P
B
B
T
T
Physikalisch Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Technische Bundesanstalt
Braunschweig und Berlin Braunschweig und Berlin
ThompsonLampard Calculable Cross Capacitor
and
Determination of R
K
H. Bachmair
International School on Quantum Metrology and Fundamental International School on Quantum Metrology and Fundamental
Constants Constants
Les Les Houches Houches, France, 01 , France, 01   12 October 2007 12 October 2007
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Content
Thompson Lampard Calculable Cross Capacitor
and Determination of R
K
Determination of the Units of Inductance, Capacitance
and Resistance
A New Theorem in Electrostatics and its Application to
Calculable Capacitors
Influence of Imperfections of the Electrode System on the
Cross Capacitance
Determination of the Unit of Resistance Based on the Unit
of Capacitance
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Determination of the units of
inductance,
capacitance and
resistance
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
The Units of Electrodynamics (1)
0 00 0
c m kg s A
current balance
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
The Units of Electrodynamics (2)
M
a
x
w
e
l
l
'
s
e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
c
2
0
=
1
0 00 0
0 00 0
c m kg s A
voltage balance
current balance
V
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
The Ohm
The unit of electric resistance  the ohm  is the electric resistance between
two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of 1 volt,
applied to these points, produces in the conductor a current of 1 ampere,
the conductor not being the seat of any electromotive force (1 = 1 V/1 A =
1 m
2
kgs
3
A
2
) (9th CGPM, 1948)
A
1
V
1
A
2
J
V
2
A
l
ds
s A s I
V
R
ds
s A s
I ds
J
s d
J
s d E V V V
J
J J
J
J J
J
= =
= =
= = =
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
) ( ) (
1
) ( ) (
1
r
r
r
r
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
The Units of Electrodynamics (3)
M
a
x
w
e
l
l
'
s
e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
c
0
2
0
=
1
0 00 0
0 00 0
c m kg s A
calculable (mutual) inductor
L = R
voltage balance
current balance
V
H
O
h
m
'
s
l
a
w
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
The Henry
dt
dI
L V
I L
dt
d
dA B
dt
d
s d E
i
A
n
=
=
= =
,
r
r
The henry is the inductance of a closed circuit in which an
electromotive force of 1 volt is produced when the electric current in
the circuit varies uniformly at a rate of 1 ampere per second
(1 H = 1 V/ 1 As
1
= 1 m
2
kgs
2
A
2
) (9th CGPM, 1948)
r
PQ
dV
Q
dV
P
I
P
I
Q
2
0
2
4
N A
l
L
dV dV
r
J J
I
L
S
Q P
PQ
Q P
0
=
1
0 00 0
0 00 0
c m kg s A
calculable cross capacitor
1/C = R
voltage balance
current balance
V
F
O
h
m
'
s
l
a
w
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
The Farad
The unit of capacitance  the farad  is the capacitance of a capacitor
between the plates of which there appears a potential difference of 1 volt
when it is charged by a quantity of electricity of 1 coulomb (1 F = 1 C/1 V =
1 m
2
kg
1
s
4
A
2
) (9th CGPM, 1948)
Q
S
,
b
Q
S
,
a
a
r
b

\

= =

\

= =
+ = =
= =
= =
b a
V
Q
C
b a
Q
V
const
r
Q
dr E
r
Q D
E
r
Q
D Q dA D
ab
S
S
b a ab
S
r r
S r
r
S
r S r
1 1
4
1 1
4
.
4
4
4
,
0
0
0
2
0 0
2
0
=
1
0 00 0
0 00 0
c m kg s A
calculable cross capacitor
voltage balance
current balance
V
F
e
h/e
2
h/2e
O
h
m
'
s
l
a
w
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
A new theorem in electrostatics
and its application to calculable
capacitors
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Calculable Cross Capacitor, Theorem
C
1
'
C
2
'
1
0
'
2 0
'
1
/ /
= +
C C
e e
:
'
0
'
2
'
1
C C C = =
m pF C / 2 2 ln
0
'
0
=
( )
2 1
0
02 01 0
2 ln l l C C C = =
1 2 2 3 3
4
1 2 3 2 3
4
l ll l
1
l ll l
2
2
0
02
2 ln l C =
l ll l
1
l ll l
2
Advantages of the vertical design
interferometric measurement of a
displacement instead of an absolute
length measurement
no bending of the electrodes
imperfections of the electrode
system can be kept smaller
no interruption of the vacuum
altogether causing a smaller
uncertainty to the expenditure of a
more complex construction
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Calculable Cross Capacitor, Realisation (3)
NIM 1995: 0.1 ppm
NIST 1989: 0.019 ppm
NMIA 1997: 0.032 ppm
NPL 1988: 0.028 ppm
PTB 1995: 0.035 ppm
Influence of a slight asymmetry on the
cross capacitance
For C
1
C
2
and C =  C
1
C
2
 C
0
, the
mean value of the two cross capacitances is
given by
( )
(
(


