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The Masnavi

by Maulana Jalalu-'d-din Muhammad Rumi

Abridged and Translated by E.H. Whinfield [1898]


"##$ I%
PROLO&UE% HEARKEN to the reed-fl te! ho" it #o$%lains! &a$enting its banish$ent fro$ its ho$e' (E)er sin#e they tore $e fro$ $y osier bed! *y %lainti)e notes ha)e $o)ed $en and "o$en to tears. + b rst $y breast! stri)ing to gi)e )ent to sighs! And to e,%ress the %angs of $y yearning for $y ho$e. He "ho abides far a"ay fro$ his ho$e +s e)er longing for the day ho shall ret rn. *y "ailing is heard in e)ery throng! +n #on#ert "ith the$ that re-oi#e and the$ that "ee%. Ea#h inter%rets $y notes in har$ony "ith his o"n feelings! . t not one fatho$s the se#rets of $y heart. *y se#rets are not alien fro$ $y %lainti)e notes! /et they are not $anifest to the sens al eye and ear. .ody is not )eiled fro$ so l! neither so l fro$ body! /et no $an hath e)er seen a so l.( This %laint of the fl te is fire! not $ere air. &et hi$ "ho la#0s this fire be a##o nted dead1 2Tis the fire of lo)e that ins%ires the fl te!l 2Tis the fer$ent of lo)e that %ossesses the "ine. The fl te is the #onfidant of all nha%%y lo)ers3 /ea! its strains lay bare $y in$ost se#rets. Who hath seen a %oison and an antidote li0e the fl te4 Who hath seen a sy$%atheti# #onsoler li0e the fl te4 The fl te tells the tale of lo)e2s bloodstained %ath! +t re#o nts the story of *a-n n2s lo)e toils. None is %ri)y to these feelings sa)e one distra#ted! As ear in#lines to the "his%ers of the tong e. Thro gh grief $y days are as labor and sorro"! *y days $o)e on! hand in hand "ith ang ish. /et!! tho gh $y days )anish th s! 2tis no $atter! 5o tho abide! 6 +n#o$%arable 7 re 6ne1 8 . t all "ho are not fishes are soon tired of "ater3 And they "ho la#0 daily bread find the day )ery long3 9o the (Ra"( #o$%rehend not the state of the (Ri%e3( : Therefore it beho)es $e to shorten $y dis#o rse.

Arise! 6 son1 b rst thy bonds and be free1 Ho" long "ilt tho be #a%ti)e to sil)er and gold4 Tho gh tho %o r the o#ean into thy %it#her! +t #an hold no $ore than one day2s store. The %it#her of the desire of the #o)eto s ne)er fills! The oyster-shell fills not "ith %earls till it is #ontent3 6nly he "hose gar$ent is rent by the )iolen#e of lo)e +s "holly % re fro$ #o)eto sness and sin. Hail to thee! then! 6 &6;E! s"eet $adness1 Tho "ho healest all o r infir$ities1 Who art the %hysi#ian of o r %ride and self-#on#eit1 Who art o r 7lato and o r <alen1 &o)e e,alts o r earthly bodies to hea)en! And $a0es the )ery hills to dan#e "ith -oy1 6 +o)er! 2t"as lo)e that ga)e life to *o nt 9inai! = When (it > a0ed! and *oses fell do"n in a s"oon.( 5id $y .elo)ed only to #h $e "ith his li%s! + too! li0e the fl te! "o ld b rst o t in $elody. . t he "ho is %arted fro$ the$ that s%ea0 his tong e! Tho gh he %ossess a h ndred )oi#es! is %erfor#e d $b. When the rose has faded and the garden is "ithered! The song of the nightingale is no longer to be heard. The .E&6;E5 is all in all! the lo)er only )eils Hi$3 ? The .E&6;E5 is all that li)es! the lo)er a dead thing. When the lo)er feels no longer &6;E2s > i#0ening! He be#o$es li0e a bird "ho has lost its "ings. Alas1 Ho" #an + retain $y senses abo t $e! When the .E&6;E5 sho"s not the light of His #o ntenan#e4 &6;E desires that this se#ret sho ld be re)ealed! @or if a $irror refle#ts not! of "hat se is it4 Kno"est tho "hy thy $irror refle#ts not4 .e#a se the r st has not been s#o red fro$ its fa#e. +f it "ere % rified fro$ all r st and defile$ent! +t "o ld refle#t the shining of the 9AN 6f <65.B 6 friends! ye ha)e no" heard this tale! Whi#h sets forth the )ery essen#e of $y #ase. CN6TE9' 1. &o)e signifies the strong attra#tion that dra"s all #reat res ba#0 to re nion "ith their Dreator. 8. 9elf-annihilation leads to eternal life in <od the ni)ersal No $enon! by "ho$ all %heno$ena s bsist. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. =FF. :. (Ra"( and (Ri%e( are ter$s for (*en of e,ternals( and (*en of heart( or *ysti#s. =. All ding to the gi)ing of the la" on *o nt 9inai. Koran )ii. 1:9.

?. All %heno$enal e,isten#es G$an in#l dedH are b t ()eils( obs# ring the fa#e of the 5i)ine No $enon! the only real e,isten#e! and the $o$ent His s staining %resen#e is "ithdra"n they at on#e rela%se into their original nothingness. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 1B?. B. 9o .ernard of Dlair)a ,. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. =:?. STOR' I% The P(in)e and *he Handmaid% A %rin#e! "hile engaged on a h nting e,# rsion! es%ied a fair $aiden! and by %ro$ises of gold ind #ed her to a##o$%any hi$. After a ti$e she fell si#0! and the %rin#e had her tended by di)ers %hysi#ians. As! ho"e)er! they all o$itted to say! (<od "illing!1 "e "ill # re her!( their treat$ent "as of no a)ail. 9o the %rin#e offered %rayer! and in ans"er thereto a %hysi#ian "as sent fro$ hea)en. He at on#e #onde$ned his %rede#essors2 )ie" of the #ase! and by a )ery s0ilf l diagnosis! dis#o)ered that the real #a se of the $aiden2s illness "as her lo)e for a #ertain golds$ith of 9a$ar#and. +n a##ordan#e "ith the %hysi#ian2s ad)i#e! the %rin#e sent to 9a$ar#and and fet#hed the golds$ith! and $arried hi$ to the lo)esi#0 $aiden! and for si, $onths the %air li)ed together in the t$ost har$ony and ha%%iness. At the end of that %eriod the %hysi#ian! by di)ine #o$$and! ga)e the golds$ith a %oisono s dra ght! "hi#h #a sed his strength and bea ty to de#ay! and he then lost fa)o r "ith the $aiden! and she "as re nited to the 0ing. This 5i)ine #o$$and "as %re#isely si$ilar to <od2s #o$$and to Abraha$ to slay his son +sh$ael! and to the a#t of the angel in slaying the ser)ant of *oses!8 and is therefore beyond h $an #riti#is$. !es)(i+*i#n #, L#ve% A tr e lo)er is %ro)ed s #h by his %ain of heart3 No si#0ness is there li0e si#0ness of heart. The lo)er2s ail$ent is different fro$ all ail$ents3 &o)e is the astrolabe of <od2s $ysteries. A lo)er $ay han0er after this lo)e or that lo)e! . t at the last he is dra"n to the K+N< of lo)e. Ho"e)er $ #h "e des#ribe and e,%lain lo)e! When "e fall in lo)e "e are asha$ed of o r "ords. E,%lanation by the tong e $a0es $ost things #lear! . t lo)e ne,%lained is #learer. When %en hasted to "rite! 6n rea#hing the s b-e#t of lo)e it s%lit in t"ain. When the dis#o rse to #hed on the $atter of lo)e! 7en "as bro0en and %a%er torn.

+n e,%laining it Reason sti#0s fast! as an ass in $ire3 Na ght b t &o)e itself #an e,%lain lo)e and lo)ers1 None b t the s n #an dis%lay the s n! +f yo "o ld see it dis%layed! t rn not a"ay fro$ it. 9hado"s! indeed! $ay indi#ate the s n2s %resen#e! . t only the s n dis%lays the light of life. 9hado"s ind #e sl $ber! li0e e)ening tal0s! . t "hen the s n arises the ($oon is s%lit as nder.( : +n the "orld there is na ght so "ondro s as the s n! . t the 9 n of the so l sets not and has no yesterday. Tho gh the $aterial s n is ni> e and single! We #an #on#ei)e si$ilar s ns li0e to it. . t the 9 n of the so l! beyond this fir$a$ent! No li0e thereof is seen in #on#rete or abstra#t.= Where is there roo$ in #on#e%tion for His essen#e! 9o that si$ilit des of H+* sho ld be #on#ei)able4 9ha$s -2d-5in of TabriE i$%ort nes Ialal -2d-5in to #o$%ose the *asna)i. The s n G9ha$sH of TabriE is a %erfe#t light! A s n! yea! one of the bea$s of <od1 When the %raise "as heard of the (9 n of TabriE!( The s n of the fo rth hea)en bo"ed its head. No" that + ha)e $entioned his na$e! it is b t right To set forth so$e indi#ations of his benefi#en#e. That %re#io s 9o l #a ght $y s0irt! 9$elling the %erf $e of the gar$ent of / s f3 And said! (@or the sa0e of o r an#ient friendshi%! Tell forth a hint of those s"eet states of e#stasy! That earth and hea)en $ay be re-oi#ed! And also Reason and 9%irit! a h ndredfold.( + said! (6 tho "ho art far fro$ 2 The @riend!2 &i0e a si#0 $an "ho has strayed fro$ his %hysi#ian! +$%ort ne $e not! for + a$ beside $yself3 *y nderstanding is gone! + #annot sing %raises. Whatsoe)er one says! "hose reason is th s astray! &et hi$ not boast3 his efforts are seless. Whate)er he says is not to the %oint! And is #learly ina%t and "ide of the $ar0. What #an + say "hen not a ner)e of $ine is sensible4 Dan + e,%lain 2The @riend2 to one to "ho$ He is no @riend4 ;erily $y singing His %raise "ere dis%raise! @or 2t"o ld %ro)e $e e,istent! and e,isten#e is error.? Dan + des#ribe $y se%aration and $y bleeding heart4 Nay! % t off this $atter till another season.( He said! ( @eed $e! for + a$ an h ngered! And at on#e! for 2the ti$e is a shar% s"ord.2

6 #o$rade! the 9 fi is 2the son of ti$e %resent.2 B +t is not the r le of his #anon to say! 2To-$orro".2 Dan it be that tho art not a tr e 9 fi4 Ready $oney is lost by gi)ing #redit.( + said! (2Tis best to )eil the se#rets of 2The @riend.2 9o gi)e good heed to the $orals of these stories. That is better than that the se#rets of 2The @riend2 9ho ld be noised abroad in the tal0 of strangers.( He said! (Witho t )eil or #o)ering or de#e%tion! 9%ea0 o t! and )e, $e not! 6 $an of $any "ords1 9tri% off the )eil and s%ea0 o t! for do not + Enter nder the sa$e #o)erlet as the .elo)ed4( + said! (+f the .elo)ed "ere e,%osed to o t"ard )ie"! Neither "o ldst tho end re! nor e$bra#e! nor for$. 7ress thy s it! yet "ith $oderation3 A blade of grass #annot! %ier#e a $o ntain. +f the s n that ill $ines the "orld Were to dra" nigher! the "orld "o ld be #ons $ed.J Dlose thy $o th and sh t the eyes of this $atter! That! the "orld2s life be not $ade a bleeding heart. No longer see0 this %eril! this bloodshed3 Hereafter i$%ose silen#e on the 29 n of TabriE.2( He said! (Thy "ords are endless. No" tell forth All thy story fro$ its beginning.( CN6TE9' 1. As en-oined in Koran ,)iii. 8:. 6ne #annot #on)erse "ith a stri#t *osal$an for fi)e $in tes "itho t hearing the for$ la! (+n sha Allah Ta2alla!( or 5. ;. 8. Koran ,)iii. J:. :. Koran li). +. =. There is a tradition! (+ 0no" $y &ord by $y &ord.( ?. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. =FF. +n the state of nion self re$ains not. B. The 9 fi is the (son of the ti$e %resent!( be#a se he is an Energ $en! or %assi)e instr $ent $o)ed by the di)ine i$% lse of the $o$ent. (The ti$e %resent is a shar% s"ord!( be#a se the di)ine i$% lse of the $o$ent do$inates the Energ $en! and e,e# tes its de#rees shar%ly. 9ee 9ohra)ardi > oted in Noti#es et E,traits des *99.! ,ii. :J1 note. J. (When its &ord a%%ears in glory to the *o nt of e,isten#e! E,isten#e is laid lo"! li0e the d st of the road.( < lshan i RaE! +. 19?. STOR' II%

The Oilman and his Pa((#*% An oil$an %ossessed a %arrot "hi#h sed to a$ se hi$ "ith its agreeable %rattle! and to "at#h his sho% "hen he "ent o t. 6ne day! "hen the %arrot "as alone in the sho%! a #at %set one of the oil--ars. When the oil$an ret rned ho$e he tho ght that the %arrot had done this $is#hief! and in his anger he s$ote the %arrot s #h a blo" on the head as $ade all its feathers dro% off! and so st nned it that it lost the %o"er of s%ee#h for se)eral days. . t one day the %arrot sa" a bald-headed $an %assing the sho%! and re#o)ering its s%ee#h! it #ried o t! (7ray! "hose oil--ar did yo %set4( The %assers-by s$iled at the %arrot2s $ista0e in #onfo nding baldness #a sed by age "ith the loss of its o"n feathers d e to a blo". C#n,usi#n #, sain*s -i*h hy+#)(i*es% Worldly senses are the ladder of earth! 9%irit al senses are the ladder of hea)en. The health of the for$er is so ght of the lee#h! The health of the latter fro$ (The @riend.( The health of the for$er arises fro$ tending the body! That of the latter fro$ $ortifying the flesh. The 0ingly so l lays "aste the body! And after its destr #tion he b ilds it ane". Ha%%y the so l "ho for lo)e of <od Has la)ished fa$ily! "ealth! and goods1 Has destroyed its ho se to find the hidden treas re! And "ith that treas re has reb ilt it in fairer sort3 Has da$$ed % the strea$ and #leansed the #hannel! And then t rned a fresh strea$ into. the #hannel3 Has # t its flesh to e,tra#t a s%ear-head!1 Da sing a fresh s0in to gro" again o)er the "o nd3 Has raEed the fort to o st! the infidel in %ossession! And then reb ilt it "ith a h ndred to"ers and b l"ar0s. Who #an des#ribe the ni> e "or0 of <ra#e4 + ha)e been for#ed to ill strate it by these si$iles. 9o$eti$es it %resents one a%%earan#e! so$eti$es another. /ea! the affair of religion is only be"ilder$ent. Not! s #h as o## rs "hen one t rns one2s ba#0 on <od! . t s #h as "hen one is dro"ned and absorbed in Hi$. The latter has his fa#e e)er t rned to <od! The for$er2s fa#e sho"s his ndis#i%lined self-"ill. Wat#h the fa#e of ea#h one! regard it "ell! +t $ay be by ser)ing tho "ilt re#ogniEe Tr th2s fa#e. As there are $any de$ons "ith $en2s fa#es!

+t is "rong to -oin hand "ith e)ery one. When the fo"ler so nds his de#oy "histle! That the birds $ay be beg iled by that snare! The birds hear that #all si$ lating a bird2s #all! And! des#ending fro$ the air! find net and 0nife. 9o )ile hy%o#rites steal the lang age of 5ar)eshes! +n order to beg ile the si$%le "ith their tri#0ery. The "or0s of the righteo s are light and heat! The "or0s of the e)il trea#hery and sha$elessness. They $a0e st ffed lions to s#are the si$%le! They gi)e the title of * ha$$ad to false * saili$a. . t * sail$a retained the na$e of (&iar!( And * ha$$ad that of (9 bli$est of beings.( That "ine of <od Gthe righteo sH yields a %erf $e of $ s03 6ther "ine Gthe e)ilH is reser)ed for %enalties and %ains. CN6TE9' 1. These are all fig res and ty%es of self-annihilation in order to the a#> isition of eternal life in <od. STOR' III% The Je-ish .in/0 his 1a2i(0 and *he Ch(is*ians% A #ertain Ie"ish 0ing sed to %erse# te the Dhristians! desiring to e,ter$inate their faith. His ;aEir %ers aded hi$ to try a stratage$! na$ely! to $ tilate the ;aEir hi$self! and e,%el hi$ fro$ his #o rt! "ith the intent that he $ight ta0e ref ge "ith the Dhristians! and stir % $ t al dissensions a$ongst the$. The ;aEir2s s ggestion "as ado%ted.1 He fled to the Dhristians! and fo nd no diffi# lty in %ers ading the$ that he had been treated in that barbaro s "ay on a##o nt of his atta#h$ent to the Dhristian faith. He soon gained #o$%lete infl en#e o)er the$! and "as a##e%ted as a saintly $artyr and a di)ine tea#her. 6nly a fe" dis#erning $en di)ined his trea#hery 3 the $a-ority "ere all del ded by hi$. The Dhristians "ere di)ided into t"el)e legions! and at the head of ea#h "as a #a%tain. To ea#h of these #a%tains the ;aEir ga)e se#retly a )ol $e of religio s dire#tions! ta0ing #are to $a0e the dire#tions in ea#h )ol $e different fro$ and #ontradi#tory to those in the others. 6ne )ol $e en-oined fasting! another #harity! another faith! another "or0s! and so on. After"ards the ;aEir "ithdre" into a #a)e! and ref sed to #o$e o t to instr #t his dis#i%les! in s%ite of all their entreaties. Dalling the #a%tains to hi$! he ga)e se#ret instr #tions to ea#h to set hi$self % as his s ##essor! and to be g ided by the instr #tions in the )ol $e se#retly #onfided to

hi$! and to slay all other #lai$ants of the a%ostoli# offi#e. Ha)ing gi)en these dire#tions! he sle" hi$self. +n the e)ent ea#h #a%tain set hi$self % as the ;aEir2s s ##essor! and the Dhristians "ere s%lit % into $any se#ts at en$ity "ith one another! e)en as the ;aEir had intended. . t the $ali#io s s#he$e did not! altogether s ##eed! as one faithf l band #lea)ed to the na$e of (Ah$ad!( $entioned in the <os%el!8 and "ere th s sa)ed fro$ sharing the r in of the rest. The 1a2i('s Tea)hin/% *yriads of Dhristians flo#0ed ro nd hi$! 6ne after another they asse$bled in his street. Then he "o ld %rea#h to the$ of $ysteries! *ysteries of the <os%el! of stoles! of %rayers. He "o ld %rea#h to the$ "ith elo> ent "ords Don#erning the "ords and a#ts of the *essiah. 6 t"ardly he "as a %rea#her of religio s d ties! . t "ithin a de#oy #all and a fo"ler2s snare. Therefore the follo"ers of the 7ro%het G2+saH Were beg iled by the fra d of that de$on so l. He $ingled in his dis#o rses $any se#ret do#trines Don#erning de)otion and sin#erity of so l. He ta ght the$ to $a0e a fair sho" of de)otion! . t to say of se#ret sins! (What do they $atter4( Hair by hair and -ot by -ot they learned of hi$ @ra d of so l! as roses $ight learn of garli#. Hair-s%litters and all their dis#i%les Are dar0ened by si$ilar %rea#hing and dis#o rse. The Dhristians ga)e their hearts to hi$ entirely! @or the blind faith of the ) lgar has no dis#ern$ent. +n their in$ost breasts they %lanted lo)e of hi$! And fan#ied hi$ to be the ;i#ar of Dhrist3 /ea! hi$! that one-eyed and # rsed 5a--al1 : 9a)e s. 6 <od 1 "ho art o r only defender1 6 <od! there are h ndreds of snares and baits! And "e are e)en as greedy and foolish birds3 E)ery $o$ent o r feet are #a ght in a fresh snare 3 /ea! ea#h one of s! tho gh he be a fal#on or 9i$ rgh1 Tho dost release s e)ery $o$ent! and straight"ay We again fly into the snare! 6 Al$ighty 6ne1 9lee% of the body the so l2s a"a0ening. E)ery night Tho freest o r s%irits fro$ the body And its snare! $a0ing the$ % re as rased tablets. E)ery night s%irits are released fro$ this #age! And set free! neither lording it nor lorded o)er.

