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Properties of Organic Solvents

The values in the table below except as noted have been extracted from online and hardbound compilations . Values for relative polarity, eluant
strength, threshold limits and vapor pressure have been extracted from: Christian Reichardt, Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic
Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Publishers, 3rd ed., 2003, and the chemidlite site. For Spectra of Solvents and other sites with properties of organic
compounds, jump to the bottom of the solvent tables. For an Organic Chemistry Directory, see: http://murov.info/orgchem.htm . For a
Chemistry Directory, see: http://murov.info/webercises.htm
For additional web sites by Murov, please visit: http://murov.info . Sites include chemistry related
information as well as several recently posted Powerpoint pre-shows downloadable for use with audiences
waiting for the beginning of a presentation ( http://murov.info/PPTPreshows.htm ), a climate change
directory with editorial comments ( http://murov.info/climatechange.htm ), a few unusual periodic tables http://murov.info/periodictables.pdf and a list of handy bookmarks http://murov.info/handy.htm .
The tables below were posted (10/23/98), revised (07/28/09) and updated (08/06/13) by Steve Murov,
Professor Emeritus of Chemistry. Last link check on 10/13/13 using W3C Validator.

Table 1 arranged alphabetically, Table 2 arranged according to increasing polarity

TABLE 1
Solvent

formula

boiling
point (oC)

melting
point (oC)

density

solubility in

relative

(g/mL)

H2 O1

polarity 2

threshold vapor
strength 3 limits 4 (ppm) pressure

(g/100g)

eluant

20oC (hPa)

acetic acid

C2H4O2

118

16.6

1.049

M

0.648

>1

10

15.3

acetone

C3H6O

56.2

-94.3

0.786

M

0.355

0.56

500

240

acetonitrile

C2H3N

81.6

-46

0.786

M

0.460

0.65

20

97

acetyl acetone

C5H8O2

140.4

-23

0.975

16

0.571

2-aminoethanol

C2H7NO

170.9

10.5

1.018

M

0.651

3

0.53

aniline

C6H7N

184.4

-6.0

1.022

3.4

0.420

2

0.4

anisole

C7H8O

153.7

-37.5

0.996

0.10

0.198

benzene

C6H6

80.1

5.5

0.879

0.18

0.111

0.5

101

benzonitrile

C7H5N

205

-13

0.996

0.2

0.333

10

12

benzyl alcohol

C7H8O

205.4

-15.3

1.042

3.5

0.608

1-butanol

C4H10O

117.6

-89.5

0.81

7.7

0.586

20

2-butanol

C4H10O

99.5

-114.7

0.808

18.1

0.506

100

i-butanol

C4H10O

107.9

-108.2

0.803

8.5

0.552

2-butanone

C4H8O

79.6

-86.3

0.805

25.6

0.327

t-butyl alcohol

C4H10O

82.2

25.5

0.786

M

0.389

carbon disulfide

CS2

46.3

-111.6

1.263

0.2

0.065

0.15

carbon tetrachloride

CCl4

76.7

-22.4

1.594

0.08

0.052

0.18

5

120

chlorobenzene

C6H5Cl

132

-45.6

1.106

0.05

0.188

0.30

10

12

chloroform

CHCl3

61.2

-63.5

1.498

0.8

0.259

10

210

cyclohexane

C6H12

80.7

6.6

0.779

0.005

0.006

100

104

cyclohexanol

C6H12O

161.1

25.2

0.962

4.2

0.509

50

1.2

cyclohexanone

C6H10O

155.6

-16.4

0.948

2.3

0.281

25

5

di-n-butylphthalate

C16H22O4

340

-35

1.049

0.0011

0.272

1,1-dichloroethane

C2H4Cl2

57.3

-97.0

1.176

0.5

0.269

100

240

1,2-dichloroethane

C2H4Cl2

83.5

-35.4

1.235

0.87

0.327

diethylamine

C4H11N

56.3

-48

0.706

M

0.145

diethylene glycol

C4H10O3

245

-10

1.118

M

0.713

diglyme

C6H14O3

162

-64

0.945

M

0.244

dimethoxyethane (glyme)

