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Fronting Constructions Used by Iraqi EFL University Learners'

Sura Abbas University of Babylon /College of Basic Education

1. Introduction
This paper is mainly concerned with fronting as one of the English highlighting devices. Fronting means a term we apply to achievement of marked theme by moving into initial position an item which is frequently an entire sentence element. The reason for such process may be to echo thematically what has been contextually given. The effect of fronting is usually that the fronted element receives special emphasis, often because it contrasts with something mentioned earlier. In certain cases fronting is companied by inversion. Fronting may occur with negative or restrictive elements, such as ob ect!s" complement!s" and adverbial!s". The paper aims at evincing the possibility of Iraqi EF# university learners$ in implementation such constructions and detect the range to which they can apply to the various elements of the sentence. It is hypothesi%ed that Iraqi EF# university learners$ face more difficulties in fronting complements and the adverbials more than ob ects. In addition, these students face difficulties in sub ect verb inversion especially the clause patterns &'( and &') .To validate the hypotheses of the study a diagnostic test has been designed and applied to a sample of Iraqi EF# university students at their fourth stage *epartment of English, (ollege of +asic Education ,niversity of +abylon during the academic year -../0-..1 . The results of the test have validated the hypotheses mention above. 2-T e Conce!t of "ronting English fronting sentences have been discussed by a number of scholars including 2uirk et al !31/453677" who define it as a term we apply to achievement of marked theme by moving into initial position an item which is frequently an entire sentence element. The reason for fronting may be to echo thematically what has been contextually given 3. Faith you need 2uirk et al !31/453677" 8asselg9rd !3111544" defines it as moving a clause element that is usually placed after the verb to the first position in the clause !i.e. before the sub ect and the verb". The effect of fronting is usually that the fronted element receives special emphasis, often because it contrasts with something mentioned earlier. -. That programme I always watch. !fronting of direct ob ect". In a few cases fronting causes inversion !fronting of negative or restrictive element, fronting of obligatory adverbial or adverbial particle, fronting of so : ad ective;adverb, fronting of 0ing or past participle clause".

)lso <opova !-..=5> "illustrates this process as moving some elements which are usually found after the verb !i.e. in post0verbal position" forward to the beginning of a sentence to give them greater prominence &ome things you forget. 6. ?ther things you never do. !fronted ob ect" 2.1 "ronted ob#ects and co$!li$ents 2uirk et al !31/457-70/" and &teedman !-...5 >>4@>/6" express some environments which are related to the indirect ob ect )0 The term indirect ob ect do not apply to the corresponding prepositional phrase as in >. For me in pour a drink for me. Though we use the term prepositional ob ect for the complements in such phrases . &ome apply the term direct ob ect to an indirect ob ect if it is the only ob ect as in 4. Aou in I$ll show you or his children in 8e$s teaching his children ?thers again apply the term ob ect exclusively to the first! or only" ob ect. +0 speakers vary in their acceptance of wh0 questions in which the wh0 interrogative pronoun replaces an indirect ob ect . The corresponding prepositional phrase is fully acceptable 5 =. B who did the detective show his badge B 7. Cho did the detective show his badge toB /. To whom did the detective show his badge BDinformalE (0 &imilar variation applies to relative clauses as in 5 1. B The person I sent the book has not acknowledged receiving it. 3.. The person to whom I sent the book has not acknowledged receiving it .DinformalE *0 It also applies to retained indirect ob ects in passive clauses as in 5 33. B Fo reply has been given me. 3-. G Fo reply has been given to me . E0 Hetained indirect ob ects are generally restricted to pronouns . )ll these constructions have been exemplified by indirect ob ects with corresponding prepositional phrases introduced by to . The corresponding are less acceptable with other correspondences !e.g.5 for @ phrases " or no correspondences. !ibid" In instances where the passive is in applicable because the ob ect is a coordinate clause a coordinate clause with a pro @ form and making the second clause passive . 36. I asked whether he was there and his parents asked too. 3>. G That was asked by his parents. The identify of the direct ob ect can be tested in an independent declarative clause through a wh0 question with C8? or C8)T FH?FTIFI of the wh0 item and sub ect @ operator inversion are required 34. The bu%%er signals the end of the game. 3=. G Chat !?d" does !op" the bu%%er !s" signals B 2uirk !31/45 76." 37. 'ery good lesson we had yesterday. 3/. &trange people they are. 31. The question we have already discussed at some length. -.. Chat I am going to do next I ust donJt know.

