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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4745-9.ch013
Reducing Corruption
and Protecting Privacy in
Emerging Economies:
The Potential of Neuroeconomic
Gamifcation and Western Media
Regulation in Trust Building
and Economic Growth
This chapter presents a location-based affective computing system, which can assist growing emerging
markets by helping them reduce crime and increase public safety when used in conjunction with CCTV.
Internet systems based on location-based services have increased in availability. Social platforms such
as Twitter and Facebook now employ the information on user locations to provide context to their posts,
and services such as Foursquare rely on people checking into different places, often to compete with
their friends and others. Location-based information, when combined with other records, such as CCTV,
promotes the opportunity for a better society. People normally abused by corrupt state officials for crimes
they did not commit will now have alibis, shops will be able to more effectively build trust and procure
new customers through “social proof,” and other forms of corruption will be tackled such as benefit
fraud and tax evasion. Trust that everyone is paying his or her fair share can develop.
Jonathan Bishop
Centre for Research into Online Communities and E-Learning Systems, Belgium
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
Emerging economies are characterized by in-
creased market orientation and an expanding
economic foundation (Bruton, Ahlstrom, &
Obloj, 2008), and they are assuming an increas-
ingly prominent position in the world economy
(Bruton et al., 2008). Concurrently, firms from
emerging economies are a growing presence in
an integrated global economy (Aulakh, Kotabe,
& Teegen, 2000). The emerging economies are
also more volatile than developed ones because
the volatilities of output, real interest rates, and
net exports are higher for emerging economies
(Neumeyer & Perri, 2005). Equally, governments
in emerging economies are unlikely to hold suf-
ficient reserves to protect the value of their cur-
rency should they confront a generalised investor
exit (Grabel, 2003).
Historically, developed countries have invested
in emerging areas of science and technology;
however, emerging economies which have not
previously invested in research are now doing so
in nanotechnologies (Gouvea, Linton, Montoya, &
Walsh, 2012). With globalisation and the growth
in emerging economies, multinational enterprises
(MNEs) now frequently confront challenges as-
sociated with corrupt governments (Uhlenbruck,
Rodriguez, Doh, & Eden, 2006). However, busi-
ness groups in emerging economies are also dif-
ferent from the conglomerates of the advanced
countries in that they did not develop from a search
for financial diversification; rather, they developed
from the ability to establish new business ventures
(Guillen, 2000). Indeed, incumbent and start-up
firms in such emerging economies are likely to
develop exploratory strategies as markets improve
in their domestic market (Bruton et al., 2008). It
is also the case that most emerging economies
are primarily interested in growth (Allen, 2005).
MNEs often attempt to export their envi-
ronmentally-friendly technologies to emerging
economies, even where this is not required by
local legal or ethical standards (Meyer, 2004).
This is not always the case as many companies
are fearful they will lose intellectual property in
developed economies, and many hesitate to license
technology in emerging economies (Mahmood &
Mitchell, 2004). There are also few international
transfers of innovative technology to emerging
economies as they are perceived as possessing
limited immediate market revenue potential
(Gardner, 1999).
In corrupt nations, individuals occupying bureau-
cratic or political positions frequently abuse the
principal–agent relationship to obtain politically-
created rents (Peyton & Belasen, 2012). It has
been argued that the pervasiveness of corruption
reflects the degree to which corruption is dispersed
broadly throughout the public sector in an emerg-
ing economy. In this regard, arbitrariness reflects
the degree of uncertainty and capriciousness
associated with public sector corruption (Uhlen-
bruck et al., 2006). Indeed, in both developed and
emerging and developing economies, economic
freedom plays the largest role in combating cor-
ruption (Peyton & Belasen, 2012).
