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Egypt Exploration Society

A New Old Kingdom Inscription from Giza (CGC 57163), and the Problem of SN-ḎT in Pharaonic Third Millennium Society Author(s): Juan Carlos Moreno García Source: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 93 (2007), pp. 117-136 Published by: Egypt Exploration Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40345833 . Accessed: 14/10/2013 09:08
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A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA (CGC 57163),AND THE PROBLEM OF SN-DT IN PHARAONIC THIRD MILLENNIUM SOCIETY
By JUANCARLOS MORENO GARCIA
monument from thepoorly tomb D 203 botha newinscribed PanelCGC 57163provides preserved term sn-dt 'brother of theendowment'. totherather obscure of reference at Giza andanother Study documents from theOld Kingdom shows that evidence as wellas theadministrative theepigraphic tothefunerary italso refers to individuals whoreplaced wasnotlimited theuse of thisterm sphere: bothof a ritual andadministrative In a in theperformance of certain nature. another duties, person an administrator of institutional to a a sn-dt was context, goodsformerly granted particular funerary - to a secondary - undercondition The probable allotted butsubsequently recipient. functionary In anycase,thesn-dt from assetsseparate. the was to keeptheir disappears goalof thisprocedure thebeginning oftheSixth record from andpapyrological Dynasty. epigraphic

thetombof NfrandJtj-sn from abouttheinscriptions Little is known (D 203), in the West Field of Giza. two false-doors in theSteindorff located Just Cemetery nor neither ofwhich havebeenproperly described inPorter andMoss,1 arerecorded in theOriental and drum consists of a panel,lintel, The first preserved published. 1081 1 and 10812;only a the numbers where it bears Institute of Chicago, inventory to date.2 The of thepanelhavebeenpublished and a brief description photograph collection of theLeipzigMuseum formed secondfalse-door partof theEgyptian theSecondWorldWar.Some yearsago during (inv.no. 2556),butwas destroyed stelabelonging to an Italian false-door a panelof another Edda Bresciani published monument.3 which came from the same 'Hatun collection stela') funerary (the private of thepanelof a this Giventhescarceinformation concerning tomb, publication allowfor better intheCairoMuseum false-door further (CGC 57163)may preserved as well thistombnow dispersed from of themonuments world-wide, knowledge because it offers the of the fora moreaccurate as allowing tomb, especially dating term sn-dt 'brother of the of theproblematic thediscussion to reopen opportunity endowment'. to thetopicis thetombof Pttj,withitswellrelevant recent Another discovery which can be datedto theFourth This known threat monument, important spell.4 whodeclares himself tobe the ofan individual a newexample alsodisplays Dynasty,
1 PMIII/i, 116. 2 von Abusir',Orientalia41 (1972), 244, pl. vi. Chicago Or. Inst. 10812: P. Kaplony,'Das Papyrusarchiv 3 E. Bresciani,'"La stele Hatun": II pannellodi una falsa-porta a nome di Nefere di It-sen,dalla necropoli deirAnticoRegno a Giza', EVO 18 (1995), 19-21. 4 Z. Hawass, 'The Tomb of the PyramidBuilders:The Tomb of theArtisanPetetyand his Curse , in G. N. World:Studiesin Honourof Donald Mediterranean Israel,and theAncient Knoppersand A. Hirsch(eds), Egypt, B. Redford (PdA 20; Leiden, 2004), 21-39. TheJournal Archaeology 93 (2007), 117-36 ofEgyptian ISSN 0307-5133

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pisiv.as well as dt of humble status. II.the revered before his lord. complements appears papyri.5 cm). xxxiv. Jones. JESHO 45 (2002). probably belonging to a false-door stela. I papiri di Gebelein P. the overseer of barbers Nfr Notes: (a) Titles formed with the element Uw are extremelyrare in the Old Kingdom. only being attested in the tomb of Nfr and Jtj-sn. V vs. in which an individual defined as the dt of another turns out also to be the patron of a person of lesser status. Mahmud El-Halwagy express mygratitude topublish this monument.the acquaintance of the king. Jones. xxxix.The titlepublished by Hawass should be read shd nfr(w)rh nzwtJtjsn dt 'the inspector of recruit(s).A25and29): P.fJtj-snsn-dtrh nzwtjmihwhr nb.397-8with intheGebelein intheabsence ofphonetic several times itcouldalsobe readtew (cf.n8 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 dt of an official.P.30 on Mon. Titles. the dt of the acquaintance of the kingJtj-sn'.where Jtj-snwas a dignitarysuperior in rank to Pttj and importantenough forPttj to decide to give the name Jtj-sn nds 'Jtj-snjunior' to one of his own sons. This example of the use of the term dt must be added to those already known fromthe Old Kingdom sources. the overseer of the ^-ferrymen* Jtj-sn Over the attendant on the leftside of the panel: Mrjj Mrjj (name) Lintel: jmihwhr nb. sociological realitylying beneath these ratherdifficult Panel CGC 57163 fromthe tomb of Nfr and Jtj-sn at Giza This limestone panel (55 x 30. permission 7 The reading AnIndex is tobe preferred review of D. 1012-15. Though sn-dtand dt figureprominentlyin the epigraphic record of the Old Kingdom.92. An IndexofAncient and Phrases (BAR IS 866.Di 51. Taking these new documents into account. (scaviG Farina1935) (SMET Gebelein xl-xli.jmj-r Uwn wji 'overseer of the £w-ferrymen of the bark5and jmj-r Uw n wji ri 'overseer of the Uw-ierrymen 5 D. it is possible to get a betterunderstanding of the terms. mainly froma funerarycontext and fromthe decorated tombs of the Egyptian elite.7 Three variants of the title are known fromthe mastaba of Nfr and Jtj-sn:jmj-r Uw 'the overseer of the £m. freshevidence concerning sn-dt. tew to tew-r. 2004). V rt. appears in administrative documents from the Fourth Dynasty on. Gebelein I rt. and on the statue of Jntj-Sdw at Giza. Epithets of theOld Kingdom Egyptian 6 I wouldliketo his as wellas for for hiskindassistance to Dr. As for thereading nfw 'skipper' (Oxford. cf.58. V. in this case a dt and mit{r)t 'mourner' mentioned in Pttfs tomb. is number CGC 57163. IV rt. Turin.-ferrymen' . Oxford. Posener-Krieger.fjmj-rhrq(w)Nfrh the revered before his lord Jtj-sn. This content downloaded from 134. 1.72. 2000). in the Abusir papyri.5and it is also interestingbecause it shows a case of a multiple patron-client relationship. 1 and pl. ofAncient Egyptian which ofthetitle Titles references. the sn-dt.i): Over the deceased: sn-dtNfrjmj-r UwJtj-sn the sn-dtNfr.Andrassy. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 2000).253. 6 currently preserved in the Cairo Museum bearing the inventory The inscriptionsread as follows (fig.

203 (figs11-12). funeraire dy et commentaire (Les papyrus Abusir): Traduction (BdE 65.-L.8 hn[w]'ferrymen forthetitle for read Bresciani in the 'Hatun the stela'. funerary templeof king Neferirkare. in N. fromthe FifthDynasty. who was a shd under Uww of the Dwi-Rr> 'inspector fcftw-ferrymen' the controlof a htmw ntr'treasurer of the god'.and rhnzwt. Andrassy. funeraire. Panel CGC 57163.11 The parallelsfromthe AbusirPapyrisuggestthatthe controlover the Uwwas of a ritualnatureand was connectedto servicein the funerary of the king. and J. 9 Cf. Posener-Krieger. who thetitle Finally. pl. Les criteres a I'AncienEmpire de dotation (BdE 120. FifthSeries: The Abu Sir Posener-Krieger Les archives du temple de Neferirkare-Kakai Papyri(London. 110-12. 11 Les archives du temple I. JESHO 45. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . P. 520 n.10 Fig. 193. This content downloaded from 134.). 1968).30 on Mon. Grimal(ed. Cairo. de Cenival.9an official also bore the titlesof jmj-r Uwn wji 'overseerof the fcw-ferrymen of the bark'. monument in a special bark. Anotheroccurrence of the termUwappears in the papyriof the in whichan official. 1. I. Hawass. (b) Anothertitleprobablycarriedby Jtj-snwas jmj-r hst 'overseerof singers'. 'A Group of Unique Statues Discoveredat Giza. 1976). stylistiques 1998). 1. lxxxiicol.Bearingin mind moreprecisely to thetransport of divineofferings 8 P. c.2007 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 119 of the greatbark'. 112 n. hieroglyph hrq jmj-rwdpw by from has perhapsbeen misinterpreted in thesequencejmj-rhrq(w). HieraticPapyri in theBritishMuseum . Cairo. III: The StatuesofJnty-Sdw from Tomb GSE 1915*. jmj-rUwappearson thestatuesofJntjSdw of Giza.253. IO Cf. Posener-Krieger. 2. excavation quoted in SteindorfFs journal. JE 98945-8: Z. was in chargeof a teamof threeindividualsdefined m [bj?]tm as Uwwy and who had the missionof ftw[w] collectively jnnw htp-ntr[w] As who bringthedivineofferings from theResidencein a ft/jf-bark'. 397-8.58. as can be inferred the similarwriting of this titlein the inscription preservedin the Cairo Museum. 691. II.