C4H10O2

85

-58

0.868

M

0.231

3

3.5*
0.32

0.094*
6.3
18.3*
10.5*
0.51

0.04

200

105

100

41

10

400

79*
0.63

5

260
0.027

577 ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 213 -34.8 1.228 0.N-dimethylaniline C8H11N 194.444 0.7 -39.803 M 0.56 20 41 ethanol C2H6O 78. Extracted from Reichardt.814 0.4* 3-pentanone C5H12O 101.5 0.3 4 1.0003 0.074 0.4 -35 0.012 1-heptanol C7H16O 176.61* 0. Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry.741 4.713 7.3 0.6 1.092* 400 48 50 160 0.02 0.00 0.7* 21* 17.009 0.463 8.000 >>1 water.009 0.4 -80 1.107 M 0.9 0.11 0.8 1 1.886 30 0.309 0.1 0.6 -98 0.009 1-hexanol C6H14O 158 -46.0 -78.684 0.2 0.1 24.4 0.8 0.75 dioxane C4H8O2 101.779 0.1 -129.190 0.006 0.894 8.01 0.8* 2-pentanone C5H10O 102.0014 0.309 dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 189 18.115 M 0.821 5.32 0.59 0.8 0.05 0.117 0.096 0.568 2.559 methanol CH4O 64.2 0. 4 Threshold limits for exposure.261 M 0.546 0. page 495.124 0.43 0. 2003.228 ethylene glycol C2H6O2 197 -13 1.004 0.321 35. pages 501-502.1 11.82 400 44 pyridine C5H5N 115.956 0.207 0.819 0.3 13.5 -114.00 600 573 hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.0 -50 0.5 0.58 400 97 ethyl acetoacetate C6H10O3 180.4 1.933 10 3.0014 0.82 2-propanol C3H8O 82. * 25 oC TABLE 2 Solvent formula vapor solubility in relative (g/mL) H2 O1 (g/100g) polarity2 pressure strength 3 limits 4 (ppm) o boiling point (oC) melting point (oC) density eluant threshold 20 C (hPa) cyclohexane C6H12 80.5 15 0.6 0.810 4.8 1.791 M 0..1* 3-pentanol C5H12O 115.7 0.785 M 0.028 2.762 methyl acetate C3H6O2 56.6 0.N.179 dimethylformamide (DMF) C3H7NO 153 -61 0.326 1.14 0.04 100 104 pentane C5H12 36.78* 1.617 0.3 0.092 M 0.789 M 0.00 600 573 1-pentanol C5H12O 138.7 0. 3rd ed.626 0.537 pentane C5H12 36.4 -15 0.9 -98.01 50 160 .88 100 59 ether C4H10O 34.164 0.654 0.991 p-xylene C8H10 138.7 6.0039 0.5 0.26 100 15 1 2 M = miscible.00 0.033 M 0.3 0.047 0.38 400 587 ethyl acetate C4H8O2 77 -83.809 4.8 -96.009 0.488 6.655 0.814 3.71 5 20 tetrahydrofuran(THF) C4H8O 66 -108.6 -93 0.42 50 475 1-octanol C8H18O 194.1 0.861 0.302 0.099 0.4 0.549 hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.6 -116. heavy D2O 101.57 200 200 toluene C7H8 110.998 M 1.7 1.626 0.005 0.7 0.655 0.22* 0. Extracted from Reichardt.944 M 0.95 200 200 128 220 250* 200 37.253 methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) C5H12O 55.814 2. 3 Snyder's empirical eluant strength parameter for alumina.4 0.2 2.29 50 29 water H2O 100.790 glycerin C3H8O3 290 17.386 dimethylphthalate C10H10O4 283.5 0.265 1-propanol C3H8O 97 -126 0.17 0.9 0.3 -76.07 0.827 0.6 0.812 heptane C7H16 98 -90.1 -129.4 -88. Wiley-VCH Publishers.3 -8 0.867 0.7 0.2* 2-pentanol C5H12O 119. The values for relative polarity are normalized from measurements of solvent shifts of absorption spectra and were extracted from Christian Reichardt.2 -109 0.5 -42 0.20 methylene chloride CH2Cl2 39.4 0.982 M 0.