Arab Spring Uprisings
It has been argued that a singular failure of the
Arab world is the absence of a private sector which
is independent, competitive, and integrated with
global markets (Malik & Awadallah, 2013). In so
far as the private sector generates incomes that
are independent of the rent streams controlled by
the state, it can pose a direct political challenge
following the Arab Spring Uprisings (ibid). It
has been discussed that one can understand the
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
role of social media in collective action in the
Arab Spring Uprisings without first taking into
account the political environment in which they
operate (Wolfsfeld, Segev, & Sheafer, 2013). It
is suggested the second principle states that a
significant increase in the use of the new media is
much more likely to follow a significant amount
of protest activity than to precede it (ibid). The
advancement in drone technology can pose a risk
for both civilians and governments in countries
with unstable political conditions. In the Arab
Spring Uprisings, some governments sought to
suppress the insurgents, but the mobile phone
masts were accommodated by them. In the near
future airborne Wi-Fi base stations could allow
so-called rebels to network using Internet technol-
ogy as if they were using an Intranet.
Much of the extant literature on technology and
emerging economies focuses on the issue of
technology transfer (Kimble & Wang, 2013).
However, technology has a much wider role to
play in transforming emerging economies. The
traditional technology transfer models discussed
in this literature in relation to the United Kingdom
were heavily based on the domestic economy, with
little international transfer of innovative technol-
ogy to emerging economies otherwise (Brem &
Moitra, 2012). It is fair to say the influence of
Information Technology on emerging economies
is just beginning (Leblois, 2004), which may mean
surveillance provides an opportunity to make
use of that technology. A lack of strong legal
frameworks in emerging economies has allowed
a large increase in opportunism, rent shifting,
bribery, and corruption (Hoskisson, Eden, Lau,
& Wright, 2000). The rapid diffusion of technol-
ogy in emerging economies, coupled with income
which has not kept pace with consumer desires,
are exogenous factors that have driven the growth
in piracy (Crittenden & Crittenden, 2012).
In the United Kingdom, surveillance is regu-
lated through the 2000 Regulation of Investiga-
tory Powers Act (RIPA). Counter fraud teams in
the social security departments and municipal
authorities have the ability to conduct surveillance
in compliance with RIPA (Button & Mark 2008).
Even in Western societies, there is still corruption
around surveillance technologies. For instance, in
July, 2011 a newspaper editor had his house raided
on suspicion of phone hacking and corruption.
Public Safety
Police organizations are known to be less than
cooperative in terms of sharing data and work-
ing with outside organisations, even where this
may aid public safety as one police officer put
mentioned (Sanders & Hannem, 2012). Police
agencies are either
‘stand-alone,’ and share information only with
each other and have access to technologically
shared information within their own agency only
or they are
part of a larger cooperative what is interesting
and frustrating is that now that this technology
is available, those members that asked for it are
not members of the cooperative.
This was an interview with a Canadian police of-
ficer which would suggest in emerging economies
things must be much worse where corruption is
the norm. In some cities in Western countries, po-
lice have been fitted with wearable CCTV, which
serves as both a deterrent to them committing
abusive acts towards the public and members of
the public doing the same to the police.
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
It is clear it is part of the human condition to be
selfish, greedy, self-interested, and – in many cases
– inconsiderate of the needs of others. Therefore,
instead of expecting human beings to be moral
when it is in one’s nature not to be the case, one
must redesign the environment to encourage desir-
able behaviours while avoiding undesirable ones.
This is arguably needed in emerging countries to
overturn the trends of corruption in which failing
capitalist structures often mean those who are
rewarded are not those who work the hardest for
mutual benefit between customers and business.
Cooperative capitalism has been proven to be
effective in social enterprise and the voluntary
sector (Bishop, 2012a), but it is clear that those
organisations outside of the co-operative sector
based on rewarding employees who are not share-
holders produce the worst outcomes, as evidenced
by the global financial crisis in 2008.
A disadvantage of using the latest technology in
emerging economies is that the design criteria
for modern electronic products are based on the
industrialized nations’ prevailing environmental
conditions (Want, 2006). However, the immedi-
ate application of mobile telecom technology
in emerging economies where fixed telecom
technology tended to be underdeveloped and ex-
pensive has led emerging economies to leapfrog
much of the legacy technology found in advanced
economies (van Ark, Gupta, & Erumban, 2011).