Second.6: 2 P.253.15As forJntj-Sdwof Giza. Gebelein andsn-dt oftheking' 'theserf Hm-nzwt Jr[. 91. Posener-Krieger. xxxv. 18 Ibid. iconographiques 34 (10). Criteres 16 I papiridi Gebelein. sincetheseofficials value fordatingthetombof NfrandJtj-sn.. Baud.doubtlessat the royalpalace. 17 Ibid. loaves is of Izezi or somewhat the regularformfromthe reignof KhafreuntilPepi I. discoveredin his tomb dates to the Fourthor FifthDynasties. Mastabas et hypogeesd'Ancien Empire: Le problemede la datation (Brussels. Gebelein X. Date: Fourth Dynasty. v. pl. 491. and on thepanel CGC 57163might also have a chronological thestatueofJntj-Sdw. The of theraretermUwin thepapyrifrom theNeferirkare occurrence on templearchive. etablispar Nadine Mastabas ethypogees.it is possiblethatthetombof Nfr and SixthDynasty. B.. Gebelein Sn(t)-dtDb<-w. Baud in Grimal(ed. pl.9: 3 P.16 IV vs. 26 (1). Considering be datedto about thesecondhalfof the FifthDynasty. M.stretching betweenthe Fourth of thetypological all thisevidence. pl. it can be inferred in the ceremonies of Memphis allowed themto participate devoted royalentourage to the kingand to obtain the rightto build a tomb in the necropolisat Giza.Mastabas ethypogees.12The building Papyrimentioning of the tomb of Nfr and Jtj-snin the FifthDynastyseems plausible in the lightof of the dead on the panel in the Cairo Museum.In fact. Date: Fourth Dynasty.].58.120 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 thatthe ownersof the mastabawere also an overseerof singersand an overseerof thattheirpositionin the barbers. Sn(t)-dt Date: Fourth Dynasty. finally.13 FifthDynasty. the bull paw formof the foundin the iconographic recorddown to the reign footof the chairsis frequently the form of the offering later(Pepi I).).but the the pottery of his mastabaseem typicalof the FourthDynasty.17 V rt. theonlydocumentin theAbusir thereignof Neferirkare the tnvis dated from the reignof Djedkare Izezi. 13 N. the the representation absence of cushionsand backs in the chairs suggestsa datingfromthe Fourthor down to the reignof Niuserre.14And. 'A proposdes criteres de Les criteres in Grimal datation.30 on Mon. Posener-Krieger. 91. Cherpion'. andJtj-sn might Corpusof sn-dtin the Old Kingdomsources documents Administrative I vs.). This content downloaded from 134. xxxvii. 47 (18). 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 15 Cherpion.. mayhave livedabout or somewhat later. funeraire. Cherpion. 5: 1 P. de datation. 1989).18 12 14Cherpion. Firstof all. du temple Les archives II..thedating features architectural features of the statuesis less clear. (ed.

21 vs. Kulturgeschichte 1923-40). Hommages a Jean Posener-Krieger. Date: Fourth Dynasty. funeraire. mentioned together person whose nameis notpreserved. Borchardt. pl. 25 Cherpion.fn is accompanied minor eachtermed figures. 22 Les archives and de Cenival. Atlaszuraltaegyptischen III. Urk. 123 n.2oo7 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 121 V rt.253. Denkmdler desAltenReiches(ausserdenStatuen) imMuseum Berlin. mastaba ofjht-mr-nzwt.and N.Posener-Krieger. II.pl. 10 G 2184.C 4 ('coffret de Gebelein'): Sn{t)-dtjtw. 309: with in themonument Sn-dt therhnzwtWts of a third X. I papiridi Gebelein.23 Dynasty. Mastabas et hypogees.I. 1994).19 V vs.30 on Mon. 257. in C.TheGiza Archives (Berlin.8).f bythree sn.25 19 Posener-Krieger. 472-5. 322 (fig. dt.org>. lxxxiii.: 7 P. Date: Fourth Dynasty. Clerc. vonKairo (CCG Nos 1295-1808. The Abu Sir Papyri. 80. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Date: Fourth Dynasty. du temple Posener-Krieger II.A. This content downloaded from 134. xvn.W. reign monuments record: Giza Epigraphic from 9 CCG 1480.1937). BM EA 10735 frame 19: Wr-k? sn-dt hm-ntr 'thepriest thesn-dt of the [hmw-]ntr Jrj-n-Pth Jmj-ht Jrj-n-Pthy ofpriests controller Wr-ki\ Date: Fifth of Izezi. Berger. xl. 20 Ibid. The Abu Sir Papyri. 23 Posener-Krieger Les archives du temple and de Cenival..20 6 CairoJE66844. xxxvii. 21 P.22 Dynasty. 'Le coffret de Gebelein'.pl. I. Posener-Krieger.PMIII/i. Date: Fourth Dynasty. Gebelein Sn-dt X.f. Date: Fifth of Izezi. A sn. 228.Wreszinski.15-17. Grimal(eds). G.6: 5 P. Date: Fourth Dynasty. funeraire. pl. Project <http://www. Gebelein Sn-dt X.58. pl. lxix. 167. Cairo. Leclant(BdE 106. photograph AAW1876: gizapyramids. 397-8. 24 L.24 PM III/i. Berlin 15723 snpr-ri sn-dt 'thesn-dt of thehairdresser of thepalaceNj-mM-Pth? Jrw Nj-rmrt-Pth Rf-htp.21: 4 P. reign 8 P.

rock-cut n pr-r. LD II.58.-Rr is represented thesonsofMrw-ki. mastaba Ein Grab inderWuste (ZMH 15. 1934). TheGiza Archives lxvii. Date: endof theFourth or beginning of theFifth Menkaure (from Dynasty Dynasty to Sahure).fdt hm-kirnh-m-r-k? PM III/i. was His wife justafter Ndm-pt and nzwt. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .31b. fromthe Fourth Dynasty. 207-8: 14 G 7948.gizapyramids. Baud.73. photographs the A procession of three snw-dt 'bringing jn sn(w)-dt bringing offerings (jntprt-hrw at thetop of theleft (theparallel offerings by thesn(w)-dty) jamb of thefalse-door on theright three hmw-h 'fo-ritualists'): procession Kipy Hwfw-mrjj-ntrw.H.fsn-dt. PM III/i. Dynasty.mastaba of theGiza I (Cambridge. 91-2. PM III/i. mother. pislxv. Cf. criteres de datation.253. 142-3: V Bw-nfr.] 'thesn-dt thesn-dt andacquaintance oftheking [. Date: Fourth aboutthereigns of Khufu/Redjedef.80. ms.Dynastieauf demWestfriedhof Giza. 28.24. Kayser.f pr-mdn descendant. tomb ofH^f-R^nh. Die Mastabades Uhemka: 15 D117. 9. 215-16(no.. reign of Tntj.Mastabas ethypogees.). This content downloaded from 134.16). G. xi. AAW1990 Project <http://www.LD II. II: Die Mastabas derbeginnenden (Vienna.fn dtf smr Jttjshdwrb(w) of theWfe-ritualists of thepyramid of Khafre'.sn-dt nzwt V Wnn-nfr. des WestGiza. 12 G 4520. 30. Sn-dt sndt[. sn(t)-dt rh(t) Date: Fifth of Niuserre. daughter Date: Fourth of Menkaure. 182 (fig.30 on Mon.cf. Necropolis. 141-2: 13 G 4920= LG 47. Sn-dthrj-tp nzwt of thekingSsm-nfr 'thesn-dt of thechancellor Ssm-nfr V sn-dt nzwt 'the sn-dt of the chancellor of the hrj-tp Ssm-nfr king Ssm-nfr Wnj. PM III/i. 16 Tomb of Mrw-ki.mastaba rhnzwtjtzn. 149-50.32: Rh nzwt shdwrb sn-dt 'theacquaintance ofwrbof theking andinspector Nfr-hr-Nmtj 'the and of the ritualists.PM III/i.27 of Whm-ki. of the n Wr-Hr. ms. Jtzn.org>. Junker.Jtj> with the core of Khufuankh of the on the lower father. Les criteres 55-6 (24). 114-15.c: The sn.28). IX: Der Mittlefeld s (DOAW 73/2.Hannover. 1950).pl. H. in Grimal(ed.503-7. had also his palaceJttj. son. family part together and of the owner. Nfr-hr-Nmtj sn(t)-dt rh(t)-nzwt sn(t)-dt acquaintance and sn-dt zs the 'his the sn-dt and scribe of king'Dfit-ki. stela.H. 27 According to thedatingcriteria 226. Dynasty. Archive' Snb. 28 On the title in the tomb of Sstt-htp. JEA 67 (1981). also Y. ofthemost another wasrepresented as a member sn(t)-dt.tomb of Ssm-nfr I. 64-5. 129. PM III/i. 1942).. Les proposedby Cherpion.122 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 11 G 4940 = LG 45.. friedhof Vienna. Reisner. PM III/i. inspector Jttj ownmastaba intheGiza necropolis (G 7391). A. jambshows restricted andJw-mn-jb. wife. 24-35.'Two Old KingdomTombs at Giza'. Baud. ms.). up tothereign 26 de datation.]'. Harpur. in Grimal(ed.f dtNj-k. V.2* Date: beginning of theFifth Dynasty. 1964). LD II. Dynasty. 118-19. andA 2o63_NS.f-Rr 'his sn-dt and companion Sn. 'the sn-dt of the chancellor of the hrj-tp Ssm-nfr Ssm-nfr king Date: Fourth Dynasty. Junker.26 A History of Hwfw-rnh.. \sn-df.