!ibid" 2.1.1 %etac ed "ronted Sub#ects and &b#ects This comes in informal speech, we put the sub ect or ob ect at the front of a sentence, and then repeat it with a pronoun as in these two sentences5 -3. The couple we met in +erlin, we donJt want to send them a card, do weB --. ?ne of my brothers, his wifeJs a singer, he says. <ove !-..=5= " 2.2 "ronted Ad#ectives' Adverbs and (erbs These are possible in a structure with as or though -6. Fast as; though she drove, she couldnJt catch them. ->. Try as she might, she simply couldnJt open the am ar. . <ove !-..=5= " 2.2.1 T e )elative *osition of Adverbials 2uirk et al ! 31/45 =43 0- " state that there is another factor conditioning the placement of adverbials which is similar to the sub ect attachment rule and hence affects especially those adverbials that have a close of elliptically expressed relation to a particular element of clause structure . The following sentences illustrate the statement above . -4.B In search of a new house , the evening papers turned out to be of little use to <atricia and her husband . -=. To <atricia and her husband , in search of a new house , the evening paper turned out to be of little use The misplacement of adverbials is particularly serious where the result happens to be a perfectly acceptable and comprehensible sentence , but not with the meaning that was intended . !ibid" -7. Entirely in the spirit of the protective support , could I suggest you pass on an appropriate comment to the personal concerned B Enquiry showed that the writer had not intend a suggestion that might protect and support either her or the addressee 5 she was suggesting that the addressee extend his $ protective support $ to the$ personal concerned$. )s in the previous sentence , misplacement often occurs where the originator is actually taking some care to achieve a certain balance in a fairly complicated sentence. The following sentence from a newspaper is another illustration of this 5 -/. )long with )ristotle , &how , and Cilliam Iolding , +ob *ixon finds it impossible to approve writers like #eon Iarfield , in my view one of the best children$s authors. )lthough the syntax suggests quite otherwise ,what the reviewer apparently intended was 5 -1. +ob *ixon friends it impossible to approve writers like #eon Iarfield a long with )ristotle , &how and Cilliam Iolding . Aet in my view , Iarfield is one of the best children$s authors. It is easy to understand why the writer would have found this version less satisfying than his own , which seeks to achieve a fine irony by Fronting the list of great writers who are apparently the writer$s hope to append his own opinion neatly , economically , and even climatically often the first !and by this device, the only " mention of Iarfield. 2uirk et al ! 31/45=4- " 2.+ Clauses of *ro!ortion 2uirk et al !31/45 3333" state that proportional clauses involve a kind of comparison . They express a proportionality or equivalence of tendency or degree

between two situations introduced by as , with or without correlative the K..the followed by comparative forms 5 6..)s he grew disheartened ,!so" his work deteriorated. 63. )s the lane got narrower, !so" the over hanging branches need it more difficult for us to keep sight of our quarry. 6-. The more she thought about it , the less she liked it 66. The harder he worked , the happier he felt. 2uirk et al !31/45 3333" The fronting of the comparative elements results in the kind of syntactic ordering found in relative and interrogative clauses. 6>. The later you arrive L)&'M, the better the food is.L(s&'M 64. The more you tell him L?d &'?iM , the less notice he takes L?d &'M. !ibid" 2., Syntactic Criteria for *re!ositional (erbs 2uirk et al !31/4533=60 =" and &teedman !-...0 66" state that in this process !fronting" we concerned with prepositional verbs like call on , or phrasal @ prepositional verbs such as put up with . 8ow are we to choose between the two analyses of the criteria of question forms that of &'? !with a prepositional ob ect" and that of &')! or in the case of the prepositional verb &'))" B First there are good reasons for arguing that even an idiomatic case like 6=. 8e called on the dean . The sentence above contains a phrasal boundary between the verb and the participle 5 The whole prepositional phrase may be fronted as in question 67. ?n whom did he callB 2uirk et al !31/4 5 33==" 2.- T e Criteria of .uestions "or$s )n additional criterion for the prepositional verbs is our unwillingness to have the prepositional cut off from the lexical verb by fronting the whole prepositional phrase in !e.g." wh0 question and relative clauses 6/. )5BN)fter whom did she lookB 61. )5 Cho!m" did she look after BO +0 she looked after Pim. >.. )0 Cith Chom did she agree B +. she agreed with Pim )0 who !m" did she agree with B !ibid" 2./ T e )eason of "ronting )s we mentioned earlier that fronting is the term we apply to achievement of marked theme by moving into initial position an item which is frequently an entire sentence element . The reason for fronting may be to echo thematically what has been contextually given. >3. Aou should take up swimming for relaxation . >-. Helaxation you call it )lternatively , the item fronted may be the one contextually most demanded 5 >6. Cilson his name is >>. )n utter fool she made me feel. >4. Heally good QE)#& they serve at the hotel 2uirk et al !31/4536770 /" &teedman !3113 54/0 " and &teedman !31165 /1" illustrate the fact which is as if the thematic element is the first thing she strikes the speakers, and the rest is