At night %risoners are na"are of their %rison! At night 0ings are na"are of their $a-esty. Then there is no tho ght or #are for loss or gain! No regard to s #h an one or s #h an one. The state of the (Kno"er( is s #h as this! e)en "hen a"a0e. <od says!= (Tho "o ldst dee$ hi$ a"a0e tho gh aslee%! 9lee%ing to the affairs of the "orld! day and night! &i0e a %en in the dire#ting hand of the "riter. He "ho sees not the hand "hi#h effe#ts the "riting @an#ies the effe#t %ro#eeds fro$ the $otion of the %en. +f the (Kno"er( re)ealed the %arti# lars of this state! 2T"o ld rob the ) lgar of their sens al slee%. His so l "anders in the desert that has no si$ilit de3 &i0e his body! his s%irit is en-oying %erfe#t rest3 @reed fro$ desire of eating and drin0ing! &i0e a bird es#a%ed fro$ #age and snare. . t "hen he is again beg iled into the snare! He #ries for hel% to the Al$ighty. Laila and *he .hali,a% The Khalifa said to &aila! (Art tho really she @or "ho$ *a-n n lost his head and "ent distra#ted4 Tho art not fairer than $any other fair ones.( 9he re%lied! (.e silent3 tho art not *a-n n1( +f tho hadst *a-n n2s eyes! The t"o "orlds "o ld be "ithin thy )ie". Tho art in thy senses! b t *a-n n is beside hi$self. +n lo)e to be "ide a"a0e is treason. The $ore a $an is a"a0e! the $ore he slee%s Gto lo)eH3 His G#riti#alH "a0ef lness is "orse than sl $bering. 6 r "a0ef lness fetters o r s%irits! Then o r so ls are a %rey to di)ers "hi$s! Tho ghts of loss and gain and fears of $isery. They retain not % rity! nor dignity! nor l stre! Nor as%iration to soar hea)en"ards. That one is really slee%ing "ho han0ers after ea#h "hi$ And holds %arley "ith ea#h fan#y. The t"el)e )ol $es of theology. He dre" % a se%arate s#roll to the address of ea#h! The #ontents of ea#h s#roll of a different tenor3 The r les of ea#h of a different % r%ort! This #ontradi#tory of that! fro$ beginning to end.

+n one the road of fasting and as#eti#is$ Was $ade the %illar and #ondition of right de)otion. +n one 2t"as said! (Abstinen#e %rofits not3 9in#erity in this %ath is na ght b t #harity.( +n one 2t"as said! (Thy fasting and thy #harity Are both a $a0ing thyself e> al "ith <od3 9a)e faith and tter resignation to <od2s "ill +n "eal and "oe! all )irt es are fra d and snares.( +n one 2t"as said! (Wor0s are the one thing needf l3 The do#trine of faith "itho t "or0s is a del sion.( +n one 2t"as said! (Do$$ands and %rohibitions are Not for obser)an#e! b t to de$onstrate o r "ea0ness! That "e $ay see o r o"n "ea0ness Gto #arry the$ o tH! And thereby re#ogniEe and #onfess <od2s %o"er.( ? +n one 2t"as said! (Referen#e to thine o"n "ea0ness +s ingratit de for <od2s $er#ies to"ards s. Rather regard thy %o"er! for tho hast %o"er fro$ <od. Kno" thy %o"er to be <od2s gra#e! for 2tis of Hi$.( +n one 2t"as said! (&ea)e %o"er and "ea0ness alone3 Whate)er "ithdra"s thine eyes fro$ <od is an idol.( +n one 2t"as said! (K en#h not thy earthy tor#h!B That it $ay be a light to lighten $an0ind. +f tho negle#test regard and #are for it! Tho "ilt > en#h at $idnight the la$% of nion.( +n one 2t"as said! (K en#h that tor#h "itho t fear! That in lie of one tho $ay2st see a tho sand -oys! @or by > en#hing the light the so l is re-oi#ed! And thy &aila is then as bold as her *a-n n. Whoso to dis%lay his de)otion reno n#es the "orld! The "orld is e)er "ith hi$! before and behind.( +n one 2t"as said! (Whatsoe)er <od has gi)en thee +n His #reation! that He has $ade s"eet to thee3 /ea! %leasant to thee and allo"able. Ta0e it! then! And #ast not thyself into the %angs of abstinen#e.( +n one 2t"as said! (<i)e % all tho %ossessest! @or to be r led by #o)eto sness is grie)o s sin.( GAh1 ho" $any di)erse roads are %ointed o t! And ea#h follo"ed by so$e se#t for dear life1 +f the right road "ere easily attainable! E)ery Ie" and < eber "o ld ha)e hit on it1H +n one 2t"as said! (The right road is attainable! @or the heart2s life is the food of the so l. Whate)er is en-oyed by the #arnal $an /ields no fr it! e)en as salt and "aste land. +ts res lt is na ght b t re$orse! +ts traffi# yields only loss.

+t is not %rofitable in the long r n3 +ts na$e is #alled 2ban0r %t2 in the %shot. 5is#ern! then! the ban0r %t fro$ the %rofitable! Donsider the e)ent al )al e of this and that.( +n one 2t"as said! (Dhoose ye a "ise 5ire#tor! . t foresight of res lts is not fo nd in dignities.( GEa#h se#t loo0ed to res lts in a different "ay! And so! %erfor#e! be#a$e #a%ti)e to errors. Real foresight of res lts is not si$%le - gglery! 6ther"ise all these differen#es "o ld not ha)e arisen. +n one 2t"as said! (Thyself art thy $aster! +nas$ #h as tho art a#> ainted "ith the *aster of all3 .e a $an! and not another $an2s beast of b rden1 @ollo" thine o"n "ay and lose not thy head1( +n one 2t"as said! (All "e see is 6ne. Whoe)er says 2tis t"o is s ffering fro$ do ble )ision.( +n one 2t"as said! (A h ndred are e)en as one.(J . t "hoso thin0s this is a. $ad$an. Ea#h s#roll had its #ontrary %ie#e of rhetori#! +n for$ and s bstan#e tterly o%%osed to it3 This #ontrary to that! fro$ first to last! As if ea#h "as #o$%o nded of %oison and antidotes. CN6TE9' 1. Do$%are the story of Lo%yr s! Herodot s! iii. 1??. 8. Iohn ,i). 8B' (. t the Do$forter G%ara0letosH shall tea#h yo all things.( *osal$ans read %eri0lytos! (%raised( M * ha$$ad. :. 5a--al! i.e.! Anti#hrist. 9ale! 7reli$. 5is#o rse! %. ?J. =. 9aid of the 9e)en 9lee%ers in the #a)e. Koran ,)iii. 1J3 (Kno"er( M the <nosti# "ho thro gh e#stasy beholds di)ine )erities. ?. This "as the do#trine of the Iabriyan or e,tre$e %redestinarians. B. i.e.. Hide not thy light Gof good "or0s or of self-denialH nder a b shel. J. All ding to the do#trine of the Trinity. STOR' I1% An#*he( Ty(anni)al Je-ish .in/% A #ertain Ie"ish 0ing! the sa$e "ho is referred to in the 9 ra (9igns of the Lodia#!( + $ade % his $ind to tterly e,ter$inate the Dhristian faith! and "ith that )ie" he set % a h ge idol! and iss ed #o$$ands that all "ho ref sed to "orshi% it sho ld be #ast into the fire. There %on his offi#ers seiEed a Dhristian "o$an "ith her babe! and as she ref sed to "orshi% it!

they #ast the babe into the fire. . t the babe #ried o t to its $other! (.e not afraid! the fire has no %o"er to b rn $e3 it is as #ool as "ater1( Hearing this! the rest of the Dhristians lea%t into the fire! and fo nd that it did not b rn the$. The 0ing re%roa#hed the fire for failing to do its offi#e! b t the fire re%lied that it "as <od2s ser)ant! and that its #ons $ing %ro%erties "ere not to be sed for e)il % r%oses. +t then blaEed % and #ons $ed the 0ing! and all his Ie"s "ith hi$. 9e#ond #a ses only o%erate in s bordination to! and for$ the i$% lsion of! the @irst Da se. Air! earth! "ater! and fire are <od2s ser)ants. To s they see$ lifeless! b t to <od li)ing. +n <od2s %resen#e fire e)er "aits to do its ser)i#e! &i0e a s b$issi)e lo)er "ith no "ill of its o"n. When yo stri0e steel on flint fire lea%s forth3 . t 2tis by <od2s #o$$and it th s ste%s forth. 9tri0e not together the flint and steel of "rong! @or the %air "ill generate $ore! li0e $an and "o$an. The flint and steel are the$sel)es #a ses! yet &oo0 higher for the @irst Da se! 6 righteo s $an1 @or that Da se %re#edes this se#ond #a se. Ho" #an a #a se e,ist of itself "itho t %re#edent #a se4 That Da se $a0es this #a se o%erati)e! And again hel%less and ino%erati)e. That Da se! "hi#h is a g iding light to the %ro%hets! That! + say! is higher than these se#ond #a ses. *en2s $inds re#ogniEe these se#ond #a ses! . t only %ro%hets %er#ei)e the a#tion of the @irst Da se. 7raise #o$%ared to )a%o r dra"n %"ards! and then des#ending in rain. Tho gh "ater be en#losed in a reser)oir! /et air "ill absorb it! for 2tis its s %%orter3 +t sets it free and bears it to its so r#e! &ittle by little! so that yo see not the %ro#ess. +n li0e $anner this breath of o rs by degrees 9teals a"ay o r so ls fro$ the %rison-ho se of earth. ( The good "ord riseth % to Hi$!(8 Rising fro$ s "hither He 0no"eth. 6 r breathings are lifted % in fear of <od! 6fferings fro$ s to the throne of Eternity. Then #o$e do"n to s re"ards for o r %raises! The do ble thereof! yea! $er#ies fro$ the King of <lory. Therefore are "e #onstrained to tter these %raises That sla)es $ay attain the height of <od2s gifts. And so this rising and des#ent go on e)er$ore!

And #ease not fore)er and aye. To s%ea0 in %lain 7ersian! this attra#tion Do$es fro$ the sa$e > arter "hen#e #o$es this s"eet sa)o r.: CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,,,). 8. Koran! ,,,). ++. :. 9"eet sa)o r! i.e.! the -oy of heart e,%erien#ed by the offerer of %rayer "hen his %rayer is a##e%ted of <od. 9ee .oo0 ++. 9tory N;++. STOR' 1% The Li#n and *he "eas*s% +n the boo0 of Kalila and 5a$na a story is told of a lion "ho held all the beasts of the neighborhood in s b-e#tion! and "as in the habit of $a0ing #onstant raids %on the$! to ta0e and 0ill s #h of the$ as he re> ired for his daily food. At last the beasts too0 #o nsel together! and agreed to deli)er % one of their #o$%any e)ery day! to satisfy the lion2s h nger! if he! on his %art! "o ld #ease to annoy the$ by his #ontin al forays. The lion "as at first n"illing to tr st to their %ro$ise! re$ar0ing that he al"ays %referred to rely on his o"n e,ertions3 b t the beasts s ##eeded in %ers ading hi$ that he "o ld do "ell to tr st 7ro)iden#e and their "ord. To ill strate the thesis that h $an e,ertions are )ain! they related a story of a $an "ho got 9olo$on to trans%ort hi$ to Hind stan to es#a%e the angel of death! b t "as s$itten by the angel the $o$ent he got there. Ha)ing #arried their %oint! the beasts #ontin ed for so$e ti$e to %erfor$ their engage$ent. 6ne day it #a$e to the t rn of the hare to be deli)ered % as a )i#ti$ to the lion3 b t he re> ested the others to let hi$ %ra#ti#e a stratage$. They s#offed at hi$! as0ing ho" s #h silly beast as he #o ld %retend to o t"it the lion. The hare ass red the$ that "isdo$ "as of <od! and <od $ight #hoose "ea0 things to #onfo nd the strong. At last they #onsented to let hi$ try his l #0. He too0 his "ay slo"ly to the lion! and fo nd hi$ sorely enraged. +n e,# se for his tardy arri)al he re%resented that he and another hare had set o t together to a%%ear before the lion! b t a strange lion had seiEed the se#ond hare! and #arried it off in s%ite of his re$onstran#es. 6n hearing this! the lion "as e,#eeding "roth! and #o$$anded the hare to sho" hi$ the foe "ho had tres%assed on his %reser)es. 7retending to be afraid! the hare got the lion to ta0e hi$ %on his ba#0! and dire#ted hi$ to a "ell. 6n loo0ing do"n the "ell! the lion sa" in the "ater the refle#tion of hi$self and of the hare on his ba#03 and thin0ing that he sa" his foe "ith the stolen hare! he %l nged in to atta#0 hi$! and "as dro"ned! "hile the hare s%rang off his ba#0 and es#a%ed. This folly on the %art! of the lion "as %redestined to % nish hi$

for denying <od2s r ling %ro)iden#e. 9o Ada$! tho gh he 0ne" the na$es of all things! in a##ordan#e "ith <od2s %redestination! negle#ted to obey a single %rohibition! and his disobedien#e #ost hi$ dearly. T(us* in &#d0 as #++#sed *# human e3e(*i#ns% The beasts said! (6 enlightened sage! &ay aside #a tion3 it #annot hel% thee against destiny3 To "orry "ith %re#a tion is toil and $oil3 <o! tr st in 7ro)iden#e! tr st is the better %art. War not "ith the di)ine de#ree! 6 hot-headed one! &est that de#ree enter into #onfli#t "ith thee. *an sho ld be as dead before the #o$$ands of <od &est a blo" befall hi$ fro$ the &ord of all #reat res.( He said! (Tr e3 b t tho gh tr st be o r $ainstay! /et the 7ro%het tea#hes s to ha)e regard to $eans. The 7ro%het #ried "ith a lo d )oi#e! 2Tr st in <od! yet tie the #a$el2s leg.2 l Hear the adage! 2The "or0er is the friend of <od328 Thro gh tr st in 7ro)iden#e negle#t not to se $eans. <o! 6 K ietists! %ra#ti#e tr st "ith self-e,ertion! E,ert yo rself to attain yo r ob-e#ts! bit by bit. +n order to s ##eed! stri)e and e,ert yo rsel)es3 +f ye stri)e not for yo r ob-e#ts! ye are fools.( They said! (What is gained fro$ the %oor by e,ertions +s a fra d lent $orsel that "ill bring ill l #0. Again! 0no" that self-e,ertion s%rings fro$ "ea0ness3 Relying on other $eans is a blot %on %erfe#t tr st. 9elf-e,ertion is not $ore noble than tr st in <od. What is $ore lo)ely than #o$$itting oneself to <od4 *any there are "ho flee fro$ one danger to a "orse3 *any flee fro$ a sna0e and $eet a dragon. *an %lans a stratage$! and thereby snares hi$self3 What he ta0es for life t rns o t! to be destr #tion. He sh ts the door after his foe is in the ho se. After this sort "ere the s#he$es of 7haraoh. That -ealo s 0ing sle" a $yriad babes! While *oses! "ho$ he so ght! "as in his ho se. 6 r eyes are s b-e#t to $any infir$ities3 <o1 annihilate yo r sight in <od2s sight. @or o r foresight His foresight is a fair e,#hange3 +n His sight is all that ye #an desire. 9o long as a babe #annot gras% or r n! +t ta0es its father2s ba#0 for its #arriage. . t "hen it be#o$es inde%endent and ses its hands!