One major factor motivating MNEs to transfer
advanced, environmentally-friendly technology
to emerging economies is the potential danger
of damaging the global brand by a major scandal
(Akisik & Gal, 2011).
It is important to understand and consider the
socio-economic, financial, and cultural contexts
in order to design and promote new technology
in emerging economies (Larbi-Apau & Moseley,
2012). Recent research has shown that emotions
play a major role in consumer purchase of foreign
products, both in and from emerging economies
(Maheswaran, 2006). The culturally diverse
populations in emerging economies result in
diverse interpretation of specific consumption
outcomes and their accompanying emotions and
behaviours, a fact which may differ from those
of consumers in advanced countries from which
technologies are being imported (Donoghue, De
Klerk, & Isaac, 2012).
In terms of privacy, the opportunities to create
technology for emerging economies which are
culturally- or religious-based rather than region-
ally-based are often overlooked when considering
the existence of emerging economies within the
industrialized world (Baker, 2006). The trend
of employing game mechanisms and techniques
in non-game contexts, or gamification, has dra-
matically increased in recent years (Kankanhalli,
Taher, Cavusoglu, & Kim, 2013). Not everyone
is convinced of the merits of gamification. One
of the first authors to publish a theory of gaming
in the 1990s is particularly objectionable towards
this novel type of interface design. Richard A.
Bartle, whose model of gaming users is now 17
years old, launched a full attack on gamification
(Bartle, 2011). He argued that gamification was
based around extrinsic rewards and gamification
systems were not games in the traditional sense
of the word as the gaming was secondary.
As can be seen from Table 1, there are clear
differences between the ways gamification works
and the way video games advocated by tradi-
tionalists such as Richard A Bartle operate. As
he rightly said, the game part of the interface is
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
secondary in gamification, but this is the entire
point. Gamification is a way to make systems that
would otherwise be mundane and boring much
more enjoyable and tolerable. Systems based on
gamification are usually user-driven based on the
objectives of the user as matched to the service
provider, whereas with video games there is usu-
ally a fixed format the user has to follow which is
programmed into it. Or for instance, some types
of ‘folk gamification’ are created from systems
not designed for gaming, such as Twitter in the
case of ‘hyper-trending’ (Bishop, 2012b, 2013).
In that regard, one can understand the purpose of
gamification is to provide interfaces that make
use of a human’s need to play games as opposed
to making games for people to play.
Neuroeconomics is an emerging discipline which
devises mathematical models regarding how the
brain implements decisions and that is tied to
behaviour. Neuroeconomics is well-equipped to
guide the theory of how choices depend on men-
tal states, such as fear or cognitive load. As an
emerging interdisciplinary field, neuroeconomics
combines the analytic power of economic models
with methods from cognitive neuroscience, yield-
ing new insights into the neural bases of decision-
making and financial judgment. It has been argued
neuroeconomics can be used in the development
of public health communications, and other areas
may be also appropriate in emerging economies.
It is clear that in emerging economies in which
there is a long history of corruption that it will
be a significant leap to enter a new world based
on trust and equality. Security is a huge issue in
terms of encouraging the take up of market-based
services. At the point in developed countries where
it was desirable to encourage consumers to shop
online instead of offline, trust was a major factor
in inhibiting its development (Petrovic, Posch,
& Marhold, 2003). Therefore, it is essential that
emerging economies develop ways of using tech-
nology to build rather than hinder trust among
This section presents a system called ‘Vois-
Safe,’ which seeks to build trust not only through
deterring crime from people who do not want to be
caught committing offences, but also by helping
consumers know they are being protected. There
are of course challenges, as some may find CCTV-
based systems threatening, such as perceiving it
as a breach of privacy.