58. pl. reign of Izezi. 301 (fig. 205 (fig. Date: second half of the Fifth Dynasty. tomb of Ztw. 1935). Urk. among other titles. 20 Cairo JE 37716.2oo7 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 123 17 G 2370. 85-7: The sn-dt. up to the reign of Izezi. PM III/2.PM III/i. 'Old Kingdom Inscriptions in the Yale Gallery'. IX: TheMastabas of theEighth Season and theirDescription(Cairo. Date: end of the Fifth Dynasty. where she bears. 22 G 4710 = LG 49. 286-7. 1936). Complex. Inti (G 2370). Excavations at Giza. 21 Mastaba of Nfr-htp. II: ig3O-ig3i (Cairo. 29a). A. 10811-2. MIO 7 (i960). Fischer. Fakhry.253.61 fifth register.fhm-fa 'the sn-dt and foritualist' T^w appear in a procession of offering bearers. Kaipunesut. from the tomb of Nfr and Jtj-sn (D203). 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .2.2001). Excavations at Giza. A. Khnumenti I: The Mastabas of Senedjemib The Senedjemib (G 2374).fhm-ks'the sn-dt and fe-ritualist' Qir and sn-dt. 135-6: zs sn-dt 'the scribe and sn-dt' Tntj.rt-Rr states that he had a chapel built forthe lady Nfr-srsin his own tomb. 'the sn-dt and overseer of palace singers' Nj-rn. 282-4. I. PM III/i. Hassan. 19 CGC 57163 + Chicago Or.29 18 Tomb of the sn-dt Nj-mM-Rf. that of sn(t)-dt. H. 68 (fig. Ergdnzungsband. xxxviii. This content downloaded from 134. Mastabas at Saqqara: Kaiemheset. PMIII/i. monuments record: Saqqara from Epigraphic 24 Tomb of Ki-m-hzt. pl. 2): The snt-dtHhj declares that she offeredthe statue to Ki-pw-Pth when he was buried. 542-3. pis xv and 1: The sn-dtjmj-r qd(w) 'the sn-dtand overseer of architects'Htp-k? built a funerarymonument forhis fatherand brothers in spite of being a younger son. 75. Date: Fifth Dynasty. LD. pl. Kaiemsenu. 23 Tomb of Hnmw-htp. statue of the jmj-ht zi-pr 'controller of the palace' Ki-pw-Pth. Inst. 2003). pl. Date: second half of the Fifth Dynasty.30 on Mon. Date: Fifth Dynasty.6: Sn-dt zib zs 'the sn-dtand scribe of the jackal' rnh-wd.Sept tombeauxa Vestde la grandepyramide de Guizeh (Cairo. Mehi (G 2378) (GMas 7. 213.s(?). PM III/i.PM III/2. G. McFarlane. Sehetepu and Others (ACE Reports 20.b. Hassan. S. i960). fig. Oxford. Boston. mastaba of Sndm-jbjntj. 207. Date: Fifth Dynasty. 226). S. PM III/i. xxvii. 42-4. 116: Sn-dt Nfr. lxxviii. Brovarski. and Senedjemib fig. and he received two 29 E. Date: Fifth Dynasty.2: The sn-dtjmj-r hs(w)t pr-r. xxvi: His wife is represented twice on a false-door stela.

the scribeof thejackal of the docuSn. reignof Sahure or later. Saqqara Mastabas. PM III/2. 'The Overseerof theTreasuryNy-k. Mus. de G. 29 Tomb of Shm-te. Strudwick. tombof Ph. who places it in the FifthDynasty. his reveredone.30 on Mon. Moussa and H.blockfrom Urk. Date: FifthDynasty. and belovedof thegod' Mmj\sndtzib zs 'the mrjj-ntr wr6-ritualist. Fischer. sn-dt and scribeof thejackal' Nj-k. chapel of iht-htp. Manchester10780. 581-2. mentsof the kingin the presence. 596. from Neferirkare to Niuserre.fdt 'scribe of the treasury statesthathe has and his sn-dt" Pth-hr. 1971). from Niuserreto Izezi. pl.n-wj-kt. The Tomb and Ka-hay (AVDAIK 5.the overseerof the scribesof thejackal' Kt.11-12. tombof Pth-htp. 139-46. treasury. Date: FifthDynasty.253. Cf. Mainz. 1900-1). Nova New Varia Studies (1987). Davies. M.j-tzw. 599-600. LD II.f buriedthejmj-ht Rr wrb nzwt 'controller of the hm-ntr hm-ntr m Nhn-Rr S. Murray. N. 46-7. prophet Sahure. viii.the Nfr-hr-nj-Hntj-htj snt-dt is in also attested the tomb. 25 Univ. N. PM III/2.-rnh.8-12: 27 D 70 = LS 15. Date: FifthDynasty. The Mastaba of Ptah31 D 64. 491-2.Mastabas at Saqqara. PM III/2.I.PM III/2.w-Pth\ RdE 38 H. and Akhethetep at Saqqara (ASE 8-9.f dt zib zs rnzwtn hft-hr zibjmj-rzs 'his sn-dt. 639-41. PM III/2. Nfrt-Hwt-Hr Date: FifthDynasty.30 the tombof Nj-hw-Pth. A. Date: Fifthdynasty. from Menkauhorto Izezi.f scribesof thejackal of thedocuments of thekingin thepresence'Ki. Date: FifthDynasty. I (BSAE/ERA 10.j-tzw. of thepalace. from Neferirkare to Niuserre. 227. sn-dt z?bjmj-rzs r nzwthft-hr 'the sn-dt. Mariette(Paris.124 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA93 arourasof land. 227. xxxiv: hetep 30 Cherpion. Izezi. pl. 1889). probablyin exchangeforthe funerary he was supposed to offerings to them.the jmj-rwptpr-ri'the sn-dt. 28 Tomb of the singersof the palace Nfr and Ki-hij. reignof Djedefre. Mariette. Altenmiiller.1996). G. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Les mastabas empire: du dernier de A. A. 744-5.nevertheless therecent discussionaboutthedatingof thistomb about the reignsof Niuserreor by McFarlane. 19-23. Urk. 315: Fragment ouvrage The sn-dt is represented betweentwo sons of the tombowner.58. present Date: FourthDynasty. the overseerof the jmthw. PM III/2.I. 30 D 1 = S 901. de Vancien 26 D 51. York. 112-15. xxiv: The wifeof Ntr-wsr was also sn(t)-dt. Murray.prophet sanctuary of theking'Nj-hw-Pth.pl. London. tombof Ntr-wsr. 1905). vii: Sn-dtwrb 'thesn-dt. (Egyptian (%• 4): The zs pr-hdsn. ofNefer Sn-dt rhnzwtjmj-htpr-r? the acquaintanceof the king. Mastabas ethypogees. Saqqara Mastabas. theoverseer controller of themissionsof thepalace' Tntj. PM III/2.hw-Rr pr-hd of of in wrb-ntuo\ist Re the solar Nhn-Rr. A. II. M. This content downloaded from 134. 485. London. pl. reignof Sahure or later. 34-6 3.

