3ir3umstan3es un1er w0i30 t0e 2resum2tion o/ 3oer3ion ma7 :e o<er3ome an1 a 1e/ense o/ 3onsent ma7 :e entertaine1 is /air to t0e a33use1 an1 essential to t0e 1ignit7 an1 2arti3i2ation o/ t0e <i3tims an1 witnessesA ross(e@amination o/ t0e 3om2lainant as to 2ossi:le 3onsent s0oul1 :e allowe1 onl7 w0ere t0e a33use1 3an s0ow t0at it was more li4el7 t0an not t0at t0e se@ual a3ti<it7 was not 3oer3e1A Furt0ermore. t0e signi/i3ant 2ossi:ilit7 t0at su30 3rimes were o33urring in areas un1er t0eir 3ontrolA Su30 awareness is a 4e7 element o/ esta:lis0ing 3omman1 res2onsi:ilit7 /or t0ese 3rimesA *205 *A Suggeste1 +e30anisms /or Prote3tion o/ *i3tims an1 Witnesses AA #eneral Prote3tions ( Pro2osals an1 ommentar7 T0e 207si3al se3urit7 an1 2s730ologi3al well(:eing o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses must :e 2rote3te1 at all stages o/ t0e 3riminal 2ro3ee1ingsA W0ile some <i3tims an1 witnesses ma7 regar1 2u:li3 a33usation o/ t0ose w0o 3ommitte1 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . :attle/iel1s an1 3i<ilian regions o/ o33u2ie1 areas w0ere t0e ra2es were 2er2etrate1A 3A E@2ert testimon7 s0oul1 :e a1mitte1 to s0ow t0e 2s730ologi3al e//e3ts o/ ra2eA T0is in/ormation is rele<ant to 2ro<e a 2oli37 o/ using or 2ermitting ra2e as a wea2on o/ warA $a2e is an e//e3ti<e means o/ 1estro7ing an1 1ri<ing out w0ole 3ommunities.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. gi<en t0e 2er<asi<eness o/ /ear an1 t0e 2ro:a:le uneJual 2ower o/ t0e 2arties (( :ot0 as men an1 women an1 as 3onJuerors an1 3onJuere1A eA E<i1en3e o/ 2rior se@ual 3on1u3t wit0 an7one ot0er t0an t0e 1e/en1ant s0oul1 :e e@3lu1e1 :e3ause it is irrele<ant an1 in/lammator7A An7 allege1 rele<an3e is :ase1 u2on se@(stereot72es w0i30 1e2ri<e a woman o/ 0er rig0t to :o1il7 integrit7A T0e im2a3t o/ eli3iting t0is testimon7 /rom t0e 3om2lainants woul1 a3t as a se<ere :arrier to t0eir 2arti3i2ation in 3riminal 2ro3ee1ingsA 5F"11K6 *204 A E<i1entiar7 onsi1erations For Pro<ing omman1 $es2onsi:ilit7 1A Pro2osals an1 ommentar7 aA E<i1en3e o/ a 2oli37 or 2attern o/ or1ering. an out3ome w0i30 is 3onsistent wit0 an et0ni3 3leansing strateg7A T0ese 2s730ologi3al e//e3ts are allege1l7 a signi/i3ant reason 3omman1ers 30ose to use or allow ra2e in t0eir 3am2aignsA 1A +e1ia re2orts =news2a2ers.ugosla<ia s0oul1 :e a1mitte1 as 3ir3umstantial e<i1en3e t0at res2onsi:le 3i<il an1 militar7 aut0orities 0a1 reason to :e aware o/. allowing su30 testimon7 w0en su//i3ient in1i3ia o/ relia:ilit7 are 2resentA :A $ele<an3e o/ e<i1en3e s0oul1 :e 3onstrue1 :roa1l7 to allow /or t0e wi1e range o/ e<i1en3e reJuire1 to s0ow a relations0i2 :etween t0e ra2es an1 militar7 a3ti<it7A E<i1en3e s0oul1 :e allowe1 to s0ow t0e timing o/ ra2es in relation to troo2 mo<ements an1 militar7 ta4eo<ers o/ t0e rele<ant territor7 in or1er to esta:lis0 2atterns an1 e<i1en3e o/ 3oor1inate1 a3ti<itiesA Similarl7. or 2arti3i2ate1 in ra2es t0emsel<esA +u30 o/ t0is testimon7 ma7 3ome in t0e /orm o/ 0earsa7 an1 unsworn statementsA T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 a1o2t t0e e<i1entiar7 stan1ar1s 1is3usse1 a:o<e.

witnesses. an1 t0e issuan3e an1 en/or3ement o/ restraining or1ersA 5F"1196 !/ ne3essar7. an1 assistan3e wit0 2oliti3al as7lum 3laimsA 5F"1B56 T0is ma7 :e a33om2lis0e1. assistan3e wit0 relo3ation. as 1es3ri:e1 a:o<eA 4A T0e 3on/i1entialit7 o/ t0e <i3tims an1 witnesses s0oul1 :e guar1e1A To 2rote3t :ot0 t0eir se3urit7 an1 2ri<a37. <i3tims. t0roug0 t0e a22ointment o/ 3ounsel /or <i3timsA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 .J. in 2art.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. an1 t0eir /amilies s0oul1 :e 207si3all7 relo3ate1A 5F"1BF6 BA *i3tims s0oul1 0a<e a rig0t to re2resentationA 5F"1B16 To /ull7 2rote3t t0e rig0ts o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses. 2eo2le are a/rai1 to return to t0eir 3ommunities?A !t s0oul1 also 2ro<i1e ser<i3es to assist <i3tims an1 witnesses t0roug0 t0e Tri:unal 2ro3ess an1 0el2 t0em re:uil1 t0eir li<es 1uring an1 a/ter trial t0roug0 ser<i3es su30 as trauma 3ounselling an1 ot0er 0ealt0 3are. s0oul1 0a<e t0e rig0t to re2resentationA $e2resentation woul1 0el2 ensure im2lementation o/ t0e 2ro3e1ures an1 e<i1entiar7 rules. 2rote3ting an7 rig0ts an1 interests o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses t0at ma7 :e 1istin3t /rom t0ose o/ t0e 2rose3utionA *i3tim an1 witness a1<o3ates woul1 also wor4 to ensure t0at 207si3al an1 2s730ologi3al nee1s are met 1uring t0e in<estigation an1 trial 2ro3essA *206 EA All 2arti3i2ation :7 <i3tims an1 witnesses must :e <oluntar7 an1 gi<en wit0 /ull7 in/orme1 3onsentA 5F"1BB6 *i3tims an1 witnesses s0oul1 re3ei<e 3are/ul 3ounselling a:out t0e im2li3ations o/ 2arti3i2ating in t0e Tri:unal or relinJuis0ing t0eir anon7mit7 :e/ore in/orme1 3onsent ma7 :e 1eeme1 gi<enA Su30 3ounselling 3oul1 :e 1one :7 <i3tim an1 witness a1<o3ates. <i3tims an1 witnesses s0oul1 not :e 2u:li3l7 i1enti/ie1 wit0out t0eir 3onsentA T0e7 0a<e a rig0t to 4ee2 t0eir i1entit7 /rom t0e 2u:li3 an1. ot0ers ma7 3onsi1er it as an e@a3er:ation o/ t0e trauma t0e7 0a<e su//ere1A 5F"1176 *i3tims an1 witnesses w0o wis0 to 3ome /orwar1 must :e 207si3all7 2rote3te1 an1 2ro<i1e1 wit0 t0e ne3essar7 su22ort ser<i3es in su30 a wa7 so as to allow t0eir testimon7 to e@2e1ite t0eir re3o<er7 rat0er t0an to :e a sour3e o/ re( traumatiCationA *i3tims an1 witnesses w0o 1o not wis0 to 3ome /orwar1 to testi/7 or 2resent e<i1en3e s0oul1 not :e 2ressure1 to 1o soA T0e 1esire o/ t0ose w0o wis0 to testi/7 anon7mousl7 must also :e res2e3te1 to t0e e@tent 3onsistent wit0 t0e rig0ts o/ t0e a33use1A 1A A se3urit7 s7stem s0oul1 :e im2lemente1 to 2rote3t t0ose gi<ing testimon7 an1 2re2aring 1o3umentationA 5F"11I6 T0ose gi<ing testimon7 an1 2re2aring 1o3umentation s0oul1 :e 2rote3te1A T0is 2rote3tion s0oul1 in3lu1e t0e use o/ %A"A guar1s. t0e7. /rom t0e allege1 2er2etratorA 5F"1BE6 5A T0ere must :e a 3ommitment to witnesses an1 <i3tims t0roug0out an1 a/ter t0e in<estigation an1 trial 2ro3essA 5F"1B46 T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 3ommit itsel/ to minimiCing t0e trauma o/ t0ose 2arti3i2ating in all 20ases o/ t0e Tri:unal 2ro3essA T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 assure t0at <i3tims an1 witnesses are a33om2anie1 t0roug0 t0e Tri:unal 2ro3ess :7 a /amil7 mem:er or ot0er 2erson o/ t0eir 30oi3e an1 t0at se2aration /rom t0eir 3ommunities is minimiCe1 =unless. li4e 1e/en1ants. 171) Page 15 atro3ities as an im2ortant 2art o/ t0eir re3o<er7. o/ 3ourse. in e@treme 3ases.

t0at on3e t0e li4el7 2ro:ati<e <alue o/ t0e e<i1en3e is weig0e1 against t0e 2otential 0arm to t0e <i3tim or witness. Suggeste1 E<i1entiar7 $ulesA 1A !n 3amera 2ro3ee1ings s0oul1 :e allowe1 to 2rote3t t0e 2ri<a37 interests o/ <i3tims an1 witnessesA 5F"1B96 T0e Tri:unal Statute gi<es t0e Trial 0am:er 1is3retion to 3lose 0earings to t0e 2u:li3. e<en i/ su30 a 1e3ision is 1etrimental to t0e 2rose3ution's 3aseA BA !nter<iewers s0oul1 :e womenA Women <i3tims s0oul1 :e inter<iewe1 :7 women w0o 0a<e :een traine1 in 0ow to wor4 wit0 women <i3tims an1 sur<i<orsA 5F"1B76 EA *i1eota2e1 1e2ositions s0oul1 :e 2ermissi:leA 'e2ositions ma7 :e <i1eota2e1 i/ it will assist t0e <i3tim or witness in a<oi1ing testi/7ing in 2u:li3 an1 in t0e 2resen3e o/ 0er allege1 atta34erA T0is t72e o/ 1e2osition 0as :een allowe1 in %ASA an1 ot0er 3ourtsA 5F"1BI6 A Trials an1 A22eals ( Pro2osals an1 ommentar7 !t is im2ortant not to ignore or e@aggerate t0e 3riti3al tension :etween t0e se3urit7 an1 2ri<a37 rig0ts o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses on t0e one 0an1 an1 t0e 1ue 2ro3ess rig0ts o/ t0e 1e/en1ant on t0e ot0er.J. t0e <i3tim or witness s0oul1 retain t0e rig0t to wit01raw 0er 2arti3i2ation in t0e 3ase an1 maintain 3on/i1entialit7. in3lu1ing t0e terms *207 o/ 3on/i1entialit7A 5F"1BK6 !/ t0e Tri:unal s0oul1 rule t0at. su30 as t0ose o/ Australia. 2arti3ularl7 in t0e 3onte@t o/ a 1e/en1ant's rig0t to 3on/ront 0is or 0er a33userA We are 3ommitte1 to 2rote3ting t0e rig0ts o/ 1e/en1ants as well as t0e rig0ts o/ <i3tims an1 witnessesA We :elie<e. t0ere will :e /ew instan3es o/ serious 3on/li3t :etween t0e 1ue 2ro3ess rig0ts o/ t0e a33use1 an1 t0e se3urit7 an1 2ri<a37 rig0ts o/ <i3tims an1 witnessesA "umerous 3riminal 3o1es 0a<e esta:lis0e1 2ro3e1ures w0i30 stri4e t0is :alan3e.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.usti/ies 3losing t0e 2ro3ee1ings to t0e 2ress an1Gor general 2u:li3A BA &t0er me30anisms to 3on3eal t0e i1entit7 o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses /rom t0e o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 .t0e 0earings s0all :e 2u:li3 unless t0e Trial 0am:er 1e3i1es to 3lose t0e 2ro3ee1ings in a33or1an3e wit0 its rules o/ *208 2ro3e1ure an1 e<i1en3e =em20asis a11e1?A 5F"1EF6 Arti3le BB e@2li3itl7 2ro<i1es /or in 3amera 2ro3ee1ingsA 5F"1E16 T0e Tri:unal's 2ro3e1ural rules s0oul1 ma4e 3lear t0at t0e 1etrimental 2s730ologi3al im2a3t o/ a 2u:li3 0earing on a <i3tim or witness . 1ue 2ro3ess reJuires t0e 1is3losure o/ t0e i1entit7 o/ a 2arti3i2ating <i3tim or witness. ana1a an1 t0e %nite1 StatesA Human rig0ts organiCations 0a<e also a11resse1 t0ese issuesA T0e /ollowing 2ro3e1ures su22lement t0e 2rote3tions 1is3usse1 in Se3tion !*. 0owe<er. 171) )A Pre(trial 20ase ( Pro2osals an1 ommentar7 1A !nter<iews to 3olle3t e<i1en3e s0oul1 :e 1one in a manner sensiti<e to <i3tims' an1 witnesses' nee1sA Page 1K !nter<iewers s0oul1 :e e@2erien3e1 or traine1 in wor4ing wit0 <i3tims o/ se@ 3rimesA !nter<iewers must tr7 to as3ertain t0e treatment nee1s o/ t0e 2erson t0e7 are inter<iewing an1 must not sim2l7 >e@tra3t> t0e in/ormation ne3essar7 to 2ro3ee1 wit0 a 2rose3utionA !nter<iewers s0oul1 3learl7 tell a ra2e sur<i<or t0at s0e nee1 not s2ea4 o/ 0er or1eal at all an1 3an en1 t0e inter<iew at an7 time s0e 30oosesA A <i3tim s0oul1 :e assure1 t0at s0e 0as 3om2lete 3ontrol o<er t0e /uture use o/ 0er testimon7. in a 2arti3ular 3ase.

uestions relate1 to <i3tims' or witnesses' :a34groun1. as suggeste1 a:o<e.u1ges s0oul1 0a<e. an1 e@er3ise. an1 ot0er irrele<ant 3onsi1erations s0oul1 :e e@2ressl7 2ro0i:ite1A 3A $e2etitious Juestioning o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses. non( re2etiti<e. 5F"1E56 an1 t0e use o/ 2seu1on7msA 5F"1EK6 )e3ause o/ t0e serious im2li3ations /or t0e 1ue 2ro3ess rig0ts o/ t0e 1e/en1ants. t0ese 2ro3e1ures s0oul1 :e im2lemente1 onl7 a/ter an in 3amera 0earing in w0i30 t0e Tri:unal assesses t0e 3om2ati:ilit7 o/ t0ese 2ro3e1ures wit0 t0e 1e/en1ant's rig0ts as well as t0e 1anger to t0e <i3tim an1Gor witnessA *209 4A $easona:le limitations s0oul1 :e en/or3e1 as to t0e e@amination o/ <i3tims an1 witnessesA T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 a1o2t 2ro3e1ures to 2rote3t witnesses an1 <i3tims /rom t0e /urt0er :rutaliCation o/ 0arassing an1 irrele<ant Juestioning w0i30 3an o33ur 1uring ra2e trial 2ro3ee1ingsA 5F"1E76 S2e3i/i3all7. 5F"1E46 use o/ s3reens so t0at t0e 1e/en1ant an1 t0e 2u:li3 3annot see t0e <i3tim or witness. s0oul1 :e 0el1 a1missi:le against all similarl7 situate1 1e/en1antsA A11itional an1 su33essi<e 1e/en1ants s0oul1 :e reJuire1 to su:mit a11itional. res2onsi:ilit7 /or Juestioning <i3tims. s0oul1 :e 2re<ente1A T0is will :e 2arti3ularl7 im2ortant in situations w0ere <i3tims an1 witnesses are testi/7ing against numerous 1e/en1ants in t0e same. or /in1 it e@tremel7 traumati3 =en1angering t0eir 2s730ologi3al an1Gor 207si3al sur<i<al? to 3on/ront t0eir allege1 atta34er=s?A For :ot0 t0eir 207si3al sa/et7 an1 2s730ologi3al well(:eing. :ot0 un1er 1ire3t an1 3ross( e@amination. w0i30 e@a3er:ate t0e trauma o/ re3ounting t0e atro3ities 3ommitte1 against t0em an1 1is3ourage ot0er <i3tims an1 witnesses /rom 3oming /orwar1. 171) 2u:li3 an1 2ress s0oul1 :e allowe1A Page 17 T0ese me30anisms in3lu1e alteration o/ a witness' image or <oi3e in a <i1eo or au1io ta2e 2resente1 at trial 5F"1EB6 an1 sealing or e@2unging witnesses' names /rom 2u:li3 re3or1sA 5F"1EE6 $e3or1s i1enti/7ing t0e <i3tim s0oul1 :e se3ure1 an1 4e2t /rom t0e 2u:li3A EA T0e i1entit7 o/ 3ertain <i3tims or witnesses s0oul1 :e wit00el1 /rom t0e 1e/en1antA As mentione1 a:o<e.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. 2ast se@ual 0istor7. or at least eliminate one 2otential :arrier to t0eir 1oing soA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . in some o/ t0e most e@treme 3ases it ma7 :e ne3essar7 /or t0e Tri:unal to 3on3eal a <i3tim's or witness' i1entit7 /rom t0e 1e/en1ant an1 0is or 0er attorne7sA Possi:le 2ro3e1ures in3lu1e testimon7 :7 one(wa7 o:ser<ation met0o1s an1 3lose1 3ir3uit tele<ision. 2ro3ee1ingsA Su30 situations are ine<ita:le gi<en t0e man7 instan3es o/ mass or su33essi<e ra2es 3urrentl7 allege1 an1 li4el7 to 3ome :e/ore t0e Tri:unalA 1A *i3tims' an1 witnesses' testimon7. 30ara3ter. an1 1e/en1antsA +an7 legal s7stems now use t0is /ormatA ounsel /or all 2arties s0oul1 :e allowe1 to su:mit 2ro2ose1 Juestions to t0e Tri:unal. or se2arate. or at least 2rimar7. t0e Tri:unal is urge1 to 3onsi1er t0e /ollowing 2ro3e1uresaA T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 a1o2t a /ormat w0i30 <ests in t0e Tri:unal t0e sole. as well as t0at o/ t0eir /amil7 an1 /rien1s.J. man7 <i3tims an1 witnesses /ear retri:ution :7 t0e 1e/en1ants. :ut t0e Tri:unal must :e t0e /inal aut0orit7 in 1e3i1ing w0at Juestions are rele<antA Su30 a /ormat an1 2ro3e1ure woul1 2ro<i1e /or a /ull an1 /air o22ortunit7 /or 2arties to 0a<e all rele<ant Juestions 2ut to <i3tims an1 witnesses in as non( t0reatening a manner as 2ossi:leA :A Tri:unal . or t0e 2arties' 3ounsel are allowe1 to Juestion t0e <i3tims an1 witnessesA . wi1e 1is3retion to limit t0e Juestioning o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses as to e<i1entiar7 matters 1ire3tl7 relate1 to t0e su:stanti<e 30arges against t0e 1e/en1antsA T0is stan1ar1 s0oul1 :e a1o2te1 w0et0er t0e Tri:unal itsel/ 2oses all t0e Juestions. rele<ant Juestions to :e 2ut to t0e Tri:unal /or a 1etermination o/ a1missi:ilit7A Su30 a 2ro3e1ure 2rote3ts t0e rig0ts o/ t0e 1e/en1ants w0ile limiting t0e /urt0er su//ering o/ <i3tims an1 *210 witnessesA T0is 3oul1 en3ourage witnesses an1 <i3tims to 3ome /orwar1. witnesses.