Table 1. Differences between gamification and video gaming
Factor Gamification Video Gaming
Involvement The game involves engaging with a desirable (or undesir-
able) task in the environment in a more fun way than it
would otherwise be
The game involves escaping from the ‘real world’
into a fantasy based environment
Self-Determination The nature and direction of the activity is determined by
the user in situ
The nature and direction of the activity is pre-de-
termined by the game designers and programmers
Autonomy Can be created by users by using a non-gaming system in
a more fun way independent of the intended purpose
Has to be programmed to perform a particular
function before it is available to users to learn how
to use.
Motivation Extrinsic signs record progress and motivate one to build
on and improve on them, usually for benefits beyond the
game. For example number of calories burned off.
Extrinsic signs are in the game and relate to noth-
ing beyond it. The motivation is in competing
against other users within the game, rather than the
competition being related to external factors.
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
Figure 1 presents a mechanism for use in
computer systems in order to assist the interaction
between humans (Bishop, 2011).
Data Capture
Data capture is the point where an input goes
into VoisSafe. This can include CCTV cameras
installed on the uniforms of the police which both
the officers and members of the public know are
present. In gamification systems, the important
fact regarding data capture is that the algorithm for
recognition must use entities which are known to
exist in the person being captured and the person
using the captured information. Without knowing
the technology exists, it would merely allow for the
capture of evidence without actually encouraging
the changing of behaviour.
For instance, in Western countries which have
speed cameras on the roads to catch cars exceed-
ing the speed limit, there are two ways of view-
ing their implementation. One way is to collect
revenue and destroy the economy more widely by
the system making drivers be as unaware of the
speed camera as possible. This means they can be
caught speeding off guard which could result in
them losing their licence, while the coffers of law
enforcement authorities are enriched. However, if
the cameras are placed near a school and are obvi-
ously visible, it is likely more lives will be saved
as the motor vehicle drivers are likely to decelerate
upon seeing the camera, meaning it is achieving
its stated objective of increasing safety. This may
be unappealing to some law enforcement officials
who have to meet certain government objectives
in statistical means. This is a clear example of
how the system is arranged to encourage dishon-
est behaviour and, in fact, promote resentment
among the public and those who may abuse their
power which would be entirely counterproductive
in emerging economies. One can see the existence
of data capture technology by itself could provide
disincentives to unproductive behaviour without
even needing the next stage of data decoding.
Data Decoding
The data decoding stage of VoisSafe calls up-on
an algorithm, or algorithms, to transform the cap-
tured data which may be audio-visual into a form
of semantic analysis. Regarding VoisSafe, this
can involve using any input device and algorithm
Figure 1. A mechanism for assisting human interaction
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
which is able to output information such as on the
emotions or other gesture or action data observable
from humans. Examples of data it might decode
are situations in town centres where members
of the public are showing violent behaviour to
each other. It could also include situations where
corruption is taking place, such as on telephone
networks or near other audio sources.
An Example of the
Neuroeconomic Algorithm
Equation 1 in Table 2 shows a neuroeconomic
model how to identify the value of a particular
phantasy (on a scale of -5 to 5) affecting neuro-
response plasticity using the values of the cogni-
tions specific to the particular individual whose
social orientation is being constructed:
The brain’s ability to efficiently pass informa-
tion between synapses is called neuro-response
plasticity. This is measured through what is called
‘Pression’ (P). This derives from the French word
for pressure and is a common word in French
personal injury law, particularly with regard to
psychiatric injury; therefore, it is suitable to be
used here. Equation 2 shows how to calculate a
Pression by factoring a number of phantasies (p
where ‘i’ is the identifier for the phantasy and n
is the number of phantasies. Force (F) reflects the
maximum number of hours of working time
someone should produce in order to maintain a
healthy amount of productivity, which is 48, based
on the European Working Time Directive. Equa-
tion 3 shows how to calculate a knol, which is the
unit used to represent the serotonergic-dopami-
nergic synchronicity (usually between 0 and 1,
but minus infinity and plus infinity are possible).
The symbol H stands for humanpower, which
is the individual’s weekly Neuro-response plastic-
ity potential, calculated by squaring the potential
force (F) of 48 hours and subtracting the baseline
(B) of actual working time (i.e., 37 hours for most
full-time workers in Great Britain) from it. Ad-
ditionally, n is the number of phantasies and i is
the identifier of the phantasy in question.