Date: theverybeginning at Saqqara. Wp-m-nfrt. ri(i) pr-ri tnrjj.f dockyard and his beloved'Ssm-nfr is shownin a lineof bearers thesn-dt led by thesonsof iht-htp. III: ig3y-igj8. W. 163-5. (no. 31 A. of Tntjfrom 36 CCG 57139. he was the sn-dt of that Tzmwstates Pth-htp Pth-htp. wrbt 'theoverseer of of thescribesof thejackal' Ssm-nfr 'theinspector jmj-r fnhw Tfw. Pirie. H. E. Kamal. 237): zc. PM III/2. Excavations and Others Hemet-Rr 4).30 on Mon.31 services theorganisation Textsconcerning of privatefunerary Giza.inscription aus demAltenReich(BWZKM 5.ASAE 4 (1903). of Ptah-hetep in thetomb:Iht-wr. 1975). Vienna.and sn-dt" Hm-ntr wrb nzwtsn-dt'theprophet. 127: bearersis describedas being the woman in a processionof threeoffering The first mistress of honourbefore(her) mother and 'the hr sn{t)-dt sn(t)-dt nbtjmih mwtjtmjtt and (her) father'. xiii: andfe-ritualist' 'thesn-dt hm-ki Sn-dt Ki-m-nfrt. chapelof Pth-htp xxxviii: (ERA 2. pl. v: (Cairo. jmj-ht The shdpr-^ 'inspector pr-ri'controller of the pyramid of Wenis' '&>rft-ritualist 'overseerof missions'. Urk. Goedicke.xxxiv-xxxvi. 9 (passage 1 and fig. S. Kaiser. shd zib zs 'thescribeof thejackal' iht-htp. 1970). D. Kessler. 606. 314-17.xxxii. zib shdzs scribeof thejackal' Nfr-hww-Pth. of thejackal' iht-htp. F.1981). A. 'the lectorof scribesand inspector hsw 'the inspector hrj-hb 'the of the scribes of the shd zs ztb zib jackal' Pth-htp. PM III/2. Wiesbaden. probably of the SixthDynasty. jmj-rwpt of the palace'. of thegranary of thezurfo-workshop' theofferings Stf. 694-6. of the palace'. Date: theverybeginning Epigraphicrecord:provincial monuments 35 Tomb oijj-mrjj at Gebel el-Teyr. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of the SixthDynasty.2oo7 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 125 sn-dt 'thecarpenter The mdh whrt of thegreat of thepalace. The Tomb 33 D 64. 122-30. 'Fouilles a Gebel-el-Teyr'. pis xxxi. administrator of the SixthDynasty.shdhsw'theinspector and elderof thedockyard'Ttwj. shdhsw'the inspector of singers'Sbk-htp. whrt 'the and administrator' jmj-rpr smsw Ki-hp. London. Hassan.r6-ritualist of theking. Paget and A. of thescribes arementioned z^bjmj-rzs 'theoverseer Fifteen snw-dt shdzs.I. Date: Fifth Dynasty. 308. 1898).58.and wrb Nfr-swt-Wnjs II.PM IV.Historische derRegion Topographie Mallawi undSamalut (TAVO 30. R. 600-5. Date: theverybeginning II. Mastabas ofPrincess 34 PM III/2. DieprivatenRechtsinschriften pl. Date: end of the FifthDynasty. zwischen This content downloaded from 134. zs 'the inspector priest'Wsh-k?. PM III/i.Agyptisches Museum Berlin(Berlin. 28 1967). Nj-nmtj. Date: probablyFourth-Fifth Dynasty.253. Jpj. of singers' Wp-m-nfrt.jmj-rsnwt jmj-rpr 'the overseer of singers'Tfw. 87. 32 Tomb of Nj-rnh-nzwt.

Mastabas the Boston. as well as beingin chargeof the goods allocatedto the funerary of funerary thereare exampleswherea son or a delivery Nevertheless. J.tr.his wifeand a sn-dt sharedthe record. 58-9.L' inscription tions deTAncien I . 59. Perepelkin. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . funerary aspects An additionalproblemis the elusivesignification of the termdt. Function. Privateigentum 32Cf.32 most extensivetextsconcerning were found. serviceof the dead.in spiteof being. Boochs.29-62.133.33 close relativeis also definedas a sn-dt.L' inscription deKhenemty. Cemetery. 35The inscription is published inA. published 82.95. MoussaandH. Harpur. Form. MiillerJEA 67. Toteneigentum.W. and the frequent existenceof multiplesnw-dt at the serviceof a single dignitary mustbe also takenintoaccount. Berlin. In othercases. 82-3.Even in the case of the mostdetailedsourcesfrom theepigraphic such as theinscription of Tntj. hotep n.59. juridiques Empire. documents.M. II. 31-5. M.. 108. . 33Boochs. Privaten example. Altenmiiller.. Perepelkin. offerings.39-43(fig.whereasin otherinstancesthe people who fulfilled thisritualdutywerenotdescribedas beingsnw-dt.63-4. inscription II. 907-8.34 noteworthy jmjt-pr Niankhkhnum nor Khunmhotep are defined as sn-dtin thetitlesin theirtombor in thetextregulating theorganisation of theirfunerary service.67. quentlyfound in compositetermsfromthe Old Kingdom. Logan. This content downloaded from 134. 1977).As a since. fig. pl. Sn-dt 'thesn-dt hm-k? andfo-ritualist' Neferhotep. J.58.30 on Mon.sincean official in der Vorstellung der Agypter des Alten Reichs. general. and which raises also the possibilityof ambiguity it can stand forpr-dt. Grdseloff. I Western W. Simpson.24.144.one has to considerthe of othermeansof transmission of goods and property to a third availability partyin orderto organise thefunerary serviceof a dignitary.113. Privateigentum.freby thesnw-dt. a sn-dt has sometimes been as consequence. VA1. Goedicke. ofAncient Egyptian .pisxlvi. MainzamRhein. Wollermann Index Titles Zum (Tubingen. imAlten Reich Toteneigentum (Achet A4. (GMas 4.'TheJmyt-pr Document: andSignificance'.T.In Rechtsinschriften. Fitzenreiter. 2004). K.with Cf. cf. 68-74. 1986). Dieprivaten ten. ASAE 42 (1943). interpreted a fiduciary agent. forcarrying out the ritualfunctions.unsurthe role played by the snw-dt in tombs and deal withthe organisation serviceof their of the funerary prisingly.253.in all brothers. responsibility Finally. Rechtsinschrif 3).Jones.35 probability. R.126 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 'Deux inscripofPn-mrw from Giza.3-9.thesnw-dt contexts whichhave nothing to do withfunerary appear in administrative activities. carriedout researchers have stressed the of the activities owners. Date: endof theFifth Dynasty. in some contexts.62-4.PM III/i.6-7.pl-vi.Fitzenreiter.49-73. previous bibliography. xxviii.for thetexts in Goedicke.b. The sn-dtof the Old Kingdom:historicaland sociological interpretation The interpretation Since the of the termsn-dtcontinuesto raise manyquestions. wherethepresence of a sn-dt was not in as the it is that neither apparently necessary.appointed or the the owner in tomb the of an administered the absence who by king heir. 'Zur Funktion dessndt\VAi (1985). Sn-dt in administrative documents The oldest attestedreference to a sn-dtis probablyto be foundin the onomastic calledJw-sn-dt is known at Helwanand he certainly antedates domain. of xlvii: 1980).B.alsoY. Das Grab desNianchchnum undChnum(AVDAIK 21. JARCE 37 (2000). 34Cf. de Penmerou'. 37 G 2197.