+t falls into grie)o s tro bles and disgra#e. The so ls of o r first %arents! e)en before their hands! @le" a"ay fro$ fidelity after )ain %leas re. .eing $ade #a%ti)es by the #o$$and! 2<et do"n hen#e!2 : They be#a$e bond-sla)es of en$ity! l st! and )anity. We are the fa$ily of the &ord and His s #0ing babes. The 7ro%het said! 2The %eo%le are <od2s fa$ily32 He "ho sends forth the rain fro$ hea)en! Dan He not also %ro)ide s o r daily bread4( The lion said! (Tr e3 yet the &ord of #reat res 9ets a ladder before o r feet. 9te% by ste% $ st "e $o nt % to the roof1 The notion of fatalis$ is gro ndless in this %la#e. /e ha)e feet "hy then %retend ye are la$e4 /e ha)e hands "hy then #on#eal yo r #la"s4 When a $aster %la#es a s%ade in the hand of a sla)e! The sla)e 0no"s his $eaning "itho t being told. &i0e this s%ade! o r hands are o r *aster2s hints to s3 /ea! if ye #onsider! they are His dire#tions to s. When ye ha)e ta0en to heart His hints! /e "ill sha%e yo r life in relian#e on their dire#tion3 Wherefore these hints dis#lose His intent! Ta0e the b rden fro$ yo ! and a%%oint yo r "or0. He that bears it $a0es it bearable by yo ! He that is able $a0es it "ithin yo r ability. A##e%t His #o$$and! and yo "ill be able to e,e# te it3 9ee0 nion "ith Hi$! and yo "ill find yo rsel)es nited. E,ertion is gi)ing than0s for <od2s blessings3 Thin0 ye that yo r fatalis$ gi)es s #h than0s4 <i)ing than0s for blessings in#reases blessings! . t fatalis$ snat#hes those blessings fro$ yo r hands. /o r fatalis$ is to slee% on the road3 slee% not Till ye behold the gates of the King2s %ala#e. Ah1 slee% not! 6 nrefle#ting fatalists! Till ye ha)e rea#hed that fr it-laden Tree of &ife Whose bran#hes are e)er sha0en by the "ind! And "hose fr it is sho"ered on the slee%ers2 heads. @atalis$ $eans slee%ing a$idst high"ay$en. Dan a #o#0 "ho #ro"s too soon e,%e#t %ea#e4 +f ye #a)il at and a##e%t not <od2s hints! Tho gh ye #o nt yo rsel)es $en! see! ye are "o$en. The > ant $ of reason ye %ossessed is lost! And the head "hose reason has fled is a tail. +nas$ #h as the nthan0f l are des%i#able! They are at last #ast into the fiery %it. +f ye really ha)e tr st in <od! e,ert yo rsel)es!

And stri)e! in #onstant relian#e on the Al$ighty.( Wisdo$ is granted often ti$es to the "ea0. He said! (6 friends! <od has gi)en $e ins%iration. 6ften ti$es strong #o nsel is s ggested to the "ea0. The "it ta ght by <od to the bee +s "ithheld fro$ the lion and the "ild ass. +t fills its #ells "ith li> id s"eets! @or <od o%ens the door of this 0no"ledge to it. The s0ill ta ght by <od to the sil0"or$ +s a learning beyond the rea#h of the ele%hant. The earthly Ada$ "as ta ght of <od na$es! = 9o that his glory rea#hed the se)enth hea)en. He laid lo" the na$e and fa$e of the angels! ? /et blind indeed are they "ho$ <od doo$s to do bt1 The de)otee of se)en h ndred tho sand years G9atanH Was $ade a $ EEle for that yearling #alf GAda$H! B &est he sho ld s #0 $il0 of the 0no"ledge of faith! And soar on high e)en to the to"ers of hea)en. The 0no"ledge of $en of e,ternal sense is a $ EEle To sto% the$ s #0ing $il0 of that s bli$e 0no"ledge. . t <od dro%s into the heart a single %earl-dro% Whi#h is not besto"ed on o#eans or s0ies1( (Ho" long regard ye $ere for$! 6 for$-"orshi%%ers4 /o r so ls! )oid of s bstan#e! rest still in for$s. +f the for$ of $an "ere all that $ade $an! Ah$ad and Ab Iahl "o ld be %on a %ar. A %ainting on a "all rese$bles a $an! . t see "hat it is la#0ing in that e$%ty for$. 2Tis life that is la#0ing to that $ere se$blan#e of $an. <o1 see0 for that %earl it ne)er "ill find. The heads of earth2s lions "ere bo"ed do"n When <od ga)e $ight to the 9e)en 9lee%ers2 dog. J What $attered its des%ised for$ When its so l "as dro"ned in the sea of light4( H $an "isdo$! the $anifestation of di)ine. 6n his "ay to the lion the hare lingered! 5e)ising a stratage$ "ith hi$self. He %ro#eeded on his "ay after delaying long! +n order to ha)e a se#ret or t"o for the lion. What "orlds the %rin#i%le of Reason e$bra#es1 Ho" broad is this o#ean of Reason1 /ea! the Reason of $an is a bo ndless o#ean. 6 son! that o#ean re> ires! as it "ere! a di)er. 8 6n this fair o#ean o r h $an for$s @loat abo t! li0e bo"ls on the s rfa#e of "ater3 /ea li0e # %s on the s rfa#e! till they are. filled3

And "hen filled! these # %s sin0 into the "ater. The o#ean of Reason is not seen 3 reasoning $en are seen3 . t o r for$s G$indsH are only as "a)es or s%ray thereof. Whate)er for$ that o#ean ses as its instr $ent! There"ith it #asts its s%ray far and "ide. 9 Till the heart sees the <i)er of the se#ret! Till it es%ies that .o"$an shooting fro$ afar! +t fan#ies its o"n steed lost! "hile in be"ilder$ent +t is rging that steed hither and thither3 1F +t fan#ies its o"n steed lost! "hen all the "hile That s"ift steed is bearing it on li0e the "ind. +n dee% distress that bl nder head R ns fro$ door to door! sear#hing and in> iring! (Who and "here is he that hath stolen $y steed4( They say! (What is this tho ridest on! 6 $aster4( He says! (Tr e! 2tis a steed3 b t "here is $ine4( They say! (&oo0 to thyself! 6 rider3 thy steed is there.( The real 9o l is lost to )ie"! and see$s far off3 11 Tho art li0e a %it#her "ith f ll belly b t dry li%3 Ho" #anst tho e)er see red! green! and s#arlet Anless tho seest the light first of all4 When thy sight is daEEled by #olors! These #olors )eil the light fro$ thee. . t "hen night )eils those #olors fro$ thee! Tho seest that #olors are seen only thro gh light. As there is no seeing o t"ard #olors "itho t light! 9o it is "ith the $ental #olors "ithin. 6 t"ard #olors arise fro$ the light of s n and stars! And in"ard #olors fro$ the &ight on high. The light that lights the eye is also the heart2s &ight3 The eye2s light %ro#eeds fro$ the &ight of the heart. . t the light that lights the heart is the &ight of <od! Whi#h is distin#t fro$ the light of reason and sense. At night there is no light! and #olors are not seen3 Hen#e "e 0no" "hat light is by its o%%osite! dar0ness. At night no #olors are )isible! for light is la#0ing. Ho" #an #olor be the attrib te of dar0 bla#0ness4 &oo0ing on light is the sa$e as loo0ing on #olors3 6%%osite sho"s % o%%osite! as a @ran0 a Negro. The o%%osite of light sho"s "hat is light! Hen#e #olors too are 0no"n by their o%%osite. <od #reated %ain and grief for this % r%ose! To "it! to $anifest ha%%iness by its o%%osites. 18 Hidden things are $anifested by their o%%osites3 . t! as <od has no o%%osite. He re$ains hidden. <od2s light has no o%%osite in the range of #reation

Whereby it $ay be $anifested to )ie". 7erfor#e (6 r eyes see not Hi$! tho gh He sees s.( 1: .ehold this in the #ase of *oses and *o nt 9inai. 1= 5is#ern for$ fro$ s bstan#e! as lion fro$ desert! 6r as so nd and s%ee#h fro$ the tho ght they #on)ey. The so nd and s%ee#h arise fro$ the tho ght3 Tho 0no"est not "here is the 6#ean of tho ght3 /et "hen tho seest fair "a)es of s%ee#h! Tho 0no"est there is a glorio s 6#ean beneath the$. When "a)es of tho ght arise fro$ the 6#ean of Wisdo$! They ass $e the for$s of so nd and s%ee#h. These for$s of s%ee#h are born and die again! These "a!)es #ast the$sel)es ba#0 into the 6#ean. @or$ is born of That "hi#h is "itho t for$! And goes again! for! (;erily to Hi$ do "e ret rn.( 1? Wherefore to thee e)ery $o$ent #o$e death and (ret rn.( * stafa saith! (The "orld end reth only a $o$ent.( 9o! tho ght is an arro" shot by <od into the air. Ho" #an it stay in the air4 +t ret rns to <od. E)ery $o$ent the "orld and "e are rene"ed! 1B /et "e are ignorant of this rene"ing fore)er and aye. &ife! li0e a strea$ of "ater! is rene"ed and rene"ed! Tho gh it "ears the a%%earan#e of #ontin ity in for$. That see$ing #ontin ity arises fro$ its s"ift rene"al! As "hen a single s%ar0 of fire is "hirled ro nd s"iftly. 1J +f a single s%ar0 be "hirled ro nd s"iftly! +t see$s to the eye a #ontin o s line of fire. This a%%arent e,tension! o"ing to the > i#0 $otion! 5e$onstrates the ra%idity "ith "hi#h it is $o)ed. +f ye see0 the dee%est st dent of this $ystery! &o1 2tis H sa$ -2d-5in! the $ost e,alted of #reat res1 CN6TE9' 1. (Tr st in <od and 0ee% yo r %o"der dry.( 8. (&aborare est orare.( :. Koran ii. :=1. =. (And He ta ght Ada$ the na$es of all things( GKoran ii. 89H. ?. The angels said! (We ha)e no 0no"ledge b t "hat tho hast gi)en s to 0no"( GKoran ii. :FH. B. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. ?=:. J. Koran ,)iii. 1J. 8. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. ?J?' The o#ean of Reason is the sa$e as "hat is else"here #alled the o#ean of .eing! )iE.! the No $enon! or 5i)ine s bstrat $ of all %heno$enal being and tho ght.

9. (Those arro"s "ere <od2s! not )o rs( GKoran )iii. 1JH3 i.e.! *an2s reason %ro#eeds fro$ <od! the (6nly Real Agent.( 1F. All ding to the (.elie)er2s lost #a$el ( G.oo0 ++. 9tory N++.! infra.H. *en see0 "isdo$! and do not 0no" that in the$sel)es is the refle#ted "isdo$ of <od G< lshan i RaE! +. =:?H. 11. The real 9o l! i.e.! the s%irit "hi#h <od (breathed into $an( GKoran ,). 89H. (+n yo rsel)es are signs3 "ill ye not behold the$4( GKoran li! 81H. 18. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 98. *r. *ansel G.a$%ton &e#t res! %. =9H says' (A thing #an be 0no"n as that "hi#h it is only by being disting ished fro$ that "hi#h it is not.( . t the +nfinite 5eity e, hy%othesi in#l des all things3 so there is nothing to #ontrast Hi$ "ith. 1:. Koran )i. 1F:. 1=. Koran )ii. 1:9' (He said! 2Tho shalt not see $e.2( 1?. Koran ii. 1?1. 1B. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. B=?' All %heno$ena are e)ery $o$ent rene"ed by fresh effl ,es of being fro$ the 5i)ine No $enon. 1J. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. J1F. STOR' 1I% Oma( and *he Ambassad#(% The hare! ha)ing deli)ered his #o$%anions fro$ the tyranny of the lion! in the $anner - st des#ribed! %ro#eeds to i$%ro)e the o##asion by e,horting the$ to engage in a greater and $ore ard o s "arfare! )iE.! the str ggle against their in"ard ene$y! the l sts of the flesh. He ill strates his $eaning by the story of an a$bassador "ho "as sent by the E$%eror of R $ to the Khalifa 26$ar. 6n a%%roa#hing *edina this a$bassador in> ired for 26$ar2s %ala#e! and learned that 26$ar d"elt in no $aterial %ala#e! b t in a s%irit al taberna#le! only )isible to % rified hearts. At last he dis#erned 26$ar lying nder a %al$-tree! and dre" near to hi$ in fear and a"e. 26$ar re#ei)ed hi$ 0indly! and instr #ted hi$ in the do#trine of the $ysti#al nion "ith <od. The a$bassador heard hi$ gladly! and as0ed hi$ t"o > estions! first! Ho" #an so ls des#end fro$ hea)en to earth4 and se#ondly! With "hat ob-e#t are so ls i$%risoned in the bonds of flesh and blood4 26$ar res%onded! and the a$bassador a##e%ted his tea#hing! and be#a$e a % re-hearted 9 fi. The hare rged his #o$%anions to ab- re l st and %ride! and to go and do li0e"ise. &#d's a/en)y (e)#n)iled -i*h man's ,(ee-ill% The a$bassador said! (6 Do$$ander of the faithf l! Ho" #o$es the so l do"n fro$ abo)e to earth4 Ho" #an so noble a bird be #onfined in a #age4(

He said! (<od s%ea0s "ords of %o"er to so ls! To things of na ght! "itho t eyes or ears! And at these "ords they all s%ring into $otion3 At His "ords of %o"er these nothings arise > i#0ly! And strong i$% lse rges the$ into e,isten#e. Again! He s%ea0s other s%ells to these #reat res! And s"iftly dri)es the$ ba#0 again into Not-being. He s%ea0s to the rose2s ear! and #a ses it to bloo$3 He s%ea0s to the t li%! and $a0es it blosso$. He s%ea0s a s%ell to body! and it be#o$es so l3 He s%ea0s to the s n! and it be#o$es a fo nt of light. Again! in its ear He "his%ers a "ord of %o"er! And its fa#e is dar0ened as by a h ndred e#li%ses. What is it that <od says to the ear of earth! That it attends thereto and rests steadfast4 What is it that 9%ea0er says to the #lo d! That it %o rs forth rain-"ater li0e a "ater-s0in4 Whosoe)er is be"ildered by "a)ering "ill! l +n his ear hath <od "his%ered His riddle! That He $ay bind hi$ on the horns of a dile$$a3 @or he says! 29hall + do this or its re)erse42 Also fro$ <od #o$es the %referen#e of one alternati)e3 2Tis fro$ <od2s i$% lsion that $an #hooses one of the t"o. +f yo desire sanity in this e$barrass$ent! 9t ff not the ear of yo r $ind "ith #otton. Ta0e the #otton of e)il s ggestions fro$ the $ind2s ear! 8 That the hea)enly )oi#e fro$ abo)e $ay enter it! That yo $ay nderstand that riddle of His! That yo $ay be #ognisant of that o%en se#ret. Then the $ind2s ear be#o$es the sensori $ of ins%iration3 @or "hat is this 5i)ine )oi#e b t the in"ard )oi#e4 : The s%irit2s eye and ear %ossess this sense! The eye and ear of reason and sense la#0 it. The "ord 2#o$% lsion2 $a0es $e i$%atient for lo)e2s sa0e3 2Tis he "ho lo)es not "ho is fettered by #o$% lsion. This is #lose #o$$ nion "ith <od! not #o$% lsion! The shining of the s n! and not a dar0 #lo d. 6r! if it be #o$% lsion! 2tis not #o$$on #o$% lsion! +t is not the do$ination of "anton "ilf lness. 6 son! they nderstand this #o$% lsion @or "ho$ <od o%ens the eyes of the inner $an. Things hidden and things f t re are %lain to the$3 To s%ea0 of the %ast see$s to the$ des%i#able. They %ossess free"ill and #o$% lsion besides! = As in oyster-shells raindro%s are %earls. 6 tside the shell they are raindro%s! great and s$all3

+nside they are %re#io s %earls! big and little. These $en also rese$ble the $ s0 deer2s bag3 6 tside it is blood! b t inside % re $ s03 /et! say not that o tside 2t"as $ere blood! Whi#h on entering the bag be#o$es $ s0. Nor say that o tside the ale$bi# 2t"as $ere #o%%er! And be#o$es gold inside! "hen $i,ed "ith eli,ir. +n yo free"ill and #o$% lsion are )ain fan#ies! . t in the$ they are the light of Al$ighty %o"er. 6n the table bread is a $ere lifeless thing! When ta0en into the body it is a life-gi)ing s%irit. This trans$ tation o## rs not in the table2s heart! 2Tis so l effe#ts this trans$ tation "ith "ater of life. 9 #h is the %o"er of the so l! 6 $an of right )ie"s1 Then "hat is the %o"er of the 9o l of so ls4 G<odH. .read is the food of the body! yet #onsider! Ho" #an it be the food of the so l! 6 son4 @lesh-born $an by for#e of so l Dlea)es $o ntains "ith t nnels and $ines. The $ight of @erhad2s so l #left a hill3 The $ight of the 9o l2s so l #lea)es the $oon3 ? +f the heart o%ens the $o th of $ystery2s store! The so l s%rings % s"iftly to highest hea)en. +f tong e dis#o rses of hidden $ysteries! +t 0indles a fire that #ons $es the "orld. .ehold! then! <od2s a#tion and $an2s a#tion3 Kno"! a#tion does belong to s 3 this is e)ident. +f no a#tions %ro#eeded fro$ $en! Ho" #o ld yo say! 2Why a#t ye th s42 The agen#y of <od is the #a se of o r a#tion! 6 r a#tions are the signs of <od2s agen#y3 Ne)ertheless o r a#tions are freely "illed by s! When#e o r re#o$%ense is either hell or 2The @riend.2( CN6TE9' 1. The %oet2s insisten#e on the do#trine of <od being the @a2il i Ha0i0i! or 6nly Real Agent! "itho t "hose "ord no being and no a#tion #an be! leads hi$ to the > estion of free"ill and #o$% lsion of $an2s "ill Gsee < lshan i RaE! +. ???H. 8. 9o < lshan i RaE! +. ==8. :. The leading %rin#i%le of all $ysti#is$ is that! inde%endently of sense and reason! $an %ossesses an in"ard sense! or int ition! "hi#h #on)eys to hi$ a 0no"ledge of <od by dire#t a%%rehension Gsee < lshan i RaE. +. =:1H. =. Their "ills are identified "ith <od2s "ill! as in the #ase of the saint