5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.ugosla<ian law an1 a22l7ing t0em to t0e 3ir3umstan3es o/ t0e 3urrent war in t0e /ormer . t0ere/ore.J. 5F"14E6 or u2on a 0el2less 2erson w0o is una:le to resist. in1u3ing. 9A T0e <i3tim :eing a minor 30il1 un1er t0e age o/ /ourteen 7earsA )A +itigating ir3umstan3es o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . o//ensi<e wea2ons. t0e 2ro3uring an1Gor 2an1ering o/ su30 a *211 /emale /or illi3it se@ 5F"14I6 are also o//enses . . war 3rimes un1er . or luring o/ women to 2rostitution.ugosla<iaA> 5F"1EI6 W0ile t0e Tri:unal Statute 1oes not ma4e . :7stan1ers. 5F"1476 an1. in3lu1ing /amil7 mem:ers an1 intimates o/ t0e <i3tim=s?.usti/7ing en0an3e1 2enaltiesA 5F"1496 !n a11ition.ugosla<ia. or imitations t0ereo/9 BA A3ts or t0reats to in/li3t a11itional <iolen3e to t0e li/e or well(:eing o/ t0e <i3tim=s? or ot0ers9 EA A3ts or t0reats a33om2an7ing t0e 207si3al se@ual atta34 w0i30 are inten1e1 or li4el7 to in/li3t a11itional 1egra1ation or 0umiliation on t0e <i3tim=s? or ot0ers9 4A A 2rior relations0i2 :etween t0e <i3tim=s? an1 t0e 1e/en1ant9 5F"1516 5A T0e 2resen3e o/ ot0er 2ersons 1uring t0e 3rime.ugosla<ian law a22ears to 2ro<i1e t0e 3ourt wit0 :roa1 1is3retion in senten3ingA +ost im2ortantl7.ugosla<ian law 3arr7 2enalties /rom /i<e 7ears im2risonment to t0e 1eat0 2enalt7A 5F"1E96 $a2e an1 /or3e1 2rostitution are e@2li3itl7 liste1 as war 3rimes an1 are.ugosla<ian law 2ro<i1es greater 2enalties i/ t0e 3rimes are ma1e >e@3e2tionall7 1angerous> 1ue to t0e 2er2etrator's 2arti3ular 1etermination. or re3ruiting. 5F"14B6 3arnal 4nowle1ge or unnatural 3on3u2is3en3e wit0 a minor un1er /ourteen 7ears o/ age. an1 t0e Tri:unal s0oul1 2reser<e t0e 2ower to a22l7 international law in 3ase o/ 1is3re2an37. 171) Page 1I *!A Pro2ose1 Penalties T0e Tri:unal Statute 2ro<i1es t0at t0e Trial 0am:ers >s0all 0a<e re3ourse to t0e general 2ra3ti3e regar1ing 2rison senten3es in t0e 3ourts o/ t0e /ormer . t0e /ollowing are aggra<ating /a3tors t0at oug0t to result in en0an3e1 senten3es un1er Arti3le B4 =B?1A T0e 2ossession o/ arms. 5F"1446 or i/ t0e ra2e o33urre1 t0roug0 t0e misuse o/ t0e 2er2etrator's 2osition. . or i/ 2arti3ularl7 gra<e 3ir3umstan3es atta30e1 to t0e 3rimeA 5F"15F6 E@tra2olating /rom t0e :rea1t0 o/ aggra<ating /a3tors re3ogniCe1 un1er . su:.ugosla<ia also re3ogniCe a :roa1 range o/ aggra<ating /a3tors w0i30 will en0an3e t0e 2enalties /or ra2e an1 ot0er gen1er(s2e3i/i3 3rimesA W0ere ra2e is 3ommitte1 toget0er wit0 lew1 a3ts. 2ersisten3e. or ai1ers an1 a:ettors9 KA ommuni3ating t0e /a3t o/ t0e ra2e to ot0ers un1er 3ir3umstan3es w0ere t0e i1entit7 o/ t0e <i3tim is re<eale1 or 3oul1 :e surmise19 7A T0e 3onseJuen3e o/ /or3e1 2regnan379 5F"15B6 IA 'etaining t0e <i3tim=s? an1 t0e 3ir3umstan3es o/ t0e 1etention9 an1. rut0lessness. e@2losi<es. 5F"1456 t0e :asi3 senten3e /or t0e 3rime 3an :e en0an3e1A 5F"14K6 T0e interme1iation.e3t to mu30 greater 2enalt7 t0an t0e ten(7ear ma@imum a22lie1 to ra2e as a 1omesti3 3rimeA 5F"14F6 AA Aggra<ating Fa3tors T0e laws o/ t0e /ormer .ugosla<ian law t0e e@3lusi<e sour3e o/ 2enalt7. i/ t0e /emale was un1er /ourteen 7ears o/ age. in3iting. 5F"1416 unnatural 3on3u2is3en3e or so1om7.

:ase1 on t0e in/ormation a<aila:le at t0e time.ugosla<ian riminal o1e. t0at 0e or s0e was /a3ing imminent :o1il7 0arm or 1eat0 i/ 0e or s0e re/use1 to 3arr7 out t0e or1ers o/ a su2erior o//i3erA Howe<er. t0e Tri:unal s0oul1 attem2t to a34nowle1ge t0e realit7.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. in3lu1ing :7 means o/ 1uress.J.ugosla<ian riminal o1e. to or1er 3om2ensation to <i3tims. no 2unis0ment woul1 :e im2ose1 i/ a 3riminal o//ense was 3ommitte1 un1er t0e or1ers o/ a su2erior o//i3er unless t0at or1er was 1ire3te1 at 3ommitting a war 3rime or an7 ot0er gra<e 3riminal o//enseA 5F"1546 !n su30 an instan3e it woul1 :e t0e su:or1inate's res2onsi:ilit7 to re/use to e@e3ute t0e or1erA W0ile re3ogniCing t0e in0erent la34 o/ 2re3ision in t0is a22roa30. t0e Trial 0am:ers ma7 or1er t0e return o/ an7 2ro2ert7 an1 2ro3ee1s a3Juire1 :7 3riminal 3on1u3t.ugosla<ian riminal *212 o1e re3ogniCe1 a sol1ier's o:ligation to /ollow su2erior or1ers or /a3e u2 to a 7ear o/ im2risonmentA 5F"15E6 %n1er t0e . an1 again. o/ su30 or1ers to 3ommit 3rimesA We t0ere/ore urge.ugosla< law. an1 2ossi:le mitigating e//e3t. it is signi/i3ant t0at t0e . in a33or1 wit0 t0e . to :e 2ai1 :7 3on<i3te1 1e/en1antsA Su30 or1ers o/ 3om2ensation s0oul1 :e en/or3e1 :7 t0e %A"A using t0e me30anisms o/ 3olle3ti<e mem:er(states' a3tion wit0 w0i30 ot0er %A"A a3tions are en/or3e1A 5F"15K6 BA T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 reJuest t0at %nite1 "ations 3reate a /un1 or 3om2ensation 3ommission to 3om2ensate <i3tims' lossesA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . su30 as mur1er or ra2e o/ non(3om:atantsA W0ile no 1e/ense o/ o:e1ien3e to or1ers is a<aila:le to t0ose w0o 3ommit war 3rimes. sim2le t0e/t or assault? not :e 0el1 3riminall7 res2onsi:leA &n t0e ot0er 0an1. to t0eir rig0t/ul ownersA 5F"1556 AA Pro2osals 1A T0e Tri:unal s0oul1 :e em2owere1. it s0oul1 :e 3onsi1ere1 a mitigating /a3tor in im2osing a senten3e on a sol1ier w0o reasona:l7 :elie<e1. no mitigating /a3tor s0oul1 :e /oun1 w0ere t0e in1i<i1ual merel7 /a3e1 0umiliation or em:arrassment in /ront o/ ot0er militar7 2ersonnel or 3i<iliansA &t0er mitigating 3ir3umstan3es s0oul1 in3lu1e1A T0e 1e/en1ant's 7out09 BA W0et0er t0e 1e/en1ant was 3oer3e1 to enter t0e militar79 EA W0ere t0e 1e/en1ant is o/ :or1erline legal 3om2eten3e9 an1 4A T0e 1e/en1ant's le<el o/ e1u3ationA *!!A om2ensation /or *i3tims !t is also ne3essar7 to esta:lis0 a met0o1 /or 3om2ensating <i3tims o/ war 3rimes an1 3rimes against 0umanit7A T0e Tri:unal Statute 2ro<i1es*213 !n a11ition to im2risonment. as 2art o/ t0eir senten3ing aut0orit7. t0is limite1 1e/ense o/ o:e1ien3e to ot0erwise legitimate or1ers s0oul1 not :e a<aila:le w0ere t0e sol1ier is or1ere1 to 3ommit a war 3rime. 171) Page 19 Wit0 regar1 to /a3tors w0i30 s0oul1 mitigate t0e o//ense un1er Arti3le B4=B? o/ t0e Tri:unal Statute. t0at a sol1ier or1ere1 to 3ommit a 3rime w0i30 is not a war 3rime =eAgA. in a33or1 wit0 t0e .

t0eir wor4. i/ le/t untreate1. t0e 3on3e2t o/ >2ro2ert7 an1 2ro3ee1s> s0oul1 :e e@2an1e1 :7 t0e Tri:unalA To 1o t0is t0e Tri:unal woul1 inter2ret t0e 3on3e2t o/ >2ro2ert7> to en3om2ass rig0ts or entitlementsA We a34nowle1ge on our 2art an1 in tra1itional . 2ermanent or tem2orar7 1is/igurement.ur7 in<ol<ing 1ismem:erment. aggra<ate1 207si3al assault. /alls wit0in t0ese 3ategories.ur7 in3lu1es >1ismem:erment9 2ermanent or tem2orar7 signi/i3ant 1is/igurement. an1 t0e se3urit7 o/ t0eir i1entities in t0eir 3ommunitiesA T0ese losses must :e re3ogniCe1 in inter2reting Arti3le B4 =E? o/ t0e Tri:unal StatuteA !n a33or1 wit0 :asi3 2rin3i2les o/ 0umanitarian an1 0uman rig0ts law. >serious 2ersonal in. an1 religious eJualit7A T0e7 0a<e lost or :een /or3e1 to se2arate /rom /amil7 mem:ers9 t0e7 0a<e lost or /ear t0e loss o/ t0eir 3a2a3it7 to /orm /amilies or :ear 30il1ren in t0e /utureA T0e7 0a<e :een /or3e1 to lea<e :e0in1 t0eir 0omes. or is li4el7 to 2rolong su30 /ull re3o<er7A> 5F"1K16 !n a11ition.ur7A !n or1er to e//e3t t0e rig0ts to re2aration an1 3om2ensation re3ogniCe1 in international law.ur7 arising /rom se@ual assault. et0ni3.J. 1amage to lim: or 0ealt0. /un3tion or s7stem9 =3? t0e in1i<i1ual su//ere1 a se@ual assault or aggra<ate1 assault or torture>?A 5F"1KE6 #en1er(:ase1 <iolen3e in t0e /ormer . su30 as su:stantial 30ange in one's outwar1 *215 a22earan3e9 Permanent or tem2orar7 signi/i3ant loss o/ use or limitation o/ use o/ a :o17 organ.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.ur7 also in3lu1es instan3es o/ 207si3al or mental in. to :e a1ministere1 eit0er :7 t0e Tri:unal itsel/ or :7 some ot0er entit7 =su30 as t0e om2ensation ommission?A AFTE$W&$'.ur7 an1 mental 2ain an1 anguis0A> Serious 2ersonal in.ur7 w0i30. t0e Tri:unal 3oul1 reJuest t0at t0e Se3urit7 oun3il eit0er e@2an1 its . mem:er.THE $%LES A'&PTE' o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . mem:er. 2ro2ert7 or 2ossessions. or illegal 1etention A A A or :eing /or3e1 to 0i1eA A A A> 5F"1KB6 T0e om2ensation ommission 2ro<i1e1 3om2ensation /or mental 2ain an1 anguis0 /or :ot0 /inan3ial losses =su30 as loss o/ in3ome an1 me1i3al e@2enses? an1 non(/inan3ial losses =in 3ases w0ere >=a? a s2ouse. or 0arm to 2ro/essional or e3onomi3 2ros2e3tsA> 5F"1596 #erman re2arations also in3lu1e1 >1eat0 3ause1 :7 a 1eterioration in 0ealt0 resulting /rom emigration or /rom li<ing 3on1itions 1etrimental to 0ealt0 A A A 5an16 sui3i1e 2rom2te1 :7 2erse3ution. or 2ermanent or tem2orar7 signi/i3ant loss o/ use or limitation o/ use o/ a :o17 organ. in3lu1ing sui3i1e 3ause1 :7 e3onomi3 1i//i3ulties w0i30 t0e <i3tim 3oul1 not o<er3ome in t0e 3ountr7 to w0i30 0e emigrate1A> 5F"1KF6 T0e om2ensation ommission esta:lis0e1 in t0e a/termat0 o/ t0e 1991 #ul/ War is also instru3ti<eA T0e %A"A in3lu1e1 in its 1e/inition o/ 1amages >serious 2ersonal in. torture.1? >se@ual assault. 0ostage(ta4ing.> 4? >torture.uriesA An7 ot0er result 2ri<ileges 2ro2ert7 loss o<er t0e 1e2ri<ation o/ 0uman rig0ts. 0owe<er. t0eir 2ossessions. women are su//ering :ot0 tangi:le an1 intangi:le lossesA T0e7 0a<e lost t0eir :o1il7 integrit79 t0eir 207si3al an1 mental 0ealt09 t0eir sel/(esteem9 t0eir se@ualit79 t0eir rig0t to 2ersonal se3urit79 an1 t0eir rig0t o/ se@ual.> K? >illegal 1etention. 171) )A ommentar7 Page BF As a result o/ t0e gen1er(s2e3i/i3 3rimes 2er2etrate1 against t0em. loss o/ li:ert7.uris2ru1en3e.ugosla<ia. an1 ignores t0e 2rin3i2le o/ re2aration em:o1ie1 in Arti3le B4=E? an1 in ot0er international instrumentsA *214 T0e rig0t to 3om2ensation is 3o1i/ie1 in numerous international 0uman rig0ts instruments 5F"1576 an1 is su22orte1 :7 t0e 1e3isions an1 3ommentar7 o/ <arious international 0uman rig0ts :o1iesA 5F"15I6 !llustrati<e o/ t0e s3o2e o/ 1amages 2re<iousl7 grante1 are t0e #erman re2arations 2ai1 to Holo3aust <i3tims an1 t0e esta:lis0ment o/ t0e om2ensation ommission /or *i3tims o/ t0e 1991 #ul/ WarA Laws o/ t0e Fe1eral $e2u:li3 o/ #erman7 3om2ensate1 >loss o/ li/e.> 5? >0ostage(ta4ing.> an1 7? serious 2ersonal in.> E? >aggra<ate1 207si3al assault.> B? >mental 2ain an1 anguis0. :ot0 in itsel/ an1 as 2art o/ a 3am2aign o/ geno3i1e.uris1i3tion to grant 3om2ensation or esta:lis0 a se2arate 3om2ensation me30anism to ensure t0at re2arations are ma1e /or t0ese t72es o/ in. a 3ertain 1is3om/ort wit0 3ategoriCing rig0ts as 2ro2ert7A Alternati<el7. /un3tion or s7stem9 an1 an7 in. t0e Tri:unal s0oul1 reJuest t0at t0e %A"A Se3urit7 oun3il esta:lis0 a /un1. 30il1 or 2arent o/ t0e in1i<i1ual su//ere1 1eat09 =:? t0e in1i<i1ual su//ere1 serious 2ersonal in.ure1 :o17 area. is unli4el7 to result in t0e /ull re3o<er7 o/ t0e in.