58.21.Janssen.from cf. Cesarini. R. (Oxford. 37 For thepalaeography. 19). Brooklyn35. it had an administrative meaningthat went beyond the private and identify a person in a bureaucratic record. Gebelein IV vs.37 palaeographical in Egyptiansociety. For a generaloverview at Amarna The AncientTextile cf. P. Friihzeit derdgyptischen Die Inschriften (AA 8. 40 Cf. Gardiner. GebeleinIV vs. villages IV vs. 39 P. 42 P. Gebelein IV vs. 2001). (BAe 7. '«Le paquet»: Sepultureanonyme de la IVe dynasF.second. I papiridi Gebelein. the taskpassed on to someoneelse in his family: father. forhim or her and to be consideredas the equivalentof a being able to substitute in an administrative document. GebeleinII vs. Posener-Krieger.14.BIFAO 103 (2003). Kaplony. designated relationship person. 256 (fig.s)werelisted example. or Gurob FragmentY: of the Documents Administrative Ramesside A.also Fitzenreiter. A. interpreted sense. 246-8. 233. tombof the FourthDynasty.Kemp and G. GebeleinV rt. a dutyout.36 from evidenceabout thesn-dt an earlydate.41 the names of the without wrote dt.2oo7 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 127 But it is the administrative recordwhichprovidesadditional the reignof Snefru.4°It seemsthatwhenhe did notaccomplish forcarrying his wife. sphere. 65 n. Brussels. B. 41 P. xxxvii.thepersonwhoactually performed garments .1937).hm{i) 'wife'. de Gebelein'.*2 Sometimesthe scribesimply substitutes.as the recent relevant of the publication archivecan be dated to the FourthDynasty Gebeleinpapyrishows.theparallelsprovidedby therecently fourof thembeingmjtr: E. xxxv. just mentioned.9.6-26. H: Posener-Krieger. for example. 35. Gardiner.sn(t)-dt. is thateach columnof buttheparticularity theNew Kingdom. I.and R. or sn-dt.confirms in P. Condon. H.J. hm(i) 'wife'..or simplythe feminine threeinstancesthe wordjt 'father'followsthe name of a woman. Gebelein as the certain to deliver were examplesprovidedby goods and. sn 'brother'. more frequently. tie provenant 38 Cf. of the Gebelein papyri: sn-dtcoverstwo basic meaningsin the context Accordingly. I papiridi Gebelein. first. Tpj.38 thefunction and name of thepersonsupposed to deliverthe thetextmentions. RdE 35 (1984). zsMdw-nfr. pointof and. pl. Posener-Krieger. Suppl. 109-12.39 scribewrotesn-dtafter may that the masculine name must be in nevertheless shows a broad it be.usuallya woman theduty and. Wiesbaden. xxxvii. Grilleto. Dynasty(Brooklyn Late Egyptian Miscellanies VA 1 (1985). of his or herfamily member The male inhabitants of two thisinterpretation.their titles and names were usually followedby a brief notation:ds if theyhad accomplishedtheirduties themselves or. Fiore Marochetti. Demichelis. H. 24.. 73. 23 1 (no. AnastasiVI: A.for the the thecase of thewomanand hmt-nzwt jrj-mdnjrw.in whosehouse(pr. 427-36. London. Posener-Krieger.since it was used to classify a to a to the it close other on the hand.J. is an administrative book-keepingaccount which recordsa of a village committed list of the inhabitants to delivera certainamountof textile Papyridealingwithsimilarsubjectsare well documentedin textsfrom production. PapyrusGebeleinV rt. A. xvi).S. 'Two Account Papyri of the Late Eighteenth 'Two VariantAccounts?'.1963). pis iv-vii.F. Industry quota-system (EES EM 68. 6. Oxford. Janot. mwt'mother'. Curti.This important and on a solid archaeological and it providesa new insight basis. In column6 the Briefas thisinformation the titleand name of Dbrw. . intotheroleplayedby thesn-dt P.althoughin determinative) (z?(t) 'daughter'.253.daughter.1954).because it does not necessarily designatethe personwho actuallyperformed forproviding the labourworkor thetaskbut thehead of the householdresponsible theworkhimself. pl. fortextiles. and snzi 'son'.1948).1453A-B: V. on the one hand. 57-82. Late EgyptianMiscellanies(BEStud 1. thejrjhtjtn and thejz(?) Nfr(l) (P. P. J. Vogelsang-Eastwood. I papiridi Gebelein. I papiridi Gebelein. 280-93.30 on Mon.1074. Caminos.zi{t) 'daughter'. of P. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . whichcontainsa listof ninepersons.11). Toteneigentum. a Gebelein discovered P. 14062. pl. GebeleinV rt. any 36 P. Cf. pl. This content downloaded from 134.1453 A and B)'.9.

z?t) and a sn-dtreplacedthe persons are definedas dt. is of the same nature a numberof women(hmt.30 on Mon.pl. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . II. Posener-Krieger pis xvii.male and female.I. record. pl. 398.58. B.in thecase of thesn-dt Jrj-n-Pth.128 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 additionalqualification. I papiridi Gebelein.2006).. U. lxxxii. 48 Documents83 and 17A respectively: and de Cenival. Clerc. In othercases thename of thesubstitute was written after thatof a worker or a ritualist. in additionthe administrative on the written showthata sn-dt could also be of humblecondition. Again it is evident thatnoting thatsomebody was a sn-dt of another had an administrative value. xxix.as in the case of the epigraphic record. Berlin 10047. 83). Posener-Krieger. in others a where of the context members replaced family mightbe expected. 6. enoughto be notedin official References to thesn-dt also occurin thepapyrifrom thefunerary complexof king thesn-dt the Fifth-Sixth whichmention'Rr-htp.8). Luft. funeraire. to label people who it was used in the administrative documents quite the contrary.PosenerLes archives du temple Krieger. or individuals papyri Neferirkare. 47 P. I. H-4> 7> J9~2i. 91-6.] who appears Jtw. Les archives du temple Posener-Krieger.wheresome individuals are statedto appearpersonally (jnj hr-tp. This content downloaded from 134. and Grimal (eds). of thehairdresser of the palace Nj-m^t-Pthy in a listof officials in chargeof certain administrative or ritualactivities(doc. 17A). I papiridi Gebelein..forexample. Posener-Krieger. xl. I papiridi Gebelein.45 of snIt is noteworthy the condition that. pis xl. Hommages 322 (fig. Dynastie:Brief e aus Illahun (DGOAW 34 = CCEM 7.It is difficult to stateprecisely thenatureof theclose tiesexisting betweenthesepersons. datingfrom Dynasty. Gebelein I vs. as if his own titleswereinsufficient to expresshis fullidentity or his presencein an official who was also a hm-ntr. The Abu Sir Papyri. 5.includingthe sn(t)-dt and the hm-nzwt sn-dt Jr[. Posener-Krieger.49 by played The generalimpression from theadministrative documents is thattheyonlystress some of theactivities carriedout by thesn-dt thatof substitute foranother person 43 P. 49 Document 82 mentions some dt: Posener-Krieger and de Cenival. 472-3.43 In two instancesthe substitutes documents of the The samepractice in personnel is attested listsfrom administrative Middle Kingdom. as in the case of Rr-htp.4 and 61. or whatis expressedby means of the termsn-dt. GebeleinV rt.A. v.TheAbu Sir Papyri. 44 P.f. 109.*6 All these as the purchaserof a house in a sale documentfromthe same archive.f 'to bringin person') in orderto carryout theirdutieswhereasin some othercases theywerereplacedby theirwifeor theirmother. 83 were in some instancesfollowedby the termds.48 The names of the officials in doc. GebeleinV vs. The inscriptions wooden box whichcontainedthe Gebelein papyriconsistof a list of persons. in Berger. pl. One important is not limitedto thesn-dtin the aspect is thatthe role of substitutes of in as in theGebeleinpapyri. Neferirkare. funeraire. only dt-people mentioned name also the same role. xlii.lxxxiii. 4 Cairo JdE 66844 (C 4). but theywereconsideredrelevant records. fact. Urkunden zur Chronologie derspdten 12.253. the sn-dt of the controller of prophetsWr-k?y in a (probably)royaldecree (doc. 45 Cf. Posener-Krieger. The information containedin R Gebelein V vs. P. and 'the prophetJrj-n-Pth.47 showthatthetermsn-dt documents was notrestricted to theprivate sphereand that.*A who had to deliverproducts. the notationusuallyattestedin listsof personnelin orderto expressthata person had himself fulfilled a certaindutyor task. Vienna. mwt. pl. textsclearly dt encompassedboth men and women. a Jean Leclant.

] rdj.n(.] to the offerings Egyptthattheybringreversion of twodifferent dt anomalousexistence overseer [.and from twodistinct kindsof social links.. Essays Offered Memory ofKlausBaer Chair'.j) myendowment'.] 'as forthe [.fig.consequently. papyrus thisfactit can be inferred thatthetwoterms were replaceanother person.30 on Mon.226). theoverseer Nj-m..).. of Nj-m.j) sw m-swj[..54These textsrevealtherather n the tomb of 'the in monument: a involved 'endowments' (jz dt(.226). 54 Hassan.] n mwtnzwtmwt bjtj [. Silverman D.. Ka: in For His in P. This content downloaded from 134.]\53Anotherinteresting wdb-rd at the disposal of Nj-m?rt-Rr: htp(i)-ntr [.51 jrjzpnjr. A Visit intheOld Kingdom: tothe Economics ofTomb-Building 'The Practical 240.due to herperfect in this mentioned notethatthetomb(jz) of theladyNfr-srs It is of particular day\5° That the textconsistsin factof a chapel built in the tomb of her sn-dtNj-m?rt-Rr.. Necropolis Carrying 16.253..58..] n jn. . 18) contains jr n.rt-Rry nfr jmsh.. pointsto a bureaucratic anytitleor family a Gebelein V rt.] 'as forthistomb.Finally.rt-Rr is explicitly statedin severalother tombbelongedto the endowment tomb of 'this in his tomb:jz pn dt(.. Chicago.in who built this tomb of her endowment condition of beingrevered before thekingevery the royalharem.ssk s(j) m hnwmjpt-nzwt m-swj pr-<iNj-m.]'. . *' Ibid.. theydesignate The sn-dtin funerary dispositions from about theactivSeveralinscriptions provideinformation funerary dispositions in theorganisation of thefunerary serviceor thebuilding itiesperformed bythesn-dt of a tombforanother person.j)n hm(w)t I have builtit due to [. M..] tothemother of) divineofferings (consisting [...sjz pn dt.] 'it is [..]\52andjrjz n dt(..sdtjmj-rhs(w)t of thepalace singers nb'it was hersn-dt hrnzwtrr . Excavations at Giza II. (SAOC 55... dt as substitutes theywere tied to otherpersonsto the point of being consideredmore or less as membersof could be an elite or a humbleone. It mightbe expectedthatdocuments nature will show othersets of context(such as funerary or froma different inscriptions) sn-dt.n(. inthetombof Nj-mirt-Rr thefollowing statement: The inscription (no. 53Ibid.3). into out the consideration all the areas in which carried activities by Taking can providea morebalancedpicture of theroletheyplayed.without relevance forthe factof being indication. shows that sn 'brother' and a sn-dtcould a sn-dt. 231(fig.Since Egyptianinscriptions s° Hassan.j) [.. 1994). 214 (fig.. in a (ed. 52 Ibid.j) sw inscriptions of being m-swj jnuh(. 205 (fig.s 'thistomb of her endowment').n(. difference dty by theirnames.and intervened thesn-dt a pictureby relying too restricted avoid the riskof getting on a rather exclusively The papyrialso show thatthe role of thesnset of documents. 205 (fig.j)jr. Excavations at Giza II.. Roth.. limitedand specific was not exclusiveto thisgroup of people.232)..rt-Rr jn sn.A. The and theirsocial background theirfamilies. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .] and I have givento the artisans tombof myendowment..s forher when she was at the Residence. mentions one of the sourcesof the offerings inscription [.231). and people simplymentioned betweensn-dt.2007 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 129 of a different in the fulfilling of a task. Nevertheless.I have builtit because of mycondition revered [.. notsimilarand that. 213 (fig.sn of theLower of thekingof Upper Egyptand mother jmj-r[.j) Nj-m?rt-Rr single built inside his mastaba (jz pn tomb of my endowment')and the chapel of Nfr-srs statethata (pr-)dt dt.