added as an after ought. The possible insertion of the comma in written English suggests that the thematic part is almost an amplificatory tag in status5 >=. Cilson his name is . )lso 2uirk et al !31/4 5 367/" express that the foregoing have a distinctly informal flavour , but fronting is no way confined to colloquial speech. It is very common both in speech and conversional written material , often serving the function of so arranging clause order that end @ focus falls on the most important part of the message as well as providing direct linkage with what has preceded . >7. That much the ury had thoroughly appreciated . >/. Qost of these problems a computer could take in its stride. >1. This latter topic we have examined in chapter 6 and need not reconsider. 4.. To this list may be added ten further items of importance. These sentences suggest that the marked theme in such cases most often expresses given information . It is common to find 0ing participles fronted in similar information @ processing circumstances . 43. &itting at her desk in deep concentration was my sister Flora . &he looked as though she had spent a sleepless night . !ibid" (omack R &mith !-..> 5 -3/ 0 --." remark that there is a more striking type of fronting which is found in the heightened language of rather mannered rhetoric, including the strenuous colorfulness of ournalist writing. It is frequently employed to point a parallelism between two parts of a clause or between two related but contrasting parts of neighboring clauses. The front parts may be prosodically marked as marked theme or marked focus , the latter typically with divided focus and they may be grammatically any of a wide range of units A 0 %irect ob#ect or !re!ositional co$!le$ent admired 4-. 8is face not many Cere enamored of character still fewer could praise B- Sub#ect co$!le$ent or ob#ect co$!le$ent 5 46. Traitor he has become and traitor we shall call him . C- *redication ad#unct1 4>. *efiantly they have spoken but submissively they will accept my terms. 8e might agree under pressure 5 willingly he never would in #ondon I was born in #ondon and I shall die (omack R &mith !-..> -3/ 0 --." %- *redication 44.They have promised to finish the work , and finish it they will. Cith predications and predication ad uncts in front position , we often find sub ective @ verb inversion of the sub ect is other than a personal pronoun5 4=. Into the stifling smoke we plunged.L)&'M 47. Into the stifling smoke plunged the desperate mother. In sentences like the following , common in Pournalism , the fronting of the predication seems largely determined in fact by the device to give end @ focus to while his

the sub ect , at the same time using !as in normal" the early part of the sentence $set the scene$ 4/. )ddressing the demonstrative was quite elderly woman. 41. &hot by nationalist guerrillas were two entirely innocent tourist. Even the cleft sentence , itself a grammatical focus device is sub ect to fronting. =.. They hoped that 8erbert Frost would be elected and Frost indeed it was that topped. (omack R &mith !-..> --." + - Inversion 2uirk et al !31/4 5 3671" , Hooth !311- 5 6310 --" and other linguists assert that fronting may co0occur with another stylistic device5 inversion, i.e. a change in the sequence of sub ect and verb. Through the skilful use of fronting combined with inversion, a speaker; writer can exploit the potential of the two most prominent positions in the clause5 the opening and the end. The fronting of an element is often associated with inversion. Ce distinguish two type, consisting respectively in the reversal of sub ect and verb and the reversal of sub ect and operator. &ince the verb +e as a copula can be simultaneously regarded as verb and operator, we have a choice of regarding its placement before the sub ect as an instance either of sub ect @ verb or sub ect @ operator inversion. )s in the following sentences which show that the decision is made according to whether +E in the given construction, is commutable with another main verb or with another operator. )lso we have &ub ect0auxiliary inversion @ especially after negative or restrictive opening elements. !ibid" +.1 Sub#ect 0 (erb Inversion 2uirk et al !31/4 5 3671 @ /3" show that the clause patterns &'( and &') have their obligatory third element in large measure because the ' is commonly of itself so lacking in communicative dynamism. =-. &'(5 8er oval face was especially remarkable. =6. &'(5 The sound of the bell grew faint. =>. &')5 8is beloved body ties in a distant grave. In consequence, where information processing makes it desirable to front the third element concerned, the result would tend to be bathetic or misleading if normal order a nuclear focus be placed, inappropriately on the verb. =4. B Especially remarkable her oval face was. L (&'M ==. (&'5 B Faint the sound of the bell grew. =7. )&'5 !B" In a distance grave his beloved body lies. !ibid" If these were not to be dismissed as merely bad style we would tend to read L=4 as equivalent to certainly wasS L==M as growing louder, though nonetheless faintS L=7M as being in prone posture !rather than, say, foetally curved". !ibid" Cith the same fact <opova !-..=5 =0 3." expresses in consequence , that such fronting naturally carries with it in the inversion that puts & in final position and indeed it is to achieve and focus on the & that the fronting is generally undertaken. =/. ('&5 Especially remarkable was her oval face =1. ('&5 Faint grew sound of the bell . 7.. )&'5 In a distance grew lies of his beloved body.