/or e@am2le. a:out t0e >interests o/ . or t0e 1estru3tion o/ e<i1en3eA> 5F"1KK6 $ule K9 1eals wit0 t0e 2rote3tion o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses 1uring t0e 2ro1u3tion o/ e<i1en3e.ur7 to or intimi1ation o/ a <i3tim or witness. or 2art t0ereo/. in3lu1ing 3lose1 sessions.u1ges :egan 3onsi1eration o/ t0eir $ules o/ Pro3e1ure an1 E<i1en3e in t0e /all o/ 199E an1 /inaliCe1 t0em on Fe:ruar7 14. 2ro<i1es t0at A Ju1ge or Trial 0am:er ma7.usti3eA 5F"1KI6 Se<eral rules 3om:ine 2rote3tion o/ t0e 207si3al sa/et7 an1 2s730ologi3al well(:eing o/ <i3tims an1 witnessesA $ule 75 2ro<i1es /or 2rote3tion o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses in t0e 2ro3ee1ings :e/ore trial 30am:ers. an1 one e<i1entiar7 rule s2e3i/i3all7 1eals wit0 e<i1en3e in t0e 2rose3ution o/ 3ases o/ se@ual assaultA 5F"1K46 !A $ules /or t0e Prote3tion o/ *i3tims an1 Witnesses AA *i3tims an1 Witnesses %nit $ule E4 2ro<i1es t0at a *i3tims an1 Witnesses %nit :e set u2 un1er t0e aut0orit7 o/ t0e $egistrar to >re3ommen1 2rote3ti<e measures /or <i3tims *216 an1 witnesses> an1 to >2ro<i1e 3ounselling an1 su22ort /or t0em. on "on1is3losure o/ !n1i3tment. or o/ an7 2arti3ular 1o3ument or in/ormation. in 2arti3ular in 3ases o/ ra2e an1 se@ual assaultA> 5F"1K56 )A $ules /or P07si3al Prote3tion an1 Ps730ologi3al Well(:eing Se<eral rules 2ro<i1e /or s2e3i/i3 2rote3ti<e measures. in.t0e rules in3lu1e s2e3i/i3 2rote3tions /or <i3tims an1 witnesses. /or reasons w0i30 it 1eems a22ro2riateA> 5F"1716 $ule 4K also *217 gi<es t0e 0am:er 2ower to san3tion a:usi<e :e0a<ior :7 3ounselA 5F"17B6 We 0a<e 3on3erns a:out t0e a:ilit7 o/ t0e 0am:er to remo<e a law7er w0ose 3on1u3t 0arasses a <i3tim or witness. 4ee2ing i1entities /rom t0e 2u:li3. ma7 in3lu1e 2re<ention o/ 0arassment o/ <i3timA T0e $ule allows t0e Trial 0am:er to e@3lu1e a 2erson i/ t0e a33use1 0as >2ersiste1 in 1isru2ti<e 3on1u3tA> 5F"1756 !!A T0e $ule on E<i1en3e in ases o/ Se@ual Assault o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . an1 states t0at >t0e Trial 0am:er ma7 or1er t0e non(1is3losure o/ t0e i1entit7 o/ a <i3tim or witness w0o ma7 :e in 1anger or at ris4 until su30 2erson is :roug0t un1er t0e 2rote3tion o/ t0e Tri:unalA> 5F"1K76 Some o/ t0e rules 3ontain :roa1 2ro<isions. an1 3ontrolling t0e manner o/ Juestioning >to a<oi1 an7 0arassment or intimi1ationA> 5F"1K96 $ule 79 gi<es t0e Trial 0am:er 1is3retion to e@3lu1e t0e 2ress an1 t0e 2u:li3 /rom trial 2ro3ee1ings to 2rote3t t0e >sa/et7. sin3e t0is issue is not s2e3i/i3all7 mentione1 in $ule 7K or $ule I5 on 3ross(e@aminationA 5F"17E6 $ule 9I gi<es t0e Trial 0am:er 1is3retion on Juestions o/ e<i1en3e an1 3oul1 :e inter2rete1 to em2ower t0e 0am:er to Juestion witnesses i/ t0e 1e/ense 3ounsel 0arasses <i3tims or witnessesA 5F"1746 $ule IF. se3urit7 or non(1is3losure o/ t0e i1entit7 o/ a <i3tim or witnessA> 5F"17F6 T0e $ules also 2ro<i1e /or t0e 2re<ention o/ 0arassment o/ witnessesA $ule 77 states t0at >5t60e 0am:er ma7.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. allowing t0at a . i/ satis/ie1 t0at t0e ma4ing o/ su30 an or1er is in t0e interests o/ . in 3onsultation wit0 t0e Prose3utor.> w0i30 3oul1 im2l7 2rote3tions /or <i3tims an1 witnessesA For e@am2le.$ule 4F states t0at 1uring t0e 3on1u3t o/ an in<estigation >t0e Prose3utor ma7 reJuest an7 State to ta4e all ne3essar7 measures to 2re<ent t0e es3a2e o/ a sus2e3t or an7 a33use1. $ule 5E=)?. one(wa7 3lose1 3ir3uit tele<ision.J. 0owe<er. ontrol o/ Pro3ee1ings. also or1er t0at t0ere :e no 2u:li3 1is3losure o/ an in1i3tment.usti3e. 1994A on3ern /or t0e 2rote3tion o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses a22ears to 0a<e :een a 0ig0 2riorit7. 171) Page B1 Tri:unal .u1ge or Trial 0am:er ma7 ta4e measures /or t0e 2ri<a37 an1 sa/et7 o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses. relie<e t0e witness o/ t0e 1ut7 to answer.

an1 /airness to t0e allege1 2er2etrator in allowing t0e 2resention o/ a 3om2lete 1e/enseA A/ter mu30 1is3ussion. not least among sur<i<ors o/ su30 3rimesA> 5F"1776 Two o/ t0e aut0ors o/ t0is arti3le argue1 /or a re<ise1 <ersion o/ $ule 9K=ii? w0i30 woul1 0a<e reJuire1 t0at an irre:uta:le 2resum2tion o/ la34 o/ 3onsent arise w0en t0e <i3tim was in 3usto17. or w0en t0e <i3tim was un1er t0e legal age o/ 3onsentA !n all ot0er 3ir3umstan3es. allowing a stri3tl7 limite1 e@3e2tion /or t0is 1e/ense is im2ortant /or t0e legitima37 o/ t0e Tri:unal's 2ro3ess an1 will ma4e it more rele<ant as a 2re3e1ent (( to ot0er arme1 3on/li3t o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . in3lu1ing a3tual or t0reatene1 2s730ologi3al 0arm to t0e <i3tim or anot0er 2ersonA Howe<er. t0e 2resum2tion o/ 3oer3ion 3an :e o<er3ome an1 a 1e/ense o/ 3onsent 2ermitte1 onl7 i/ t0e 1e/en1ant 3an 1emonstrate at an in 3amera 0earing t0at 0e 3an 2ro<e 3onsent on e<i1en3e. t0e women's rig0ts organiCation EJualit7 "ow 2ro2ose1 t0at t0e re<ision o/ $ule 9K :e re<o4e1. an1 4? to 2re<ent 0arassment. re3ognition o/ t0e 3oer3i<e 3ir3umstan3es in w0i30 women were se@uall7 assaulte1 in t0e /ormer . an1 =:? 1emonstrate 3onsent t0roug0 o:. we /ormulate1 our re3ommen1ations to 2ro<i1e /or a strong 2resum2tion against t0e 1e/ense o/ 3onsentA We em20asiCe1 t0e im2ro:a:ilit7 t0at /alse 30arges woul1 eit0er :e ma1e or sur<i<e t0e in<estigati<e 2ro3esses o/ t0e Tri:unalA We :elie<e1 t0at. t0e . or t0e t0reat o/ /or3e or 1e2ri<ation (( woul1 2re3lu1e an7 1e/ense o/ 3onsentA )ut we sto22e1 s0ort o/ 3reating an a:solutel7 irre:utta:le 2resum2tion o/ /or3e in all 3ir3umstan3es. :e3ause we 3oul1 not 1en7 t0at <oluntar7 se@ual relations0i2s 0a<e o33urre1 :etween enemies in warA T0us we 2ro2ose1 t0at on3e a :roa1 range o/ 3ir3umstan3es re3ogniCe1 as 3oer3i<e 0as :een s0own. t0e 3oer3i<eness o/ t0e 3ir3umstan3es (( 1etention. in3lu1ing 2ro<isions t0at 1? t0e 1e/en1ant must ma4e a motion to inter2ose t0e 1e/ense o/ 3onsent 1uring t0e 2re(trial stage an1 t0e Tri:unal must resol<e t0e Juestion at t0is stage9 B? t0e *219 1e/en1ant s0oul1 :ear t0e :ur1en o/ 2roo/ o/ 3onsent gi<en t0e in0erentl7 3oer3i<e 3ir3umstan3es an1 ineJualit7 :etween o33u2ier an1 o33u2ie19 E? to esta:lis0 3onsent.u1ges 1uring t0e /i/t0 2lenar7 sessionA T0e oor1ination's letter also argue1 t0at >a 2lea o/ 3onsent in 3ases su30 as t0ose wit0 w0i30 t0e Tri:unal is 1ealing will 3reate a <er7 real 2ro:lem o/ 3on/i1en3e 3on3erning t0e Tri:unal 2ro3ess. 171) Page BB &ur grou2 1eli:erate1 long an1 intensel7 a:out t0e 1eli3ate :alan3e :etween t0e nee1 /or t0e elimination o/ gen1er( stereot72es.u1ges 1uring t0e /ourt0 2lenar7 sessionA T0e oor1ination /or Women's A1<o3a37.u1ges 1i1 not /ormulate rules s2e3i/7ing t0at t0e :ur1en o/ 2roo/ remains wit0 t0e 1e/en1ant or 3reating a 2ro3e1ure /or stri3tl7 s3rutiniCing t0e a1mission o/ e<i1en3e on t0is 1e/enseA Esta:lis0ing a rule an1 2ro3e1ure w0i30 2ro<i1e t0e ma@imum 2rote3tion to t0e <i3tim w0ile still 2rote3ting t0e rig0ts o/ t0e 1e/en1ant 3ontinues to :e a /o3us o/ our e//ortsA T0e issue o/ 0ow an1 w0et0er to 2ermit a 1e/ense o/ 3onsent in t0ese 3ir3umstan3es 3ontinues to :e 1e:ate1A !n Jul7 1994. in our <iew. in1e2en1ent o/ t0e <i3tim's testimon7. t0e 1e/en1ant must esta:lis0 t0e :asis /or 0is 1e/ense o/ 3onsent using e<i1en3e ot0er t0an t0e <i3tim's testimon7A We :elie<e t0at alt0oug0 a legitimate 1e/ense o/ 3onsent is e@3ee1ingl7 unli4el7. or un1er 3om2ara:le 3ir3umstan3es o/ 3oer3ion. 1994. 3onsistent wit0 our original 2ro2osal.> an1 t0e organiCation sent a letter e@2ressing its 3on3erns to t0e . we again wrote to t0e Tri:unal em20asiCing t0e im2ro:a:ilit7 o/ 3onsent an1 t0e nee1 /or 2ro3e1ural sa/eguar1s to 2ro0i:it t0e 0arassment o/ <i3tims an1 witnessesA We 3ommen1e1 t0e sensiti<it7 o/ t0e Tri:unal . sent a similar letter to t0e .ugosla<ia. A2ril B5 ( +a7 5.u1ges re<ise1 $ule 9K=ii?A 5F"17K6 T0e re<ision state1 t0at e<i1en3e o/ 3onsent is not a1missi:le w0ere t0e <i3tim was su:. 1etention. t0e 1e/en1ant must =a? negate t0e e@isten3e or im2a3t o/ an7 o/ t0e 3oer3i<e 3ir3umstan3es outline1 in $ule 9K=ii?. t0at a se@ual relations0i2 not tainte1 :7 3oer3i<e 3ir3umstan3es o33urre1A T0is stan1ar1 o/ 2roo/ is <er7 e@a3ting an1. eliminates t0e 1e/ense o/ 3onsent in all :ut t0e most unusual 3asesA T0is 2ro3e1ural reJuirement is inten1e1 to 2re3lu1e 0arassment an1 re( traumatiCation o/ <i3timsA T0e Tri:unal's /irst set o/ rules totall7 2re3lu1e1 t0e 1e/ense o/ 3onsentA !t 1rew 3riti3ism /rom a num:er o/ 3ommentators an1 we learne1 t0at t0e Tri:unal inten1e1 to re3onsi1er $ule 9K=ii? at its A2ril 1994 *218 sessionA Fearing t0is woul1 3ause t0e Tri:unal to a:an1on its 2resum2tion an1. t0e . stri3t 2ro3e1ural sa/eguar1s woul1 :e a22lie1.u1ges to t0e nee1s o/ <i3tims o/ se@ 3rimes an1 re3ommen1e1 a 2ro3e1ure to allow t0e 1e/ense o/ 3onsent in t0e e@tremel7 narrow 3ir3umstan3es w0ere it mig0t :e rele<antA At t0eir t0ir1 2lenar7 session. in general.e3ti<e e<i1en3e o/ a//irmati<e s2ee30 or a3tion o/ t0e <i3tim.J.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.e3t to 3oer3ion. 3alling it >a misgui1e1 a22li3ation o/ 3i<il law to a militar7 law 3onte@t in w0i30 it 0as no meaningA> T0e organiCation urge1 t0at t0e /o3us s0i/t to t0e 1e/inition o/ war 3rimesA EJualit7 "ow argue1 /urt0er t0at >t0e <er7 nature o/ ra2e as a war 3rime 2resu22oses 3ir3umstan3es o/ war w0i30 ma4e 3onsent a non( issue. :ase1 in Euro2e.