This content downloaded from 134. Nfr-srs was the secondaryrecipient of the offerings and the monument As her chapel is statedto belong to her {pr-)dt> grantedto or built by Nj-m. 58 McFarlane. considering own.sn :jr( .57 offerings of the termsn-dtmay indicate.in this context. Moreno Garcia. a sn-dtas a middlemanallowed the secondaryrecipient fromthe goods to benefit conferred these to another but without originally goods as his person. 24) further out the procedure fleshes just described.s'beloved byherhusband' ownfalse-door stela Excavations at Giza II. Gunn thought thatalthough Ki-m-hztwas the donorof the door. 210fig. egyptien Hwt et le milieu ruralegyptien.j) mjst(.C. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .it did notbelongtohimorhistomb.58.3o JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 was grantedby the kingto an official. thesn-dt procedure allowedthe goods whichconstituted of the two different those (pr-)dt. (Hassan. 42. 5 The tomb ofNj-m?rt-Rr contains textual andiconographic evidence about hiswife andsons.s Nj-mirt-Rr>s andwhobears theepithets mrt ofherhusband' andjmih(w)t hrhj.Nevertheless itmight be keptin mindthatin spiteof the prominent of Ki-m-hzty the onlybrother figure with him was An in of Ki-mrepresented together Htp-k.30 on Mon.Moreno perhaps directly through Garcia.Paris.Hwt etle milieu rural du IIP millenaire: etorganisation administration Economie. 110-11.j)'itwas in orderthattheymighthave invocation withme. delivered htp(t)-ntr offerings' suggests offerings orperhaps theendowment oftheroyal mother. relationship apparent professional were involvedwiththe controlof dancersand singersin the royalpalace.253.j) nwnjt(.but allocatedto anotherdignitary (the originalrecipient).Mastabas at Saqqara. inscription running front hztandHtp-h states n.Htp-hy in themastabaof Ki-m-hzt buton theeast side of an unexcavated tombimmediately to thewest. (BEHE SHP 337. originaland to be keptclearly sn 'brother' secondary recipients.If thisinterpretation is correct. belongsto a largefamily complextogether of two of his brothers.rt-Rr. Cf. The case of Htp-ki(no. Forsomeparallels.one can infer monument thatNj-rmrt-Rr administered or had access to the goods of Nfr-srs' (pr-)dtin order to build her chapel in his tomb. 57The use of theterm 'divine that a temple to Nj-m?rt-Rr. as well as Sn. separate. even if it was builtinsidethe funerary of anotherperson.j)n-mrwt prt-hrw hnr(. must be stressed that the wooden door leaf was notfound Mmj.An inscribed woodendoor leaf foundnearthetombof thearchitect Ki-m-hztmentions his father. cf. butperhapsto another In member of thesamefamily. and It Ki-hnt. 230).And theuse of theterm in thisoperation as wellas the emphasizedboththeclosenessof thepersonsinvolved of their sharing goods.j) nsnw(. So.thecontrast with who was wife family Nfr-srs Hnwt. Ki-pw-nzwt. Sn. particularly thereis no reference link betweenNj-m?rt-Rr The only to a family and Nfr-srs.f-rnh. butthere is no information about in herchapel. Htp-hr.f-rnhys fivesons: Ki-m-hzthimself. from offerings together my(own) territoriale 210-22. a factthatcould explain the presenceof some monuments commissioned in orderto honourthe most prestigious by membersof this family member and builderof thefirst and largest tombof thegroup.56 of them both from the texts was a because one.55 it can be inferred thatthe buildingof the because chapelof Nfr-srs mayhaveposed someadministrative problems.s'revered onher hj. 1999). Another and a templewere of a royalmother problemcould be the factthatthe endowment in thedelivering The use involved of funerary to thetombof Nj-m?rt-Rr. 55J. a procedurewhereby a person (the could benefit fromthe goods not originally secondaryrecipient) grantedto him or The intervention of her.58 the tomb of Ki-m-hzt withthetombs fact..

Hwfw-rnh and he himselfbore thistitle)and he also had of hntjw-s mother.I. main protagonist is therefore maintaineda sn-dtrelationship problematic.123-39. But that I built this formy father property. another running just below the representations inscription. of a father. grgt-domain 20-21 of Upper Egypt)has been givento him (consisting of) a fieldof two arouras' 59 thissentenceas a continuation and a specification of (Urk. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . fromhis own thathe receiveda fieldand thathe deliveredofferings textmentions similar thegeneralcontext seemsrather of his family. texts for andritual bothin private (cf. Perhaps he was the sn-dt reveal that a in fact.117). appears quantity of minimal standard landed endowa kind n8g. theacquisition intheuseoftheverbs I. whichwould make Htp-k?the donor of the door the contents the dimensions of thehieroglyphs his elderbrother: of the as a meansof honouring to explainif thedoorhad secondsentence (whichconcerns Htp-ki)wouldbe difficult been orderedby Ki-m-hzt.61 the sn-dtof royaldonationinsteadof a privatepurchase. 88h. This content downloaded from 134.4. 60This CT III. 'Acquisition relating employed du IIP millenaire'. 2. Urk.to honouranothermemberof his family. I. of his father personcould be thesn(t)-dt parallels As the or husband (cf. jrj orjn. came froma stela Hwfw-rnh. partially. and 30 in the repertory). brother and the father of endowment of the who werenottheoriginal (the recipients of the originof the donation.VII. sociale dansl'Egypte d'histoire Uneetude Intermediate: Periode la Premiere durant de serfs RdE 51(2000). and overseer ihtstlt2 'thesn-dt grgt Hm-dfi qd Htp-kirdjn.2007 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 131 and my brothers'(Urk..Consideringthe textsand scene.253.an official to thatdiscussedforNj-m?rt-Rr.VI. example.the Htp-ki). no.8-9. of theprotagonist of theseactivities. I. his father exampleof theroleplayedby thesnincomewere usufructs and official whereindirect in transactions dt as intermediary involved. In spiteof the absence of any indication and theverbemployed(rdj insteadof.as ifitwasconsidered ofofferings. 2 'it Nrrt ihtstlt as sn-dtjmj-r onecanalsoreadthissentence grgt Hm-dfi rdjn.'Administration of)a field (consisting (= nomes avant etle titre millenaire enEgypte au troisieme de l'espace etorganisation territoriale J.nos 15.a since his son statesthathe had also built a monument in the same direction. family of singerof the palace and of his functions because close ties withthe royalcircle 59Alternatively. I interpret of the previousone. Moreno inthethird to landpurchase intexts terms Garcia. The epigraphicrecordof the singerof the palace Hwfw-rnh (cf.and thatthemonument sincehe stressed Htp-k?.once again. of Ki-m-hztand Htp-k?. 505a. and brothers tothefather consecrated Moreover. 21.thecontrast oflandin Urk.153c. brother.forexample. millennium.163. 25.If Htp-kiwas effectively we would have another and brothers.C.fmNrrt says:sn-dtjmj-r in the of Naret the of architects Hemdjefa province (= nomes Htp-kr.58.J. 16.14.2-3). i37g. MorenoGarcia.-C:grgt r(n)d-mr grgt\ ZAS 123(1996). (Htp-ki) on behalf of to finance activities resources his own at least people used.30 on Mon. who the tomb of a Ki-m-hzt was not the near the monument person appears The identity of the personwithwhomHtp-ki of the inscriptions. 248d.14-15). theverbsthenused to expressthe acquisitionof land).Forthe jn andrdjconcerning cf. 12) points . totheproduction devoted ment 61Cf. 206.C. and brothers.fm qdHtp-ki intheprovince of Naret whogavehimthegrg£-domain of architects andoverseer is thesn-dt Hemdjefa Htp-ki of twoarouras' 20-1 of UpperEgypt) (J. .506a). 207. it seems reasonableto monument commissioned doorleafwas a commemorative thattheinscribed think by was thathe had obtaineda domain. area of thefields(two arouras)60 suggestan official. to theothermembers property It would seem that. (his father.