The particular sentences have a rather mannered tone Tpoetic in the case of !=1" and !7." O but the phenomenon is common enough in ordinary informal speech5 73. 8ere$s the milkman. 7-. 8ere comes my brother. 76. )nd there at last was the book I$d been looking for. 7>. !The ets caused a great gust of wind and" off flew their hats. 74. *own came the rain. 7=. ,p went the flag. !ibid" 2uirk et al !31/4 53671 @ /3" give illustration to these instances with here tab, indeed, it is not simply a matter of stylistic choice, there is a sharp difference of meaning from the alternatives with &') order. )lthough we must distinguish there from existential there, there is in fact a close similarity in contrast to )&', the &') order invites us not merely to put the nuclear focus upon the ) but to see these ad uncts as referring to specific places. The following sentences can illustrate this comparison 5 77. here$s the milkman @ he$s come at last . 7/. The milkman is here @ at the door 5 &hall I get two pintsB 71 . there$s the book I want @ I$ve been looking for it all week. /.. the book is there @ by the typewriter. &ub ect @ verb inversion ! as distinct from sub ect @ operator inversion" with fronted ob ect is chiefly limited to the reporting clause where the ob ect represents direct speech !including speech that is $ Uthought J " and usually where the sub ect is not a personal pronoun. /3 U <lease go away J said one child. )nd don$t Ucome backJ pleaded another . /-. Chatever shall I do now B wondered Fred , remembering @ too late @ the appointment he had missed. This is something of a literary , and in ordering speech , '& would usually be replaced by &'. Cith the verb say it is possible to have ?&' where the ? is the substitute so , though this is felt by some to be archaic 5 /6. &o say the rest of us. !ibid" )gain 2uirk et al !31/45 36/-" and <opova !-..=5 /" believe that the most important clauses are ('& , )&', where the ( and ) make comparative reference to something that has preceded 5 />. 8is answer was a disgrace Sequally regrettable was his departure immediately afterwards . /4. 8er face was stony and even stonier was the tone of her voice. /=. )fter ago, two crashes occurred at the corner and more recently has come the news of a third. &ub ect0verb inversion &ub ect0verb inversion is normally limited as follows5 ). The clause opens with an adverbial, especially one of place or direction. This adverbial often links the clause explicitly to the preceding text. The opening element may also be a sub ect complement linked to the preceding text. +. The verb phrase consists of a single verb, in the past or present tense.