we woul1 re3ommen1 a s7stem similar to t0e Fren30 s7stem (( 2arti 3i<il (( allowing legal re2resentation to t0e <i3tim t0roug0out t0e 3riminal 2ro3essA $ules I9 an1 9F 2ro<i1e t0at onl7 li<e testimon7 ma7 :e 2ro<i1e1A 5F"1IF6 'o t0ese rules allow /or t0e a1mission o/ an7 testimon7. an1 t0e a33use1A As t0is . sworn or unsworn. 2ro/essionalism. t0ere is an e<en greater in3enti<e /or a 2er2etrator to mur1er witnessesA A Sta//ing t0e Tri:unal an1 Training all Personnel in !ssues o/ #en1er()ase1 rimes T0roug0out t0e 2ro3ess o/ t0e 3reation o/ t0e Tri:unal. to ensure t0e e//e3ti<e re2resentation an1 2rote3tion o/ t0e rig0ts o/ sur<i<ors an1 witnesses t0roug0out t0e 2ro3ess.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. e<en t0oug0 2rose3ution an1 in<estigation teams 0a<e :egun wor4A T0ree in1i3tments 0a<e :een issue1 =against a total o/ twent7(one 1e/en1ants?A !t is essential t0at t0e o//i3e is 2ro<i1e1 wit0 ne3essar7 resour3es an1 ot0er su22ort so t0at it ma7 *220 :e /ull7 o2erational as soon as 2ossi:leA T0ere are a num:er o/ o2en Juestions a:out t0e 207si3al se3urit7 an1 2s730ologi3al 2rote3tion o/ sur<i<ors an1 witnesses w0i30 ma4e 1ela7e1 esta:lis0ment o/ t0e *i3tims an1 Witnesses %nit 2arti3ularl7 3riti3alA )A Legal A1<o3a37 /or *i3tims an1 Witnesses T0e *i3tims an1 Witnesses %nit 2ro<i1es /or 3ounselling. we 0a<e a1<o3ate1 /or gen1er 2arit7 in t0e sele3tion o/ . 2arti3ularl7 t0e rule 3on3erning t0e 1e/ense o/ 3onsent. in or1er to ensure t0e /ull rig0t o/ <i3tims to 3om2ensation. witnesses. sta//. we also re3ogniCe t0at in an7 2rose3utorial 2ro3ess t0e interests o/ t0e 2rose3utor ma7 1i//er /rom t0ose o/ t0e <i3tims an1 witnessesA !n a11ition.ournal goes to 2ress. must :e 3are/ull7 monitore1A Alt0oug0 we are 2lease1 t0at two o/ t0e Prose3utor's initial in1i3tments 0a<e 30arge1 ra2e as a gra<e :rea30 o/ t0e #ene<a on<entions as well as a <iolation o/ t0e laws an1 3ustoms o/ war an1 a 3rime against 0umanit7.J.u1ges an1 2ersonnel /or t0e Prose3utor's o//i3e an1 t0e $egistr7A We 3ontinue to 2ress /or t0e 0iring o/ women at o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . /rom a <i3tim or witness w0o 0as :een 4ille1 :e/ore trialN T0ere 0a<e :een re2orts t0at witnesses 0a<e :een 4ille1 an1 i/ t0e testimon7 is not allowe1. we reiterate our re3ommen1ation t0at sur<i<ors an1 witnesses 0a<e legal 3ounsel in1e2en1ent o/ t0e 2rose3utor's o//i3eA W0ile we 0a<e /ait0 in t0at o//i3e's integrit7. an1 ot0er ne3essities /or t0e *i3tims an1 Witnesses %nit. t0e /i/t0 2lenar7 session 0as 3om2lete1 a11itional re<isionsA 5F"17I6 !!!A ontinuing on3erns !ssues w0i30 reJuire 3ontinue1 monitoring :7 /eminists in3lu1e t0e in<estigation an1 inter2retation o/ some o/ t0e rules on t0e 3on1u3t o/ in<estigations an1 trials as well as t0e im2lementation o/ 2rote3ti<e me30anismsA T0e rules 1esigne1 to s3reen out 1is3rimination an1 0arassment. an1 3ommitment to <i3tims an1 witnesses. 171) situations an1 to >2ea3etimeA> Page BE E//orts to esta:lis0 an a1eJuate rule w0i30 2rote3ts <i3tims t0roug0out t0e 2ro3ess an1 allows t0em t0e o22ortunit7 to testi/7 i/ t0e7 /reel7 30oose to 1o so will 3ontinueA &2tions are :eing e@2lore1 an1 /urt0er resear30 3on1u3te1 to as3ertain t0e :est 2ossi:le a22roa30 to 2rote3t <i3tims. :ut not /or legal a1<i3e or re2resentationA We 0o2e t0at t0e >3ounselling> /un3tion in3lu1es legal as2e3tsA !n1ee1. we are 3on3erne1 t0at in a22l7ing an unreasona:l7 0ig0 stan1ar1 /or torture a3ross t0e :oar1 0e 0as /aile1 to re3ogniCe ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual a:use as tortureA 5F"1796 Se<eral a11itional 3on3erns warrant 3omment 0ereAA T0e %A"A must 2ro<i1e a1eJuate su22ort /or t0e *i3tims an1 Witnesses %nit A 2rimar7 3on3ern 3ontinues to :e t0e la34 o/ /un1ing.

A 'i<ision o/ Human $ig0ts Wat30. Patri34 otter. an1 )et0 Ste20ens.T0e . $ule 1B5. $ule 1FK.ugosla<ia =A2ril 199E? 5550ereina/ter See4ing Justi3e69 +orten )ergsmo. 4It0 SessA. B1 SessA.J. Swaine O +oore /or t0e Law7ers ommittee /or Human $ig0ts. we 0a<e a1<o3ate1 /or t0e a22ointment o/ a 'e2ut7 Prose3utor wit0 e@2erien3e in se@ 3rimesA T0is is 2arti3ularl7 im2ortant :e3ause se@ual <iolen3e against women in war settings is an issue w0i30 must :e e@2lore1 wit0 res2e3t to e<er7 2otential in1i3tmentA T0e e//e3ti<e 2rose3ution o/ se@ual <iolen3e 3annot :e relegate1 to a se2arate >se@ 3rimes unit> as man7 2rose3utor's o//i3es in t0e %nite1 States 0a<e 1oneA T0e a22ointment o/ women in t0ese im2ortant o//i3es 3an ensure t0at gen1er 3on3erns are 2ro2erl7 re3ogniCe1 an1 integrate1 t0roug0out t0e Tri:unal's wor4A A woman 0as re3entl7 :een a22ointe1 at a 0ig0 le<el wit0in t0e Prose3utor's o//i3e. see Pa7am A40a<an. Anne@. !TGEB =14 +ar30 1994?.A +emoran1um Su:mitte1 to t0e $oun1 Ta:le on t0e !nternational War rimes Tri:unal =1994?9 Helsin4i Wat30.uestion o/ Justi3e an1 Fairness in t0e !nternational War rimes Tri:unal /or t0e Former . in/raA 5F"16A T0e Tri:unal is o//i3iall7 title1 t0e !nternational Tri:unal /or t0e Prose3ution o/ Persons $es2onsi:le /or Serious *iolations o/ !nternational Humanitarian Law ommitte1 in t0e Territor7 o/ t0e Former . +emoran1um to t0e %nite1 "ations. es2e3iall7 3onsi1ering t0at re2orts 0a<e in1i3ate1 t0at so mu30 o/ t0e 2ro2ert7 lost was 0omes an1 2ersonal e//e3tsA We argue t0at $ule 1FK must :e strengt0ene1 to an eJual le<elA !t is also signi/i3ant t0at t0e rule on Ju1gments. %A"A 'o3A SG$ESGIFI =199E?A See also $ules o/ Pro3e1ure an1 E<i1en3e. 14 HumA $tsA LA JA E71 =199E?A For a summar7 o/ t0e a3tions ta4en :7 t0e worl1 3ommunit7 to a11ress 0uman rig0ts atro3ities in t0e /ormer . T0e Esta:lis0ment o/ t0e !nternational Tri:unal on War rimes.See4ing Justi3e an1 Fairness in t0e !nternational War rimes Tri:unal /or t0e Former . sta// 1i<ersit7 remains a serious issueA !t is im2erati<e t0at women an1 2eo2le /rom 1i<erse regions :e 0ire1 in eJual num:er so as to assure t0e integration o/ gen1er 3on3erns in all as2e3ts an1 stages o/ t0e in<estigati<e an1 trial 2ro3essA 'A on3erns A:out on<i3tion an1 Post( on<i3tion P0ase an1 om2ensation /or *i3tims T0e 2ro<ision on 3om2ensation /or in. E175t0 mtgA.u1gments an1 3laims /or 3om2ensation to national tri:unals runs t0e serious ris4 o/ allowing t0e Tri:unal to a:1i3ate res2onsi:ilit7 at a 2arti3ularl7 3riti3al 20ase (( w0en issues o/ restitution. t0e 2ro<ision on t0e stan1ar1s /or granting 2ar1on or 3ommutation. !nternational Tri:unal on War rimes in t0e Former . Punis0ing War rimes in t0e o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . mentions neit0er 3ontinuing t0reat o/ 1anger or trauma to t0e <i3tims or witnesses nor t0e a33ess o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses to t0e 2ro3ess o/ ma4ing su30 1e3isionsA 5F"a6A T0ese materials were 3om2ile1 :7 Jenni/er #reen. $ule II. 171) Page B4 all le<elsA For e@am2le.ear Later =Fe:ruar7 1994? 50ereina/ter Helsin4i Wat30 !!69 Amnest7 !nternational. in/raA 5F"B6A For a11itional in/ormation on t0e 0istor7 o/ t0e Tri:unal.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. T0e War rimes Tri:unal&ne . an1 Patri34 otterA T0e Pre/a3e an1 on3lusion were written :7 Jenni/er #reen. Dat0leen Pratt. see ra<at0. %A"A 'o3A SGB57F4 =199E? 5550ereina/ter Tri:unal Statute6A See SA $esA IFI. $0on1a o2elon an1 Patri34 otterA T0e Pro2osal itsel/ was written :7 $0on1a o2elon an1 t0e !nternational Women's Human $ig0ts lini3 at t0e it7 %ni<ersit7 o/ "ew . onl7 ma4es a re/eren3e to $ule 1F5 an1 ignores 1FKA 5F"1I16 Finall7. assiste1 :7 t0e in1i<i1uals an1 organiCations a34nowle1ge1 in note 44. A 'i<ision o/ Human $ig0ts Wat30.ugosla< War rimes Tri:unal 5 =August 199E? 50ereina/ter Helsin4i Wat30 !69 Helsin4i Wat30. is e@tremel7 wea4A T0e 3urrent 1elegation o/ en/or3ement o/ . an1 anot0er woman attorne7 ser<es as a legal a1<iser on gen1er issuesA Alt0oug0 t0e *221 Prose3utor's o//i3e 0as in1i3ate1 its 3ommitment to in3reasing t0e 2arti3i2ation o/ women an1 2eo2le /rom t0e Sout0. 17 Januar7(11 Fe:ruar7 1994.ugosla<ia =A2ril 199E? 50ereina/ter A! +emoran1um69 Amnest7 !nternational. From "urem:erg to t0e )al4ans. 4It0 SessA.ugosla<ia. %A"A S &$.or4. A22en1i@ A. at 4F. Pro3e1ural an1 E<i1entiar7 !ssues /or t0e . an1 re0a:ilitation are 3onsi1ere1A T0e strengt0 o/ $ule 1F5 /or t0e restitution o/ 2ro2ert7 is im2ortant an1 3ommen1a:le. 3om2ensation.ugosla<ia 2rior to t0e esta:lis0ment o/ t0e Tri:unal. $0on1a o2elon.ur7 to <i3tims. Jenni/er #reen.ugosla<ia sin3e 1991A %A"A S &$.

171) Former . none o/ t0e a33use1 was 30arge1 wit0 ra2eA Agreement on Punis0ment o/ Persons #uilt7 o/ War rimes.e3t o/ Human $ig0ts Wat30 an1 t0e Women's Program o/ P07si3ians /or Human $ig0tsA Human rig0ts organiCations w0i30 ga<e s2e3i/i3 attention to t0e <iolen3e against women in3lu1e t0e Ja3o: )laustein !nstitute.ugosla<ia. e<en t0oug0 su:seJuent in<estigations re<eale1 e@tensi<e >militar7 se@ual sla<er7. War rimes in *ietnam =19K7?A &t0er nongo<ernmental organiCations 0a<e 2ursue1 strategies su30 as 2u:li3iCing war 3rimes t0roug0 t0e ommission on Human $ig0tsA D0a1er <A %nite1 States. 199E?9 +aria $osa Luna Henson etA alA <A #o<ernment o/ Ja2an.e3ting 3i<ilians to >in1ignities. 49t0 SessA. Petition an1 Statement Su:mitte1 to t0e ommission on Human $ig0ts :7 t0e !nternational Fellows0i2 /or $e3on3iliation =Fe:ruar7 199B? =&n /ile wit0 t0e enter /or onstitutional $ig0ts?A 5F"46A Final re2ort o/ t0e ommission o/ E@2erts esta:lis0e1 Pursuant to Se3urit7 S &$.A BKE =199E?A Page B5 5F"E6A See generall7 )ertran1 $ussell. Petition /ile1 wit0 t0e %nite1 "ations ommission on Human $ig0ts Pursuant to $esolution 15FE =&3tA BK. 1994?A &t0er lo3al an1 regional e//orts against gen1er(s2e3i/i3 militar7 <iolen3e gaine1 greater international attention t0roug0 t0e /a3t(/in1ing missions initiate1 :7 <arious women's non(go<ernmental organiCations. torture an1 ot0er :ar:ari3 3ruelties u2on t0e 0el2less 3i<ilian 2o2ulation o/ t0e o<er(run 3ountriesA> 1 T0e To47o War rimes Trial.A riti3al Jun3ture /or t0e "ew Worl1 &r1er. an1 >1i1 not0ing.> t0e trial o/ ra2e was not a ma.+ilitar7 Se@ual Sla<er7 )7 Ja2an 'uring Worl1 War !! (( T0e ase o/ t0e Fili2ino om/ort Women ='an PA ali3a O "elia San30o e1sA.791A Howe<er. an1 ot0er atro3ities were :eing 3ommitte1 1ail7A> !1A at 49. esta:lis0ing t0e .> t0e ma. !n1i3tment at 1 =$A Jo0n Prit30ar1 O Sonia +ag:anna Pai1e e1sA 19I1?A T0is in1i3tment also 0a1 a se2arate 2ro<ision /or su:. "oA E.J. in3lu1ing t0e ra2e o/ t0ousan1s o/ women. t0e enter /or onstitutional $ig0ts. Ju1gment at 49.I14(I1KA 'e/en1ant Hirota was /oun1 guilt7 o/ <iolations o/ t0e laws o/ war :e3ause >0e was 3ontent to rel7 on assuran3es w0i30 0e 4new were not :eing im2lemente1 w0ile 0un1re1s o/ mur1ers.or e//ort. an1 t0e !nternational Human $ig0ts Law #rou2 /or t0e A1<an3ement o/ Human $ig0tsA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . :rigan1age.>mass mur1er. 'e/en1ant +atsui was /oun1 guilt7 o/ <iolations o/ t0e laws o/ war :e3ause as lea1er o/ t0e 3a2ture o/ "an4ing.0allenging t0e Tra1ition o/ !m2unit7. 14 SA!S $e<iew I1 =1994?A 5F"K6A T0e glo:al 3am2aign /or women's 0uman rig0ts re/ers to a loosel7 4nit 3on<ergen3e o/ grou2s w0i30 i1enti/ie1 t0e 199E *ienna Worl1 on/eren3e on Human $ig0ts as a target :ot0 /or grass roots organiCing on :e0al/ o/ women's 0uman rig0ts an1 /or trans/orming t0e 0uman rig0ts 2lat/orm :7 t0e integration o/ t0e rig0ts o/ womenA T0e issue o/ women in war was alrea17 a signi/i3ant /o3us o/ its a3ti<ities 2rior to t0e atro3ities in )osnia( HerCego<ina. <iolations o/ women. %A"A 'o3A "oA SG1994G14F5 =1994?A oun3il $esolution 9E5. $a2e as a rime o/ War. 0e 4new o/ atro3ities. ra2e. at 4F(5B. 2illage.A +e1i3al Pers2e3ti<e. 194K. K9(7F =Fall 197E?A For an e@3ellent o<er<iew o/ t0e wi1es2rea1 use o/ ra2e 1uring war. s2ear0ea1e1 :7 Dorean an1 Fili2ina women an1 men to 0ol1 t0e Ja2anese a33ounta:le /or t0e se@ual sla<er7 o/ >3om/ort> women 1uring t0e Se3on1 Worl1 WarA See generall7 War rimes on Asian women.or 3ategor7 in w0i30 ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual assaults against women 0a<e tra1itionall7 :een in3lu1e1A E<i1en3e o/ ra2e was use1 :7 t0e To47o Tri:unal to su22ort 3on<i3tions on 30arges o/ war 3rimes an1 >3rimes against 0umanit7A> For e@am2le. w0i30 go<erne1 t0e su:seJuent trials o/ lower(le<el "aCis 0el1 :7 t0e Allie1 militar7 2owers9 0owe<er. T0e !n<estigation o/ "aCi rimes 1945(197I =19IF?A T0e !n1i3tment /or t0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal /or t0e Far East =t0e To47o Tri:unal? 1es3ri:es as ><iolation5s6 o/ re3ogniCe1 3ustoms an1 3on<entions o/ war> t0e /ollowing o//enses. omman1 $es2onsi:ilit7 /or War rimes.A T0omas O $egan EA $al20. 1945. JanA E1.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. 5F(55 =a1o2te1 :7 t0e allie1 2owers 'e3A BF. +ilA LA $e<A 1. see 'orot07 . nota:l7 in t0e ma. t0e !nternational League /or Human $ig0ts. $a2e in War. nota:l7 t0e Women's $ig0ts Pro. 15 HumA $tsA .uris1i3tion o/ militar7 tri:unals o2erating in t0e o33u2ation Cones?A See generall7 A1al:ert $u34erl. B7F JA+A K1B =199E?9 WAHA Par4s. or not0ing e//e3ti<e to a:ate t0ese 0orrorsA> T0e To47o War rimes Trial. %A"A 5F"56A $a2e an1 /or3e1 2rostitution were not re3ogniCe1 as o//enses :7 t0e "urem:erg tri:unalA $a2e was re3ogniCe1 as a 3rime against 0umanit7 in Lo3al oun3il Law "oA 1F. ontrol oun3il /or #erman7.or /o3usA See generall7 S0ana Swiss an1 Joan EA #iller.