5a> >i Ginfra! .oo0 +++. 9tory N++.H ?. As a sign of the last day GKoran li). 1H. STOR' 1II% The Me()han* and his Cleve( Pa((#*% There "as a #ertain $er#hant "ho 0e%t a %arrot in a #age. .eing abo t to tra)el to Hind stan on b siness! he as0ed the %arrot if he had any $essage to send to his 0ins$en in that #o ntry! and the %arrot desired hi$ to tell the$ that he "as 0e%t #onfined in a #age. The $er#hant %ro$ised to deli)er this $essage! and on rea#hing Hind stan! d ly deli)ered it to the first flo#0 of %arrots he sa". 6n hearing it one of the$ at on#e fell do"n dead. The $er#hant "as annoyed "ith his o"n %arrot for ha)ing sent s #h a fatal $essage! and on his ret rn ho$e shar%ly reb 0ed his %arrot for doing so. . t the %arrot no sooner heard the $er#hant2s tale than ho too fell do"n dead in his #age. The $er#hant! after la$enting his death! too0 his #or%se o t of the #age and thre" it a"ay3 b t! to his s r%rise! the #or%se i$$ediately re#o)ered life! and fle" a"ay! e,%laining that the Hind stani %arrot had only feigned death to s ggest this "ay of es#a%ing fro$ #onfine$ent in a #age. Sain*s a(e +(ese(ved ,(#m all ha(m 1. As to a ($an of heart!( he ta0es no h rt! E)en tho gh he sho ld eat deadly %oison. He "ho gains health fro$ %ra#ti#ing abstinen#e is safe3 The %oor dis#i%le is safe in the $idst of fe)er. The %ro%het said! (6 dis#i%le! tho gh yo be bold! /et enter not into #onfli#t "ith e)ery foe.( Within yo is a Ni$rod3 enter not his fire3 . t if yo $ st do so! first be#o$e an Abraha$. 8 +f yo are neither s"i$$er nor sea$an! Dast not yo rself into the sea o t of self-#on#eit. A s"i$$er brings %earls fro$ the dee% sea3 /ea! he %l #0s gain fro$ the $idst of %erils. +f the saint handles earth! it be#o$es gold3 +f a sinner handles gold! it t rns to d st. Whereas the saint is "ell-%leasing to <od! +n his a#tions his hand is the hand of <od. . t the sinner2s hand is the hand of 9atan and de$ons! .e#a se he is ensnared in falsity and fra d. +f folly $eets hi$! he ta0es it for "isdo$3 /ea! the learning gained by the "i#0ed is folly.

Whate)er a si#0 $an eats is a so r#e of si#0ness! . t if a saint i$bibe infidelity it be#o$es faith. Ah1 foot$an "ho #ontendest "ith horse$en! Tho "ilt not s ##eed in #arrying the day1 The -ealo sy of <od :. The "hole "orld is -ealo s for this #a se! That <od s r%asseth the "orld in -ealo sy. <od is as a so l and the "orld as a body! And bodies deri)e their good and e)il fro$ so ls. He to "ho$ the san#t ary of tr e %rayer is re)ealed 5ee$s it sha$ef l to t rn ba#0 to $ere for$al religion. He "ho is $aster of the robes of a 0ing .rings sha$e on his lord by %etty h #0stering. He "ho is ad$itted to the 0ing2s %resen#e-#ha$ber Wo ld sho" disres%e#t by tarrying at the door"ay. +f the 0ing grants hi$ li#ense to 0iss his hand! He "o ld err "ere he to 0iss $erely the 0ing2s foot. Tho gh to lay head at the 0ing2s feet is d e obeisan#e! +n the #ase s %%osed it "o ld be "rong to 0iss the feet. The 0ing2s -ealo sy "o ld be 0indled against hi$ Who! after he had seen his fa#e! %referred his $ere %erf $e. <od2s -ealo sy $ay be li0ened to a grain of "heat! . t $an2s -ealo sy is b t e$%ty #haff. @or 0no" ye that the so r#e of -ealo sy is in <od! And $an2s -ealo sy is only an offshoot fro$ <od2s. . t! let $e no" > it this s b-e#t! and $a0e #o$%laint 6f the se)erity of That @i#0le @air 6ne. Do$%laints of <od2s harsh dealings "ith His adoring sla)es. (Wherefore dost tho abandon thy #reed and faith4 What $atters it if it be heathen or tr e4 Why hast tho forsa0en thy .elo)ed4 What $atters it if she be fair or gly4( = &et $e then! + say! $a0e #o$%laint 6f the se)erity of That @i#0le @air 6ne. + #ry! and $y #ries so nd s"eet in His ear3 He re> ires fro$ the t"o "orlds #ries and groans. Ho" shall + not "ail nder His #hastening hand4 Ho" shall + not be in the n $ber of those be"it#hed by Hi$4 Ho" shall + be other than night "itho t His day4 Witho t the )ision of His fa#e that ill $es the day4 His bitters are )ery s"eets to $y so l! *y sad heart is a li)ely sa#rifi#e to $y .elo)ed. + a$ ena$o red of $y o"n grief and %ain! @or it $a0es $e "ell-%leasing to $y %eerless King. + se the d st of $y grief as sal)e for $y eyes! That $y eyes! li0e seas! $ay tee$ "ith %earls.

The tears "hi#h are shed be#a se of His #hastening Are )ery %earls! tho gh $en dee$ the$ $ere tears. 2Tis (The 9o l of so ls( of "ho$ + a$ $a0ing #o$%laint3 /et + do not #o$%lain3 + $erely state $y #ase. *y heart says! (He has in- red $e!( . t + la gh at these %retended in- ries. 5o $e - sti#e! 6 Tho "ho art the glory of the - st! Who art the throne! and + the lintel of Thy door1 . t! in sober tr th! "here are throne and door"ay4 Where are (We( and (+4( There "here o r .elo)ed is1 6 Tho ! "ho art e,e$%t fro$ (As( and (*e!( Who %er)adest the s%irits of all $en and "o$en3 When $an and "o$an be#o$e one! Tho art that 6ne1 When their nion is dissol)ed! lo1 Tho abidest1 Tho hast $ade these (As( and (*e( for this % r%ose! To "it! to %lay #hess "ith the$ by Thyself. ? When Tho shalt be#o$e one entity "ith (As( and (/o .( Then "ilt Tho sho" tr e affe#tion for these lo)ers. When these (We( and (/e( shall all be#o$e one 9o l! Then they "ill be lost and absorbed in the (.elo)ed.( These are %lain tr ths. Do$e then! 6 &ord1 Who art e,alted abo)e des#ri%tion and e,%lanation1 +s it %ossible for the bodily eye to behold Thee4 Dan $ind of $an #on#ei)e Thy fro"ns and Thy s$iles4 Are hearts! "hen be"it#hed by Thy s$iles and fro"ns! B +n a fit state to see the )ision of Thyself4 When o r hearts are be"it#hed by Thy s$iles and fro"ns! Dan "e gain life fro$ these t"o alternating states4 The fertile garden of lo)e! as it is bo ndless! Dontains other fr its besides -oy and sorro". The tr e lo)er is e,alted abo)e these t"o states! He is fresh and green inde%endently of a t $n or s%ring1 7ay tithe on Thy bea ty! 6 .ea teo s 6ne1 Tell forth the tale of the .elo)ed! e)ery "hit1 @or thro gh #o> etry His glan#es Are still infli#ting fresh "o nds on $y heart. + ga)e Hi$ lea)e to shed $y blood! if He "illed it3 + only said! (+s it right4 ( and He forsoo0 $e. Why dost Tho flee fro$ the #ries of s on earth4 Why %o rest Tho sorro" on the heart of the sorro"f l4 6 Tho "ho! as ea#h ne" $orn da"ns fro$ the east! Art seen %rising ane"! li0e a bright fo ntain1 What e,# se $a0est Tho for Thy "it#heries4 6 Tho "hose li%s are s"eeter than s gar! Tho that e)er rene"est the life of this old "orld! Hear the #ry of this lifeless body and heart1

. t! for <od2s sa0e! lea)e off telling of the Rose3 Tell of the . lb l "ho is se)ered fro$ his Rose. *y ardo r arises not fro$ -oy or grief! *y sense $ates not "ith ill sion and fan#y. *y #ondition is different! for it is strange. 5eny it not 1 <od is all-%o"erf l. Arg e not fro$ the #ondition of #o$$on $en! 9t $ble not at se)erity and at $er#y. @or $er#y and se)erity! -oy and sorro"! are transient! And transient things die3 (<od is heir of all.( J (Tis da"n1 6 7rote#tor and Asyl $ of the da"n1 *a0e e,# se for $e to $y lord H sa$ -2d-5in1 Tho $a0est e,# ses for #GAni)ersal Reason and 9o l3 8 9o l of so ls and <e$ of life art Tho 1 The light of $y da"n is a bea$ fro$ Thy light! 9hining in the $orning dra ght of Thy %rote#tion1 9in#e Thy gift 0ee%s $e! as it "ere! into,i#ated! What is this s%irit al "ine that #a ses $e this -oy4 Nat ral "ine la#0s the fer$ent in $y breast! The s%heres lag behind $e in re)ol tions1 Wine is into,i#ated "ith $e! not + "ith it1 The "orld ta0es its being fro$ $e! not + fro$ it1 + a$ li0e bees! and earthly bodies li0e "a,! 9 + b ild % these bodies as "ith $y o"n "a,1 CN6TE9' 1. This is a #o$$ent on the saying of @arid -2d-5in Attar! (Tho art a $an of l sts! 6 fool1 +n d st eat blood1 b t if a $an of heart eats %oison! 2tis as honey.( 8. 9ee Koran ,,i. B8! and Rod"ell2s note. :. This is a #o$$ent on the Hadis! (;erily 9a2d is a -ealo s $an! and + a$ $ore -ealo s than he! and <od is $ore -ealo s than +! and of His -ealo sy He %rohibits 2All %oll tions! both o t"ard and in"ard.2( GKoran )i. 1?8.H =. This is a > otation fro$ Ha0i$ 9anai! and for$s the te,t of the follo"ing dis#o rse. ?. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 1=F! and 6$ar Khayya$ K atr.! 8JF. B. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. J=?' @ro"ns are the o## ltation of the .elo)ed by the )eil of %heno$ena3 s$iles! the re)elation of Absol te .eing to its )otaries. 9a2di G< listan! .oo0 ++. 9tory N+.H says' (The )ision! of <od to the %io s #onsists of $anifestation and o## ltation3 He sho"s Hi$self! and again "ithdra"s Hi$self fro$ o r sight.( J. Koran ,). 8:. 8. i.e.! the &ogos! and @irst 9o l! %%osed to be referred to in the te,t' (6 $en! fear yo r &ord! "ho hath #reated yo fro$ one 9o l! and of hi$

#reated his "ife( GKoran i). +H. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 8F:. 9. i.e.! in his s%irit al e,altation he feels hi$self as the &ogos! "here fro$ tho "hole $aterial #reation e$anates. STOR' 1III% The Ha(+e(% +n the ti$e of the Khalifa 26$ar there li)ed a har%er! "hose )oi#e "as as s"eet as that of the angel +srafil! and "ho "as in great re> est at all feasts. . t he gre" old! and his )oi#e bro0e! and no one "o ld e$%loy hi$ any longer. +n des%air he "ent to the b rial-gro nd of /athr b! and there %layed his har% to <od! loo0ing to Hi$ for re#o$%ense. Ha)ing finished his $elody he fell aslee%! and drea$ed he "as in hea)en. The sa$e night a di)ine )oi#e #a$e to 26$ar! dire#ting hi$ to go to the b rial-gro nd! and relie)e an old $an "ho$ he sho ld find there. 26$ar %ro#eeded to the %la#e! fo nd the har%er! and ga)e hi$ $oney! %ro$ising hi$ $ore "hen he sho ld need it. The har%er #ast a"ay his har%! saying that it had di)erted hi$ fro$ <od! and e,%ressed great #ontrition for his %ast sins. 26$ar then instr #ted hi$ that his "orldly -o rney "as no" o)er! and that he $ st not gi)e "ay to #ontrition for the %ast! as he "as no" entered into the state of e#stasy and into,i#ation of nion "ith <od! and in this e,alted state regard to %ast and f t re sho ld be s"e%t a"ay. The har%er a#ted on his instr #tions! and sang no $ore. A+#l#/y ,#( a++lyin/ *he *e(m 4"(ide4 *# &#d% * stafa be#a$e beside hi$self at that s"eet #all! His %rayer failed on (the night of the early $orning halt.( He lifted not head fro$ that blissf l slee%!( 1 9o that his $orning %rayer "as % t off till noon. 6n that! his "edding night! in %resen#e of his bride! His % re so l attained to 0iss her hands. &o)e and $istress are both )eiled and hidden! +$% te it not as a fa lt if + #all Hi$ (.ride.( + "o ld ha)e 0e%t silen#e fro$ fear of $y .elo)ed! +f He had granted $e b t a $o$ent2s res%ite. . t He said! (9%ea0 on! 2tis no fa lt! 2Tis na ght b t the ne#essary res lt of the hidden de#ree! 2Tis a fa lt only to hi$ "ho only sees fa lts. Ho" #an the 7 re Hidden 9%irit noti#e fa lts4( @a lts see$ so to ignorant #reat res! Not in the sight of the &ord of .enignity. .las%he$y e)en $ay be "isdo$ in the Dreator2s si ht!

Whereas fro$ o r %oint of )ie" it is grie)o s sin. +f one fa lt o## r a$ong a h ndred bea ties 2Tis as one dry sti#0 in a garden of green herbs. .oth "eigh e> ally in the s#ales @or the t"o rese$ble body and so l. Wherefore the sages ha)e said not idly! ( The bodies of the righteo s are as % re so ls.( Their "ords! their a#tions! their %raises! Are all as a % re so l "itho t s%ot or ble$ish. 26$ar reb 0es the Har%er for brooding o)er and be"ailing the %ast. Then 26$ar said to hi$! (This "ailing of thine 9ho"s tho art still in a state of 2 sobriety.(2 After"ards he th s rged hi$ to > it that state And #alled hi$ o t of his beggary to absor%tion in <od' (9obriety sa)o rs of $e$ory of the %ast3 7ast and f t re are "hat )eil <od fro$ o r sight. . rn % both of the$ "ith fire1 Ho" long Wilt tho be %artitioned by these seg$ents as a reed4 9o long as a reed has %artitions 2tis not %ri)y to se#rets! Nor is it )o#al in res%onse to li% and breathing. While #ir# $a$b lating the ho se tho art a stranger3 When tho enterest in tho art at ho$e. Tho "hose 0no"ledge is ignoran#e of the <i)er of 0no"ledge! Thy "ailing #ontrition is "orse than thy sin. The road of the 2annihilated2 is another road3 9obriety is "rong! and a straying fro$ that other road. 6 tho "ho see0est to be #ontrite for the %ast! Ho" "ilt tho be #ontrite for this #ontrition4 At one ti$e tho adorest the $ si# of the l te! At another e$bra#est "ailing and "ee%ing.( While the (5is#erner( refle#ted these $ysteries! The heart of the har%er "as e$an#i%ated. &i0e a so l he "as freed fro$ "ee%ing and re-oi#ing! His old life died! and he "as regenerated. A$aEe$ent fell %on hi$ at that $o$ent! @or he "as e,alted abo)e earth and hea)en! An %lifting of the heart s r%assing all %lifting3 + #annot des#ribe it 3 if yo #an! say on1 E#stasy and "ords beyond all e#stati# "ords3 +$$ersion in the glory of the &ord of glory1 +$$ersion "herefro$ "as no e,tri#ation! As it "ere identifi#ation "ith the ;ery 6#ean1 7artial Reason is as na ght to Ani)ersal Reason! +f one i$% lse de%endent on another i$% lse be na ght3

. t "hen that i$% lse $o)es this i$% lse! The "a)es of that sea rise to this %oint3 8 CN6TE9' 1. The night of his $arriage "ith 9afiyya. 8. i.e.! he is %ossessed by the 5eity as an (Energ $en!( and the 5eity "or0s these e#stati# states in hi$. STOR' I5% The A(ab and his 6i,e% An Arab li)ed "ith his "ife in the desert in e,tre$e %o)erty! so that they be#a$e a re%roa#h to their neighbo rs. The "ife at last lost %atien#e! and began to ab se her h sband! and to rge hi$ to i$%ro)e their #ondition. The Arab reb 0ed her for her #o)eto sness! re$inding her that the 7ro%het had said! (7o)erty is $y glory!( and sho"ing her ho" %o)erty "as a better %re%aration for death than ri#hes! and finally threatening to di)or#e her if she %ersisted in her > er lo s "ays. The "ife! ho"e)er! by blandish$ents red #ed her h sband to obedien#e! as "i)es al"ays do! and $ade hi$ %ro$ise to #arry o t her "ishes. 9he dire#ted hi$ to go and re%resent their #ase to the Khalifa at .agdad! and to $a0e hi$ an offering of a %ot of "ater! that being the only %resent they #o ld afford to $a0e. A##ordingly the Arab tra)elled to .agdad! and laid his offering at the feet of the Khalifa! "ho re#ei)ed it gra#io sly! and in ret rn filled the %ot "ith %ie#es of gold! and then sent hi$ ba#0 to his ho$e in a boat % the ri)er Tigris. The Arab "as lost in "onder at the benignity of the Khalifa! "ho had re#o$%ensed hi$ so bo ntif lly for his %etty offering of a dro% of "ater. The story #ontains se)eral digressions! on 7haraoh! on the %ro%het 9alih! and on Ada$ and the angels! and the %oet! a%ro%os of its dis#onne#tedness! #o$%ares it to eternity! as it has no beginning and no end. Men subdued by -#men's -iles% +n this $anner she %leaded "ith gentle #oa,ing! The "hile her tears fell %on her #hee0s. Ho" #o ld his fir$ness and end ran#e abide When e)en "itho t tears she #o ld #har$ his heart4 That rain bro ght forth a flash of lightning Whi#h 0indled a s%ar0 in the heart of that %oor $an. 9in#e the $an "as the sla)e of her fair fa#e!