0 1.1 0.4 0.559 0.321 2-butanone C4H8O 79.2 0.8 1 1.309 methylene chloride CH2Cl2 39.463 C5H12O 119.8 0.124 0.326 1.568 2.2 0.3 -76.7 -39.05 0.14 0.3* .228 0.785 M 0.6 0.51 200 105 79* 10 12 500 240 0.9 -98.198 tetrahydrofuran (THF) C4H8O 66 -108.894 8.4 0.57 400 97 ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 213 -34.3 0.75 81.0 -50 0.1-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 57.265 200 1.8 0.5 -35.6 0.4 -6.808 cyclohexanol C6H12O 161.5 0.2 0.2 0.6 -16.18 0.111 0.9 -108.460 0.2 0.945 M 0.537 -88.43 0.3 0.052 0.819 0.975 16 0.2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 83.190 0.1 0.096 0.2 0.546 400 44 176.022 3.814 3.861 0.253 chloroform CHCl3 61.15 10 400 p-xylene C8H10 138.8 -96.065 0.6 0.594 0.4* 0.9 0.56 0.5 M 0.012 carbon tetrachloride CCl4 76.65 115.2 0.6 -116.5 0.420 2 0.82 18.4 -23 0.3 0.3 -111.2* 140.7 0.684 0.047 0.259 3-pentanone C5H12O 101.179 chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 132 -45.4 0.327 1.962 1-octanol C8H18O 194.786 M 0.24 50 29 benzene C6H6 80.333 acetone C3H6O 56.164 0.30 10 12 anisole C7H8O 153.42 50 475 2-pentanone C5H10O 102.08 0.26 100 15 toluene C7H8 110.05 0.5 1.814 2.809 4.1 11.074 0.145 0.263 0.10 0.7 1.996 0.933 24.228 dimethoxyethane (glyme) C4H10O2 85 -58 0.827 0.7 0.32 0.61* 20 97 8.71 5 20 dimethylphthalate C10H10O4 283.2 -63.879 0.0003 0.3 0.948 2.5 0.7 0.59 0.07 0.5 -114.38 400 587 methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) C5H12O 55.5 101 ether C4H10O 34.207 0.40 10 220 210 37.867 0.02 0.5 -42 0.786 M 0.092 M 0.4 1.4 -15 2-propanol C3H8O 82.4 18.355 dimethylformamide (DMF) C3H7NO 153 -61 0.4 0.heptane C7H16 98 -90.488 2-butanol C4H10O 99.6 1.1 25.049 0.6 -46 0.805 25.099 0.5 0.996 0.4 1.6 1.3 0.3 -8 0.8* 6.814 0.1 5.5* 200 0.4 1.18 carbon disulfide CS2 46.444 0.57 200 200 ethyl acetate C4H8O2 77 -83.269 100 240 di-n-butyl phthalate C16H22O4 340 -35 1.117 0.5 0.22* C5H12O 138.7 -37.868 M 0.498 0.327 benzonitrile C7H5N 205 -13 0.713 7.309 0.20 diethylamine C4H11N 56.17 0.6 -86.235 0.982 M 0.886 30 0.244 methyl acetate C3H6O2 56.8 0.N-dimethylaniline C8H11N 194.2 2.5 0.956 0.302 0.272 cyclohexanone C6H10O 155.386 10 3.552 C6H14O 158 -46.188 0.0 -78.3 -48 0.786 aniline C6H7N 184.2 25.509 50 1.176 0.0 dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 189 acetonitrile C2H3N 3-pentanol C5H12O 2-pentanol 400 48 5 120 250* 3.8 1.821 5.281 25 5 pyridine C5H5N 115.3 -97.571 0.32 0.6 -93 0.7 -22.3 13.810 4.4 1-heptanol C7H16O i-butanol C4H10O 1-hexanol 1-pentanol acetyl acetone 18.741 4.1* 0.4 -35 0.2 0.0011 0.4 0.944 M t-butyl alcohol C4H10O 82.549 107.4 0.3 0.6 1.706 M 0.506 100 4.389 100 41 1.5 0.2 -94.87 0.2 -109 0.56 20 41 N.231 diglyme C6H14O3 162 -64 0.106 0.63 5 260 dioxane C4H8O2 101.803 8.7* 35.5 0.1 0.033 M 0.