(. The verb is an intransitive verb of position !e.g. stand, lie" or of motion !e.g. come, go, fall". It may also be a copular verb !be". *. The verb has less weight than the sub ect which, through sub ect0verb inversion, is usually given end0focus. E. In informal speech, sub ect0verb inversion generally occurs only after VhereV and VthereV. /7. 8ere is <eter. !informal speech" //. There come the bus. /1. There, at the summit stood the castle in all its splendor. ! formal ,literary and academic style only" 1.. )way went the car like a whirlwind. 13. &lowly out of its hanger rolled a gigantic aircraft. 1-. ?nto the stage bounded the members to loud applause. Instead of an opening adverbial, there may be a complement5 16. Even more serious is the treat to the environment. 1>. Equally inexplicable is the popularity with teenager. 2uirk et al !31/45 36/-" 6.- &ub ect @ ?perator Inversion 2uirk et al !31/45 36/- 06" point out that sub ect0operator inversion is required after opening elements that are negative or restrictive coordinators or adverbials, such as5 neither, nor, never, nowhere, on no condition, under no circumstances, at no time, not until much later, not only, hardly, no sooner, rarely, scarcely, seldom, little, least of all, less, only, in vain. 14. &carcely had they arrived when the phone rang. 1=. Fever in all my life have felt so humiliated. 17. ?nly then did he understand what she had meant. 1/. Fot for million pounds would I go to prison for you. 11. )t no time must this door be left unlocked. &ub ect0operator inversion after most initial negative; restrictive elements has a rhetorical effect and is virtually restricted to writing. 8owever, after initial VnorV or VneitherV this inversion is found in conversation as well as writing. !ibid" Wubi%arreta !311/ 53./0 33." thinks that sub ect0operator inversion can also be found after opening elements consisting of the degree adverb so followed by an ad ective or adverbS similarly after clause0initial such5 3... &o absurd did his story sound that at first nobody believed him. 3.3. &o great was our surprise that we were utterly speechless. 3.-. &o greatly had he suffered that death came as a relief. 3.6. &uch self0confidence did he feel that he ignored all our warnings. This type of inversion can also be found in subordinate clauses of hypothetical condition, especially in rather formal usage5 3.>. Cere we to withdraw our support, the enemy would defeat them within two weeks. ! If we were ..." Wubi%arreta !311/ 53./0 33." 2uirk et al !31/45 36/3 0 > " express another fact in addition to the inversion in questions , there are four common circumstances in which the sub ect5 Fist we have elliptical clauses with initial so or the corresponding negatives neither or nor

3.4. Pohn saw the accident and so did Qary . LKKKKK. and Qary did !so" too.M 3.=. Pohn didn$t see the accident and neither nor did Qary . LKK.and Qary didn$t , eitherM.

3.7. &he was angry and so was I. 3./. &he wasn$t angry and neither was I . 3.1. &he must come and so must you . 33.. 8e would love to go and so would you. 333. 8e might fail and so might she. +ut inversion is les common with certain modal auxiliaries !notably may , might , ought" , and alternative substitute expressions with normal order are preferred 5 33-. &he might be ill and he might !be" too. Initial &o in elliptical clauses may be followed normal order where focus is required on the operator rather than the sub ect , thought so is the liable to be mistaken for a con unct. 336. !Aou asked me to leave" and Xso I *I*X . L undoubtedly con unct in 5$ and so I X*I*X M. )lso the sub unct so in !ibid" 33>. !8e wanted to leave " and Xso did it X more formally !8e wanted to leave, "and as did I +0 secondly , we have & @op inversion where a phrase of negative form or meaning is fronted. 334. #east of all is it in our interest to open negotiations now. 33=. )t no time must this door be left unlooked. (ontrast 337. )t certain times this door may be left unlooked. 33/. N)t certain times may this door be left unlooked (0 Thirdly , we have & @ op inversion in comparative clauses when the & not a personal pronoun5 331. ?il costs less than would atomic energy. 3-.. I spend more than do my friends. 3-3. &he looks forward , as does her secretary , to the completion of the building . Cith as , inversion is possible with a pronoun sub ect , especially if there is no correlative as5 3--. B &he was as delighted with the suggestion as was he . 3-6. They go to concerts frequently , so do I *0 Finally, & @op inversion occurs in subordinate clauses of condition and concession , especially in rather formal usage . 3->. were she a live today , she would grieve at the changes. 3-4. were we to with draw our support , they would be ustifiably indignant. 3-=. 8ad I know , I would have gone to her. 3-7. &hould you change your please let me know. 3-/. Even had the building been open ,we would not have entered. It is to be noted that with negative clauses of this form we don$t find contraction. 3-1. Cere she not so handicapped , we would take her to the )lps.

2uirk et al !31/45 36/> " > The Test The present test has been designed primarily to discover the ability of Iraqi EF# learners$ in using Fronting (onstructions. Through the results of the test, the causes of the students$ errors will be clear to enable us to suggest appropriate remedial for such errors. The test is constructed to measure the students$ ability in changing the normal sentences into fronting sentences and fronted the various elements of the sentence. The first question measures the students$ responses in changing the normal sentences into fronting sentences while the second question measures their ability in fronting the underlined elements or the various element of the sentence and making the suitable changing on the sentences. The items of the test have been chosen from ) (omprehensive Irammar ?f The English #anguage by 2uirk et al !31/453333 0 36/6". 4 The &ub ects The sample of the study consists of 4. sub ects of the fourth academic year !-../0-..1" of the *epartments of English on the (ollege of +asic Education ,niversity of +abylon. = Item )nalysis Item analysis is another technique which can be used with the performance0 refererenced test through the unidimensional trait assumptions underlying their use !+aker, 31/151/". Indices of difficulty or discrimination can point to items which are too difficult or too easy or fail to discriminate because of some reasons. The purpose of such analysis is to provide information about the items of the test in terms of ease or difficulty and to investigate whether they discriminate between good and weak students. Item analysis is a statistical device which enables us to monitor the behaviour of the whole test in its interaction with the populations. This device depends on the facility value and the discrimination index to calculate the result of each item. 8eaton !31//537/" remarks that the facility value of an item is concerned with how easy or difficult that a particular item proves in the test. It is calculated by using the formula5
R FV = N

