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INTRODUCTION TO EC8

structure. ie strong columns - weak beams principle.

1. Objectives

In the event of an earthquake structures should be designed To protect human life To limit damage To maintain operational essential facilities IV. Diaphamic Action of floors. The floor of the building plays a very important role in the overall seismic behaviour of the structure. It will transmit the seismic actions to the various resisting elements. It is essential that the floor systems provide adequate in-plan stiffness with efficient connections to vertical structural elements. Care must be taken with large floor openings that are near to main vertical elements, which may hinder the efficiency of the floorvertical element connection. V. Adequate Foundations. It is important the whole building is excited in a uniform way by the seismic motion. Thus all discrete vertical structural elements must be effectively connected together by a floor slab or all vertical elements must be connected by horizontal tie beams.

I. No collapse requirement. The structure should retain its integrity and a residual capacity after the design seismic action has stopped. II. Damage Limitation Requirement. This requirement attempts to keep repair cost of the structure within manageable limits.

I. Structural Simplicity, Uniformity, Symmetry Structural simplicity is characterised by the presence of clear and direct paths for the transmission of seismic forces. Uniformity of stiffness elements in plan and elevation tends to eliminate torsional mechanism that may introduce sensitive zones where the concentration of stresses or large ductility demands might prematurely cause collapse. Symmetrical and quasi-symmetrical building tend to achieve uniformity. Modelling of such structures is subject to less uncertainty and thus the prediction its seismic behaviour is more reliable. II. Bi-directional and Torsional Resistance. Horizontal seismic motion is a bi-directional phenomenon and thus clearly building structures must be able to resist horizontal actions in any direction. Also the choice of stiffness elements must limit the development of excessive displacements which might lead to instabilities due to second order effects. Building must possess adequate torsional resistance and stiffness. The locate of main resisting elements close to the periphery of the building tends to increase it torsional stiffness thus is clearly an advantage. III. Redundancy. which allows for the most favourable redistribution of actions and widespread energy dissipation across the 25

3. INTRODUCTION TO EC8

Sd(T) ag the ordinate of design spectrum which is normalised by g. This is in effect the Design Peak total acceleration / g (hence unit-less) Design ground acceleration. Each country in Europe has a seismic zone map, in National Application Document (NAD) based on seismic hazard assessment. These zoned maps are statically derived to estimate a seismic event corresponding to a reference return period of 475 years. This is the reference return period for a I =1.0 importance factor) ratio of the design ground acceleration = ag g soil parameter which is dependent on soil class The behaviour factor. This is dependent on the ductility of the structure It is by the inclusion of this parameter that the dissipative effects plastic hinges are modelled. (assumes that structural engineer will use Strong columns-Weak beams principle in design of elements) Maximum normalised spectral acceleration. 7 (3-1) B0 = 2.5 1.75 2 + 100 where is the ratio of critical damping. When =0.05 (5%) then B0=2.5

Subsoil Class A

Description

800 + m/s

Stiff deposits of sand, gravel or overconsolidated clay up to several tens of m thick., characterised by a gradual increase of mechanical properties with depth. Rock or other geological formation with at most 5m of weaker material at surface. Deep deposits of medium dense sand, gravel or medium stiff clays with thickness of several tens to many hundreds of m. Loose cohesion-less soil deposits with or without some soft cohesive layers Deposits of predominant soft-to-medium stiff cohesive soils

S q

< 200 m/s (up to 20m) < 200 m/s (up to 20m)

B0

q = q 0 .k D .k R .k w 1.5 q0 (3-2)

Soil Class A B C S 1.0 1.0 0.9 TB 0.1 0.15 0.2 TC 0.4 0.6 0.8 TD 3.0 3.0 3.0

kD

The variation of these parameters incorporates the effect of the soil-structure interaction into the single degree of freedom response acceleration spectrum. Note that special attention shall be paid to soil deposits C which consists, or contain a layer of 10m thick, of soft clays/silts with high plasticity index (PI>40) and high water content. Such site can produce unusual seismic site amplification effects.

kR kw

Basic value for behaviour factor, dependent on structural type. (eg. Frame systems q0=5.0, Dual system governed by shear walls q0=4.5, Core system q0=3.5, inverted pendulum system q0=2.0) Ductility factor, Ductility class [High] kD=1.0, Ductility class [Medium] kD=0.75 Ductility class [Low] kD=0.5 Regularity factor, Regular structures kR=1.0 Non-regular structures kR=0.8 Failure mode factor, Frame structures kw=1.0 1 Wall and core systems k w = 2.5 1 0.5

0

(where 0 is the prevailing aspect ratio of the walls of the structural system 0 = height of wall/ length of section of wall )

26

3. INTRODUCTION TO EC8

For vertical motion q=1.0. This is generally adopted because of the small amount of energy dissipation obtained by vertical oscillations of buildings. It is permitted to use a value for q that is larger than one, if a nonlinear elasto-plastic collapse analysis shows that this is justified.