4It0 SessA. %A"A 'o3A SG!"FG47 =199B? =3alle1 u2on t0e Se3retar7(#eneral to esta:lis0 an in1e2en1ent ommission o/ E@2erts to anal7Ce an1 3olle3t in/ormation on 0umanitarian law <iolations?A For a summar7 o/ t0e rele<ant resolutions. %A"A 'o3A SGB5B74 =199E?9 Hearing )e/ore t0e ommission on Se3urit7 an1 oo2eration in Euro2e.J.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. %A"A 'o3A EG "A4G199EG5F =199E? 50ereina/ter +aCowie34i Fi/t0 $e2ort69 Amnest7 !nternational. Fi/t0 Perio1 $e2ort on t0e Situation o/ Human $ig0ts in t0e Territor7 o/ t0e Former . *olume !! =199E?. t0e ommission on Human $ig0ts 0el1 t0e /irst emergen37 S2e3ial Session in its 0istor7 an1 as4e1 /or t0e a22ointment o/ a S2e3ial $a22orteurA A/ter 0is a22ointment. $e2ort6. see %"A(%SA's Pro. #AAA $esA 147. 2araA EB. %A"A S &$. %A"A S &$. War rimes in )osnia(Her3ego<ina.ugosla<ia?9 %ASA 'e2artment o/ State.u1i3e an1 1esigne1 to 3ommit geno3i1e against a 2eo2leA>?9 $o7 #utman. %A"A S &$. an1 legal a1<i3e /or t0ose w0o wis0 to 2rose3ute. 47t0 SessA. %A"A S &$. %A"A 'o3A SG!"FG47 =199B? =3on1emne1 international 0umanitarian law <iolations an1 3alle1 u2on international 0umanitarian organiCations to 3olle3t in/ormation on <iolations?9 SA $esA 7IF.ugosla<ian 3on/li3t un1er international 0umanitarian lawA See. "o Pea3e6A 5F"I6A T0e wor4 o/ grou2s t0roug0out t0e /ormer .ugosla<ia an1 Euro2e 0as 2ro<i1e1 su22ort to women re/ugees an1 a1<o3ate1 /or t0e e//e3ti<e 2rose3ution o/ se@ 3rimesA T0eir wor4 in3lu1es 2ro<i1ing 2s730ologi3al 3ounselling.ugosla<ia =AugA 9. 49t0 SessA.ugosla<ia. E175t0 mtgA. *olA !! 69 P07si3ians /or Human $ig0ts O Human $ig0ts Wat30.ugosla<ia su:mitte1 :7 +rA Ta1eusC +aCowie34i.' a 2oli37 :ase1 on 2re. 4It0 SessA. 47t0 SessA. 47t0 SessA. eAgA. %A"A 'o3A SG$ESGIFI =199E?A 5F"146A +emoran1um /rom t0e !nternational Women's Human $ig0ts Law lini3 o/ %". Ta1eusC +aCowie34i :egan w0at 0a<e :e3ome 3ontinuing in<estigations into t0e atro3ities in t0e /ormer .#ross A:uses o/ )asi3 Human $ig0ts =199B?9 !nternational Human $ig0ts Law #rou2. ountr7 $e2orts on Human $ig0ts Pra3ti3es =Fe:A 199E9 Fe:A 19949 Fe:A 1995?9 Amnest7 !nternational. Situation o/ Human $ig0ts in t0e Territor7 o/ t0e Former . 2ursuant to ommission $esolution 199EG7 o/ BE Fe:ruar7 199E. )osnia( Her3ego<ina. eAgA. at BF 50ereina/ter Wat30 $e2ort. SA $esA 7K4. Summar7 o/ %A"A $esolutions on3erning . 5 Hastings Women's Law Journal I9 =1994? 50ereina/ter "o Justi3e. Witness to #eno3i1e =199E? =3om2ilation o/ #utman's re2orts /or "ews1a7 on t0e geno3i1e in t0e /ormer . 171) Page BK 5F"76A See. %A"A 'o3A AG$ESG47G147 =199E?9 Letter 'ate1 9 Fe:ruar7. +aCowie34i 0as issue1 /i/teen re2ortsA 5F"1F6A !n a11ition. %A"A S &$. 207si3al su22ort. S30ool o/ Law to t0e Se3retar7 #eneral o/ t0e %nite1 "ations =199E? 5550ereina/ter %". A22en1i@ ). "o Justi3e.ugosla<ia. "o Pea3e.e3t on East an1 entral Euro2e. 1FEr1 ongA. at 1. 47t0 SessA. S2e3ial $a22orteur o/ t0e ommission on Human $ig0ts. 199E?A 5F"1B6A %A"A 0arter .A33ounta:ilit7 /or $a2e an1 #en1er()ase1 *iolen3e in t0e Former . 1st SessA B( E =199E? =ra2es o/ women an1 30il1ren >are 2art o/ t0e s7stemi3 2oli37 o/ 'et0ni3 3leansing. an1 /in1ing legal assistan3e /or re/ugees see4ing as7lumA 5F"96A !n August 199B. artA E9A 5F"1E6A SA $esA IFI. )osnia(HerCego<ina ( $a2e an1 Se@ual A:use :7 Arme1 For3es =Januar7 199E?9 Helsin4i Wat30.ugosla<iaA To 1ate. a s2e3ial in<estigati<e 1elegation o/ t0e Euro2ean wi1es2rea1 ra2e an1 ot0er se@ual assault in t0e /ormer . War rimes in t0e )al4ans =Winter 199E?9 %A"A $esolution. in/raA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . %A"A 'o3A SG!"FG47 =199B? =state1 t0at all 2arties to a 3on/li3t must 3om2l7 wit0 international 0umanitarian law an1 2ersons w0o 3ommit or or1er t0e 3ommission o/ gra<e :rea30es o/ t0e on<entions are in1i<i1uall7 res2onsi:le /or t0eir a3ts?9 SA $esA 771.ugosla<iaA ommunit7 /o3use1 s2e3i/i3all7 on 5F"116A T0e i1ea /or a war 3rimes tri:unal /ollowe1 se<eral resolutions :7 t0e %A"A Se3urit7 oun3il w0i30 a//irme1 t0e 1uties o/ all 2arties to t0e . 199E From t0e Se3retar7(#eneral A11resse1 to t0e Presi1ent o/ t0e Se3urit7 oun3il. %A"A #A&$.

in +ass $a2e. 1BA 5F"BI6A T0e #eneral Assem:l7 ele3te1 t0e 11 . #ermain Le Fo7er 1e ostil =Fran3e?. Se3retar7(#eneral )outros )outros(#0ali a22ointe1 Fren30 . artA BA 5F"BB6A !1A artA EA 5F"BE6A !1A artA 4A 5F"B46A !1A artA 5A 5F"B56A See Part !!. %A"A 'o3A AG$ESG4IG1F4 =1994?A 5F"B16A Tri:unal Statute.u1ges 1uring t0eir /irst session in "o<em:er('e3em:er. %A"A #A&$. artA 5A Page B7 5F"1K6A See $0on1a o2elon. 4It0 SessA. A1ol20us #o1win Dari:i(W07te ="igeria?.$e3on3e2tualiCing rimes Against Women in Time o/ War.urist lau1e Jor1a to re2la3e #ermain Le Fo7er 1e ostil. Sur/a3ing #en1er. artA 11A 5F"B76A !1A artA 11.T0e War Against Women in )osnia( HerCego<ina =Ale@an1ra Stiglma7er e1A. 1994A 5F"B96A Antonio assese =!tal7?. su2ra note 1. 1994. su2ra note 11A 5F"196A A 2reliminar7 1ra/t o/ t0is 1o3ument was su:mitte1 to t0e Tri:unal . 1994?A 5F"176A A 2reliminar7 :u1get was a22ro<e1 on A2ril BF. #AAA $esA 1F4. a 2rominent s30olar an1 aut0or on 0umanitarian lawA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . su2ra note 1. Antonio assese =!tal7?. 199EA !t was t0en re/ine1 an1 sent to t0e .J. w0o as4e1 to ste2 1ownA Australian +a7 )e3ome %A"A War rimes Prose3utor. 19949 it will :e reo2ene1 1uring t0e 49t0 session o/ t0e #eneral Assem:l7 in t0e /all o/ 1994A 5F"1I6A See %"A(%SA. su2ra note 1. as were #eorges +i30el A:i(Saa: =Eg72t?. Jules 'es30enes = ana1a?. $ustan SA Si10wa =Pa4istan?. $euters . 171) 5F"156A Tri:unal Statute. JanA BI. Li Hao2ei = 0ina?. EliCa:et0 &1io()enito = osta $i3a? an1 #a:rielle Dir4 +3'onal1 =%nite1 States?A )ot0 women were ele3te1.u1ges /rom a list o/ BE names su:mitte1 to t0em :7 t0e Se3urit7 oun3ilA !nternational women's organiCations 2roteste1 t0e /a3t t0at onl7 two o/ t0e nominees were women an1 lo::ie1 /or t0e ele3tion o/ t0e two women. in/raA 5F"BK6A Tri:unal Statute. agen1a item 111. Sir "inian Ste20en =Australia? an1 Lal 0an1 *o0ran =+ala7sia?A &n Januar7 BI.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.u1ges /or t0eir se3on1 session in earl7 1994A 5F"BF6A 'e3laration to Eliminate *iolen3e Against Women.

su2ra note E5A 5F"416A Finan3ing o/ t0e !nternational Tri:unal /or t0e Prose3ution o/ Persons $es2onsi:le /or Serious *iolations o/ !nternational Humanitarian Law ommitte1 in t0e Territor7 o/ t0e Former . %A"A 'o3A !TGK1G$e<A 1 =1994?A 5F"EE6A $e2ort o/ t0e !nternational Tri:unal /or t0e Prose3ution o/ Persons $es2onsi:le /or Serious *iolations o/ !nternational Humanitarian Law ommitte1 in t0e Territor7 o/ t0e Former . 49t0 SessA. %A"A 'o3A AG A5G49G4B =1994?A 5F"4B6A T0ese 2ro2osals are su:mitte1 :7 a %ASA(:ase1 wor4ing grou2 o/ legal s30olars an1 attorne7s asso3iate1 wit0 non(go<ernmental 0uman rig0ts organiCationsA T0e 3ontri:utors in3lu1e Pro/essor $0on1a o2elon an1 law stu1ent mem:ers Daren Lesle7(Lo71.or49 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . an1 Dat7a Plotni4.ugosla<ia Sin3e 1991.ugosla<ia E@2ress T0eir on3ern $egar1ing t0e Su:stan3e o/ t0eir Programme o/ Ju1i3ial Wor4 /or 1995. B1 SessA !TGBI =11 Fe:ruar7 1994?A T0e te@ts o/ t0e rules were 2u:lis0e1 :7 t0e %nite1 "ations on +ar30 14. 171) Page BI 5F"EF6A EliCa:et0 &1io()enito = osta $i3a?A 5F"E16A !nternational Tri:unal /or t0e Prose3ution o/ Persons $es2onsi:le /or Serious *iolations o/ !nternational Humanitarian Law ommitte1 in t0e Territor7 o/ t0e Former . Er1 SessA.)outros(#0ali A33e2ts Prose3utor's $esignation.?. Leila +al1ona1o.or4 Law S30ool = %".$e2ort o/ t0e Se3retar7(#eneral as reJueste1 :7 t0e #eneral Assem:l7 in resolution 4IGB51. 1994A 5F"E96A Tri:unal Statute. %nite1 "ations Press an1 !n/ormation &//i3e. . 1994 =%" 'o3A !TGEB?A See also 'o3umentation. Fe:A I. T0e Hague. su2ra note 1. %A"A #A&$. !nternational Tri:unal /or t0e Prose3ution o/ Persons $es2onsi:ile /or Serious *iolations o/ !nternational Humanitarian Law ommitte1 in t0e Territor7 o/ Former .ugosla<ia sin3e 1991.$e(Engra<ing Hastings Women's LA JA 171 =1994?A rimes Against Women in Humanitarian Law. EF. %A"A 'o3A AG49GE4B =1994?A 5F"E46A See $0on1a o2elon.ugosla<ia Sin3e 1991. 15 HumA $ts LAJA EI =1994?A 5F"EB6A Press ommuniJue. artA 17A 5F"4F6A Press $elease. %A"A 'o3A "oA GP!&GFFE(E =1995? 5550ereina/ter. agen1a item 14K. su2ra note 1. Statement :7 t0e Presi1ent +a1e at a )rie/ing to +em:ers o/ 'i2lomati3 +issions. Sur/a3ing #en1er.J.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. 4It0 SessA. "ew .ueens. 5 5F"E56A T0e Ju1ges o/ t0e Tri:unal /or t0e Former . Fi/t0 ommA. artA 1K=1?A 5F"E76A !1A artA 1IA 5F"EI6A )osnia(*eneCuela. on :e0al/ o/ t0e !nternational Women's Human $ig0ts Law lini3 =!WH$L ? o/ it7 %ni<ersit7 o/ "ew . !nter Press Ser<i3e. Press $elease6A 5F"EK6A Tri:unal Statute.!nternational Tri:unal on War rimes. at BK(B7.ugosla<ia Sin3e 1991.

at 71. T0e riminal o1e. Su22A "oA 1A. "ew .ugosla<ia$e2ort Pre2are1 /or t0e Ameri3an Se3tion o/ t0e Asso3iation !nternational 1e 'roit Penal an1 /or t0e !nternational riminal Law !nterest #rou2 o/ t0e Ameri3an So3iet7 o/ !nternational Law 7 =199E? 50ereina/ter )la4esle7 $e2ort69 Helsin4i Wat30 !.> outlines t0e 2ro3e1ure t0at must :e /ollowe1 in a1mitting su30 e<i1en3e.u1ges o/ t0e Tri:unal 0a<e t0e aut0orit7 to 2er/orm su30 inter2reti<e /un3tionsA T0e Tri:unal Statute man1ates t0at t0e . su2ra note B9 T0e Se3tion o/ !nternational Law an1 Pra3ti3e o/ t0e Ameri3an )ar Asso3iation. Wesle7 Hsu. su2ra note 1. su2ra note B9 "o Justi3e. . an1 me30anisms /or witness 2rote3tionT0e . EB1 SessA. l99E 50ereina/ter Se3retar7( #eneral $e2ort6A See SA $esA IB7. asso3iate1 wit0 t0e !nternational Human $ig0ts Law #rou2. Hei1i Ditrosser. %A"A S &$. at 4F. EB17t0 mtgA. E1 SessA =199B? =ena3te1? =2ro<i1es /or stri3t gui1elines in 1etermining t0e a1missi:ilit7 o/ >2ast se@ual 0istor7. Har<ar1 %ni<ersit79 $egan $al20 o/ t0e Women's $ig0ts Pro. Flori1a9 Pro/essor 0risto20er )la4esle7 o/ t0e %ni<ersit7 o/ Louisiana9 $a30el Pine o/ t0e enter /or $e2ro1u3ti<e Law an1 Poli379 Jenni/er S30irmer. "ew . $e2ort on t0e !nternational Tri:unal to A1. Ste<en Par4er. A22en1i@ ).ugosla<ia. #io<anni Seinelli. +assa30usetts9 Dat0leen Pratt. am:ri1ge. %A"A 'o3A SG$ESGIB7G9 =199E?A 5F"446A %ni<ersal 'e3laration o/ Human $ig0ts. 0i3ago(Dent ollege o/ Law. B1st SessA.ale Law S30ool stu1ents )et0an7 )erger. Tim Hol:roo4. 'A A9 Patri34 otter.ueenslA StatA "oA 17 =19I9? =AustlA?9 ana1ian )ill (49.u1ges o/ t0e !nternational Tri:unal s0all a1o2t rules o/ 2ro3e1ure an1 e<i1en3e /or t0e 3on1u3t o/ t0e 2re(trial o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 .J. an1 . %A"A 'o3A SGB5BKK =199E?A 5F"476A See. 'e:ora0 Solomon an1 'a<i1 Weinstein. Was0ington. %A"A #A&$. =199E? 50ereina/ter A)A $e2ort69 %". 4It0 SessA. %A"A 'o3A AGKE1K =19KK? 50ereina/ter ! P$69 on<ention /or t0e Elimination o/ All Forms o/ 'is3rimination Against Women9 'e3laration to Eliminate *iolen3e Against Women. "atalie o:urn.e3t o/ Human $ig0ts Wat309 Har<ar1 Law S30ool stu1ents !n:ar S30wartC. an1 Wen17 Wesler. /ormer 2rose3utor in +iami. enter /or Euro2ean Stu1ies. su2ra note BFA 5F"456A A1o2tion o/ t0e Final 'o3uments an1 $e2ort o/ t0e %A"A 'o3A AG &"FA157G' G1GA11A1 =199E?A on/eren3e.u1i3ate War rimes ommitte1 in Former . A1ministrati<e 'ire3tor o/ t0e Har<ar1 Law S30ool Human $ig0ts Program.u1ges esta:lis0 rules o/ 2ro3e1ure. E4t0 ParlA.or4. #AAA $esA BBFF. rules o/ e<i1en3e. 4It0 SessA. 5F"4K6A See. %A"A S &$. Su22A "oA 1K. "o Pea3e. 2araA EBA 5F"496A Tri:unal Statute.or4A T0e aut0ors also wis0 to a34nowle1ge t0e 3ontri:utions o/ arin Da0gan. Sta// Attorne7 at t0e enter /or onstitutional $ig0ts. /ormer 2rose3utor an1 *isiting Assistant Pro/essor. %A"A #A&$. $e2ort. %A"A 'o3A AGI1F =197K?9 !nternational o<enant on i<il an1 Politi3al $ig0ts. artA 1. eAgA. %A"A 'o3A SGB57F4 =l99E? a1o2te1 :7 t0e Se3urit7 oun3il on +a7 EGB5. #AAA $esA B17A. A11en1um 1. wor4ing wit0 t0e Lowenstein !nternational Human $ig0ts lini3A 5F"4E6A $e2ort o/ t0e Se3retar7(#eneral Pursuant to Paragra20 B o/ Se3urit7 oun3il $esolution IFI. su2ra note 79 0risto20er LA )la4esle7.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. at 5B. an1 1e/ines t0e notion o/ >3onsent> in se@ual assault 3asesA? 5F"4I6A Tri:unal Statute. %A"A #A&$. in/ra9 Letter 'ate1 1F Fe:ruar7 199E From t0e Permanent $e2resentati<e o/ Fran3e to t0e %nite1 "ations A11resse1 to t0e Se3retar7(#eneral. 0i3ago. %A"A S &$. 4It0 SessA. E<i1en3e A3t. artA B(5A 5F"5F6A !1A 5F"516A T0e . an1 &t0er A3ts. 171) Page B9 Jenni/er #reen. su2ra note 1. T0e A1 Ho3 Tri:unal /or rimes Against Humanitarian Law in t0e Former . eAgA. A! +emoran1um. su2ra note B9 See4ing Justi3e. !llinois9 an1 )et0 Ste20ens.