Ho" "as it "hen she stoo%ed to sla)ish entreaties4 When she "hose airs set thy heart a-> a0ing! When she "ee%s! ho" feelest tho then4 When she "hose #o> etry $a0es thy heart bleed Dondes#ends to entreaties! ho" is it then4 9he "ho s bd es s "ith her %ride and se)erity! What %lea is left s "hen she begins to %lead4 When she "ho traded in na ght b t bloodshed 9 b$its at last! ah1 "hat a %rofit she $a0es1 <od has adorned the$ (fair in the sight of $en3( 1 @ro$ her "ho$ <od has adorned ho" #an $an es#a%e4 9in#e He #reated hi$ (to d"ell together "ith her!( 8 Ho" #an Ada$ se)er hi$self fro$ his E)e4 Tho gh he be R st $! son of Lal! and bra)er than Ha$Ea! /et he is s b$issi)e to the behests of his da$e. He by "hose %rea#hing the "orld "as entran#ed Was he "ho s%a0e the t"o "ords! (6 H $aira1( : Tho gh "ater %re)ails o)er fire in $ight! /et it boils by fire "hen in a #a ldron. When the #a ldron inter)enes bet"een these t"o! Air GdesireH $a0es as na ght the a#tion of the "ater. A%%arently tho art the r ler of thy "ife! li0e "ater3 +n reality tho art r led by and s %%liant to her. 9 #h is the %e# liarity of $an! He #annot "ithstand ani$al desire3 that is his failing. The 7ro%het said that "o$en hold do$inion 6)er sages and o)er $en of heart! . t that fools! again! hold the %%er hand o)er "o$en! .e#a se fools are )iolent and e,#eedingly fro"ard. They ha)e no tenderness or gentleness or a$ity! .e#a se the ani$al nat re s"ays their te$%era$ent. &o)e and tenderness are > alities of h $anity! 7assion and l st are > alities of ani$ality. Wo$an is a ray of <od! not a $ere $istress! The Dreator2s self! as it "ere! not a $ere #reat re1 *oses and 7haraoh! ali0e doers of <od2s "ill! as &ight and 5ar0ness. 7oison and Antidote. ;erily! both *oses and 7haraoh "al0ed in the right "ay! Tho gh see$ingly the one did so! and the other not. .y day *oses "e%t before <od! At $idnight 7haraoh lifted % his #ry! 9aying! (What a yo0e is this %on $y ne#0! 6 <od1 Were it not for this yo0e "ho "o ld boast! 2+ a$ 42 .e#a se Tho hast $ade *oses2 fa#e bright as the $oon! And hast $ade the $oon of $y fa#e bla#0 in the fa#e. Dan $y star e)er shine brighter than the $oon4

+f it be e#li%sed! "hat re$edy ha)e +4 Tho gh %rin#es and 0ings beat dr $s! And $en beat #y$bals be#a se of $y e#li%se! = They beat their brass dishes and raise a #la$o r! And $a0e $y $oon asha$ed thereby! +! "ho a$ 7haraoh! "oe is $e1 The %eo%le2s #la$o r Donfo nds $y boast! 2+ a$ &ord 9 %re$e12 ? *oses and + are Thy n rslings both ali0e! /et Thy a,e # ts do"n tho bran#hes in Thy "oods. 9o$e of these bran#hes Tho %lantest in the gro nd! 6thers Tho #astest a"ay as seless. Dan bran#h stri)e against a,e4 Not so. Dan bran#h el de the %o"er of the a,e4 Nay! 6 &ord of the %o"er that d"ells in Thy a,e! +n $er#y $a0e these #roo0ed things straight1( *an and "ife ty%es of the s%irit and the flesh. The dissension of this h sband and "ife is a %arable3 They are ty%es of thy ani$al and rational so ls. This h sband and "ife are the reason and the flesh! A #o %le -oined together for good and for e)il. And in this earthly ho se this lin0ed %air 5ay and night are e)er at )arian#e and strife. The "ife is e)er see0ing dainties for do$esti# needs! Na$ely! bread and $eat and her o"n dignity and %osition. &i0e the "ife! the ani$al so l see0s #o$fort! 9o$eti$es #arnal! so$eti$es a$bitio s3 Reason has no #are for these $atters! +n its $ind is na ght b t regard to Allah. Tho gh the se#ret $oral hereof is a bait and snare! Hear its o t"ard for$ to the end. +f s%irit al $anifestations had been s ffi#ient! The #reation of the "orld had been needless and )ain. +f s%irit al tho ght "ere e> i)alent to lo)e of <od! 6 t"ard for$s of te$%les and %rayers "o ld not e,ist. 7resents "hi#h friends $a0e one to another Are na ght b t signs and indi#ations! To gi)e o t"ard testi$ony and "itness 6f the lo)e #on#ealed "ithin the heart. .e#a se o t"ard attentions are e)iden#e 6f se#ret lo)e! 6 belo)ed1 The "itness $ay be tr e or false! No" dr n0 "ith real "ine! no" "ith so r "hey3 He "ho drin0s fer$ented "hey dis%lays dr n0enness! *a0es a noise! and reels to and fro. That hy%o#rite in %rayers and fasts 5is%lays e,#eeding diligen#e!

That $en $ay thin0 hi$ dr n0 "ith lo)e of <od3 . t if yo loo0 into the tr th! he is dro"ned in hy%o#risy. +n fine! o t"ard a#tions are g ides To sho" the "ay to "hat is #on#ealed "ithin. 9o$eti$es the g ide is tr e! so$eti$es false! 9o$eti$es a hel%! and at other ti$es a hindran#e. 6 &ord! grant! in ans"er to $y %rayers! dis#ern$ent! That + $ay 0no" s #h false signs fro$ the tr e1 Kno" yo ho" dis#ern$ent a##r es to the sense4 2Tis "hen sense (sees by the light of Allah.( +f effe#ts are obs# re! still #a ses testify3 Kindred! for instan#e! sho"s that there is lo)e. . t he to "ho$ <od2s light is the g ide +s no longer a sla)e to effe#ts and #a ses. When the light of Allah ill $es his senses! A $an is no longer a sla)e to effe#ts. When lo)e of <od 0indles a fla$e in the in"ard $an! He b rns! and is freed fro$ effe#ts. He has no need of signs to ass re hi$ of lo)e! @or lo)e #asts its o"n light % to hea)en. 6ther details are "anting to #o$%lete this s b-e#t! . t ta0e this $ #h! and all hail to yo 1 Tho gh reality is e,%osed to )ie" in this for$! @or$ is at on#e nigh to and far fro$ reality. @or instan#e! these t"o rese$ble "ater and a tree3 When yo loo0 to their essen#e they are far a%art3 /et see ho" > i#0ly a seed be#o$es a high tree 6 t of "ater! along "ith earth and s nshine1 +f yo t rn yo r eyes to their real essen#e! These t"o are far! far a%art fro$ ea#h other1 . t let s > it this tal0 of essen#es and %ro%erties! And ret rn to the story of those t"o "ealth-see0ers. Ho" <od $ade Ada$ s %erior to the Angels in "isdo$ and hono r. He said! (.y Allah! "ho 0no"eth hidden se#rets! Who #reated % re Ada$ o t of d st3 +n the for$! three # bits high! "hi#h he ga)e hi$! He dis%layed the #ontents of all s%irits! all de#rees1 Do$$ ni#ated to hi$ the indelible tablet of e,isten#e! B That he $ight 0no" all that is "ritten on those tablets! A11 that sho ld be first and last to endless eternity He ta ght hi$! "ith the 0no"ledge of his o"n 2na$es!2 J 9o that the angels "ere beside the$sel)es at his instr #tion! And gained $ore san#tity fro$ his san#tifi#ation. The e,%ansion of their $inds! "hi#h Ada$ bro ght abo t! Was a thing ne> alled by the e,%ansion of the hea)ens.

@or the "ide e,%anse of that % re $ind The "ide s%a#e of the se)en hea)ens "as not eno gh.( The 7ro%het said that <od has de#lared! (+ a$ not #ontained in a ght abo)e or belo"! + a$ not #ontained in earth or s0y! or e)en +n highest hea)en. Kno" this for a s rety. 6 belo)ed1 /et a$ + #ontained in the belie)er2s heart1 +f ye see0 $e! sear#h in s #h hearts1( He said also! (Enter the hearts of $y ser)ants 8 To gain the %aradise of beholding *e! 6 fearer of <od.( Highest hea)en! "ith all its light and "ide e,%anse! When it beheld Ada$! "as sha0en fro$ its %la#e1 Highest hea)en is greatness itself re)ealed3 . t "hat is for$ "hen reality dra"s nigh4 E)ery angel de#lared! (+n ti$es of yore We bore friendshi% to the %lains of earth3 We "ere "ont to so" the seed of ser)i#e on the earth! Wherefore "e bore a "ondro s atta#h$ent to it. What "as this atta#h$ent to that ho se of earth When o r o"n nat res are hea)enly4 What "as the friendshi% of lights li0e s to dar0ness4 Ho" #an light d"ell together "ith dar0ness4 6 Ada$1 that friendshi% arose fro$ the s#ent of thee! .e#a se the earth is the "ar% and "eft of thy body. Thy earthly body "as ta0en fro$ there! Thy % re s%irit of light "as shed do"n fro$ here1 . t o r so ls "ere enlightened by thy s%irit 9 &ong! long before earth had di)erted it to itself. We sed to be on earth! ignorant of tho earth! +gnorant of the treas re b ried "ithin it. When "e "ere #o$$anded to de%art fro$ that %la#e! We felt sorro" at t rning o r ste%s a"ay fro$ it. 9o that "e raised $any > estions! saying! 2 6 &ord1 "ho "ill #o$e to ta0e o r %la#e4 Wilt Tho barter the glory of o r %raises and ho$age @or the )ain babble Gof $enH42 The #o$$ands of <od then diff sed -oy %on s3 He said! 2What are ye saying at s #h length4 What ye gi)e tong e to so foolishly +s as the "ords of s%oiled #hildren to their father. + 0ne" of $yself "hat ye tho ght! . t + desired that ye sho ld s%ea0 it3 As this boasting of yo rs is )ery i$%ro%er! 9o shall $y $er#y be sho"n to %re)ail o)er $y "rath' 6 angels! in order to sho" forth that %re)ailing! + ins%ired that %retension to #a)il and do bt3

+f yo say yo r say! and + forbear to % nish yo ! The gainsayers of $y $er#y $ st hold their %ea#e. *y $er#y e> als that of a h ndred fathers and $others3 E)ery so l that is born is a$aEed thereat. Their $er#y is as the foa$ of the sea of $y $er#y3 +t is $ere foa$ of "a)es! b t the sea abides e)er1 What $ore shall + say4 +n that earthly shell There is na ght b t foa$ of foa$ of foa$ of foa$12( <od is that foa$3 <od is also that % re sea! @or His "ords are neither a te$%tation nor a )ain boast. 7l rality and 7artial E)il! tho gh see$ingly o%%osed to Anity! s bser)e <ood. The story is no" #on#l ded! "ith its %s and do"ns! &i0e lo)ers2 $ sings! "itho t beginning or ending. +t has no beginning! e)en as eternity! Nor ending! for 2tis a0in to "orld "itho t end. 6r li0e "ater! ea#h dro% "hereof is at on#e .eginning and end! and also has no beginning or end. . t <od forbid1 This story is not a )ain fable! 2Tis the ready $oney of yo r state and $ine! be s re1 .efore e)ery 9 fi "ho is enlightened Whate)er is %ast is ne)er $entioned. When his "hole tho ghts are absorbed in %resent e#stasy! No tho ght of #onse> en#es enters his $ind. lF Arab! "ater-%ot! and angels are all o rsel)es1 (Whatsoe)er t rneth fro$ <od is t rned fro$ Hi$.( 11 Kno" the h sband is reason! the "ife l st and greed3 9he is )ested "ith dar0ness and a gainsayer of reason. &earn no" "hen#e s%rings the root of this #ir# $stan#e! @ro$ this! that the Whole has %arts of di)ers 0inds. These %arts of the Whole are not %arts in relation to it! Not in the "ay that rose2s s#ent is a %art of the rose. The bea ty of the green shoot is %art of the rose2s bea ty! . t the t rtle-do)e2s #ooing is a %art of that . lb ls $ si#. . t if + engage in do bts and ans"ers! Ho" #an + gi)e "ater to thirsty so ls4 /et! if yo are %er%le,ed by Whole and finite %arts! Ha)e %atien#e! for #G %atien#e is the 0ey of -oy.( .e abstinent! abstinent fro$ )ag e tho ghts! 9in#e there are lions in that desert Gof tho ghtsH. Abstinen#e is the %rin#e of $edi#ines! As s#rat#hing only aggra)ates a s#ab. Abstinen#e is #ertainly the root of $edi#ine3 7ra#tise abstinen#e! see ho" it in)igorates thy so l1 A##e%t this #o nsel and gi)e ear thereto! That it $ay be to thee as an earring of gold1

Nay! not a $ere earring! b t that tho $ayest be a $ine of gold! 6r that tho $ayest s r%ass $oon and 7leiades. @irst! 0no" #reation is in )ario s for$s3 9o ls are as )ario s as the letters fro$ Alif to /a. +n this )ariety of letters there see$s disorder! Tho gh in fa#t they agree in an integral nity. +n one as%e#t they are o%%osed! in another nited3 +n one as%e#t #a%ri#io s! in another serio s. The day of - dg$ent is the day of tho great re)ie"3 Whoso is fair and enlightened longs for that re)ie"3 Whoso! li0e a Hindoo! is bla#0 G"ith sinH! The day of re)ie" "ill so nd the 0nell of his disgra#e. 9in#e he has not a fa#e li0e a s n! He desires only night li0e to a )eil1 +f his thorn % ts not forth a single roseb d! The s%ring in dis#losing hi$ is his foe. . t he "ho is fro$ head to foot a %erfe#t rose or lily! To hi$ s%ring brings re-oi#ing. The seless thorn desires the a t $n! That a t $n $ay asso#iate itself "ith the garden3 And hide the rose2s bea ty and the thorn2s sha$e! That $en $ay not see the bloo$ of the one and the other2s sha$e! That #o$$on stone and % re r by $ay a%%ear all as one. Tr e! the <ardener 0no"s the differen#e e)en in a t $n! . t the sight of 6ne is better than the "orld2s sight. That 6ne 7erson is Hi$self the "orld! as He is the s n! And e)ery star in hea)en is a %art of the s n. That 6ne 7erson is Hi$self the "orld! and the rest Are all His de%endents and %arasites! 6 $an1 He is the %erfe#t "orld! yet He is single3 He holds in hand the "riting of the "hole of e,isten#e. Wherefore all for$s and #olo rs of bea ty #ry o t! ( <ood ne"s1 good ne"s1 &o1 the s%ring is at hand1( +f the blosso$s did not shine as bright hel$ets! Ho" #o ld the fr its dis%lay their globes4 When the blosso$s are shed the fr its #o$e to a head! When tho body is destroyed the so l lifts % its head. The fr it is the s bstan#e! the blosso$ only its for$! .losso$ the good ne"s! and fr it the %ro$ised boon. When the blosso$s fall the fr it a%%ears! When the for$er )anish the fr it is tasted. Till bread is bro0en! ho" #an it ser)e as food4 Till the gra%es are #r shed! ho" #an they yield "ine4 Till #itrons be %o nded % "ith dr gs! Ho" #an they afford healing to the si#04

CN6TE9' 1. Koran iii. 18. 8. Koran iii. 189. :. * ha$$ad said these "ords to his "ife! Ayisha. =. Do$%are the an#ient # sto$ of ringing bells to still th nder. ?. Koran l,,i,. 8=. 7haraoh2s boast. B. The tablet on "hi#h <od "rites His eternal de#rees. J. Koran ii. 89. 8. Koran l,,,i,. 89. 9. The &ogos! the first of #reated beings! "as after"ards e$bodied in Ada$! the (7erfe#t *an!( or *i#ro#os$. 1F. He is the (son of the ti$e %resent and instant!( as said abo)e. 11. Koran li. 9. STOR' 5% The Man -h# -as Ta**##ed% +t "as the # sto$ of the $en of KaE"in to ha)e )ario s de)i#es tattooed %on their bodies. A #ertain #o"ard "ent to the artist to ha)e s #h a de)i#e tattooed on his ba#0! and desired that it $ight be the fig re of a lion. . t "hen he felt the %ri#0s of the needles he roared "ith %ain! and said to the artist! (What %art of the lion are yo no" %ainting4( The artist re%lied! (+ a$ doing the tail.( The %atient #ried! (Ne)er $ind the tail3 go on "ith another %art.( The artist a##ordingly began in another %art! b t the %atient again #ried o t and told hi$ to try so$e"here else. Where)er the artist a%%lied his needles! the %atient raised si$ilar ob-e#tions! till at last the artist dashed all his needles and %ig$ents on the gro nd! and ref sed to %ro#eed any f rther. The P(#+he*'s )#unsels *# 'Ali *# ,#ll#- *he di(e)*i#n #, *he Pi( #( S+i(i*ual &uide0 and *# endu(e his )has*isemen*s +a*ien*ly% The 7ro%het said to 2Ali! (6 2Ali! Tho art the &ion of <od! a hero $ost )aliant3 /et #onfide not in thy lion-li0e )alo r! . t see0 ref ge nder the %al$-trees of the 2Tr th.2 Whoso ta0es obedien#e as his e,e$%lar 9hares its %ro,i$ity to the ineffable 7resen#e. 5o tho see0 to dra" near to Reason3 let not thy heart Rely! li0e others! on thy o"n )irt e and %iety.