\



\

+ =
+
= ...
'
'
192
2 ln
'
'
8
2 ln
1 '
2
' '
'
4
0
3
2
0
0
2 1
_
C
C
C
C
C
C C
C
The necessary correction is quite small:
With C/C
0
3.410
4
, the correction is below
110
8
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Influence of Imperfections
of the Electrode System
on the Cross Capacitance
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Calculable Cross Capacitor, Influence of Gap Geometry
/ ,
/ 1
0
= +

\

=
=
0
1
2
0
2
2 /

\

=
=
z
z
C
C
k
z
z
z
n
z
z
C
C
n k
n

\

=
=
0
/ 1
/
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Calculable Cross Capacitor, Suitable Cross Sections
b)
c) d)
a)
C
1
C
2
C
1
C
2
C
1
C
2
C
1
C
2
C
C
C
C
C
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Influence of Capacitances Through the Gaps (2)
2C 2C
C
12
2
3 4
1
Electrodes: d = 85 mm
Screen: d = 228 mm
Guard tube: d = 40 mm
Gap E E: g
1
= 5 mm
Gap E S: g
2
= 8 mm
Gap E G: g
3
= 1 mm
10
0
9
34
'
1
12
'
2
/
0
'
1
/
0
'
1
'
2
'
1
/ /
/ /
10 6 . 5
4
/ 10 12 . 1 4
/ 0 . 61
1 1 :
1
1
0
'
2
0
'
2
0
'
2 0
'
1
0
'
2 0
'
1
= =
= =
<<
=
= +
C
C
m pF C C C
m pF C C
e C
e
C
C C
e e
e e
S
C
C
C C
C C
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Close Approach Error
l ll l
2
l ll l
2
s
C
l ll l
2
 s
10
7
C
s
(mm)
2 3 4 5 1
40
30
20
10
mm l s l l 170 ,
2 2
'
2
= =
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Influence of Variations in Cross Dimensions (1)
d
1
l ll l
1
l ll l
2
d
2
( ) 4 / 4 /
1 2 1 2
d d d l l l = = =
Shift of the movable guard tube: 500 mm (C
0
1 pF)
Permissible error: 110
7
l ll l 0.05 m and d 0.2 m
Straightness of electrodes: 0.4 m C/C
0
= 210
7
Alignment of electrodes: 0.2 m C/C
0
= 110
7
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Influence of Variations in Cross Dimensions (2)
l ll l
d D
l ll l
t
l ll l
f
0.695 0.660 0.632 0.713 l/D
0.321 0.329 0.176 0.331 d/D
29.2 23.9 11.7 22.4 l (mm)
13.5 11.9 3.25 10.4 d (mm)
42.0 36.2 18.5 31.4 D (mm)
PTB NPL NMIA NIST
Effect of a spike:
increase l ll l
t
due to taper
is compensated by
decrease l ll l
f
due to increased
feedthrough through the gap between
spike and electrodes
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Influence of Frequency
Lumped impedances
represent the capacitor
and its leads
Distributed impe
dances difficult to
be determined
Frequency influence
sufficiently low
C/C
0
< 510
8
with a
rel. unc. of < 510
9
1
2
3
4
Cross capacitance
C
13
is measured
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Determination of the
Unit of Resistance
based on the
Unit of Capacitance
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Ohm Determination
m s
0
Calculable capacitor
1 pF
UpScaling
1 pF 10 nF
Quadrature bridge
10 nF 10 k
Downscaling
10 k 1 k
AC/DC
1 k
Upscaling
1 k R
H
(2)
Downscaling
1 k 1
R
K
m s
0
Calculable capacitor
1 pF
UpScaling
1 pF 10 nF
Quadrature bridge
10 nF R
H
(2)
Downscaling
1 k 1
R
K
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
4 Port Impedances (4 Terminal Pair)
Advantages:
improved potential definitions
perfect electrostatic shielding
stable internal leakages to the shield
4 terminal pair impedances are used for
resistances < 100 k and capacitances
>100 pF where highest accuracy is
important
V
2
I
2
= 0
I
3
0 , 0 , 0
4 4 2
3
2
= = = = V I I
I
V
Z
V
4
= 0
I
4
= 0
V
1
I
1
Z
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
4 Port Impedances (4 Terminal Pair)
Z
H
'
Y
1
/2
Z
1
Y
1
/2
V
2
I
2
= 0
Z
3
Y
3
/2 Y
3
/2
V
4
= 0
I
4
= 0
I
3
Z
2
Y
2
/2
Y
2
/2
Z
4
Y
4
/2
Y
4
/2
( )( ) 2 / 1 2 / 1
1
0 , 0 , 0
3 3 2 2
'
4 4 2
3
2
Y Z Y Z
Z V I I
I
V
Z
H H
+ +
= = = = =
V
2
'
I
3
'
( ) 2 1
1
2 2 2
2
/ ' Y Z V
V
+
= ( ) 2 1
3 3
3
3
/
'
Y Z
I
I
+ =
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
AC/DC Transfer Resistor
Frequency effects are small and calculable
Reactive effects cancel each other