an1 some argue t0e 1ut7. Fe1eral $e2u:li3 o/ . signe1 :7 Prime +inister o/ Fe1eral $e2u:li3 o/ . HumA $tsA ommA. t0e ! $ e@2li3itl7 a34nowle1ge1 t0at t0e >gra<e :rea30es> 1e/inition in Arti3le 147 >o:<iousl7 3o<ers not onl7 ra2e.uris1i3tion> o<er gra<e :rea30es?A 5F"576A Tri:unal Statute.ugosla<ia an1 *i3e(Prime +inister o/ $e2u:li3 o/ roatia9 Agreement signe1 on BB +a7 199B :7 re2resentati<es o/ t0e Presi1en37 o/ t0e $e2u:li3 o/ )osnia( HerCego<ina. en/or3e1 2rostitution.u1i3ial o2inions an1 t0e wor4s o/ . 2arasA E5I(74 =197K?9 Amnest7 !nternational.e3te1 to An7 Form o/ 'etention or !m2risonment. signe1 in #ene<a :7 re2resentati<es o/ t0e $e2u:li3 o/ roatia. t0e Part7 o/ 'emo3rati3 A3tion an1 t0e roatian 'emo3rati3 ommunit7 =all o/ t0e a:o<e on /ile wit0 aut0ors?A 5F"5K6A To 1esignate a 3rime a >gra<e :rea30> gi<es all 3ountries t0e rig0t. $e2ort :7 t0e S2e3ial $a22orteur. to tr7 t0ese 3rimes =iAeA. t0e 2rote3tion o/ <i3tims an1 witnesses an1 ot0er a22ro2riate mattersA Tri:unal Statute. artA 15A 5F"5B6A on<entional law is t0e law o/ treaties. t0e Ser:ian 'emo3rati3 Part7. su2ra note 7A 5F"546A ! P$. an1 ot0er written :ilateral or multilateral signe1 agreements :etween nationsA ustomar7 international law is t0at w0i30 is 3onsi1ere1 a33e2te1 as t0e law o/ nations9 it is 1eri<e1 /rom t0e usage o/ nations. su2ra. KEF FAB1 I7K. su2ra note 1. 171) Page EF 20ase o/ t0e 2ro3ee1ings. 4 EurA HumA $tsA $e2A 4IB. 3on<entions. t0e a1mission o/ e<i1en3e. su2ra note 1. in T0e %nite1 "ations an1 Human $ig0ts. o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . artA BA T0eo1or+eron. A22A "osA K7IFG74 an1 K95FG75. %A"A #A&$.J. Su22A "oA 51. su2ra note 449 on<ention Against Torture an1 &t0er ruel. !n0uman or 'egra1ing Treatment or Punis0ment. 519 nAEI =P0ili2 Alston e1A. 5F9. I7 AmA JA !nt'lA LA 4B4. a1o2te1 AugA 1B. 3o<enants.uestion o/ Human $ig0ts o/ all Persons Su:. "o Pea3e. 3ite1 in )latt. at I47 nA151A See also 72rus <A Tur4e7. at 197. 19 "A.ugosla<ia an1 t0e $e2u:li3 o/ roatia9 Agreement rea30e1 un1er !nternational ommittee o/ t0e $e1 ross aus2i3es on BI O B9 Jul7 199B.Human $ig0ts *iolations Against Women =1991?A 5F"5I6A See !nternational ommittee o/ t0e $e1 ross. !n0uman or 'egra1ing Treatment or Punis0ment. 1ate1 B7 "o<em:er 1991.ur7 to :o17 or 0ealt0. %A"A 'o3A AGE9G51 =19I7? 50ereina/ter Torture on<ention6A 5F"556A Statement on res2e3t o/ 0umanitarian 2rin3i2les ma1e :7 t0e Presi1ents o/ t0e si@ re2u:li3s in t0e Hague on 5 "o<em:er 19919 +emoran1um o/ %n1erstan1ing. Torture an1 &t0er ruel. II4 =B1 irA 19IF?A 5F"5E6A Se3tion !!=)?=1? is a slig0tl7(mo1i/ie1 a1a2tation o/ Se3tion !=)? o/ "o Justi3e.ugosla<ia an1 $e2u:li3 o/ Ser:ia9 A11en1um to t0e +emoran1um o/ %n1erstan1ing o/ B7"o<em:er 1991. trials an1 a22eals. signe1 :7 re2resentati<es o/ t0e Fe1eral $e2u:li3 o/ . 1949. Women on t0e Frontline. %A"A ES &$.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. #AAA $esA E9G4K. l99B?9 . t0ere is >uni<ersal .> /or3e1 im2regnation an1 /or3e1 maternit7 woul1 t0us Juali/7 as >gra<e :rea30es> w0en 3ommitte1 against >2rote3te1 2ersonsA> !1A 5F"596A #ene<a on<ention $elati<e to t0e Prote3tion o/ i<ilian Persons in Time o/ War.A%A $e<A LA O So3A 0ange IB1 =199B?9 An1rew )7rnes. %A"A 'o3A EG "A4G19IK. $e3ogniCing $a2e As A +et0o1 o/ Torture. $a2e As A rime %n1er !nternational Law. in 2arti3ular against ra2e. E9t0 SessA. %21ate on t0e Ai1e +emoire =199B? 50ereina/ter Ai1e +emoire 6A T0e ! $ re3ogniCe1 t0at t0e a3t o/ ra2e is an e@tremel7 serious <iolation o/ international 0umanitarian law. T0e ommittee Against Torture. . or an7 /orm o/ in1e3ent assaultA> !1A !n a11ition. as it <iolates t0e man1ate in Arti3le B7 o/ t0e Fourt0 #ene<a on<ention 2ro<i1ing s2e3ial 2rote3tion /or women against >an7 atta34 on t0eir 0onor. :ut also an7 ot0er atta34 on a woman's 1ignit7A> !1A at 2araA B =em20asis a11e1?A As a3ts w0i30 3learl7 atta34 a woman's 1ignit7 an1 >will/ull7 3aus5e6 great su//ering or serious in. 4B5 nA7 =1991?9 'e:ora0 )latt.uristsA $estatement =T0ir1? o/ t0e Foreign $elations Law o/ t0e %nite1 States s 7FB9 Filartiga <A Pena(!rala.

199E /rom Se3retar7( #eneral A11resse1 to Presi1ent o/ t0e Se3urit7 oun3il. 75 %A"ATASA BI7. w0et0er 1ire3te1 against t0e +uslim 2o2ulation o/ )osnia an1 HerCego<ina or against an7 ot0er national. in 3ase o/ a 3on/li3t or o33u2ation. or o/ 3om2li3it7 in geno3i1e. in 2arti3ular against ra2e. 1977. su2ra note 79 !nterim $e2ort o/ t0e ommission o/ E@2erts Esta:lis0e1 Pursuant to Se3urit7 oun3il $esolution 7IF =199B?. 171) K %ASATA E51K. 2aramilitar7 or irregular arme1 units w0i30 ma7 :e su:. artA 5=g?A As inter2rete1 :7 t0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal an1 %ASA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . an1 $elating to t0e Prote3tion o/ *i3tims o/ !nternational Arme1 on/li3ts. in 2arti3ular 0umiliating an1 1egra1ing treatment. 1949. o2ene1 /or signature 'e3A 1B. artA 4 at K %ASATA E5EK9 Proto3ol ! A11itional to t0e #ene<a on<entions o/ AugA 1B. o/ 3ons2ira37 to 3ommit geno3i1e. artA B7 at K %ASATA E5EK =as to international arme1 3on/li3ts>Women s0all :e es2e3iall7 2rote3te1 against an7 atta34 on t0eir 0onor. at 2araA 5B=A?=B? =A2ril I?9 on<ention on t0e Pre<ention an1 Punis0ment o/ t0e rime o/ #eno3i1e.J. t0e aut0ors o/ t0is 1o3ument urge t0at t0e <arious 2arties to t0e 3on/li3t in t0e /ormer . Justi3e O Fairness in t0e War rimes Tri:unal /or t0e Former . Anne@ !. 'e3A 9. %A"A 'o3A SGB5B74 =199E?9 Ai1e +emoire. 1951? 50ereina/ter. at a gi<en moment an1 in an7 manner w0atsoe<er. in3lu1ing t0e >gra<e :rea30es> 2ro<isionA 5F"K16A See Anne TA #ol1stein. or an7 /orm o/ in1e3ent assaultA>? >Prote3te1 2ersons> are >t0ose w0o. 7I %A"ATASA = entere1 into /or3e JanA 1B. at 4B5 =ra2e :7 sol1iers 0as :een 2ro0i:ite1 :7 t0e laws o/ war /or 3enturies?9 . artA 4=B?=e? 2ro0i:its >outrages u2on 2ersonal 1ignit7. 0el1 t0at T0e #o<ernment o/ t0e Fe1eral $e2u:li3 o/ . 'e3A 1B.ugosla<ia =Ser:ia an1 +ontenegro? s0oul1 AAA ensure t0at an7 militar7. su2ra note 119 SA $esA IFI. 11B5 %A"ATASA E = entere1 into /or3e 'e3A 7. ra2e. /in1 t0emsel<es. et0ni3al. 199E.ugosla<ian Ser:s were 3ommitting a3ts in <iolation o/ t0e #eno3i1e on<ention :7 <irtue o/ t0eir in<ol<ement in >et0ni3 3leansing> in )osniaA T0e ourt. 1o not 3ommit an7 a3ts o/ geno3i1e. an1 an7 ot0er /orm o/ in1e3ent assault>?9 Proto3ol !! A11itional to t0e #ene<a on<entions o/ AugA 1B. 197I? 50ereina/ter Proto3ol !6. at 14.ougin1ra D0us0alani. in t0e 0an1s o/ a Part7 to t0e 3on/li3t or &33u27ing Power o/ w0i30 t0e7 are not nationalsA> !1A. eAgA. o2ene1 /or signature.e3t o/ s2e3ial res2e3t an1 s0all :e 2rote3te1 in 2arti3ular against ra2e.ugosla<ia 15 =199E?A To 1is2el an7 remaining am:iguit7 o<er w0et0er t0e 2ro<isions go<erning international or internal arme1 3on/li3ts a22l7 to s2e3i/i3 <iolations. artA 147 50ereina/ter Fourt0 #ene<a on<ention6A Page E1 5F"KF6A See i1A T0ese 2ro<isions a22l7 onl7 to situations o/ international arme1 3on/li3tA *arious resolutions o/ t0e %nite1 "ations Se3urit7 oun3il an1 ot0er %A"A 1o3uments relating to ongoing <iolations in )osnia a22ear to assume t0at t0ese <iolations are go<erne1 :7 2ro<isions o/ t0e #ene<a on<entions w0i30 are a22li3a:le in situations o/ international arme1 3on/li3tA See. /or3e1 2rostitution. 1ire3tion or in/luen3e. su2ra note 57. :7 a <ote o/ 1E to 1.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. ra3ial or religious grou2AAAA A22li3ation o/ t0e on<ention on t0e Pre<ention an1 Punis0ment o/ t0e rime o/ #eno3i1e. en/or3e1 2rostitution an1 an7 /orm o/ in1e3ent assault> w0en 3ommitte1 against 2ersons w0o 1o not ta4e a 1ire3t 2art or w0o 0a<e 3ease1 to ta4e 2art in 0ostilities?A 5F"K46A &n A2ril I. su2ra note 119 SA $esA 7IF. su2ra note B. arti3le 7K=B? 2ro<i1es. enter /or $e2ro1u3ti<e Law O Poli37. artA 7K=1? =as to international 3on/li3ts. #eno3i1e on<ention6A 5F"K56A Tri:unal Statute. t0e !nternational ourt o/ Justi3e issue1 a 2ro<isional ruling t0at im2lie1. 'ignit7 an1 Honour o/ Women As )asi3 An1 Fun1amental Human $ig0ts =19IB?A 5F"KE6A Fourt0 #ene<a on<ention. en/or3e1 2rostitution. su2ra note 79 Amnest7 !nternational. o/ 1ire3t an1 2u:li3 in3itement to 3ommit geno3i1e. 1949.e3t to its 3ontrol. 1977. wit0out a3tuall7 /in1ing. K1B 50ereina/ter Proto3ol !!6 =as to non( international arme1 3on/li3ts. 11B5 %A"ATASA KF9.ugosla<ia :e a//irmati<el7 0el1 to t0eir earlier agreement to :e go<erne1 :7 t0e 2ro<isions o/ t0e #ene<a on<entions relating to international arme1 3on/li3t. $e3ogniCing For3e1 !m2regnation as a War rime %n1er !nternational Law =199E?A 5F"KB6A See +eron. SA $esA 771. >women s0all :e t0e o:. su2ra note 5I9 see also Wat30 $e2ort *olA !!. su2ra note 59. #AAA $esA BKFA=!!!?. 1949 an1 $elating to t0e Prote3tion o/ *i3tims o/ "on( !nternational Arme1 on/li3ts. su2ra note 1E9 Letter 'ate1 9 Fe:ruar7. t0at . 199E !A AJA E. TA!AAASA "oA EEK5. 2araA 45.

w0et0er general or 2arti3ular. artA 5=0?. 3ommitte1 on a mass s3ale against 3i<ilians. 3onsist o/ in0umane a3ts on t0e same le<el o/ se<erit7 as mur1er an1 torture. at 19A 5F"K96A Se3retar7(#eneral $e2ort. 171) Page EB +ilitar7 Tri:unals in "urem:erg.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.ale LAJA B5E7. w0ose /un3tion is to 1e3i1e in a33or1an3e wit0 international law su30 1is2utes as are su:mitte1 to it. t0e .ugosla<ia not onl7 rati/ie1 t0e #eno3i1e on<ention wit0out Juali/i3ation on August B9.J. esta:lis0ing rules e@2ressl7 re3ogniCe1 :7 t0e 3ontesting states9 =:? !nternational 3ustom. su2ra note 4K =a1<o3ating t0at artA 5=0?. :ut it also e@2an1e1 t0e 1e/inition o/ geno3i1e in its 1omesti3 law to in3lu1e /or3i:le 1is2la3ement o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . eAgA. B5I7( B5II =1991?A 5F"KK6A See Part !!!=A?. su2ra note 4K. or religious 0atre1 or intoleran3eA See. ra3ial. su2ra note 4E. su2ra note 5.u1i3ial 1e3isions an1 t0e tea30ings o/ t0e most 0ig0l7 Juali/ie1 2u:li3istsA Statute o/ t0e !nternational ourt o/ Justi3e. as e<i1en3e o/ a general 2ra3ti3e a33e2te1 as law9 =3? t0e general 2rin3i2les o/ law re3ogniCe1 :7 3i<iliCe1 nations9 =1? AAA . in/ra. w0i30 i1enti/ies t0e 3ategories o/ 2erse3ution(:ase1 o//enses. 19I7?A 5F"746A See i1A at B14A 5F"756A T0e Statute o/ t0e !nternational ourt o/ Justi3e 2ro<i1esT0e ourt. 59 StaA 1F55. an1 ot0er /orms o/ se@ual assault?A 5F"K76A See o2elon. Settling A33ounts. 2arti3ularl7 w0en 3arrie1 out as 2art o/ a 2attern o/ 2erse3ution or 1is3riminationA See 'iane FA &rentli30er.=:?. at BE. E )e<ans 1179A 5F"7K6A A retros2e3ti<e law is one w0i30 >loo4s :a34war1 or 3ontem2lates t0e 2ast9 one w0i30 is ma1e to a//e3t a3ts or /a3ts o33uring. Arti3le EI=1?=a?. s0oul1 :e mo1i/ie1 to e@2li3itl7 in3lu1e ra2e. >3rimes against 0umanit7> as 1e/ine1 in t0e "urem:erg 0arter an1 ontrol oun3il Law "oA 1F.T0e 'ut7 to Prose3ute Human $ig0ts *iolations o/ a Prior $egime. an1 BFEA T0e /ormer . 9t0 SessA. /or3e1 im2regnation an1 /or3e1 maternit7A See A)A $e2ort. Su22A "oA 1B. /or 1e/initions o/ ra2e. 2araA B9A 5F"7F6A !1A at 2araA E4A 5F"716A $e2ort o/ t0e 195B ommittee on !nternational riminal Juris1i3tion. s0all a22l7. or rig0ts a33ruing. Anne@ 1. ArtsA 154.=a? !nternational 3on<entions. :e/ore it 3ame into /or3eA> )la34's Law 'i3tionar7 1E17 =Kt0 e1A 199F?A 5F"776A Wit0 res2e3t to geno3i1e an1 ot0er 2erse3ution(:ase1 o//enses.=3?. /or e@am2le. 1FF . %A"A 'o3A AGBK45 =195E? 5550ereina/ter 195B $e2ort6A 5F"7B6A !1A 5F"7E6A !1A T0e 195B $e2ort re/ers to t0e 2ro<ision o/ t0e #eno3i1e on<ention w0i30 a11resses t0e a22li3ation o/ 1omesti3 2enaltiesA T0e im2li3ation is t0at states :ear t0e :ur1en o/ reJuesting t0e a22li3ation o/ international lawA See E !nternational riminal Law BB4 =+A 0eri/ )assiouni e1A.=1?.ugosla< onstitution 2ro0i:ite1 2u:li3 an1 2ri<ate a3tion w0i30 stirs u2 national. en/or3e1 2regnan37. TASA99E. %A"A #A&$. 19I. 195F. su2ra note 1KA 5F"KI6A A)A $e2ort. en/or3e1 2rostitution. 174.