Do$e nder the shado" of the *an of Reason! l Tho #anst not find it in the road of the traditionists. That $an en-oys #lose %ro,i$ity to Allah3 T rn not a"ay fro$ obedien#e to hi$ in any "ise3 @or he $a0es the thorn a bed of roses! And gi)es sight to the eyes of the blind. His shado" on earth is as that of *o nt Kaf! His s%irit is as a 9i$ rgh soaring on high. He lends aid to the sla)es of the friends of <od! And ad)an#es to high %la#e the$ "ho see0 hi$. Were + to tell his %raises till the last day! *y "ords "o ld not be too $any nor ad$it of # rtail$ent! He is the s n of the s%irit! not that of the s0y! @or fro$ his light $en and angels dra" life. That s n is hidden in the for$ of a $an! Anderstand $e1 Allah 0no"s the tr th. 6 2Ali! o t of all for$s of religio s ser)i#e Dhoose tho the shado" of that dear friend of <od1 E)ery $an ta0es ref ge in so$e for$ of ser)i#e! And #hooses for hi$self so$e asyl $3 5o tho see0 ref ge in the shado" of the "ise $an! That tho $ayest es#a%e thy fier#e se#ret foes. 6f all for$s of ser)i#e this is fittest for thee3 Tho shalt s r%ass all "ho "ere before thee. Ha)ing #hosen thy 5ire#tor! be s b$issi)e to hi$! E)en as *oses s b$itted to the #o$$ands of KhiEr3 8 Ha)e %atien#e "ith KhiEr2s a#tions! 6 sin#ere one1 &est he say! 2There is a %artition bet"een s.2 Tho gh he sta)e in thy boat! yet hold thy %ea#e3 Tho gh he slay a yo ng $an! hea)e not a sigh. <od de#lares his hand to be e)en as <od2s hand! @or He saith! G The hand of <od is o)er their hands.2 : The hand of <od i$%els hi$ and gi)es hi$ life3 Nay! not life only! b t an eternal so l. A friend is needed3 tra)el not the road alone! Ta0e not thy o"n "ay thro gh this desert1 Whoso tra)els this road alone 6nly does so by aid of the $ight of holy $en. The hand of the 5ire#tor is not "ea0er than theirs3 His hand is none other than the gras% of Allah1 +f absent saints #an #onfer s #h %rote#tion! 5o btless %resent saints are $ore %o"erf l than absent. +f s #h food be besto"ed on the absent! What dainties $ay not the g est "ho is %resent e,%e#t4 The #o rtier "ho attends in the %resen#e of the 0ing +s ser)ed better than the stranger o tside the gate.

The differen#e bet"een the$ is beyond #al# lation3 6ne sees the light! the other on]y the )eil. 9tri)e to obtain entran#e "ithin! +f tho "o ldst not re$ain as a ring o tside the door. Ha)ing #hosen thy 5ire#tor! be not "ea0 of heart! Nor yet sl ggish and la, as "ater and $ d3 . t if tho ta0est $brage at e)ery r b! Ho" "ilt tho be#o$e a %olished $irror4( CN6TE9' 1. i.e.! the 7ir! or 7erfe#t 9hai0h! or 9%irit al 5ire#tor. 9o 9t. Iohn of the Dross and 9t. Theresa en-oin obedien#e to the 5ire#tor G;a ghan! ,ii. 188H. 8. 9ee Koran ,)iii. JJ for the story of *oses and KhiEr. +t is also gi)en in 7arnell2s 2Her$it.2 :. Koran ,l)iii. 1F. STOR' 5I% The Li#n -h# Hun*ed -i*h *he 6#l, and *he F#3% A lion too0 a "olf and a fo, "ith hi$ on a h nting e,# rsion! and s ##eeded in #at#hing a "ild o,! an ibe,! and a hare. He then dire#ted the "olf to di)ide the %rey. The "olf %ro%osed to a"ard the o, to the lion! the ibe, to hi$self! and the hare to the fo,. The lion "as enraged "ith the "olf be#a se he had %res $ed to tal0 of (+( and (Tho !( and (*y share( and (Thy share( "hen it all belonged of right to the lion! and he sle" the "olf "ith one blo" of his %a". Then! t rning to the fo,! he ordered hi$ to $a0e the di)ision. The fo,! rendered "ary by the fate of the "olf! re%lied that the "hole sho ld be the %ortion of the lion. The lion! %leased "ith his self-abnegation! ga)e it all % to hi$! saying! (Tho art no longer a fo,! b t $yself.( Till man des*(#ys 4sel,4 he is n# *(ue ,(iend #, &#d% 6n#e a $an #a$e and 0no#0ed at the door of his friend. His friend said! ("ho art tho . 6 faithf l one4( He said! (2Tis +.( He ans"ered! (There is no ad$ittan#e. There is no roo$ for the 2ra"2 at $y "ell-#oo0ed feast. Na ght b t fire of se%aration and absen#e Dan #oo0 the ra" one and free hi$ fro$ hy%o#risy1 9in#e thy 2self2 has not yet left thee! Tho $ st be b rned in fiery fla$es.(

The %oor $an "ent a"ay! and for one "hole year Io rneyed b rning "ith grief for his friend2s absen#e. His heart b rned till it "as #oo0ed3 then he "ent again And dre" near to the ho se of his friend. He 0no#0ed at the door in fear and tre%idation &est so$e #areless "ord $ight fall fro$ his li%s. His friend sho ted! (Who is that at the door4( He ans"ered! (2Tis Tho "ho art at the door. 6 .elo)ed1( The friend said! (9in#e 2tis +! let $e #o$e in! There is not roo$ for t"o 2+2s2 in one ho se.( STOR' 5II% J#se+h and *he Mi((#(% An old friend #a$e to %ay his res%e#ts to Iose%h! and! after so$e re$ar0s %on the bad beha)io r of his brethren! Iose%h as0ed hi$ "hat %resent he had bro ght to sho" his res%e#t. The friend re%lied that he had long #onsidered "hat gift "o ld be $ost s itable to offer! and at last had fi,ed %on a $irror! "hi#h he a##ordingly %rod #ed fro$ his %o#0et and %resented to Iose%h! at the sa$e ti$e begging hi$ to ad$ire his o"n bea teo s fa#e in it. 5efe#t and Not-being the *irror "herein Absol te 7erfe#t .eing is refle#ted 1. He dre" forth a $irror fro$ his side A $irror is "hat .ea ty b sies itself "ith. 9in#e Not-being is tho $irror of .eing! +f yo are "ise! #hoose Not-being Gself-abnegationH. .eing $ay be dis%layed in that Not-being! Wealthy $en sho" their liberality on the %oor. He "ho is an h ngered is the #lear $irror of bread! The tinder is the $irror of the flint and steel. Not-being and 5efe#t! "here)er they o## r! Are the $irrors of the .ea ty of all beings. .e#a se Not-being is a #lear filtered essen#e! Wherein all these beings are inf sed. When a gar$ent is $ade by a good tailor! 2Tis an e)iden#e of the tailor2s art. &ogs of "ood "o ld not be d ly sha%ed 5id not the #ar%enter %lan o tline and detail. The lee#h s0illed in setting bones goes Where lies the %atient "ith a bro0en leg. +f there "ere no si#0 and infir$! Ho" #o ld the e,#ellen#e of the lee#h2s art be seen4 +f )ile base #o%%er "ere not $ingled!

Ho" #o ld the al#he$ist sho" his s0ill4 5efe#ts are the $irrors of the attrib tes of .ea ty! The base is the $irror of the High and <lorio s 6ne! .e#a se one #ontrary sho"s forth its #ontrary! 8 As honey2s s"eetness is sho"n by )inegar2s so rness. Whoso re#ogniEes and #onfesses his o"n defe#ts +s hastening in the "ay that leads to %erfe#tion1 . t he ad)an#es not to"ards the Al$ighty Who fan#ies hi$self to be %erfe#t. No si#0ness "orse than fan#ying thyself %erfe#t Dan infe#t thy so l! 6 arrogant $isg ided one1 9hed $any tears of blood fro$ eyes and heart! That this self-satisfa#tion $ay be dri)en o t. The fa lt of +blis lay in saying! (+ a$ better than he!( : And this sa$e "ea0ness l r0s in the so l of all #reat res. CN6TE9' 1. Do$%are the %arallel %assage in < lshan i RaE! 1. 1:?! and the notes thereon. 8. D%. (Religio *edi#i!( 9e#t. :?' (Herein is di)inity #onfor$ant nto %hiloso%hy! and not only generation fo nded on #ontrarieties! b t also #reation. <od! being all things! is #ontrary nto nothing3 o t of "hi#h "ere $ade all things! and so nothing be#a$e so$ething! and 6$neity infor$ed n llity into e,isten#e.( :. Koran )ii. ++. STOR' 5III% The P(#+he*'s S)(ibe% The 7ro%het had a s#ribe "ho sed to "rite do"n the te,ts that fell fro$ his li%s. At last this s#ribe be#a$e so #on#eited that he i$agined all this hea)enly "isdo$ %ro#eeded fro$ his o"n "it! and not fro$ the 7ro%het. 7 ffed % "ith self-i$%ortan#e! he fan#ied hi$self ins%ired! and his heart "as hardened against his $aster! and he be#a$e a renegade! li0e the fallen angels Har t and *ar t. He too0 his o"n foolish s r$ises to be the tr th! "hereas they "ere all "ide of the $ar0! as those of the deaf $an "ho "ent to #ondole "ith a si#0 neighbo r and ans"ered all his re$ar0s at #ross % r%oses. H#- +hil#s#+he(s de)eive *hemselves%

6n the last day! 1 ("hen Earth shall > a0e "ith > a0ing!( This earth shall gi)e "itness of her #ondition. @or she (shall tell o t her tidings o%enly!( /ea! earth and her ro#0s shall tell the$ forth1 The %hiloso%her reasons fro$ base analogies GTr e reason #o$es not o t of a dar0 #ornerH 3 The %hiloso%her G+ sayH denies this in his %ride of intelle#t. 9ay to hi$! (<o! dash thy head against a "all1( The s%ee#h of "ater! of earth! of $ire! +s a dible by the ears of $en of heart1 Tho %hiloso%her! "ho denies 5i)ine 7ro)iden#e! +s a stranger to the %er#e%tions of saints. He says that the flashes of $en2s $orbid i$aginations +nstil $any )ain fan#ies into $en2s $inds. . t! on the #ontrary! 2tis his %er)erseness and "ant of faith Whi#h i$%lant in hi$self this )ain fan#y of negation. The %hiloso%her denies the e,isten#e of the 5e)il3 At the sa$e ti$e he is the 5e)il2s la ghing-sto#0. +f tho hast not seen the 5e)il! loo0 at thyself! Witho t de$on2s aid ho" #a$e that bl e t rban 8 on thy bro"4 Whosoe)er has a do bt or dis> iet de in his heart +s a se#ret denier and %hiloso%her. No" and then he dis%lays fir$ belief! . t that slight dash of %hiloso%hy bla#0ens his fa#e. .e"are! 6 belie)ers1 That l r0s in yo too3 /o $ay de)elo% inn $erable states of $ind. All the se)enty and t"o heresies l r0 in yo 3 Ha)e a #are lest one day they %re)ail o)er yo 1 He in "hose breast the leaf of tr e faith is gro"n * st tre$ble as a leaf fro$ fear of s #h a #atastro%he. Tho $a0est a $o#0 of +blis and the 5e)il! .e#a se tho art a fine $an in thy o"n sight3 . t "hen thy so l shall tell thy "ret#hed fa lts! What la$entation tho "ilt #a se to the faithf l1 The sellers of base gold sit s$iling in their sho%s! .e#a se the to #hstone is not as yet in their sight. 6 ;eiler of sins1 stri% not the )eil fro$ s3 &end s aid on the day of trial1 CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,#i,. 1-=. 8. .l e t rbans "ere #onsidered a sign of hy%o#risy GHafiE! 6de ?H.

STOR' 5I1% The Chinese and *he &(ee$ A(*is*s% The Dhinese and the <ree0s dis% ted before the 9 ltan "hi#h of the$ "ere the better %ainters3 and! in order to settle the dis% te! the 9 ltan allotted to ea#h a ho se to be %ainted by the$. The Dhinese %ro# red all 0inds of %aints! and #olo red their ho se in the $ost elaborate "ay. The <ree0s! on the other hand! sed no #olo rs at all! b t #ontented the$sel)es "ith #leansing the "alls of their ho se fro$ all filth! and b rnishing the$ till they "ere as #lear and bright as the hea)ens. When the t"o ho ses "ere offered to tho 9 ltan2s ins%e#tion! that %ainted by tho Dhinese "as $ #h ad$ired3 b t the <ree0 ho se #arried off the %al$! as all the #olo rs of the other ho se "ere refle#ted on its "alls "ith an endless )ariety of shades and h es. .n#-led/e #, *he hea(* +(e,e(able *# *he $n#-led/e #, *he s)h##ls% The 0no"ledge of $en of heart bears the$ %! The 0no"ledge of $en of the body "eighs the$ do"n. When 2tis 0no"ledge of the heart! it is a friend3 When 0no"ledge of the body! it is a b rden. <od saith! (As an ass bearing a load of boo0s!( 1 The 0no"ledge "hi#h is not of Hi$ is a b rden. Kno"ledge "hi#h #o$es not i$$ediately fro$ Hi$ End res no longer than the ro ge of the tire"o$an. Ne)ertheless! if yo bear this b rden in a right s%irit 2T"ill be re$o)ed! and yo "ill obtain -oy. 9ee yo bear not that b rden o t of )ainglory! Then yo "ill behold a store of tr e 0no"ledge "ithin. When yo $o nt the steed of this tr e 0no"ledge! 9traight"ay the b rden "ill fall fro$ yo r ba#0. +f yo drin0 not His # %! ho" "ill yo es#a%e l sts4 /o ! "ho see0 no $ore of Hi$ than to na$e His na$e4 What do His na$e and fa$e s ggest4 The idea of Hi$. And the idea of Hi$ g ides yo to nion "ith Hi$. Kno" yo a g ide "itho t so$ething to "hi#h it g ides4 Were there no roads there "o ld be no gho ls. Kno" yo a na$e "itho t a thing ans"ering to it4 Ha)e yo e)er %l #0ed a rose G< lH fro$ <af and &a$4 /o na$e His na$e3 go! see0 the reality na$ed by it1 &oo0 for the $oon in hea)en! not in the "ater1

+f yo desire to rise abo)e $ere na$es and letters! *a0e yo rself free fro$ self at one stro0e1 &i0e a s"ord be "itho t tra#e of soft iron3 &i0e a steel $irror! s#o r off all r st "ith #ontrition3 *a0e yo rself % re fro$ all attrib tes of self! That yo $ay see yo r o"n % re bright essen#e1 /ea! see in yo r heart the 0no"ledge of the 7ro%het! Witho t boo0! "itho t t tor! "itho t %re#e%tor. The 7ro%het saith! (He is one of $y %eo%le! Whoso is of li0e te$%er and s%irit "ith $e. His so l beholds $e by the selfsa$e light Whereby + $yself behold hi$! Witho t traditions and s#ri%t res and histories! +n the fo nt of the "ater of life.( &earn the $ystery! (+ "as last night a K rd! And this $orning a$ be#o$e an Arab.( 8 This $ystery of (last night( and (this $orning( &eads yo into the road that brings yo to <od. . t if yo "ant an instan#e of this se#ret 0no"ledge! Hear the story of the <ree0s and the Dhinese. CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,ii. ?. 8. 9yad Ab 2l Wafa! an nlettered K rd! fo nd a %a%er "ith the "ords .is$illah %on it! and! after s%ending the night in %rayer! fo nd hi$self able to nderstand Arabi# G& #0-no" Do$$entatorH. STOR' 51% C#unsels #, Rese(ve /iven by *he P(#+he* *# his F(eedman 7aid% At da"n the 7ro%het said to Laid! (Ho" is it "ith thee this $orning! 6 % re dis#i%le4( He re%lied! (Thy faithf l sla)e a$ +.( Again he said! (+f the garden of faith has bloo$ed! sho" a to0en of it.( He ans"ered! (+ "as athirst $any days! .y night + sle%t not for the b rning %angs of lo)e3 9o that + %assed by days and nights! As the %oint of a s%ear glan#es off a shield. @or in that state all faith is one! A h ndred tho sand years and a $o$ent are all one3 World "itho t beginning and "orld "itho t end are one3

Reason finds no entran#e "hen $ind is th s lost.( The 7ro%het again rged Laid to deli)er to hi$ a %resent fro$ that #elestial region! as a to0en that he had really been there in the s%irit. Laid ans"ered that he had seen the eight hea)ens and the se)en hells! and the destinies of all $en! "hether bo nd to hea)en or hell. The body! he said! is as a $other! and the so l as her infant! and death is the ti$e of %art rition! "hen it be#o$es $anifest to "hat #lass the infant so l belongs. As! on the day of - dg$ent it "ill be $anifest to all $en "hether a so l belongs to the sa)ed or to the lost! so no" it "as %lain and $anifest to hi$. He "ent on to as0 the 7ro%het if he sho ld % blish this se#ret 0no"ledge of his to all $en! or hold his %ea#e. The 7ro%het told hi$ to hold his %ea#e. Laid! ho"e)er! %ro#eeded to detail the )ision of the last - dg$ent! "hi#h he had seen "hen in the s%irit3 and the 7ro%het again #o$$anded hi$ to %a se! adding that( <od is ne)er asha$ed to say the tr th!( l and allo"s His 7ro%het to s%ea0 forth the tr th! b t that for Laid to blab forth the se#rets seen in e#stati# )ision "o ld be "rong. Laid re%lied that it "as i$%ossible for one "ho had on#e beheld the 9 n of (The Tr th( to 0ee% his )ision a se#ret. . t the 7ro%het in re%ly instr #ted hi$ that all $en are $asters of their o"n "ills! and that he $ st not re)eal "hat <od has deter$ined to 0ee% se#ret till the last day! in order to lea)e $en till then nder the sti$ l s of ho%e and fear! and to gi)e the$ the #redit of (belie)ing "hat is not seen.( 8 *ore hono r is gi)en to the "arder of a #astle "ho faithf lly e,e# tes his tr st at a distan#e fro$ the #o rt than to those #o rtiers "ho ser)e #onstantly nder the 0ing2s o"n eye. Laid s b$itted to tho 7ro%het2s in- n#tions! and re$ained self-#ontained in his e#stati# )isions. Ane#dotes of the sage & >$an! of King 9olo$on! and of a #onflagration in the days of the Khalifa 26$ar #o$%lete the se#tion. The P(#+he*'s ,inal )#unsels #, 4Rese(ve4% The 7ro%het said! (*y #o$%anions are as the stars! &ights to the$ that "al0 aright! $issiles against 9atan. +f e)ery $an had strength of eyesight To loo0 straight at the light of the s n in hea)en! What need "ere there of stars! 6 h $ble one! To one "ho "as g ided by the light of the s n4 Neither $oon nor %lanets "o ld be needed .y one "ho sa" dire#tly the 9 n of 2The Tr th.2 The *oon : de#lares! as also the #lo ds and shado"s! 2 + a$ a $an! yet it hath been re)ealed to $e.2 = &i0e yo ! + "as nat rally dar0! 2T"as the 9 n2s re)elation that ga)e $e s #h light. + still a$ dar0 #o$%ared to the 9 n! Tho gh + a$ light #o$%ared to the dar0 so ls of $en.