where F' Y facility value H Y the number of correct answers F Y the number of the students taking the test !ibid" )nother formula which has been used to find out the item discrimination power is the following5
D= CorrectU CorrectL n

where * Y discrimination index , Y upper half # Y lower half F Y the number of the students taking the test in one group !8eaton, 31//53/."

7 Hesults and (onclusions 703 &ub ects$ <erformance of 2uestion !3" The first question, is constructed to measure the sub ects$ responses on production level in making fronting sentences. The results obtained after analy%ing the sub ects$ performance on each item in this question are presented in the following table Table !3" &ub ects$ <erformance in 2uestion !3" 2o. of Correct )es!onses 34 6 / 3. 3= 1 3. 4 1 33 3/ 37 34 7 344 2o. of Incorrect )es!onses 64 >7 >>. 6/ >= >3 >. >4 >3 61 666 64 >= =oo

2o. of Ite$ 3 6 > 4 = 7 / 1 3. 33 336 3> 34 Total

3 6. = 3= -. -> 33/ -. 3. 3/ -6= 6> 6. 3> -.

3 7. 1> /> /. 7= 1//. 1. /7/ => == 7. 1/.

)s shown in table !3" the total number of correct response is !344 ,-.Z", whereas the incorrect response is !=.., /.Z".The number of incorrect responses reveals the sub ects$ incompetence in making fronting sentences. 7 0- &ub ects$ <erformance of 2uestion!-"

The second question is concerned with the production level also, i.e., it measures the sub ects$ ability in fronting the underlined elements Table !-" shows the sub ects$ responses to each item in 2 Table !-" &ub ects$ <erformance in 2uestion !-" 2o. of Ite$ 3 6 > 4 = 7 / 1 3. 33 336 3> 34 Total 2o. of Correct )es!onses / = 7 3. 34 3> 1 -. 4 6 7 = > 7 33 363 3= 33> -. 6. -/ 3/ >. 3. = 3> 3/ 3> -37.= 2o. of Incorrect )es!onses >>> >7 >. 64 6= >3 6. >4 >7 >6 >> >= >6 61 =-3 /> // 1> /. 7. 7/=. 1. 1> /= // 1/= 7/ /-.16

It is clear from Table !-" that most of the sub ects have failed to give the correct responses to this question and still there is a big difference between the rate of the correct responses and that of the incorrect ones, for that the number of correct responses is !36-, 37.=Z" and the number of incorrect ones is !=--, /-.16Z". This indicates that the sub ects have faced difficulties in fronting the underlined elements or in other words the various elements of the sentences. , but they seem to encounter more difficulties in sub ect verb inversion especially the clause patterns &'( and &') and in sub ect [operator inversion . The total number of correct responses to the sentences of sub ect @ operator inversion sentences !34, /.4Z" which is lower than &'( sentences !-.,3-.=Z" &') sentences and the total number of correct responses!6. , -.Z". 706 &ub ects$ Total <erformance in 2uestion !3 and -" Table !6" shows the sub ects$ responses in both questions !Table !6 &ub ects$ Total <erformance in

2uestion !3 and -" 2o. of .uestions 23 2Total 2o. of Correct )es!onses 344 36-/7 3 -. 37.= 3/,/ 2o. of Incorrect )es!onses =oo =-3--3 /. /-.16 /3.>=