or intimi1ating or 3oer3ing 0im or a t0ir1 2erson.ugosla<iaA See arol WA $ose. "oA KBE1. rimes A3t. 1Kt0 Hea1ing. 30A 11A 5F"IF6A T0e %nite1 "ations 0as 1e/ine1 torture asan7 a3t :7 w0i30 se<ere 2ain or su//ering. w0ile /or3e1 im2regnation an1 ot0er se@ 3rimes were en3om2asse1 wit0in >tortures or in0uman treatment o/ t0e 3i<ilian 2o2ulation. An !nternational Sur<e7 o/ riminal Pro3e1ure o1es an1 WitnessG*i3tim Prote3tion in $a2e Trials =un2u:lis0e1 manus3ri2t. 30A 11. 171) Page EE or 1e2ortation as geno3i1al a3tsA See riminal o1e. 19II =on /ile wit0 aut0ors?A For t0e e<i1entiar7 im2li3ations o/ t0is stan1ar1. EK=E?A 5F"I46A See #ol1stein. 3oer3ion to 3om2ulsi<e la:orA> 19KB o1e. eAgA.J. /or3e1 nu1it7 an1 ot0er /orms o/ e@2osure 1esigne1 to 2unis0. Part *!. in3lu1ing /or3e1 3ommission o/ se@ual assaults on ot0ers 3lose to t0e 2erson. artA 141. unlaw/ul ta4ing to 3on3entration 3am2s an1 ot0er unlaw/ul 3on/inements. use o/ measures o/ intimi1ation an1 terror.ur7 to :o17 or 0ealt0. Dri<i3ni Ca4on S$)iH =So3ialist $e2u:li3 o/ )osnia an1 HerCego<ina? Sara. t0e onstitution 2ro0i:ite1 ot0er <iolations o/ 2rote3te1 rig0ts. woul1 3onstitute e<i1en3e o/ intent to im2regnateA T0e intentional 1etention o/ a 2regnant woman until s0e was :e7on1 t0e time limit in w0i30 lo3al law or 2ra3ti3e 2ermitte1 a:ortion woul1 also 3onstitute e<i1en3e o/ <iolationA +an1ator7 2regnan37 tests /ollowing a ra2e.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. into se@ual inter3ourse :7 /or3e or t0reat to en1anger 0er li/e or :o17 o/ t0at or someone 3lose to 0er will :e senten3e1 to :etween one to ten 7ears in 2risonA> Smail So4olo<ie. su2ra note 54A $a2e 0as :een i1enti/ie1 in international law as a /orm o/ tortureA See su2ra note 1BA Se@ual torture 3an also in3lu1e a range o/ se@ual a:use in<ol<ing 207si3al. su2ra. &//enses Against t0e 'ignit7 o/ t0e Person an1 +oralit7A 5F"796A !1A 30A 11. su2ra note K1A 5F"I56A T0e reJuisite 3riminal intent 3an :e esta:lis0e1 eit0er 1ire3tl7. 1egra1e. 0umiliate. or in1ire3tl7. or 1estru3tion o/ ot0er means o/ :irt0 3ontrol or a33ess to :irt0 3ontrol. in/raA 5F"IB6A See. su2ra. on /ile wit0 t0e Human $ig0ts Program. w0en su30 2ain or su//ering is in/li3te1 :7 or at t0e instigation o/ or wit0 t0e 3onsent or a3Juies3en3e o/ a 2u:li3 o//i3ial or ot0er 2erson a3ting in an o//i3ial 3a2a3it7AAAA Torture on<ention.ugosla<ia. So3ialisti3 5si36 Fe1erati<e $e2u:li3 o/ .ugoA? 50ereina/ter 19KB o1e69 riminal Law. see Part !*=)?. 2s730ologi3al. T0e Peo2le's "ews2a2er =197I? 5550ereina/ter 197I o1e6A +oreo<er.ugosla<ia was a1o2te1 in 199E an1 retains t0e earlier 3o1e's 2ro<isions on 3rimes against 0umanit7A )osnia( HerCego<ina also retains t0ese 2ro<isions o/ t0e 3riminal 3o1e o/ t0e /ormer . an1 <er:al met0o1s.e<o. t0roug0 a1missions or statements o/ t0e 2er2etrators. su2ra note 77. against t0e 2erson or against 2ersons 3lose to t0e 2erson. an1 intimi1ate t0e 2ersonA 5F"I16A T0e law o/ )osnia(HerCego<ina 2ro<i1es in 0a2ter Q!. artA 1B4 =. i1A at se3A E7=B?. in/raA )ot0 3o1es e@2li3itl7 in3lu1e1 ra2e an1 /or3e1 2rostitution. Har<ar1 Law S30ool?A 5F"7I6A 19KB o1e. 2unis0ing 0im /or an a3t 0e or a t0ir1 2erson 0as 3ommitte1 or is sus2e3te1 o/ 0a<ing 3ommitte1. se3A EK =195I? =AustlA? 5F"IE6A See. riminal A3ts Against Humanit7 an1 !nternational LawA See also Penalties. w0et0er 207si3al or mental. eAgA. *i3tA StatA . 3ausing great su//ering or serious in. or /or an7 reason :ase1 on 1is3rimination o/ an7 4in1. >W0oe<er 3oer3es a /emale 2erson wit0 w0om 0e is not marrie1 to. 30A 1K. or attem2ts to 4ee2 tra34 o/ a 1etaine1 woman's menstrual 373le. is intentionall7 in/li3te1 on a 2erson /or su30 2ur2oses as o:taining /rom 0im or a t0ir1 2erson in/ormation or a 3on/ession. as 1i1 t0e 3riminal 3o1esA T0e most re3ent 3riminal 3o1e o/ t0e Fe1eral $e2u:li3 o/ . t0roug0 3ir3umstantial e<i1en3eA For3i:le remo<al o/ a woman's !%' or 3ontra3e2ti<e im2lant. riminal &//enses Against Humanit7 an1 !nternational Law9 197I o1e. es2e3iall7 i/ s0e were assaulte1 more o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 .

14 !srA . rimes against Pea3e. artA4A 5F"9E6A Tri:unal Statute. JanA 19. E@tra1ition an1 omman1 $es2onsi:ilit7. or a33om2li3es in t0e /ormulation or e@e3ution o/ a 3ommon 2lan or 3ons2ira37 to 3ommit.>5t60e internment or 2la3ing in assigne1 resi1en3e o/ 2rote3te1 2ersons ma7 :e or1ere1 onl7 i/ t0e se3urit7 o/ t0e 'etaining Power ma4es it a:solutel7 ne3essar7A> W0ere t0e 2ra3ti3e or t0reat o/ se@ual a:use is in<ol<e1. similarl7 woul1 3onstitute e<i1en3e o/ t0e reJuisite intentA Page E4 5F"IK6A 'etention o/ 3i<ilians :e7on1 w0at is stri3tl7 ne3essar7 is a <iolation o/ t0e #ene<a on<entionsA See Tri:unal Statute. &//i3ial 'o3uments at B9A 5F"9B6A Tri:unal Statute. &//i3ial 'o3uments at 171 =1947?9 T0e To47o War rimes Trial. su2ra note 1. artA 4A 5F"9I6A See A::a7e Ar1enne ase. su2ra note K4. !n1i3tment at B9A See also !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal /or t0e Far East. 2ro<i1es.J. artA*=3?. t0e 3rime is 1istin3t an1 more se<ereA 5F"I76A #ol1stein. !n1i3tment =A2ril 194K?. /or3e1 2regnan37. 4 )e<ans BF. Trial o/ t0e +a. eAgA. an1 rimes against Humanit7A Trial o/ t0e +a. instigators. re2rinte1 in LA A #reen. su2ra note K1A 5F"II6A #eno3i1e on<ention. su2ra note 1. su2ra note 5. artA !!=)?(= ?A 5F"I96A !1A artA !!=1?(=e?A 5F"9F6A See. an1 /or3e1 2rostitution? were su33ess/ull7 2rose3ute1 at "urem:erg an1 To47oA T0e "urem:erg !n1i3tment 30arge1 t0e 1e/en1ants wit0 :eing5L6ea1ers. 171) /reJuentl7 aroun1 t0e time s0e o<ulate1. organiCers. artA B=g?A Arti3le 4B o/ t0e Fourt0 #ene<a on<ention. artA !=A?A 5F"956A ons2ira3ies to 3ommit <arious war 3rimes =in3lu1ing war 3rimes w0i30 en3om2ass ra2e. !n1i3tment at B9 Trial o/ t0e +a. 194K.A )A 17.or War riminals )e/ore t0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal. artA 7=E?A 5F"976A #eno3i1e on<ention. su2ra note 5. Ju1gment =194I?A 5F"916A 0arter o/ t0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal /or t0e Far East. su2ra note K4.'GS Pu:A BK1E =194K?A 5F"9K6A Tri:unal Statute. War rimes. su2ra note 1. su2ra note 1. su2ra note 59. BEA =T0is Tri:unal was set u2 in To47o a/ter Worl1 War !! to tr7 Ja2anese lea1ers /or war 3rimes 3ommitte1 1uring t0e warA? See also T0e To47o War rimes Trial.or War riminals )e/ore t0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal su2ra note 9F.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. artA 5A 5F"946A Tri:unal Statute. su2ra note 1. EK =19I4?A o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . su2ra.or War riminals )e/ore t0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal. War rimes. or w0i30 in<ol<e1 t0e 3ommission o/.

/or e@am2le. note KE. su2ra. 0a<ing e@e3uti<e aut0orit7 as well as militar7 3omman1. su2ra note 99. artA I7=1? =em20asis a11e1?A 5F"1FK6A See 11 Trials o/ War riminals )e/ore t0e "urem:erg +ilitar7 Tri:unal . /or e@am2le. t0e 3ourt /oun1 t0atT0e 3omman1ing general o/ o33u2ie1 territor7. i/ not :e/ore.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. artA I7=E?A 5F"1FE6A B Ju1gment o/ t0e !+T /or t0e Far East 117K =194I?A Similarl7. 3onsent or a22ro<al or t0ese 1e/en1antsA )ut t0is 3annot :e a 1e/ense /or t0e 3omman1ing general AAA 555w0ose6 res2onsi:ilit7 is general an1 not limite1 to 3ontrol o/ units 1ire3tl7 un1er 0is 3omman1AAAA !1A at 1B57A T0e same anal7sis 3an :e a1o2te1 :7 t0is Tri:unalA 5F"1F76A For e@am2le. re2rinte1 in T0e Jerusalem Post. an1 o/ t0eir o:ligation to re2ort an7 su30 <iolator o/ w0i30 t0e7 :e3ome awareA Arm7 Su:. all su2erior o//i3ials s0oul1 :e 2resume1 to 0a<e 4nown o/ t0emA T0e7 t0us s0oul1 :e 0el1 lia:le /or t0eir /ailure to 2unis0 t0ose res2onsi:le an1 /or t0eir /ailure to ta4e reasona:le measures to 2re<ent /uture ra2esA 5F"1F16A Proto3ol !. 3on<i3tions in %nite1 States <A List were :ase1 on t0e 3omman1er's /ailure to in<estigate in3i1ents an1 >to ta4e e//e3ti<e ste2s to 2re<ent t0eir e@e3ution or re3urren3eA> 11 Trials o/ War riminals )e/ore t0e "urem:erg +ilitar7 Tri:unals su2ra note 99. at 447(IA 5F"1F56A Proto3ol !. artA I7=B?A T0e %nite1 States Arm7. 1B5K.Final $e2ort.e3t S30e1ule B7(19 see also Fourt0 #ene<a on<ention. Foreign +inister Hirota in/orme1 t0e War +inistr7 o/ wi1es2rea1 a:uses an1 was assure1 t0at t0e mis3on1u3t woul1 3easeA He was /oun1 guilt7 o/ 3riminal negligen3e /or rel7ing on t0is assuran3e an1 /ailing to ta4e e//e3ti<e a3tion to sto2 t0e 3riminal a3ti<it7A T0e To47o Ju1gment. o/ t0eir 1ut7 to 1iso:e7 or1ers t0at woul1 reJuire t0em to 3ommit a3ts in <iolation o/ t0at law. t0at 3ertain SS units un1er t0e 1ire3t 3omman1 o/ Heinri30 Himmler 3ommitte1 3ertain o/ t0e atro3ities 0erein 30arge1 wit0out t0e 4nowle1ge.J. sin3e 0e 4new or s0oul1 0a<e 4nown t0at 0is or1ers were ine//e3ti<eA T0e To47o Ju1gment. su2ra. imme1iatel7 a/ter Ja2anese /or3es entere1 "an4ing in 'e3em:er 19E7. 171) Page E5 5F"996A Hostage ase =%nite1 States <A List? =194I?. su2ra note 59A 5F"1FB6A Proto3ol !. 1BKF. /rom t0e time t0at wi1es2rea1 ra2es an1 ot0er se@ual a:use in )osnia re3ei<e1 international 2u:li3it7. at 1B57 =em20asis a11e1?A Similarl7. su2ra note KE. =su22A Fe:A9. 1B71A !n %nite1 States <A List. 19IE?A o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . re2rinte1 in 11 Trials o/ War riminals )e/ore t0e "urem:erg +ilitar7 Tri:unals 1BKF =1951?A 5F"1FF6A !1A at 1B5KA As a22lie1 to t0e /ormer . #eneral +atsui. toinsure t0at 7our men are aware o/ t0e law o/ war.T0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal /or t0e Far East 454 =)A*AAA $oling O AFA $uter e1sA 1977?A 5F"1F46A For e@am2le. su2ra note KE.ugosla<ia. t0e !sraeli go<ernment's in<estigation o/ t0e 19IB massa3res 3ommitte1 :7 P0alangist militar7 /or3es in t0e S0a:ra an1 S0atilla re/ugee 3am2s in Le:anon /oun1 !sraeli militar7 o//i3ials res2onsi:le /or /ailing to sto2 t0e massa3res (( e<en t0oug0 t0e P0alangists were not a 2art o/ t0e !sraeli militar7 (( :e3ause t0e !sraeli in<estigators /oun1 a >s7m:ioti3 relations0i2> :etween t0e two /or3esA T0e ommission o/ !nJuir7 into t0e E<ents at t0e $e/ugee am2s in )eirut 19IE. was 3on<i3te1 /or /ailure to 2rote3t t0e 3i<ilian 2o2ulation e<en t0oug0 0e or1ere1 0is /or3es to 3on1u3t t0emsel<es in a33or1an3e wit0 t0e law. at 759. reJuires 3omman1ing o//i3ers to 2ro<i1e instru3tion in t0e laws o/ war. will not :e 0ear1 to sa7 t0at a unit ta4ing unlaw/ul or1ers /rom someone ot0er t0an 0imsel/ was res2onsi:le /or t0e 3rime an1 t0at 0e is t0ere/ore a:sol<e1 /rom res2onsi:ilit7A !t is 3laime1. omman1er(in( 0ie/ o/ t0e entral 0ina Area Arm7 w0i30 3a2ture1 an1 o33u2ie1 "an4ing.