Therefore is $y light "ea0! that yo $ay bear it! @or yo are not strong eno gh to bear the daEEling 9 n. + ha)e! as it "ere! $i,ed honey "ith )inegar! To s ##o r the si#0ness of yo r hearts. When yo are # red of yo r si#0ness! 6 in)alid! Then lea)e o t the )inegar and eat % re honey. When the heart is garnished and s"e%t #lear of l st! Therein 2The <od of *er#y sitteth on His throne.2 ? Then <od r les the heart i$$ediately! When it has gained this i$$ediate #onne#tion "ith Hi$. This s b-e#t is endless3 b t "here is Laid! That + $ay tell hi$ again not to see0 notoriety4 2Tis not "ise to % blish these $ysteries! 9in#e the last day is a%%roa#hing to re)eal all things.( No" yo "ill not find Laid! for he is fled! He s%rang fro$ the %la#e "here the shoes "ere left! B 9#attering the shoes in his h rry. +f yo had been Laid! yo too "o ld ha)e been lost! As a star is lost "hen tho s n shines on it3 @or then yo see no tra#e or sign of it! No %la#e or tra#0 of it in tho $il0y "ay. 6 r senses and o r endless dis#o rses Are annihilated in the light of the 0no"ledge of o r King. 6 r senses and o r reason "ithin s Are as "a)es on "a)es (asse$bled before s.( J When night ret rns and 2tis the ti$e of the s0y2s le)ee! The stars that "ere hidden #o$e forth to their "or0. The %eo%le of the "orld lie n#ons#io s! With )eils dra"n o)er their fa#es! and aslee%3 . t "hen the $orn shall b rst forth and the s n arise E)ery #reat re "ill raise its head fro$ its #o #h3 To the n#ons#io s <od "ill restore #ons#io sness3 They "ill stand in rings as sla)es "ith rings in ears3 5an#ing and #la%%ing hands "ith songs of %raise! 9inging "ith -oy! (6 r &ord hath restored s to life1( 9hedding their old s0ins and bones! As horse$en stirring % a #lo d of d st. All %ressing on fro$ Not-being to .eing! 6n the last day! as "ell the than0f l as the nthan0f l. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,,,iii. ?:. 8. Koran ii. 8. :. i.e.! the 7ro%het.

=. Koran ,)iii. 11F. ?. Koran ,,. =. B. i.e.! the )estib le of the ho se. J. Koran ,,,)i. ?:. STOR' 51I% 'Ali's F#(bea(an)e% 2Ali! the (&ion of <od!( "as on#e engaged in #onfli#t "ith a *agian #hief! and in the $idst of the str ggle the *agian s%at in his fa#e. 2Ali! instead of ta0ing )engean#e on hi$! at on#e dro%%ed his s"ord! to the *agian2s great astonish$ent. 6n his in> iring the reason of s #h forbearan#e! 2Ali infor$ed hi$ that the (&ion of <od( did not destroy life for the satisfa#tion of his o"n )engean#e! b t si$%ly to #arry o t <od2s "ill! and that "hene)er he sa" - st #a se! he held his hand e)en in the $idst of the strife! and s%ared the foe. The 7ro%het! 2Ali #ontin ed! had long sin#e infor$ed hi$ that he "o ld die by the hand of his o"n stirr %-bearer G+bn *al- nH! and the stirr %-bearer had fre> ently i$%lored 2Ali to 0ill hi$! and th s sa)e hi$ fro$ the #o$$ission of that great #ri$e3 b t 2Ali said he al"ays ref sed to do so! as to hi$ death "as as s"eet as life! and he felt no anger against his destined assassin! "ho "as only the instr $ent of <od2s eternal % r%ose. The *agian #hief! on hearing 2Ali2s dis#o rse! "as so $ #h affe#ted that he e$bra#ed +sla$! together "ith all his fa$ily! to the n $ber of fifty so ls. H#- *he P(#+he* -his+e(ed *# 'Ali's s*i((u+-bea(e( *ha* he -#uld #ne day assassina*e his mas*e(% (The 7ro%het "his%ered in the ear of $y ser)ant That one day he "o ld se)er $y head fro$ $y ne#0. The 7ro%het also "arned by ins%iration $e! his friend! That the hand of $y ser)ant "o ld destroy $e. *y ser)ant #ried! (6 0ill $e first! That + $ay not be#o$e g ilty of so grie)o s a sin1( + re%lied! (9in#e $y death is to #o$e fro$ thee! Ho" #an + bal0 the fatef l de#ree4( He fell at $y feet and #ried! (6 gra#io s lord! @or <od2s sa0e #lea)e no" $y body in t"ain! That s #h an e)il deed $ay not be "ro ght by $e! And $y so l b rn "ith ang ish for its belo)ed.( + re%lied! (What <od2s %en has "ritten! it has "ritten3 +n %resen#e of its "ritings 0no"ledge is #onfo nded3 There is no anger in $y so l against thee!

.e#a se + attrib te not this deed to thee3 Tho art <od2s instr $ent. <od2s hand is the agent. Ho" #an + #hide or fret at <od2s instr $ent4( He said! (+f this be so! "hy is there retaliation4( 1 + ans"ered! (2Tis fro$ <od! and 2tis <od2s se#ret3 +f He sho"s dis%leas re at His o"n a#ts! @ro$ His dis%leas re He e)ol)es a 7aradise3 He feels dis%leas re at His o"n a#ts! .e#a se He is a <od of )engean#e as of $er#y. +n this #ity of e)ents He is the &ord! +n this real$ He is the King "ho %lans all e)ents. +f He #r shes His o"n instr $ents! He $a0es those #r shed ones fair in His sight. Kno" the great $ystery of 2"hate)er )erses "e #an#el! 6r #a se yo to forget! "e s bstit te better for the$.2 8 Whate)er la" <od #an#els! He $a0es as a "eed! And in its stead He brings forth a rose. 9o night #an#els the b siness of the dayti$e! When the reason that lights o r $inds be#o$es inani$ate. Again! night is #an#elled by the light of day! And inani$ate reason is re0indled to life by its rays. Tho gh dar0ness %rod #es this slee% and > iet! +s not the 2"ater of life2 in the dar0ness4 : Are not s%irits refreshed in that )ery dar0ness4 +s not that silen#e the season of hea)enly )oi#es4 @or fro$ #ontraries #ontraries are bro ght forth! 6 t of dar0ness "as #reated light. The 7ro%het2s "ars bro ght abo t the %resent %ea#e! The %ea#e of these latter days res lted fro$ those "ars. That #on> eror of hearts # t off a tho sand heads! That the heads of his %eo%le $ight rest in %ea#e.( <od2s reb 0e to Ada$ for s#orning +blis. To "ho$soe)er <od2s order #o$es! He $ st s$ite "ith his s"ord e)en his o"n #hild. @ear then! and re)ile not the "i#0ed! @or the "i#0ed are i$%otent nder <od2s #o$$ands. +n %resen#e of <od2s #o$$ands bo" do"n the ne#0 of %ride. 9#off not nor #hide e)en the$ that go astray1 6ne day Ada$ #ast a loo0 of #onte$%t and s#orn A%on +blis! thin0ing "hat a "ret#h he "as. He felt self-i$%ortant and %ro d of hi$self! And he s$iled at the a#tions of # rsed +blis. <od Al$ighty #ried o t to hi$! (6 % re one! Tho art "holly ignorant of hidden $ysteries. +f + "ere to blab the fa lts of the nfort nate! + sho ld root % the $o ntains fro$ their bases!

And lay bare the se#rets of a h ndred Ada$s! And #on)ert a h ndred fresh +blises into *osal$ans.( Ada$ ans"ered! (+ re%ent $e of $y s#ornf l loo0s3 9 #h arrogant tho ghts shall not be $ine again. 6 &ord! %ardon this rashness in Thy sla)e3 + re%ent3 #hastise $e not for these "ords1( 6 Aider of aid-see0ers! g ide s! @or there is no se# rity in 0no"ledge or "ealth3 (&ead not o r hearts astray after Tho hast g ided s!( = And a)ert the e)il that the (7en( has "ritten. T rn aside fro$ o r so ls the e)il "ritten in o r fates! Re%el s not fro$ the tables of % rity1 6 <od! Thy gra#e is the %ro%er ob-e#t of o r desire3 To #o %le others "ith Thee is not %ro%er. Nothing is bitterer than se)eran#e fro$ Thee! Witho t Thy shelter there is na ght b t %er%le,ity. 6 r "orldly goods rob s of o r hea)enly goods! 6 r body rends the gar$ent of o r so l. 6 r hands! as it "ere! %rey on o r feet3 Witho t relian#e on Thee ho" #an "e li)e4 And if the so l es#a%es these great %erils! +t is $ade #a%ti)e as a )i#ti$ of $isfort nes and fears! +nas$ #h as "hen the so l la#0s nion "ith the .elo)ed! +t abides fore)er blind and dar0ened by itself. +f Tho sho"est not the "ay! o r life is lost3 A life li)ing "itho t Thee estee$ as dead1 +f Tho findest fa lt "ith Thy sla)es! ;erily it is right in Thee! 6 .lessed 6ne1 +f Tho sho ldst #all s n and $oon obs# re! +f Tho sho ldst #all the straight #y%ress #roo0ed! +f Tho sho ldst de#lare the highest hea)en base! 6r ri#h $ines and o#eans %a %ers! All this is the tr th in relation to Thy %erfe#tion1 Thine is the do$inion and the glory and the "ealth1 @or Tho art e,e$%t fro$ defe#t and not-being! Tho gi)est e,isten#e to things non-e,istent! and again Tho $a0est the$ non-e,istent. CN6TE9' 1. i!e.! "hy is the r le (an eye for an eye( en-oined in the Koran! ii. 1J:4 8. Koran ii! 1FF. :. All ding to the ("ater of life( in the land of dar0ness dis#o)ered by KhiEr. =. Koran iii. B.

E+il#/ue *# "##$ I% Alas1 the forbidden fr its "ere eaten! And thereby the "ar$ life of reason "as #ongealed. A grain of "heat e#li%sed the s n 6f Ada$! l &i0e as the 5ragon2s tail 8 d lls the brightness of the $oon. .ehold ho" deli#ate is the heart! that a $orsel of d st Dlo ded its $oon "ith fo l obs# rity1 When bread is (s bstan#e!( to eat it no rishes s3 When 2tis e$%ty (for$!( it %rofits nothing. &i0e as the green thorn "hi#h is #ro%%ed by the #a$el! And then yields hi$ %leas re and n tri$ent3 When its greenness has gone and it be#o$es dry! +f the #a$el #ro%s that sa$e thorn in the desert! +t "o nds his %alate and $o th "itho t %ity! As if #onser)e of roses sho ld t rn to shar% s"ords. When bread is (s bstan#e!( it is as a green thorn3 When 2tis (for$!( 2tis as the dry and #oarse thorn. And tho eatest it in the sa$e "ay as of yore Tho "ert "ont to eat it! 6 hel%less being! Eatest this dry thing in the sa$e $anner! After the real (s bstan#e( is $ingled "ith d st3 +t has be#o$e $ingled "ith d st! dry in %ith and rind. 6 #a$el! no" be"are of that herb1 The Word is be#o$e fo l "ith $ingled earth3 The "ater is be#o$e $ ddy3 #lose the $o th of the "ell! Till <od $a0es it again % re and s"eet3 /ea! till He % rifies "hat He has $ade fo l. 7atien#e "ill a##o$%lish thy desire! not haste. .e %atient! <od 0no"s "hat is best. CN6TE9' 1. * ha$$adans thin0 the forbidden fr it to ha)e been "heat. 8. The des#ending node of the $oon Gsee < lshan i RaE! +. 8::H.

"##$ II%
PROLO&UE. THE Do$%osition of this *asna)i has been delayed for a season3 1 Ti$e is needed for blood to be#o$e $il0. Till thy fort ne #o$es forth as a ne"-born babe! .lood be#o$es not $il0! s"eet and %leasant to the $ind. When that light of <od! H sa$ -2d-5in T rned his #o rse do"n fro$ the s $$it of hea)en! While he had as#ended to s bli$est )erities! +n the absen#e of his s%ring the b ds blosso$ed not! . t "hen o t of that sea he #a$e to shore! The l te of the %oesy of the *asna)i so nded again. This *asna)i! "hi#h is the %olisher of s%irits! +ts re#o$$en#e$ent o## rred on the day of (6%ening.( The #o$$en#e$ent date of this %re#io s "or0 Was the year si, h ndred and si,ty-t"o of the @light. The . lb l started on this date and be#a$e a ha"03 /ea! a ha"0 to h nt o t these $ysteries. *ay the "rist of the King be the resting-%la#e of this ha"0! And $ay this door be o%en to the %eo%le for e)er1 CN6TE9' 1. The delay "as #a sed by the grief of H sa$ for the death of his "ife. STOR' I% The Su,i's "eas* After ane#dotes of the $an! in the ti$e of 26$ar! "ho $istoo0 his eyelash for the ne" $oon! of one "ho stole a sna0e and got bitten by it! and of 2+sa2s foolish dis#i%le "ho beso ght the &ord to tea#h hi$ the s%ell "hereby he raised the dead! #o$es the follo"ing story. A #ertain 9 fi! after a long day2s -o rney! arri)ed at a $onastery! "here he % t % for the night! and stri#tly en-oined his ser)ant to groo$ his ass #aref lly and gi)e hi$ %lenty of litter and fodder. The ser)ant ass red hi$ that his $in te dire#tions "ere s %erfl o s! and %ro$ised to attend to the ass $ost #aref lly3 b t "hen his $aster2s ba#0 "as t rned he negle#ted the ass! and the %oor ani$al re$ained all night "itho t "ater or food. Donse> ently he "as "ea0 and nfit to tra)el ne,t $orning! and in s%ite of

the blo"s and 0i#0s that "ere sho"ered on hi$! #o ld not #arry his $aster! b t had to be led. The other 9 fis "ho "ere tra)eling "ith his o"ner tho ght that the ass "as seless! and "hen they arri)ed at the %la#e "here they halted for the night! they sold the ass to a tra)eler! and "ith the %ro#eeds of the sale bo ght deli#ate )iands and tor#hes! and $ade a feast. The o"ner of the ass! "ho "as ignorant of this transa#tion! shared the feast! and -oined in the #hor s s ng by the others! (The ass is gone! the ass is gone!( "itho t atta#hing any sense to the "ords! and blindly follo"ing their e,a$%le. Ne,t $orning he as0ed his ser)ant "hat had be#o$e of the ass! and the ser)ant told hi$ it had been sold! adding that he tho ght he had 0no"n it o)ernight! be#a se he had heard hi$ singing (The ass is gone( along "ith the other 9 fis. +n the #o rse of this story there o## r ane#dotes of <od #ons lting "ith the angels as to the #reation of $an! of a 0ing "ho lost his ha"0 and fo nd it again in the ho se of a %oor old $an! and of 9hai0h Ah$ad KhiEra"iya b ying s"eet$eats for his #reditors. 6hy *he +#e* veils his d#)*(ines in ,ables% What is it hinders $e fro$ e,%o nding $y do#trines . t this! that $y hearers2 hearts in#line else"here. Their tho ghts are intent on that 9 fi g est3 They are i$$ersed in his affairs ne#0 dee%. 9o + a$ #o$%elled to t rn fro$ $y dis#o rse To that story! and to set forth his #ondition. . t! 6 friend! thin0 not this 9 fi a $ere o t"ard for$! As #hildren see in a )ine nothing b t raisins. 6 son! o r bodies are as dried gra%es and raisins3 +f yo are a $an! #ast a"ay these things. +f yo %ass on to the % re $ysteries of <od! /o "ill be e,alted abo)e the nine hea)enly s%heres. No" hear the o t"ard for$ of $y story! . t yet se%arate the grain fro$ the #haff. Why the %ro%hets "ere sent. <od sent the %ro%hets for this % r%ose! Na$ely! to se)er infidelity fro$ faith. <od sent the %ro%hets to $an0ind That they $ight gather the % re grain on their tray. +nfidel and faithf l! *osal$an and Ie"! .efore the %ro%hets #a$e! see$ed all as one. .efore they #a$e "e "ere all ali0e! No one 0ne" "hether he "as right or "rong. <en ine #oin and base #oin "ere # rrent ali0e3 The "orld "as a night! and "e tra)elers in the dar0! Till the s n of the %ro%hets arose! and #ried!