Table 1: Formulae for EC8 design Spectrum T Design Spectrum Ordinate (Range)

0 to TB

TB to TC TC to TD TD +

T S d (T ) = .S .1 + TB

S d (T ) = .S . B0 q

B0 q 1

S d (T ) = .S .

B0 TC . q T

2/3

0.2.

TD T

5/3

. S.

B T S d (T ) = .S . 0 . C q TD

2/3

0.2.

.S

For vertical motion the values derived from Table 1 multiplied by a reduction factor given below.

TC T Period (Sec) TD

TA = 0 TB

0.5 < T

0.5

The formulae in the following table are used to evaluate the design spectrum ordinate for horizontal motion.

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

27

3. INTRODUCTION TO EC8

In EC8 the total weight of the building is given by

activities. Category B is areas where people may congregate e.g. shops etc. Category C is areas susceptible to overcrowding e.g. dance halls, churches theatres etc. Category D is areas susceptible to accumulation of goods, e.g. warehouses etc. (3-3) The range is typically 0.15 E 0.8 . The philosophy of the analysis here is that less mass tends to reduce the structural period. Now by considering the design spectrum, a smaller period produces a larger total acceleration and hence bigger design seismic action. Thus the worst case, in an earthquake, should result when there is little live load present. The symbol (in equation (3-3)) indicates that the Variable and Permanent Actions must be combined according the combination rules in EC1 for multiple spans.

(1) Full (PA + VA)

W=

G

k

E Qk

where Gk are the Permanent Actions (i.e. the dead loads) and Qk are the Variable Actions (i.e. the live loads). The combination coefficients (e.g. safety factors) E take into account the probability of the variable actions not being present over the entire structure during the occurrence of the earthquake.

E = 2

where is obtained by the following table Building category A-C Occupation of storeys Storeys independently occupied Storeys not independently occupied

(3-4)

Top storey Other storeys Top storey Nonindependently occupied storeys Other storeys 1.0 0.5 1.0

E Qk

Gk

0.8

E Qk

Gk

0.5 1.0

(3) Full (PA) + Alternate Spans (VA)

E Qk

D-F

The combination coefficients 2 are defined in EC1 and a shown below. Loading Area Category A General Stairs Balconies Category B General Stairs Balconies Category C fixed seats other Category D general UDL (kN/m2) 2.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 Point Load (kN) 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 7.0

Gk

2

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.8

Figure 3: Combination rules for Variable and Permenant Actions

Load Cases (2) and (3) must include all combinations of Alternate span and adjacent span loading. As load cases (2) and (3) contain less mass they are usually the significant load cases under seismic events.

The variable and permanent actions are combined with the design seismic action IAEd , where I is the importance factor.

The building categories are described fully in EC1. Category A is areas for domestic and residential

28

G

k

E Qk

I AEd

(3-5)

3. INTRODUCTION TO EC8

EC8 uses concepts of regularity in plan and elevation to justify using various simplified analyses. Irregular buildings generally required more complex analysis.

Regular Regular Plan Elevation Type of Analysis EC8 permits: Planar EC8 Simplified, vertical (z), and two horizontal motions (x,y) can be uncoupled and treated separately. Torsional motion approximated. Planar Shear-building required but still x,y and z motions are uncoupled and treated separately. Torsional motion approximated. Spatial 3D shear building required. Two horizontal and torsional motions (x,y,) are coupled per floor. Z motion treated separately. Spatial 3D shear building required. Two horizontal and torsional motions (x,y,) are coupled per floor. Z motion treated separately.

EC8 tends to use external shape as a guide and this is not sufficient to determine either regularity in plan or elevation. As computer analysis is common place these days its seems more simple to analyse every building by the full spatial 3D shear building analysis. The EC8 simplified analysis should be used to determine an approximate answer for the validation of the order of the results from the computer analysis.

4.2 Theory

Consider a simplified shear building as described in chapter 5. Using the analysis in section 18, the total Fb base shear is given by

Fb =

i =1

2 i

L2 i bi (t ) Mi

If all modes other than the first mode are neglected then this equation can be expressed thus

2 L1 Fb = M 1

g S d (T1 ) S d (T1 )W

(3-6)

2 where L1 M 1 is the effective modal mass of the first mode is assumed to be the total building mass. Now using the formula for the equivalent static action, equation (5-33),

EC8 provide poorly defined empirical rules for determining both structural regularity in plan and elevation. The philosophy is that if a structure is classed as regular then a very simple analysis (based of the first mode of vibration) can be used. In the opinion of the author these rules should not be used. Regularity in plan is effected under linear conditions by the location of the centres of mass of the floors and the centres of stiffness of the storeys. The distance between these two centres is termed the storey eccentricities. Basically if these two centres do not coincide then the building will by subject to torsional motion (about the z axis) coupled with swaying about the x and y motions. Under inelastic conditions differing element strengths can cause plastic hinging in particular elements. This strength eccentricity can also result in increased torsional motion. Regularity in elevation is effected by changes in mass from floor to floor, changes in stiffness of storeys and also changes in strength.