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Resistance Measurement (Principle)
R
x
V
x
I
x
R
S
V
S
I
S
S
S
S
X
S
S
X
S
X
X
X
X
I
V
R
I
I
V
V
R
R
I
V
R = = =
Voltage potentiometer Current comparator
R
S
I
x
I
S
R
x
D
N
S
N
x
= =
V
x
= V
S
R
S
V
x
V
S
R
x
=
=
D
I
x
= I
S
S
X
S
X
V
V
R
R
=
S
X
X
S
S
X
N
N
I
I
R
R
= =
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Changing from DC to AC Bridges
R
S
V
x
V
S
R
x
D
Z
S
V
x
V
S
Z
x
D
~
DC 2 Terminal Ratio Bridge AC 2 Port Ratio Bridge
Voltage sources
Resistors
Null current detectors
Single wires
Voltage null detectors
Transformers, IVDs
Impedances
Injection/detection transformers
Coaxial cables, current equalisers
Phase sensitive Lockin amplifiers
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Quadrature Bridge
U
3
U
2
U
1
D
1
D
2
~
~
~
Y
4
Y
3
Y
2
Y
1
Balance condition:
Independent of U
3
, if both detectors
are nulled!
0
4 2 2 3 1 1
= Y Y U Y Y U
Quadrature bridge:
U
1
= U , U
2
= U , U
3
= jU
Y
1
= 1/R
1
, Y
3
= 1/R
3
Y
2
= jC
2
, Y
4
= jC
4
C
R
1
=
1
3 1 4 2
2
= R R C C
R
1
= R
3
= R, C
2
= C
4
= C
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
1:1 Ratio Bridge for Comparing Four Terminal Pair Impedances
0
+U
2U
+2U
U
0
Det
Z
R
T
2
T
S
V
S
+U
U
reference signal
mains ground
Z
H
MP
to Det
3,4, 5
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
1:1 Ratio Bridge for Comparing Four Terminal Pair Impedances
0
+U
2U
+2U
U
0
Det
Z
R
T
2
T
S
V
S
+U
U
reference signal
D
3
mains ground
to MP
D
5
to MP
Z
H
MP
to Det
3,4, 5
I
I
I
I
I = 0
I = 0
U
+U
Adjustment of the
four terminal pair
conditions
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
1:1 Ratio Bridge for Comparing Four Terminal Pair Impedances
0
+U
2U
+2U
U
0
Det
Z
R
Inj
1
Det
3
T
2
D
1
T
S
V
S
+U
U
reference signal
D
2
D
3
mains ground
to MP
D
5
Det
5
to MP
Z
H
MP
to Det
3,4, 5
D
5
C
Q
Kelvin
network
Adjustment of the
four terminal pair
conditions
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
1:1 Ratio Bridge for Comparing Four Terminal Pair Impedances
0
+U
2U
+2U
U
0
Det
Z
R
Inj
1
Det
3
Det
4
T
2
D
1
Inj
4
T
S
V
S
+U
U
reference signal
D
2
D
3
to MP
mains ground
to MP
D
5
Det
5
to MP
D
4
Z
H
MP
to Det
3,4, 5
D
5
C
Q
Wagner
balance
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
1:1 Ratio Bridge for Comparing Four Terminal Pair Impedances
0
+U
2U
+2U
U
0
Det
Z
R
Inj
1
Det
3
T
2
D
1
T
S
V
S
+U
U
reference signal
D
2
D
3
mains ground
to MP
D
5
Det
5
to MP
Z
H
MP
to Det
3,4, 5
D
5
C
Q
Inphase and
quadrature
balance
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
1:1 Ratio Bridge for Comparing Four Terminal Pair Impedances
0
+U
2U
+2U
U
0
Det
Z
R
Inj
1
Det
3
Det
4
T
2
D
1
Inj
4
T
S
V
S
+U
U
reference signal
D
2
D
3
to MP
mains ground
to MP
D
5
Det
5
to MP
D
4
Z
H
MP
to Det
3,4, 5
D
5
C
Q
( )
R Q R H
Z C j Z Z + + = 1 /
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Resistance Standards
Figures of merit
Longterm stability
Temperature coefficient
Pressure coefficient
Humidity coefficient
Thermal EMF's
Resistance alloys
Zeranin 0.2910
6
m 310
6
/K
Manganin 0.4310
6
m 1010
6
/K
Isaohm 1.3210
6
m 2010
6
/K
( Copper 0.01710
6
m 6.810
3
/K)
Isolators
Polyethylene, 10
9
 10
16
m
polystyrene
Teflon 10
11
 10
16
m
Sapphire, 10
13
 10
16
m
Quartz
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Quantum Hall Resistance Standard
2DEG
U
x
H
U
I
I
B
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
C
C
C
C
C
2C 2C
C
12
2
3 4
1
Tuesday, 9 Oct 2007
Les Houches, France
International School on
Quantum Metrology and Fundamental Constants
Introduction
Hans Bachmair
PhysikalischTechnische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany
Electricity Division
1962 1968 Electrical Engineering at TU Braunschweig
Since 1968 Employee of PTB
Power & Energy Measurements
Electronics and Control Engineering
Impedance Measurements
Electrical Units
Head of Electricity Division