00 0.791 M 0.Calculated ChemExper Chem Directory .http://sdbs.9 0.Liquid or Solution Acros .991 water H2O 100.027 Spectra (of solvents and other compounds) 5.cgi?lang=eng RSC .http://www.nist.de/CMS/frontend/index.pherobase.com/chlorformtraces.nist.go.9 10.riodb.go.http://www.ogi.http://webbook.riodb.nist.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy 21* 0.82 acetic acid C2H4O2 118 16.577 1-butanol C4H10O 117.com/database/compound/compounds-index.11 glycerin C3H8O3 290 17.5 1.go.com/academic/default.5 0.648 >1 2-aminoethanol C2H7NO 170.http://www.ca/ bioorganics .Gas Phase NIST .cgi?lang=eng NIST site .5 -114.http://sdbs.ca/ 8.rsc.6 -98 0.chem.com/portal/alias__Rainbow/lang__en/tabID__21/DesktopDefault.6 1.3 17.riodb.aspx NIMC site .78* 20 0.5 0.php RSC .http://www. IR .alsnotebook.00 0.htm 6.Experimental NIMC site .cgi?lang=eng RSC .org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy Pherobase .rsc.cgi?lang=eng NIST site .654 diethylene glycol C4H10O3 245 -10 1.Predicted Bio-Rad .html human metabolites .asp 4. 13CNMR .https://ftirsearch. HNMR .81 7.knowitall.Experimental NIMC site .713 methanol CH4O 64.com/chemistry/data/common_nmr_solvents.4 -80 1.http://sdbs.nist.edu/spectra/PhotochemCAD/html/alpha.586 benzyl alcohol C7H8O 205.http://webbook. HNMR .http://harned.nmrdb.789 M 0.gov/chemistry/ OMLC .000 0.http://omlc.http://www.chemexper.8 1.http://www.wiredchemist.http://hmdb.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.3 4 1.028 2.608 1-propanol C3H8O 97 -126 0.ansyco.http://www.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.go.4 -15.gov/chemistry/ RSC .html Spectral Data Base for Instructors .53 1000 59 200 128 15 1.790 1.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy Solvents .118 M 0.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy fee based .html RSC .umn.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.C5H8O2 3 ethyl acetoacetate C6H10O3 180.http://webbook.edu/mmcdbrowse.http://hmdb.998 M 1.http://webbook.018 M 0.aist.acros.812 water.http://www.762 0.3 3 0.651 ethanol C2H6O 78.rsc.gov/chemistry/ RSC .rsc.261 M 0.edu/ 7.049 M 0.rsc.http://sdbs. IR .gov/chemistry/ ANSYCO .rsc.aist.803 M 0.http://www.617 0. heavy D2O 101.org/ 6.http://www.http://mmcd.http://www.http://www.php?idcatside=124 3.nmrfam.3 1.http://www.com/default3. UV-Vis NIST site . IR .org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy human metabolites .5 .aist.95 ethylene glycol C2H6O2 197 -13 1.com/ nmrdb .wisc.6 -89.107 M 0.riodb.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.042 3.aist.7 0.http://www.1 0.html Deuterated solvents .88 >>1 2.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy 10 15.094* 0.115 M 0. Mass NIMC site .