It has become obvious that the sub ects$ productive knowledge is low since most of sub ects$ responses are incorrect !3---,/3.>=Z" as compared with their correct ones !-/7,3/./Z". This is an indication that such learners face difficulties in forming fronting sentences The high number of incorrect responses as shown in table !6" means that Iraqi EF# learners face difficulty in mastering fronting constructions and they failed in making the correct inversion whether to the sub ect @ verb or sub ect @ operator. Sources of Errors 4 Interlanguage Interlanguage is the type of language produced by second0 and foreign0 language learners who are in the process of learning a language. In language learning, learnerJs errors are caused by several different processes. These include5 a. borrowing patterns from the mother tongue b. extending patterns from the target language. c. Expressing meanings using the words and grammar which are already known. !Hichards, Pack ( et al. 311-. p53/=" )s in the following errors which committed by the students N Faith that is you need. N very good lesson we had yesterday. NFaith need you. N Cilson is his name. NIt called relaxation. N) distant grave is lies his beloved body. N) very good lesson was had yesterday. Interlanguage refers to the separateness of a second language learnerJs system, a system that has a structurally intermediate status between the native and target language Interlanguage is neither the system of the native language nor the system of the target language, but instead falls between the twoS it is a system based upon the best attempt of learners to provide order and structure to the linguistic stimuli surrounding them. +y a gradual process of trial and error and hypothesis testing, learners slowly and tediously succeed in establishing closer and closer approximations to the system used by native speakers of the language. !+rown 311>5 p.-.60-.>"

&elinker!317- 53.=0/" coined the term UinterlanguageJ to refer to the systematic knowledge of an #- which is independent of both these learnerJs #3 and the target language. The term has come to be used with different but related meanings5 !3" to refer to the series of interlocking systems which characteri%e acquisition. !-" to refer to the system that is observed at a single stage of development !Uan interlanguageJ". !6" to refer to particular #3;#- combinations!for example, #3 )rabic;#English v. #3 French;#- English". ?ther terms that refer to the same basic idea are Uapproximative systemJ and Utransitional competenceJ !(order 31=7" Teachers can give appropriate feedback after checking out learnerJs interlanguage. #earners need not worry so much about making mistakes. They can assume that making mistakes is a procedure of development from mother tongue to &econd #anguage. The idea of interlanguage is founded upon the assumption that an #- learner, at any particular moment in his learning sequence, is using a language system which is neither the #3, nor the #-. It is a third language, with its own grammar, its own lexicon and so on. The rules used by the learner are to be found in neither his own mother tongue, nor in the Target #anguage. 8ow does the learner create her interlanguageB )ccording to &elinker, there are a number of basic processes 0 but, particularly in his later work, he insists upon learning strategies 0 that is, activities that the learner adopts in order to help her acquire the language. #anguage transfer 0 the learner uses her own #3 as a resource. This used to be looked upon as a mistake, but it is now recogni%ed that all learners fall back on their mother tongues, particularly in the early stages of language acquisition, and that this is a necessary process ?vergenerali%ation 0 the learner uses an #- rule in situations in which a native speaker would not. This can occur at a number of levels 0 at the grammatical level, a learner in the early stages may use nothing but the present tense. #ater, there may be extensive, non0native use of $be 0 ing$ forms of the verb. 0 at the lexical level 0 learners tend to use base terms and to stretch them 0 thus a $goose$ might be referred to as a $chicken$, or a teaspoon may be a $little spoon$. ! Hoderick. 311> p537.0>" 8ere are some of the students errors according to the previous explanation 5 !the sentences are found in the appendix Vthe testV N) very good lesson we took yesterday ?ther students response to this sentences NCe are taking very good lesson yesterday. NCe had took very good lesson yesterday NI am calling for relaxation. )nd other wrong sentences that fall in this sources of error That is to say the students understand the concept of fronting is putting VingV !present continuous tense or past tense sentences" #et us look more closely at transfer. It can have several different effects 5 a" Fegative Transfer