115).he was a colleague of his.] 'the acquaintance of the king Hwfw-rnh.the royal acquaintance Bbj. is probably managed to obtain invocation offerings one of the homonymous hntj-s(pr-ri)whose statues were found in the tomb of Hwfwrnhand.2-3).30 on Mon.. 37) and Tntj (no. The inscriptionsof Pn-mrw(no.which were administered by his wife: 'with regard to the invocation offerings which have come to me fromthe house of the king in the formof barley. Tntj was a middle rank officialwho received invocation offerings fromthe pr-nzwt. apparently invoking his status as eldest son who had accomplished the pious act of burying his mother: 'I am her eldest son. The presence of at least four snw-dt in his funerarymonument.f nw zi. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..f [. and its income devoted to the remunerationof several hmw-kt in charge of the funeraryservice for Tntj and Bbj: 'with regards to the first of two fieldswhich provide the invocation offerings formy mother. her heir. the royal acquaintance Tepemnefret.f funeraryequipment forhis tomb: jr. It was I who begged them (= the plots of land) fromthe king because of my condition of being honoured' (Urk.it is my sn-dt. his son [.f 'it was when he was alive on his feetthat His Majesty did this forhim because of his ' condition of being honoured before His Majesty'. The measures taken by Tntj were twofold. consisting of barley and wheat fromthe who granary.the offerings fe-ritualistKij-m-nfrt. This content downloaded from 134.. and jr gs nzwt ds. I.the royal acquaintance Bbj. 163. C. I. 202-3 (no. 36) doubtless provide the richest informationabout the role played by the sn-dt in a funerarycontext. It was I who buried her in the necropolis' (Urk. consequently.It is he who shall provide the invocation offerings there for 2005). She is the one who shall make the invocation offerings for me and my mother. 14-164.and clothing fromthe treasury.f hm.] built this for him'.253. Atlanta. K?p. The inscriptions on the false-door in his mastaba stress the fact that the king himself furnishedthe hr hm. 62 For a recenttranslation of thistext.n n. On the one hand. it now belongs to my wife. I. Strudwick. including a snt-dt who very close to the inner core of Hwfw-rnhys family.the royal acquaintance Bbj. shall provide the invocation offerings thereformy mother. he asked royal permission to dispose of one field fromBbj's endowment. it shall belong to my sn-dt.the royalacquaintance Bbj.it is my who will provide my invocation offerings. On the other hand. the rh(t) nzwt Bbj. some otherinstitutionalofferings formerly grantedto Tntfs mother.the royal acquaintance Bebi. wife. and clothing. the royal acquaintance Tp-m-nfrt. As regards the second of these two fieldswhich provide the invocation formy mother. Texts fromthePyramid Age (WAW 16.see N. By contrast.132 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 chief of flautistsresponsible for the entertainmentfor the king.n n.f hr pgi n dldw 'done in the presence of the king himself at the entrance of the audience-hall'.fnw rjrrnh. This field was to be administered by his wife. points to an importantofficial from snw-dt.wheat.one of these.his own son could only dedicate a stela to him: rh nzwt Hwfw-rnh jr..58. 1).Bbj. as well as another field. for she is an honoured one for me' (Urk. and formyself. 163.62 But the main concern of the funerarydispositions in his tomb was to participate in the funeraryendowment originally granted to his mother.were to be administered by the sn-dtKij-m-nfrtin order to provide invocation offerings for Tntj and his mother: 'with regard to the invocation offerings formy mother. consisting of two fields.the ka priest Kij-m-nfrt. 164.11-13).fsk sw rnhhr rdwj.

show some parallelswith that of Nj-mirt-Rr the controlof dancers and singersin the royal in the same professional activities.amongthe revered. of the royal a member or even a froma temple reversion high official.It seemsas if thefactof having allocatedto a vizierand to themother in theiruse or administration access to thesegoods impliedsome kindof restriction as as mediators as otherpersonsintervened forthesecondary (thesn-dt beneficiaries.It states: to interpret Pth is moredifficult jn snfdt in the beautiful he was buried 'it was when sw m-mjmihww nfrt mjmntt jr nfsk qrs{w) thathis sn-dtmade (this) forhim'.distinct or as mediator The roleplayedbythesn-dt from thepossessionsof Tntjand Pn-mrw. (such royalgrants statedthatroyal but in otherexamplesit is clearly and Nfr-srs)y thedt of Nj-m?rt-Rr to enjoythem. 164. it is possible thattheircase might involved two dignitaries and Nfr-srs. Nothingis said about west. to Pn-mrw anyreallocation granted made by theirdescendants (line 9): 'he shall give 5 ta measuresof land as invocation of theroyalacquaintanceMrt-jt. 112). and his children of father ritualist theyareto be thefo-ritualists Nfr-htp. the These two textshave some important been receivedgoods whichhad not originally of the invocation offerings recipients to them. haveauthority A final in thetextsprotects a field of mineto haveauthority'. sn-dt thedetailsof the relationship branch(the pr-hd) forthe same administrative . 63 Cf. transferred royalendowment. of the evidence this interpretation in the absence of further palace. bring of Pn-mrw was paid witha fieldoverwhichthedescendants forthisservice.AlthoughTntj and Pn-mrw goods.I do not empowerany personto I do notempoweranyson of mineor overhimand thesehis children.2). offerings In some cases the context and thattheywerenot privateproperty. theycontinuedto be consideredas belongingto a separatesphere. theyare also thosewho in the necropolisof the pyramid myendowment In exchange of thevizierSsm-nfr\63 me the reversion to offerings mysovereign. a recent Texts thePyramid of thistextin Strudwick.The mymother. from This content downloaded from 134.s\ offerings elementsin common. origin(stateremuneration. from these did benefit well as the wifeof one of them). and formyself.and whichdid not belongto theirown patrimonies. translation Age.2oo7 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 133 theroyalacquaintanceBbj.f-Pth The inscription pr-hdNj-hwfrom a sociologicalpointof view. beneficiary recompensed secondary representative of the goods. Nfr-htp wouldnothave anyrights (lines4-8): 'withregardto theone kha (=10 arouras)field whichI have givento him and thesehis children.13-165. Nevertheless. forthe invocation formytombof of mypersonalendowment offerings responsible of Khufu. disposition anychildren from thatcould be therh(t)nzwtMrt-jt. of or allocations the fields as thattheycame from (such as Htp-kt). with a was the for remuneration. theyhad been granted of one of them. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and mother.58. suggests family). (Urk. 's wife. of the finalrecipient even whenhe was a close memberof the family Anothercommonaspect of the textscited seems to be thatthe goods whichwere institutional had an official. worked But sincethey betweenthesetwoofficials. 200-1 (no. was necessary permission in the tomb of thejmj-ht of the zs pr-hdHr.30 on Mon. In both cases. I. describesthemeasureshe tookin orderto ensure in thetombof Pn-mrw inscription that invocationofferings subsequently originallydeliveredto the vizier Ssm-nfr 'with to thesn-dt thekito himthrough reverted (lines2-4): Nfr-htp regard mysn-dt.s.253.