L1 = Fb

i =1

m1 1 1 M where = M 1 mi i mn n n

Hence the force Fi on the ith floor due to the first mode seismic effect is

Fi = Fb

mi i

m

j j =1

(3-7)

j

To use equation (3-7) two terms need to be approximated. (a) T1 the period of the first mode of vibration and (b) 1 the shape of the first mode. EC8 uses an empirical formula first included in the Uniform Building Code (US). The approximation of the

29

3. INTRODUCTION TO EC8

T1 = Ct H 3 / 4 & T1 2 & T1 4TC

An overconsolidated clay is soil class A S=1.0 , TB=0.1 Tc=0.4 TD=3.0 The approximate fundamental period is

(3-8)

0.085 Space steel frames Ct = 0.075 Concrete or eccentric braced steel frames 0.05 for all other structures

Design Spectrum ordinate is

S d (T1 ) = .S . B0 TC . q T1

2/3

& 0.2.

2/3

where H is the building height in m. T1 is in sec. Ct is a parameter dependant on structural type. In the simplified analysis EC8 assumes that the mode shape is linear and proportional to the z coordinate heights of the floors above the foundation datum. Hence equation (3-7) becomes the following EC8 expression when floor masses are replaced by floor weights.

= 0. 4

Fi = Fb

wi zi

w z

j j =1

(3-9)

j

Storey Weights

z3 z2 z3 W3 W2 z2 W 1 z1 z1

325 kN

Figure 5: Example structure Total Seismic Base Shear Fb = 0. 25 x 1300 = 325 kN Calculating Horizontal Storey Seismic Actions zi wi = (3.5 400) + (7 400)

1 Mode shape

Fb

Hence

F1 = 325 3.5 400 = 48.1 kN 9450 7 400 F2 = 325 = 96.3 kN 9450 10.5 500 F3 = 325 = 180.6 kN 9450

4.3 Example

Consider the following regular concrete structure, in Figure 5, with is to be designed to sustain a seismic event. Using EC8 response spectra (=0.4, q=3.75, =0.05). The soil surrounding the structure is and overconsolidated clay.

The effect of torsional motion of structures that are symmetric in stiffness and mass at all floors can be modelled by increasing the actions obtained from the horizontal simplified analysis by the factor where

30

3. INTRODUCTION TO EC8

= 1 + 0.6

x L

(3-10)

If ... .the ratio of period of any two modes i and j are less than or equal to 0.9 then the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) combination is valid

T j 0.9Ti where j > i

Where x is the distance from the element under consideration to the centre of the building measured perpendicularly to the direction of the seismic action considered. L is the distance between the two outermost lateral resisting elements measured perpendicularly to the direction of the seismic action considered.

1 2 3 4 A 5 B 5 C y x 5 4 5

d s = q.d e . I

(3-11)

where ds is the ultimate deflections, q is the behaviour factor, de is the peak elastic displacement calculated from the modal analysis. Importance factor is I

For buildings having non-structural elements of brittle materials (e.g. tiles) attached to the structure the limitation of inter-storey drift is given by

dr

Frames 1 & 4 resist seismic motion in the y direction hence = 1 + 0.6(7 14) = 1.3 Frames 2 & 3 resist seismic motion in the y direction hence = 1 + 0.6(2 14) = 1.086 Frames A & C resist seismic motion in the x direction hence = 1 + 0.6(5 10) = 1.3 Frame B resists seismic motion in the x direction hence = 1 + 0.6(0 10) = 1.0

h 500

(3-12)

For buildings with non-structural elements fixed is such a way as not to interfere with structural deformations

dr

h 250

(3-13)

where dr is the limiting inter-storey drift, h is the storey height and is the reduction factor to take into account the lower return period of the seismic event associated with the serviceability limit state. Description I II III IV Hospitals, fire stations, power plants. Etc. Schools, assembly halls, institutions etc Apartment houses, office buildings, etc Agricultural buildings etc. Importance Factor I 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0

Either ... Demonstrate that the sum of the effective modal masses of the modes considered is at least 90% of the total mass of the structure. Or ... Demonstrate that all modes with effective modal mass greater that 5% of the total mass of the structure are considered. Or ... In the case of Spatial multi-modal analysis the minimum number of modes k being considered should be k 3 n where Tk 0.2s where n is the number of storeys above ground. and Tk is the period of the kth mode.

31

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