at EF?.e3t to 3ertain limitations im2ose1 :7 t0e Tri:unal Statute an1 ot0er agreements.A Times. an1 1enial w0i30 ma7.e3t to an e@3e2tion w0ere t0e 2ro3e1ure is ne3essitate1 :7 0ealt0 an1 3onsistent wit0 a33e2te1 me1i3al stan1ar1s t0at woul1 a22l7 to t0e 2art7's nationals w0o are not 1e2ri<e1 o/ t0eir li:ert7A Proto3ol !!. 199E. su2ra note 4K.>"o 1etaine1 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . t0e !+T o//ers an a22ro2riate starting 2oint /or anal7Cing a1missi:ilit7 o/ e<i1en3e /or t0is Tri:unalA T0e !+T o2erate1 un1er a <er7 li:eral stan1ar1A Arti3le 1I o/ t0e 0arter o/ t0e !+T allowe1 t0e !+T to a1mit an7 e<i1en3e w0i30 it 1eeme1 to 0a<e 2ro:ati<e <alueA T0e arti3le statesT0e Tri:unal s0all not :e :oun1 :7 te30ni3al rules o/ e<i1en3eA !t s0all a1o2t an1 a22l7 to t0e greatest 2ossi:le e@tent e@2e1itious an1 nonte30ni3al 2ro3e1ure. su2ra note KEA 5F"1156A T0e Wor4ing #rou2 o/ t0e #eneral Assem:l7's Si@t0 =Legal? ommittee. su2ra note 1. "A. 2ro2ose1. an1 t0e rig0ts o/ t0e ra2e <i3tim.J. $eal $a2e =19I7?A 5F"11E6A For e@am2le. in/raA 5F"1116A See generall7 #illiam +A W0ite. Susan Estri30. eAgA. su30 as limits on t0e a1missi:ilit7 o/ t0e <i3tim's se@ual 0istor7A See Part *. su2raA 5F"11F6A T0e 2re3e1ent set :7 t0e !nternational +ilitar7 Tri:unal =!+T? o/ t0e "urem:erg trials su22orts a22li3ation o/ a /le@i:le stan1ar1A As t0e /irst mo1ern international tri:unal /or t0e 2rose3ution o/ war 3rimes. e@2erts on 2ost(traumati3 stress s7n1rome an1 ot0er rele<ant e<i1en3e ma7 ai1 t0e Tri:unal in un1erstan1ing t0e a:ilit7 o/ a <i3tim or witness to remem:er 3learl7 t0e a22earan3e o/ t0e 2er2etrator :ut to :lur surroun1ing 1etails o/ t0e atta34A T0is is 2arti3ularl7 use/ul w0ere. se@ual <iolen3e 3an 2ro1u3e e@treme s0ame. alone or wit0 /ear o/ re2risal or t0e a:sen3e o/ an a33ounta:le or regularl7 /un3tioning . T0e %se o/ E@2erts :7 !nternational Tri:unals =19K5?9 'urwar1 *A San1i/er. su30 1etails a22ear to :e >un/orgetta:leA> E@2ert e<i1en3e ma7 also 0el2 t0e Tri:unal 2la3e in 2ro2er 2ers2e3ti<e t0e 2ossi:le e@isten3e o/ 1is3re2an3ies wit0in an1 among <i3tim a33ounts o/ traumati3 se@ual assaults9 su30 >1is3re2an3ies> ma7 result /rom 1i//ering re3all at <arious stages o/ 207si3al an1 2s730ologi3al re3o<er7A E@2ert testimon7 mig0t also :e use1 to e@2lain t0e >unusual 1emeanor> o/ <i3tims an1 witnessesA 5F"1146A ArtA 11=B? 2ro0i:its >me1i3al or s3ienti/i3 e@2eriments> on 2ersons in t0e 2ower o/ an a1<erse 2art7 w0o are 1e2ri<e1 o/ li:ert7 >e<en wit0 t0eir 3onsentA> T0is is su:. an1 s0all a1mit an7 e<i1en3e w0i30 it 1eems to 0a<e 2ro:ati<e <alueA See Trials o/ War riminals )e/ore t0e "urem:erg +ilitar7 Tri:unals . to "aCi 1o3umentation o/ atro3itiesA T0e aut0ors re3ogniCe. 0owe<er. su2raA T0ese in3lu1e 2ro<isions w0i30 2rote3t t0e rig0t o/ t0e 1e/en1ant to a /air trial = see A)A $e2ort.u1i3ial s7stem. w0en o//i3ial re3or1s were release1 at t0e war's en1. as re3ent re2orts in1i3ate t0at senior o//i3ials o/ t0e . 171) Page EK $e3entl7 2u:lis0e1 in/ormation 1etails t0e lin4 :etween su22ose1l7 in1e2en1ent 2aramilitar7 grou2s an1 t0e go<ernment o/ Ser:ia. artA 159 see also Se3tion !.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. su30 as t0e ! P$. in3lu1ing :ot0 t0e Ser:ian arm7 an1 2oli3eA $i<al Ser:s Are A1mitting )osnia( roatia Atro3ities. "o<A 1E. 2re3lu1e or :e in3onsistent wit0 2rom2t re2ortingA !n a11ition. su2ra note 99A !t s0oul1 :e note1 t0at t0e nee1 /or a li:eral stan1ar1 is e<en greater /or t0is Tri:unal t0an /or t0e "urem:erg Tri:unal9 t0e latter 0a1 a33ess. su2ra note 5IA 5F"1F96A Tri:unal Statute. num:ness. w0i30 re<ise1 t0e 'ra/t )o17 o/ Prin3i2les /or t0e Prote3tion o/ All Persons %n1er An7 Form o/ 'etention or !m2risonment. to t0ose un/amiliar wit0 t0e e//e3t o/ trauma. t0at t0e stan1ar1 is su:. E<i1en3e :e/ore !nternational Tri:unals =1975?A 5F"11B6A See.ugosla<ian go<ernment 0a<e 2ro/ite1 /rom t0e 2illage o/ )osnian an1 roatian <illagesA !1A 5F"1FI6A See Ai1e +emoire. at KA Furt0er e<i1en3e o/ t0is lin4 3oul1 :e 1e<elo2e1 :7 e@amining w0o 0as 2ro/ite1 /rom t0e 3ommission o/ atro3ities.

su2ra note 4K. A22en1i@ ). $e2ort. A22en1i@ ). su2ra note 7A 5F"1B76A "o Justi3e. $e2ort. su2ra note B. su2ra note B. su2ra note 1. "o Pea3e. su2ra note B. Estri30. at 449 Helsin4i Wat30 !!. 171) Page E7 or im2risone1 2erson s0all.e3te1 to an7 me1i3al or s3ienti/i3 e@2erimentation w0i30 ma7 :e 1etrimental to 0is 0ealt0A> %A"A 'o3A AG AKGE9GLA1F. at K. su2ra. T0e Treatment o/ Prisoners %n1er !nternational Law BEB(BE5 =19IK?A 5F"11K6A See. "o Pea3e. A22en1i@ ). su2ra note 4K. A22en1i@ ). su2ra note B. su2ra note B. $e2ort. at B7(BI9 %". su2ra note 79 %". su2ra note 11B9 HA Fiel1 O LA )ienen. A22en1i@ ). su2ra note 7A See A)A $e2ort. at 99 A! +emoran1um. su2ra note 4K. artA BFA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . B79 %". su2ra note B. in/raA 5F"1BE6A "o Justi3e.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. /or e@am2le. at 41(4B9 A! +emoran1um. eAgA. su2ra note 79 %". su2ra note 79 A! +emoran1um. $e2ort. at 1F9 "o Justi3e. su2ra note 4K. Jurors an1 $a2e. in/raA 5F"11I6A A)A $e2ort. at 459 Helsin4i Wat30 !. su2ra note B. :e su:. at 1EA 5F"1B16A %". $e2ort. su2ra note B. su2ra note B. su2ra note 79 %". "o Pea3e. in t0e Australian E<i1en3e A3t. in/raA 5F"1B56A Helsin4i Wat30 !. su2ra note 4K. 2araA BF =19I4? =em20asis a11e1?A See also "igel SA $o1le7. "o Pea3e. E7a "oA KB4I =195I?9 LA" 1F7(45I =19IF?A 5F"1176A "o Justi3e. "o Pea3e. at 1FA 5F"1BF6A A)A $e2ort. at K.A Stu17 !n Ps730olog7 an1 Law =l9IF?A Stri3t 3ontrols in non( emergen37 3onte@ts 3an :e /oun1. B7(BI9 "o Justi3e. "o Pea3e. "o Pea3e. note /or 1is3ussion o/ se@ual assault 3ases as an e@3e2tion o/ t0e %ASA 3onstitutional rig0t o/ a33ess to 3riminal trialsA 5F"1EF6A Tri:unal Statute. su2ra note 7A 5F"1196A Helsin4i Wat30 !.J. A22en1i@ ). e<en wit0 0is 3onsent. B9A 5F"1BI6A A)A $e2ort. at 4FA 5F"1B96A A)A $e2ort. $e2ort. in/raA 5F"1B46A A)A $e2ort. at 7. in/raA9 Helsin4i Wat30 !. at 9A 5F"1BK6A "o Justi3e. in/raA 5F"1BB6A "o Justi3e. at E7(449 A! +emoran1um.

"o Pea3e su2ra note 7A T0e Ameri3an )ar Asso3iation an1 !nternational Human $ig0ts Law #rou2 re2orts 1is3uss t0ese met0o1s in t0e 3onte@t o/ 2rote3ting t0e 2ri<a37 o/ t0e <i3tims an1 witnesses9 t0e7 1o not a1<o3ate 3on3ealing i1enti/i3ation /rom 1e/en1antsA T0e A)A $e2ort 1is3usses t0e use o/ one(wa7 o:ser<ation met0o1s an1 3lose1( 3ir3uit tele<ision in %ASA 3ourtsA 5F"1E56A Helsin4i Wat30 !. $e2ort. at B79 %". "o Pea3e. su2ra note B. in/ra9 "o Justi3e. su2ra note 4K.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L.J. 1Kt0 Hea1ing. su2ra note B. at E99 A! +emoran1um. t0e 1eat0 2enalt7 s0oul1 not a22lie1A Tri:unal Statute. at 4B9 )la4esle7 $e2ort. artAB4=1?A 5F"14F6A 19KB o1e. artA 14BA We agree wit0 t0e Tri:unal Statute t0at no matter 0ow 0einous t0e o//ense.Su:seJuent to t0e su:mission o/ t0is +emoran1um to t0e Tri:unal. su2ra note B. su2ra note 1. at 79 Helsin4i Wat30 !. A22en1i@ ). su2ra note 7A Page EI 5F"1E46A A)A $e2ort. t0ere is no minimum senten3e /or /or3i:le ra2e9 a minimum o/ t0ree 7ears is reJuire1 w0ere grie<ous :o1il7 in. su2ra note 14K. at 1BA 5F"1E76A See Part !*=)?=1?. su2ra note B. su2ra note 77. at 11(1BA 5F"1EK6A A)A $e2ort.ugosla<ian onstitution relegate1 ra2e to t0e lo3al 3o1esA6 5F"1416A !1A artA 1IEA 5F"14B6A !1A artA 1IKA 5F"14E6A !1A artA 1I1A 5F"1446A !1A artA 1IFA 5F"1456A !1A artA 1IBA 5F"14K6A !1A artA 4KA o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . su2ra note 77. at 4B9 "o Justi3e. artA B4=1?A 5F"1E96A 19KB o1e. 171) 5F"1E16A !1A. artA 1BE9 197I o1e. at 11A 5F"1EE6A A)A $e2ort. su2ra note 1. 0a2A 11. su2ra note 4K. su2ra note 4K. artA 179=1?=B?A As a 2urel7 1omesti3 3rime. su2ra note 77. 0a2A 1K.ur7 or 1eat0 was in/li3te1 u2on t0e womanA 5Aut0or's note. artA BBA 5F"1EB6A Helsin4i Wat30 !. it 3ame to our attention t0at t0e 1974 . su2raA 5F"1EI6A Tri:unal Statute.

"o<A BB. su2ra note 1A 5F"1576A %ni<ersal 'e3laration o/ Human $ig0ts. su2ra. #AAA $esA B1FK9 ! P$. 9 !ALA+A K7E9 A/ri3an 0arter on Human an1 Peo2les' $ig0ts =)an. t0e ommittee against Torture. 2araA 59 Ameri3an on<ention on Human $ig0ts. 19K9. 19I9. artA B4=E?A 5F"15K6A See Tri:unal Statute. EATASA 11I9 !nternational on<ention on t0e Elimination o/ all Forms o/ $a3ial 'is3rimination. artA 14. t0e ommission o/ !nJuir7 esta:lis0e1 un1er t0e onstitution o/ t0e !nternational La:our &rganiCation. BI !ALA+A 144IA See Stu17 on3erning t0e $ig0t to $estitution. EATASA 55. 19I1. Proto3ol "oA 5.Stu17 o/ t0e S2e3ial $a22orteur. "o<A BI. artA B. &rganiCation o/ A/ri3an %nit7 =on /ile wit0 aut0ors?9 Torture on<ention. 19I9. 2araA 19 on<ention on3erning !n1igenous an1 Tri:al Peo2les in !n1e2en1ent ountries. artA I9 Euro2ean on<ention /or t0e Prote3tion o/ Human $ig0ts an1 Fun1amental Free1oms. as amen1e1 :7 Proto3ol "oA E. su2ra note 77. %A"A ES &$. an1 t0e !nter(Ameri3an ourt o/ Human $ig0tsA See ES &$ Stu17. %A"A 'o3A "oA EG "A4GSu:ABG199EGI =199E? 5550ereina/ter ES &$ Stu176A 5F"15I6A Su30 0uman rig0ts entities in3lu1e t0e %" Human $ig0ts ommittee. at B1(EKA 5F"1596A !1A at 1F7A o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . artA9. su2ra note 44. "o<A 4. EATASA 5. 'e3A B1. su2ra note 54. an1 Proto3ol "oA I. an1 $e0a:ilitation /or *i3tims o/ #ross *iolations o/ Human $ig0ts an1 Fun1amental $ig0ts. su2ra note 44. at 30A B5. KKF %A"ATASA 195. om2ensation. 7Kt0 SessA. re2rinte1 in BI !ALA+A 1EIB =19I9?9 on<ention on t0e $ig0ts o/ t0e 0il1. EATASA 45. t0e Euro2ean ourt o/ Human $ig0ts. t0e ommittee on t0e Elimination o/ 'is3rimination Against Women.J. 195F.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. artA EB7A 5F"1546A !1A artA E5BA 5F"1556A Tri:unal Statute. June B7. 19K5. 2araA B=a?. E1B %A"ATASA BB1. !ALA&A on<A 1K9. su2ra note 1. su2ra note 1KA 5F"15B6A See Se3tion !!!=A?=B? su2ra. 171) Page E9 5F"1476A !1A artA 1IIA 5F"14I6A !1A artA 1I7A 5F"1496A !1A artsA 1I1(1IIA 5F"15F6A !1A artA 41A 5F"1516A E<i1en3e in1i3ates t0at trauma is en0an3e1 :7 t0e :rea30 o/ an earlier relations0i2 in<ol<ing an element o/ trustA See o2elon. t0e ommittee on t0e Elimination o/ $a3ial 'is3rimination.ul 0arter?. /or 1e/initionA 5F"15E6A 19KB o1e.

an1 0a<ing to li<e >un1ergroun1A> T0is 1e/inition o/ 1amages 3an :e a22lie1 to women w0o were 1e2ri<e1 o/ t0eir li:ert7 :7 :eing 1etaine1 in 3am2s w0ere t0e7 were re2eate1l7 ra2e1.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. it o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 .ugosla<iaA >'amage to lim: or 0ealt0> in3lu1es >lasting im2airment o/ t0e <i3tim's mental or 207si3al /a3ulties> =iAeA. as well as to t0ose w0o were 1etaine1 in t0eir own 0omes or elsew0ere an1 ra2e1 or ot0erwise su:. 171) Page 4F 5F"1KF6A !1A T0ese 3ategories en3om2ass at least some o/ t0e <i3tims o/ t0e atro3ities in t0e /ormer . in0uman or 1egra1ing treatmentA !t a22lies as well to t0e losses su//ere1 as a result o/ /lig0t an1 t0e <i3tims' nee1 to reesta:lis0 t0eir li<es in new or /oreign settingsA 5F"1K16A !1A at 99A 5F"1KB6A !1A at 1FFA 5F"1KE6A !1A at 1F1 =em20asis a11e1?A 5F"1K46A A22en1i@ A. in/raA 5F"1K56A !1A 5F"1KK6A !1A 5F"1K76A !1A 5F"1KI6A !1A 5F"1K96A !1A 5F"17F6A !1A 5F"1716A !1A 5F"17B6A !1A 5F"17E6A !1A 5F"1746A !1A 5F"1756A !1A 5F"17K6A Some 3ommentators 0a<e note1 t0at t0is is t0e onl7 rule w0i30 was o:.J.e3te1 to se@ual torture an1 3ruel. 2ost( traumati3 stress 1isor1er?A >'amage to li:ert7> in3lu1es 1etention in 3on3entration 3am2s. /or3e1 la:or.e3te1 to so strenuousl7A !n /a3t. /or3e1 sta7 in g0ettos.

J. in/raA 5F"1796A See o2elon.e3t to an7 re<isionA 5F"1776A Letters /rom EJualit7 "ow an1 T0e oor1ination /or Women's A1<o3a37 =on /ile wit0 aut0ors?A 5F"17I6A T0e re<ision o/ $ule 9K=ii? is note1 in A22en1i@ A.5 HSTWLJ 171 (Cite as: 5 Hastings Women's L. 171) is t0e onl7 rule t0us /ar su:. in/raA 5F"1I16A !1A E"' &F '& %+E"T Page 41 o2rA 8 West BFF4 "o laim to &rigA %ASA #o<tA Wor4s G<arGwwwGa22sG3on<ersionGtm2Gs3rat30HBG19BEI179FA1o3 . su2ra note E4A 5F"1IF6A A22en1i@ A.