likehis father And thesn-dtSnb was zs pr-mdrt.It is also worth noting betweenthe display of high titlesby an official and the mentionof a numberof sn-dtin his tomb.The case of Pth-htp werementioned in four five cases twosn(w)-dt or. had by farthe largestnumberof sn(w)-dt ki).30 on Mon.These twoexamplesfurther foranother monument person. and 37).fwas exactly the same the treasury. 14. as evoked by the termsn-dt> shows the fictional natureof the siblingrelationship it was displayedby wives (cf. and a source of revenues. and 30) or sons (cf. or Pth-htp Iht-htp. whereasthe titlesurvivedat to be element Another of the SixthDynasty.134 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 thesntis purelyspeculative. 18.was smrn pr-r? a scribeof the same functions.Hr. 'patrons'of manysn(w)-dt: in thetombof an official. in monuments dated from the Fourthto theend of the FifthDynastyor the attested betweenGiza and Saqqara: there difference of theSixth.f-Pth Finally.perhaps. important Saqqara untilthebeginning about the middleof the FifthDynastythe 'patrons' consideredis the factthatfrom of thesn{w)-dt knownat Saqqara wereviziers(Ph-n-w(j)-k?y II). 26.Pth-htp Tzmwclaimedto be the sn-dt service(fifteen). official thehighest of thesn(w)-dt who wereat the serviceof a vizier. eventhoughhe was notrepresented Pth-htp (probably II is exceptional whencomparedto other thiswell-known vizier. thesn(w)-dt ownersof thetombs. 21. displaystitlesconcerning This example Whm-ki.nos 25.Sometimes. exerted his 'patron'.Nj-ktw-Pth. institution.thatonlyone was no correlation sn-dt thatthere was connected to a 'patron'. areonly to observethatsn(w)-dt itis interesting Froma chronological pointof view. monuments in the Cairo Museum. Shmin theadministration of thevizier'sbureau(hwt-wrt: officials involved Ntr-wsr. The commonest situation was. 10. The latestof them.Since the sn(w)-dt fortheir'patrons'in the appear as substitutes 64 of or betweentheir'patrons' rituals nos as intermediaries performance (cf.f-Rr-rnhy Pth-fc. The titlesof the sn-dtand of their'patrons' The titles of sn(w)-dt sphereof thoseborne usuallybelongto thesame administrative as if theywere It seems by the 'patrons' in whose tombs theywere represented.forexample. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . relationship he when dt Hhj declaresthatshe had offered a statueto thejmj-htzi-pvKi-pw-Pth could providea funerary thata sn-dt confirm was buried. or hm-ntr of a king(cf. colleaguesworking in thecountry. 29.then. 34. and probablyeven more:the official in thetombof of Pth-htp II). whereashis 'patron'.253. This content downloaded from 134. in which three of themappear and there cases areonlythree at theserviceof a singledignitary. of Khafre.whereas of the pyramid and shdwrb(w) Jttj.nos 15 and 24) of the own tombs(nos 14. nos 16. one can reasonably inferthatthe sn(w)-dtat the service sourcesof of a memberof the elite revealthatthesepeople accumulatedimportant 64 Many ownersof thetombswheresn{w)-dt of thekingor a pyramid wererepresented werew>r&-ritualists (cf. 16.58. at his II. and 29). withthe obviousexception in the same administrative branches. nos 9. and Nj-ktw-Pth betweenHr.witha slight verybeginning weremoresn{w)-dt fromthe FourthDynastyat Giza. possessedtheir at the same scale as their'patrons'in the funerary and 34) or theywererepresented and Nfr of thestelaofJtj-sn as in thecase of thefragment of thelatter. 7-8).

probably. they of a like have been would son of an elder theintervention expected. relationship anytruesibling his term couldalsobe designated of the'patron' orwives being despite bythis sons. a richer many and roleofthesn-dt thestatus Conclusion: as wasthecase where were ofthetombs theowners were snw-dt Several buried.58. were stresses thefact that This circumstance andNfrhimself). probably. for they usually jftj-sn monuments and thattheir own funerary to possesstheir richenough relationship of relationkind close but some a full didnotimply with their dependence. and. prominent colleagues Saqqara in the snw-dt tombs alsodisplay viziers and as officials. of the did notbelongto thefamily truerelations. thetombs display important usually elite. from administrative of the lists in or of thepharaohs. granted from wereof a very outbythesnw-dt carried activities nature. ofthesocialroleplayed definition ofa thorough theformulation ourdisposal impedes is activities documented totheir a common tomethat butitseems aspect bya sn-dt. they built for tomb.253. It is alsoremarkable that the'patrons' ofthe thetitle showindividuals bearing in ritual in of middle rank involved activities attested at Giza werecourtiers snw-dt a at had more administrative their whereas thepalace. with suggests social which led to the and of economic position.sincehis tombis quiteprobably just after sn-dt. represented their high profile of administrative nature. private public ritual of the the concern detailed The most funerary service organisation inscriptions in thetransfer mediated thesn-dt where of histomb. and rituals of offerings or in theprovision of works accomplishment endowment from thefunerary a field he had received that stated for example.This had notbeenoriginally of goodsto the'patron'. of theEgyptian as members socialstatus wereusually of thekindwhere of their therange If we examine activities. and the in the both for a 'patron' a substitute of being thefact sphere.30 on Mon. papyri.perhaps havebeenabletofulfil hewouldnototherwise functions effectively. thebuilding in the of thechiefof thefamily or thereplacement tombfora deceasedperson. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a 'patron' and. played tookplacein the which activities as in theceremonial orworker. 'patrons'.2oo7 A NEW OLD KINGDOM INSCRIPTION FROM GIZA 135 in a number of official activities. personnel complexes funerary at ofthesources thescarcity suchas theGebelein documents Unfortunately. just as in thecaseswhena sn-dt dead. Jttj.Moreover. This content downloaded from 134. II. of them setof titles. their titles which confirm andthey ofthelatter. instances. which. 'patrons' in at thesamesize as their wererepresented somesnw-dt 'patrons' ship. orsubstitute theroleofrepresentative a sn-dt other In certain of. Tzmw. originally of the benefit for a sn-dt was administered it his to Tntj. Nfr(inhiscaseitwasa double Nj-rmct-Rr. Tntjy field as for another buried had as a piouseldersonwho of hismother her. official another for. probably suppression prominent thelastone to institution thesn-dt him. granted goodswhich at the of therangeof goods allowedboththeenlargement disposalof procedure of ritual of a number theaccumulation moreimportantly. independent specific and their them between or family Brothers. The case revenues institutional by participating an exceptionally or sixteen his (at least)fifteen of Pth-htp snw-dt. forthedead.The by mother. orthebuilding of the'patron' to him.

69 Cf.forthis reason. 195-210.-C. LD II. This content downloaded from 134. II.and theAncient World.RHD 82 (2004). the listsof officials who carriedout ritualsat the funerary Posenercomplexof Pharaoh Neferirkare: Les archives du temple cf. reviewof N.b. Jequier. Pttj was the patronof anotherperson of lesser status. BiOr 60 (2003).P. contemporains 116).)'.69The natureof the as.The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara. Allam. where a man and his family become the sons of a ritualist. at Saqqara. funeraire. 1929). 68 Mediterranean Hawass. in P. 537-76.68 He was thedtof theofficial shdnfr(w) rhnzwt dt 'theinspector Jtj-sn: Jtj-sn of recruit(s). 'mourner'. Rylands28. as in therecently case of Pttj quoted at thebeginning of this discovered relationship. and so on. on the otherhand. Israel. Abder-Raziq.reservedforhigh officials. Individu. Posener-Krieger (ed. 21-39. 67 Cf. like the viziers. V: The Tombof Hesi (ACE Reports13. But. Moreno Garcia. B. and whichwere.As fortheroyaldecrees. in Knoppersand Hirsch (eds). av. 1993).and notprimarily a patron/client relationship.67 leavingaside thefamily Withall theseconsiderations in mindthe differences betweena sn-dtand a dt can be better The term dtimpliestheexistence of somekindof patron/client appreciated. III Abder-Razig. 65 Cf.65 because of the restricted access to certainritual functions in the funerary and the where of Pharaohs. royalpermission complexes decreeswere needed. the dt of the acquaintanceof the kingJtj-sny . N. Cannuyer and J. article. 14 Oct 2013 09:08:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 'Decretsenvoyes Krieger. Lion. 23-8. and S. 25. p. societe etspiritualite dansVEgypte etcopte: nary1. pharaonique au Professeur AristideTheorides Melangesegyptologiques offerts (Ath. Cairo. Posener-Krieger. 117.As theterm(pr-)dtdesignated to an official as remuneration or recompense forhis services. forexample.253. in theperformance of certain duties.66 This circumstance could explain why high officials. 1999). Kanawatiand M.a dt and mit(r)t themselves as being a pr-dtor n(j) dt '(member)of a (pr-)df People also identified at Elkab or Saqqara. Warlix.58.The Teti Cemetery (Warminster.cf.b. Egypt. also titleslikehwt-r!t '(member)of thehwt-rn\ pr-r? '(member)of thepalace'. MelangesGamal EddinMokhtar(BdE 97. pis xxxiii.in a numberof inscriptions sn-dtinstitution was by contrast since it expressedmainlya specific quite different administrative in which the of substitution or representation notions status/function wereimplied. J. Kanawati and M. J. the rhetorical claim by Hzj of having progressedin his career withoutthe supportof any backer.30 on Mon.were the last officials to have snw-dt at theirservice. Similarprocedures in Near Easternjuridiare well attested cal documents.).forinstance. thegoods granted keptclearly by thestate separated.C. 2001). the literalmeaningof to sn-dt'brother of the dty but complementary impliesthe idea of a personexternal inthe(pr-)dt of an official. passim. or But the most important documentedrole played by the sn-dtas a substitute forthe middleman was to administer thegoods belonging to thepr-dtof a dignitary benefit of theholderof another a procedure whichallowedthetwopr-dtto be pr-dt.The sn-dt especially stitution was perhapsone of themany'fictional whichenabledthe family' procedures transfer of goods betweenindividuals rulesof inheritance. G.136 JUAN CARLOS MORENO GARCIA JEA 93 This procedurecould also turnout to be an important way of creatingclienteles betweenmembersof the elite. Cf.. minster. Cf.I.Kruchten(eds). au templefuneraire de Reneferef '.'PapyrusTurin 2021: Another AdoptionExtraordiin C. 37-8. also P. 346 n. Tombeaux de particuliers de Pepi II (Cairo. 'Les adoptionsd'hommesa Nuzi (XIVe s. 66 Cf.-M. 1985). 101 (fig. u.