http://www.tcichemicals.com/ Chemland 21 .htm WolframAlpha . structure.com/portal/alias__Rainbow/lang__en/tabID__21/DesktopDefault. mp.com/what-we-do/databaseforms.ca/ Madison Metabolomics .Periodic Tables .gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.wikipedia.chemexper.http://mmcd. Elements .cambridgesoft.com/wps/portal/HOME TCI America .org/wiki/List_of_inorganic_compounds Chemical Book .knovel.acros. Polymer spectra . or after clicking on http://www.nih.chemspider.org/msds/ 3. Inc.chemicalbook.nmrfam. Sigma .wolframalpha.chemistry.org/wiki/List_of_organic_compounds http://en.http://www.http://chemfinder.eqi.co. density ChemExper Chem Directory .formula.http://chem.com/ LookChem . bp.com/ http://www.wikipedia.com/ Human Metabolome Database .sis.http://www. mp.formula.ch/en/ EPA .chemicalland21.com/en/go160w.http://hazard. Compounds . mp.edu/erd/ PPSI .com/msds/ MSDSprovider .msdsprovider.https://new.com/listaz01.com/PropertiesSearch.http://www.org/ilosearch/public/index.http://www.epa.sigmaaldrich.aspx?id=379 Chemical Database .colby.emdmillipore.alfa.edu/chemistry/cmp/cmp.webelements.aspx accepts . structure.lookchem.ilo.http://www.http://www.http://www. density.uk/chemistry/3_3/3_3.http://www.pgm?srchtyp=product ChemExper Chem.edu/erd/ National Physical Laboratory .acros.gov/chemview http://www. Chemfate .chemspider.sis.aspx accepts .aspx?id=381 Datalog .com/ http://www. Tabulation + MSDS Acros .gov/chemview/ http://java.asp MSDS Solutions .chemspider. molecular mass.http://www.formula. refractive index.com/what-we-do/databaseforms.gov/dfe/saferingredients.ethz.html Wikipedia .com/en/us/support-download/brochure/catalog.uakron. Search for Compounds from Properties Acros .edu/ Chemistry sites with chemical properties A. molecular mass.wisc.nlm.edu/libraries/asl/guides/spectra. Tabulation Knovel Critical Tables .com/ ChemFinder Web Server .html Chemspider .gov/chemidplus/ accepts .http://www.epa.com/ CIS . density. refractive index.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=761 select the Table for Basic Physical Properties of Chemical Compounds and register. http://www.http://why. structure.com/portal/alias__Rainbow/lang__en/tabID__21/DesktopDefault.com/ B. bp Organic Chemistry Data Base .com/SimpleSearch.http://www.com/ Vermont Safety Information Resources.formula.com/ accepts .http://www.com/ Siri MSDS (and toxicology) http://siri. MSDS Aldrich.http://www.htm C.http://ccinfoweb.aspx Alpha Chemical .com/chemistry. bp.http://ull.nlm.html JT Baker & Mallinckrodt (primarily inorganic chemicals) http://www. Directory .com/catalog/search/substructure/SubstructureSearchPage accepts .sis.Properties 1.http://ull.htm Chemblink http://www. .buffalo.com/ Chemidplus .com/Americas/catalog/default. Bibliography .html fee based .com/ 2.http://srcinc.hmdb.ccohs.uakron.http://library.epa.http://www.nih.http://www.msds.http://en.chemistry.npl.html .kayelaby. molecular mass Melting point and molecular mass search: http://chem.edu/ UAkron .mallbaker.http://www.http://www.html 10. molecular mass.hbcpnetbase.9.nih.knovel. bp.gov/chemidplus/ or http://chem.http://pslc.http://www.http://www.WebElements .chemexper.http://www.fishersci.com/web/portal/free_titles .http://www.http://www.aspx EMD Chemicals .nlm. ir Aldrich .uwsp.jsp Chemindex .formula.ca/chemindex/search. mp.com/chemicals/ Fisher .chemblink.http://srcinc. nmr Chemspider . ir.sigmaaldrich.http://www.Free registration required (on registration form.knovel.

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