At this data decoding stage, a significant
amount of data could be generated for the next
stage through capturing emotional or other action
data from audio-visual means, by using the neuro-
economic calculations in Equation 1, Equation 2
and Equation 3.
Data Matching
The data matching stage of VoisSafe takes in the
semantically-derived action-data and seeks the
meaning of them in a database. For instance, lo-
calised attitudes to gestures such as pointing one’s
finger could be encoded so that in cultures where
this is seen as threatening, it could be considered
as a warning sign of imminent violence; thus,
the authorities could be notified via the response
generating process.
The data-matching process involves using the
data generated in the data-decoding stage and
corss-referencing it against the affective states
in the database of Vois. Figure 2 shows a repre-
sentation of the ‘devoted’ emotion that generated
Table 2. Algorithms
Equation 1 Calculating a Phantasy Equation 2 Calculating a Pression
Equation 3 Calculating a knol
x x y y z

( )
( )

( * ))
1 1
p p F


5 /
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
using the earlier equations and Figure 3 shows its
opposite – the ‘impatient’ emotion. These could
be quite important distinctions in an emerging
economy, in whatever devices the neuroeconomic
gamification approach is used. For instance, in a
security setting suspicion might be removed from
a person appearing anxious if this is preceeded by
or follows the ‘devoted’ emotion when embracing
their partner from whom they might be departing.
It might therefore mean that response generation
might be to inform any security staff there is a
low risk and not to take any formal action.
Figure 2. A representation of the ‘devoted’ emotion
Figure 3. A representation of the ‘impatient’ emotion
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
Response Generating
The response generating process works by taking
account of the context of the situation and advis-
ing security professionals accordingly. It could be
that using the previous example of ‘impatient’ that
a shop assistant would be told when they are at
risk of abuse from a customer, who for example
is getting irritated by having to wait for a piece
of technology to work. The shop assistant could
be advised how to influence the customer into a
more relaxed state. This influences the game being
played so that the people who might otherwise be
violent are convinced to take a different strategy.
In terms of audio-capture, VoisSafe could advise
a security worker on all the steps needed to appre-
hend the terrorists, which may otherwise require
a lot of training and situation awareness.
Response Persuading
The response persuading component could be quite
helpful in emergent economies in which corruption
is the norm. Using the on-going example above,
it would have benefits for both security staff and
members of the public. A public servant in a CCTV
centre might not be motivated to intervene when
they are being warned. They may believe: “If they
want to kill themselves that is their problem, what
can I do?” This competent would, therefore, at-
tempt to convince them to access the microphone
or press the button to make an interventionist
act. If they chose to use a microphone to warn
the members of the public, VoisSafe could offer
them additional options. If the members of public
are being hostile, VoisSafe could provide the less
well-trained security worker with proven meth-
ods for defusing situations. If one considers that
in a country the size of Wales, which is heavily
developed, that not one week passes in which a
public sector worker has not failed to control a
situation with violent members of the public, then
VoisSafe could overcome many of the barriers to
public safety caused by untrained public servants.
Indeed, if one believes in 2012 the Welsh
Government only spent approximately £5.5 thou-
sand on the training of health service staff, then
it might otherwise be impossible for emerging
economies to offer the level of security needed in
a democracy without systems like VoisSafe aiding
them. In the case of the security situation which
might arise from those plotting a terrorist attack,
the technology would be even more important in
helping to keep the untrained security workers
calm and not compromise the cover of the ter-
rorists being monitored.
User Response Capture
The User Response Capture component of Vois-
Safe is an important component for monitoring
the effectiveness of interventions recommended by
its algorithms. Using the continuing example, the
system could record the emotional reactions of the
public of whom the security worker intervened to
change the actions. For example, it might find the
flashing of the light might not work on people on
the police’s database because they already have
convictions and do not care about getting caught.