,ntil the morpheme studies of *ulay and +urt !31145-.60=", it was often assumed that most errors were derived from transfer of the #3 to the #- 0 this was referred to as interference. It is now no longer clear where errors derive from. )s we have seen, *ulay and +urt believe that the ma ority of errors are not based on transfer. 8owever, it is not always a simple matter to decide whether an error is #3 based or not. For example ,when we ask the students to VfrontV specific elements they have fallen into the hole of translation from English to )rabic language and answer them according to the interference of mother @ tongue language. 8ere are some of the wrong answers according to the Interference Nthe stifling smoke into we plunged. Nnever you do other thing . b" <ositive Transfer Fot all effects of language transfer are negative 0 indeed, we may consider that without some language transfer, there would be no second language learning. Ce have seen that, in the cases of Ienie and (helsea, it is very difficult to master a language after the age of 33 or 3- years of age, unless one already has a mother0 tongue to fall back on. It may be that our learners are able to pick up an #- without reference to their #3, but for adolescents and adults, the mother tongue is a ma or resource for language learning. Chere languages are historically and linguistically related to each other, the positive effects of transfer may be obvious. Ce can do that if we stress on the similar highlighting devices such fronting which is found in )rabic language if we stress on the structure of it will be easier to learn it in English 9 Conclusions Fronting as one of English highlighting device means in general moving a clause element that is usually placed after the verb to the first position in the clause !i.e. before the sub ect and the verb". The effect of fronting is usually that the fronted element receives special emphasis, often because it contrasts with something mentioned earlier The main discourse functions of VfrontingV are5 3. organi%ing information flow to achieve cohesion !i.e. linking directly back to something that was said before" -. expression of contrast 6. enabling particular elements to gain emphasis. 15 )eferences 3. +rown, *ouglas +. 311>. <rinciples of #anguage #earning and Teaching. Third Edition. Few Persey5 <rentice 8all Hegents. pp.-.60-.> -. (hafe, Callace #. 317=. Givenness, Contrastiveness, Definiteness, Subjects, Topics, and Point of View. n Subject and Topic . Few Aork5 )cademic <ress 6. (order, &. <. !31=7". VThe significance of learners$ errorsV. International Heview of )pplied #inguistics 45 3=.@37. >. (ormack, )nnabel. R Fell, &mith. -..> VFronting5 The &yntax and <ragmatics of FocusJ and TopicV . Internet. http;; ;G en;Glanguage.html. 4. *ulay and +urt !3114 ". V&tudies of Error )nalysisV . Internet. http;; ;G en;Glanguage.html.

=. 8eaton , P. +. 31//. !ritin" En"lish lan"ua"e tests# $ Practical Guide for Teachers of En"lish as a Second %an"ua"e .#ondon5 #ongman 7. 8asselgrad , 8ild 3111. VIlossary of Irammatical Terms used in English Irammar 5 Theory and ,seV . Internet5 http;;;G sanguesa; copws. html. /. Hichards, Pack ( et al. 311-. *ictionary of #anguage Teaching R )pplied #inguistics. &econd Edition. Essex5 #ongman Iroup ,\ #imited. p.3/= 1. Hoderick Ellis. 311>. The &tudy of &econd #anguage )cquisition. ?xford5?xford ,niversity <ress. p.73. 3.. Hooth, Q. 311-. V) Theory of Focus Interpretation. Fatural #anguage &emanticsV .Internet. http ;;; ;Gen;Glanguage .html. 33. &elinker .!317-" )pproximative system of Error )naylsisJ . #ondon5 #ongman. 3-. &teedman, Q. .3113. V&tructure and intonationV. #anguage =75 -=.0-1=. 36. &teedman, Q. 3116. V(ategorical IrammarV. #ingua 1.5 --30-4/. 3>. &teedman, Q. -.... VInformation structure and the syntax0phonology interfaceV .Internet. http ;; ;; en; language 34. <opova , # . -..= V FrontingV . http ;; ; en; language 3=. 2uirk, Handolph , &idney Ireenbaum, Ieoffrey #eech, and Pan &vartvik. 31/4. $ Co&prehensive Gra&&ar 'f The En"lish %an"ua"e. #ondon5 #ongman. 37. Wubi%arreta, Q.#. 311/ Prosod(, )ocus, and !ord 'rder. (ambridge, Qass.5 QIT <ress. Test of "ronting Constructions ..166 C ange t e follo7ing sentence $a8ing t e$ fronting sentence ' 7it suitable c ange . Aou need faith 03 . I always watch that program 0. Ce had very good lesson yesterday 06 . I ust donJt know what I am going to do next 0> . Aou call it relaxation 04 . 8er oval face was especially remarkable 0= . 8is beloved body lies in a distant grave 07 B Chom did he call on 0/ . 8is name is Cilson 01 3.0 They are strange people 1..266 9a8e t e underlined ele$ents fronting ele$ents . I always watch that program 03 . Aou never do other thing 0. Ce have already discovered this question at some length 06 . &he simply couldnJt open the Par as she might try 0> . 8e called on the dean 04 &he made me feel an utter fool 0= . The Pury had thoroughly appreciate that much 07 . 8e has become traitor and we shall call him traitor 0/ . They have spoken defiantly but they will submissively except my terms 01 . Ce plunged into the stifling smoke 03. . They had arrived scarcely when the phone rang 033