It also might discover that in the same people the
threat of the police appearing emits from using a
megaphone built into the CCTV cameras which
might be more effective in such persons. In terms
of the terrorist situation, it might be the system
could improve its ability to detect suspect persons
and also ensure that security workers are less
anxious in dealing with the situations they face.
Through the crowdsourcing algorithm, it would
therefore be possible to configure the system to
offer contextualised advice based on local cultures
and customs.
An invention called ‘VoisSafe’ was presented in
this chapter. Using neuroeconmonics, it was shown
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
how this tool could be used to increase privacy,
reduce corruption, and improve security in emerg-
ing economies. The role of gamification in this
process was briefly discussed, and future research
could examine more closely how the response
generation and response persuading components
could be enhanced via the gamification processes,
especially those in Table 1.
Emerging economies are characterized by an
increasing market orientation and an expand-
ing economic foundation, and are assuming an
increasingly prominent position in the global
economy. Public safety and corruption are known
to be on-going problems for governments in these
countries, who in many cases lack the human re-
sources and financial measures to deal with such
problems effectively. VoisSafe attempts to reduce
the costs of securing these emerging economies.
The system can be used with CCTV systems so
that it is possible for low-skilled security workers
to gain the social skills typically found in the most
experienced of negotiators and the situational in-
telligence of the most trained military personnel.
VoisSafe can take account of local situations and
advise security works on how best to deal with a
public order problem through the various means
available to them. The interventions advised by
VoisSafe, such as to warn members of the pub-
lic who are likely to be violent through using a
megaphone, can change the game being played
by those citizens.
An isolated incident which might become
complicated can lead to the people dispersing
of their own free will rather than face the heavy
hand of police. In the United Kingdom where the
police can make ‘dispersal orders’, these might lead
to resentment among those youths they usually
target. Because the police officers will likely lack
the ability to take account of 250,000 emotional
states that VoisSafe can accomplish, they would be
aware of this situation. As the purpose would be to
disperse the conflict, the discrete present of Vois-
Safe might be more effective in achieving crime
reduction. However, aggressive police officials
could make things worse, and following realising
their mistake blame the public, a fact which would
make tackling corruption much worse.
If one believes in a country the size of Wales
that police take members of the public to court
daily for just swearing in their presence, then the
equivalent abuse of powers in emerging econo-
mies could be much worse. Technologies like
VoisSafe might be installed on public officials
in these countries as a way to change the games
they play. If they think they are being recorded at
the same time as members of the public they are
with, then both parties might be more respectful
in their behaviours – something still not achieved
in fully developed countries like Wales.
The author would like to acknowledge all those
reviewers who provided comment on earlier ver-
sions of the paper. In particular, the author would
like to thank Jean Bishop and Darren Bellinger
for their helpful critiques.
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Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV): A camera
operated surveillance system based in a locality
that captures and records specific locations for the
purpose of deterring crime and capturing evidence
of criminal acts. In this chapter it has been shown
how it can be used to capture affective data to
predict crime also.
Corruption: A term used to reflect a course
of action where a person in a position of authority
provides favourable treatment towards another
person for their own personal gain. This could
be an increase in that person’s financial capital
or status, right through to the emotional benefits
that come from being biased towards a person
one likes over another person one doesn’t like.
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
Gamification: The systematic re-engineering
of an environment with gaming principles so as to
encourage, influence or elicit specific behaviours
in a person through their willing participation in
that environment.
Neuroeconomics: A discipline for quantifying
the neural connectors in the brain as resources
so that it is possible to measure and improve hu-
man performance where mental skills, whether
cognitive or affective, are factors in the success
of humans in a particular environment.
Public Safety: Refers to the concern a country
or organisation has in relation to the well being of
the peoples that either are part of its communities
or whom rely on it as a customer or service user.
Systems like CCTV and law enforcement person-
nel can assist in ensuring public safety.
VoisSafe: An implementation of a concept that
one can encourage peaceful congresses of people
through helping them understand one another
though informing one of the other’s affective states
and recommending a course of action based on
that and their own goals.

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