(.egone. 6 sl $ber3 "el#o$e! 6 % re light1( No" the eye sees ho" to disting ish #olors! +t sees the differen#e bet"een r bies and %ebbles. The eye disting ishes -e"els fro$ d st! Hen#e it is d st $a0es the eyes s$art. *a0ers of base #oin hate the daylight! Doins of % re gold lo)e the daylight! .e#a se daylight is the $irror that refle#ts the$! 9o that they see their o"n %erfe#t bea ty. *ysti#al *eaning of (5aylight( <od has na$ed the res rre#tion (that day3( 5ay sho"s off the bea ty of red and yello". Wherefore (5ay( in 2tr th is the $ystery of the saints3 6ne day of their $oons is as "hole years. Kno"! (5ay ( is the refle#tion of the $ystery of the saints! Eye-#losing night that of their hidden se#rets. Therefore hath <od re)ealed the #ha%ter (5aylight!( 1 Whi#h daylight is the light of the heart of * stafa. 6n the other )ie"! that daylight $eans (The @riend!( +t is also a refle#tion of the sa$e %ro%het. @or! as it is "rong to s"ear by a transitory being! Ho" #an "e s %%ose a transitory being s%o0en of by <od4 The @riend of <od said! (+ lo)e not the$ that set4( 8 Ho"! then! #o ld Allah ha)e $eant a transitory being4 Again! the "ords (by the night( $ean * ha$$ad2s )eiling! Na$ely! the fair earthly body that he bore3 When his s n %ro#eeded fro$ hea)en on high +nto that body2s night! it said! (He hath not forsa0en thee3( Anion "ith <od arose o t of the de%th of that disgra#e3 That boon "as the "ord! (He hath not been dis%leased.( E,%ressions of religio s or other feeling deri)e their only )al e fro$ the state of $ind fro$ "hi#h they %ro#eed. E)ery e,%ression is the sign of a state of $ind3 That state is a hand! the e,%ression an instr $ent. A golds$ith2s instr $ents in the hand of a #obbler Are as grains of "heat so"n on sand. The tools of a #obbler in the hand of a # lti)ator Are as grass before a dog or bones before an ass. The "ords! (+ a$ the Tr th( "ere light in *ans r2s : $o th! +n the $o th of 7haraoh (+ a$ &ord 9 %re$e( "as blas%he$y. The staff in the hand of *oses "as a "itness! +n the hands of the $agi#ians it "as na ght. @or this #a se 2+sa ta ght not to that foolish $an The "ords of %o"er "hereby he raised the dead. @or he "ho is ignorant $is ses the instr $ent 3

+f yo stri0e flint on $ d yo "ill get no fire. Hand and instr $ent rese$ble flint and steel3 /o $ st ha)e a %air3 a %air is needed to generate. He "ho has no %eer or $e$ber is the (6ne!( An ne)en n $ber! 6ne "itho t dis% te1 Whoso says (one( and (t"o!( and so on! Donfesses thereby the e,isten#e of the (6ne.( When the ill sion of seeing do ble is s"e%t a"ay! They "ho say (one( and (t"o( are e)en as they "ho say (6ne.( +f yo ta0e (6ne( as yo r ball in his tennis-field! +t is $ade to re)ol)e by the stro0es of his bat. = /ea! the ball that is e)en and "itho t fa lt +s $ade to re)ol)e by the stro0es of the King2s hand. 6 $an of do ble )ision! ? hear0en "ith attention! 9ee0 a # re for yo r defe#ti)e sight by listening. *any are the holy "ords that find no entran#e +nto blind hearts! b t they enter hearts f ll of light. . t the de#eits of 9atan enter #roo0ed hearts! E)en as #roo0ed shoes fit #roo0ed feet. Tho gh yo re%eat %io s e,%ressions again and again! +f yo are a fool! they affe#t yo not at all3 Nay! not tho gh yo set the$ do"n in "riting! And tho gh yo %ro#lai$ the$ )a ntingly3 Wisdo$ a)erts its fa#e fro$ yo ! 6 $an of sin! Wisdo$ brea0s a"ay fro$ yo and ta0es to flight1 Fn Ta>lid! blind i$itation or #ant. (6 "ret#h! "hy did yo not #o$e and say to $e! 29 #h and s #h a disastro s affair has o## rred42( The ser)ant re%lied! (.y Allah! + #a$e again and again! That + $ight a#> aint yo "ith the $atter. /o "ere al"ays saying! 2The ass is gone! $y lad12 Along "ith the others in high e,#ite$ent3 9o + "ent a"ay! thin0ing yo 0ne" all abo t it! And "ere %leased at the transa#tion! being a "ise $an.( The 9 fi said! (They "ere all singing the sa$e "ords! 9o + felt i$%elled to sing the$ as "ell. .lind i$itation of the$ has ndone $e. D rsed be that blind i$itation1( The effe#t of blindly i$itating n%rofitable #ond #t +s that $en #ast a"ay honor for a $orsel of bread. The e#stasy of that #o$%any #ast a refle#tion! Whereby that 9 fi2s heart be#a$e e#stati# li0e the$. /o need $any refle#tions fro$ yo r asso#iates +n order to dra" "ater fro$ the %eerless 6#ean. The first refle#tion #ast is $ere blind i$itation3 After it has been often re%eated yo $ay test its tr th.

Till it is th s )erified! ta0e it not fro$ yo r friends3 The dro%! not yet be#o$e %earl! se)er not fro$ its shell. E)il infl en#e of #o)eto sness. Wo ld yo ha)e eyes and ears of reason #lear! Tear off the obstr #ting )eil of greed1 The blind i$itation of that 9 fi %ro#eeded fro$ greed3 <reed #losed his $ind to the % re light. /ea! 2t"as greed that led astray that 9 fi! And bro ght hi$ to loss of %ro%erty and r in. <reed of )i#t als! greed of that e#stati# singing Hindered his "its fro$ gras%ing the tr th. +f greed stained the fa#e of a $irror! That $irror "o ld be as de#eitf l as "e $en are. B +f a %air of s#ales "ere greedy of ri#hes! Wo ld they tell tr ly the "eight of anything4 The 7ro%het saith! (6 %eo%le! thro gh singleness of $ind! + as0 of yo no re#o$%ense for $y %ro%hesying3 J + a$ a g ide3 <od b yeth $y g idan#e for yo ! <od gi)eth yo $y g idan#e in both "orlds. Tr e! a g ide deser)es his "ages3 Wages are d e to hi$ for dire#ting yo aright. . t "hat are $y "ages4 The )ision of The @riend. Ab .a0r indeed offered $e forty tho sand %ie#es of gold! . t his forty tho sand %ie#es "ere no "ages for $e. 8 Ho" #o ld + ta0e brass beads for %earls of Aden4( + "ill tell yo a tale3 hear0en attenti)ely! That yo $ay 0no" ho" greed #loses % the ears. E)ery $an s b-e#t to greed is a $iser. Dan eyes of hearts #lo ded "ith greed see #learly4 The ill sion of ran0 and ri#hes blinds his sight! &i0e hair dro%%ing do"n before his eyes. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,#iii' (.y the daylight and by the night thy! &ord hath not forsa0en thee nor been dis%leased.( 8. Koran )i. JB' (And "hen the night o)ershado"ed Abraha$! he beheld a star! and he said! 2This is $y &ord32 b t "hen it set he said! 2+ lo)e not <ods "hi#h set.2( :. *ans r Halla-! a #elebrated 9 fi "ho "as % t to death at .agdad in :F9 A.H. for sing these "ords. =. i.e.! nity is $ade to a%%ear as %l rality Gsee < lshan i RaE! +. J1FH. ?. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 1F=. B. The T r0ish #o$$entator translates th s. The & #0no" #o%y reads .a

sati for *a sti. J. Koran ,i ?:. 8. Ab .a0r $ade o)er all his goods to the 7ro%het in aid of the e,%edition to 9yria. STOR' II% The Pau+e( and *he P(is#ne(s% A #ertain %a %er obtained ad$ittan#e to a %rison! and annoyed the %risoners by eating % all their )i#t als and lea)ing the$ none. At last they $ade a for$al #o$%laint to the KaEi! and %rayed hi$ to banish the greedy %a %er fro$ the %rison. The KaEi s $$oned the %a %er before hi$! and as0ed hi$ "hy he did not go to his o"n ho se instead of li)ing on the %risoners. The %a %er re%lied that he had no ho se or $eans of li)elihood e,#e%t that s %%lied by the %rison3 "here %on the KaEi ordered hi$ to be #arried thro gh the #ity! and %ro#la$ation to be $ade that he "as a %a %er! that no one $ight be ind #ed to lend hi$ $oney or trade "ith hi$. A##ordingly the attendants so ght for a #a$el "hereon to #arry hi$ thro gh the #ity! and at last ind #ed a K rd "ho sold fire"ood to lend his #a$el for the % r%ose. The K rd #onsented fro$ greed of re"ard! and the %a %er! being seated on the #a$el! "as #arried thro gh the #ity fro$ $orning till e)ening! %ro#la$ation being $ade in 7ersian! Arabi#! and K rdish that he "as a %a %er. When e)ening #a$e the K rd de$anded %ay$ent! b t the %a %er ref sed to gi)e hi$ anything! obser)ing that if he had 0e%t his ears o%en he $ st ha)e heard the %ro#la$ation. Th s the K rd "as led by greed to s%end the day in seless labor. Sa*an's #,,i)e in *he -#(ld% The %a %er said! (/o r benefi#en#e is $y s stenan#e3 To $e! as to aliens! yo r %rison is a %aradise. +f yo banish $e fro$ yo r %rison in re%robation! + $ st needs die of %o)erty and affli#tion.( I st so +blis said to Allah! (6 ha)e #o$%assion3 &ord1 res%ite $e till the day of res rre#tion3 @or in this %rison of the "orld + a$ at oase! That + $ay slay the #hildren of $y ene$ies. @ro$ e)ery one "ho has tr e faith for food! And as bread for his %ro)isions by the "ay! + ta0e it a"ay by fra d or de#eit! 9o that they raise bitter #ries of regret. 9o$eti$es + $ena#e the$ "ith %o)erty! 8 9o$eti$es + blind their eyes "ith tresses and $oles.(

+n this %rison the food of tr e faith is s#ar#e! And by the tri#0s of this dog "hat there is is lost. +n s%ite of %rayers and fasts and endless %ains! 6 r food is altogether de)o red by hi$. &et s see0 ref ge "ith Allah fro$ 9atan. Alas 1 "e are %erishing by his insolen#e. The dog is one! yet he enters a tho sand for$s3 : Whate)er he enters straight be#o$es hi$self. Whate)er $a0es yo shi)er! 0no" he is in it! The 5e)il is hidden beneath its o t"ard for$. When he finds no for$ at hand! he enters yo r tho ghts! To #a se the$ to dra" yo into sin. @ro$ yo r tho ghts %ro#eeds destr #tion! When fro$ ti$e to ti$e e)il tho ghts o## r to yo . 9o$eti$es tho ghts of %leas re! so$eti$es of b siness! 9o$eti$es tho ghts of s#ien#e! so$eti$es of ho se and ho$e. 9o$eti$es tho ghts of gain and traffi#! 9o$eti$es tho ghts of $er#handise and "ealth. 9o$eti$es tho ghts of $oney and "i)es and #hildren! 9o$eti$es tho ghts of "isdo$ or of sadness. 9o$eti$es tho ghts of ho sehold goods and fine linen! 9o$eti$es tho ghts of #ar%ets! so$eti$es of s"ee%ers. 9o$eti$es tho ghts of $ills! gardens! and )illas! 9o$eti$es of #lo ds and $ists and -o0es and -ests. 9o$eti$es tho ghts of %ea#e and "ar! 9o$eti$es tho ghts of honor and disgra#e. Ah1 #ast o t of yo r head these )ain i$aginations! Ah1 s"ee% o t of yo r heart these e)il s ggestions. Dry! (There is no %o"er nor strength b t in <od1( To a)ert the E)il 6ne fro$ the "orld and yo r o"n so l. +t is the tr e .elo)ed "ho #a ses all o t"ard earthly bea ty to e,ist. Whatsoe)er is %er#ei)ed by sense He ann ls! . t He establishes that "hi#h is hidden fro$ the senses. The lo)er2s lo)e is )isible! his .elo)ed hidden. The @riend is absent! the distra#tion he #a ses %resent. Reno n#e these affe#tions for o t"ard for$s! &o)e de%ends not on o t"ard for$ or fa#e. Whate)er is belo)ed is not a $ere e$%ty for$! Whether yo r belo)ed be of the earth or of hea)en. Whate)er be the for$ yo ha)e fallen in lo)e "ith! Why do yo forsa0e it the $o$ent life lea)es it4 The for$ is still there3 "hen#e! then! this disg st at it4 Ah1 lo)er! #onsider "ell "hat is really yo r belo)ed. +f a thing %er#ei)ed by o t"ard senses is the belo)ed! Then all "ho retain their senses $ st still lo)e it3

And sin#e lo)e in#reases #onstan#y! Ho" #an #onstan#y fail "hile for$ abides4 = . t the tr th is! the s n2s bea$s stri0e the "all! And the "all only refle#ts that borro"ed light. Why gi)e yo r heart to $ere stones! 6 si$%leton4 <o1 see0 the so r#e of light "hi#h shineth al"ays1 5isting ish "ell tr e da"n fro$ false da"n! 5isting ish the #olor of the "ine fro$ that of the # %3 9o that! instead of $any eyes of #a%ri#e! 6ne eye $ay be o%ened thro gh %atien#e and #onstan#y. Then yo "ill behold tr e #olors instead of false! And %re#io s -e"els in lie of stones. . t "hat is a -e"el4 Nay! yo "ill be an o#ean of %earls3 /ea! a s n that $eas res the hea)ens1 The real Wor0$an is hidden in His "or0sho%! <o yo into that "or0sho% and see Hi$ fa#e to fa#e. +nas$ #h as o)er that Wor0$an His "or0 s%reads a # rtain! /o #annot see Hi$ o tside His "or0. 9in#e His "or0sho% is the abode of the Wise 6ne! Whoso see0s Hi$ "itho t is ignorant of Hi$. Do$e! then! into His "or0sho%! "hi#h is Not-being! ? That yo $ay see the Dreator and #reation at on#e. Whoso has seen ho" bright is the "or0sho% 9ees ho" obs# re is the o tside of that sho%. Rebellio s 7haraoh set his fa#e to"ards .eing Gegois$H! And "as %erfor#e blind to that "or0sho%. 7erfor#e he loo0ed for the 5i)ine de#ree to #hange! And ho%ed to t rn his destiny fro$ his door. While destiny at the i$%oten#e of that #rafty one All the "hile "as se#retly $o#0ing. He sle" a h ndred tho sand g iltless babes That the ordinan#e and de#ree of Allah $ight be th"arted. That the %ro%het *oses $ight not be born ali)e! He #o$$itted a tho sand $ rders in the land. He did all this! yet *oses "as born! And "as %rote#ted against his "rath. Had he b t seen the Eternal "or0sho%! He had refrained hand and foot fro$ these )ain de)i#es. Within his ho se "as *oses safe and so nd! While he "as 0illing the babes o tside to no % r%ose. I st so the sla)e of l sts "ho %a$%ers his body @an#ies that so$e other $an bears hi$ ill-"ill3 9aying this one is $y ene$y! and this one $y foe! While it is his o"n body "hi#h is his ene$y and foe! He is li0e 7haraoh! and his body is li0e *oses! He r ns abroad #rying! ("here is $y foe4(

While l st is in his ho se! "hi#h is his body! He bites his finger in s%ite against strangers. Then follo"s an ane#dote of a $an "ho sle" his $other be#a se she "as al"ays $is#ond #ting herself "ith strangers! and "ho e,# sed hi$self by %leading that if he had not done so he "o ld ha)e been obliged to slay strangers e)ery day! and th s in# r blood-g iltiness. & st is li0ened to this abandoned $other3 "hen it is on#e slain! yo are at %ea#e "ith all $en. +n ans"er to an ob-e#tion that if this "ere so the %ro%hets and saints! "ho ha)e s bd ed l st! "o ld not ha)e been hated and o%%ressed as they "ere! it is %ointed o t that they "ho hated the %ro%hets in reality hated the$sel)es! - st as si#0 $en > arrel "ith the %hysi#ian or boys "ith the tea#her. 7ro%hets and saints are #reated to test the dis%ositions of $en! that the good $ay be se)ered fro$ the bad. The n $ero s grades of %ro%hets! of saints! and of holy $en are ordained! as so $any # rtains of the light of <od! to tone do"n its brillian#e! and $a0e it )isible to all grades of h $an sight. CN6TE9' 1. Koran )ii. 1:. 8. Koran ii. 8J9. :. #f. < lshan i RaE! %. 8B. =. This #o %let e,er#ises both the T r0ish and the & #0no" #o$$entators. ?. i.e.! annihilation of self and of all %heno$enal being! regarding self as na ght in the %resen#e of the 5eity. STOR' III% The .in/ and his T-# Slaves% A 0ing % r#hased t"o sla)es! one e,tre$ely handso$e! and the other )ery gly. He sent the first a"ay to the bath! and in his absen#e > estioned the other. He told hi$ that the first sla)e had gi)en a )ery bad a##o nt of hi$! saying that he "as a thief and a bad #hara#ter! and as0ed if it "as tr e. The se#ond sla)e re%lied that the first "as e)erything that "as good! his in"ard > alities #orres%onding to the bea ty of his o t"ard a%%earan#e! and that "hate)er he had told the 0ing "as "orthy of #redit. The 0ing re%lied that bea ty "as only an a##ident! and that! a##ording to the tradition! a##idents (end re only t"o $o$ents3( that at death the ani$al so l is destroyed! that the te,t! (Whoso shall %resent hi$self "ith bea ty shall re#ei)e tenfold re"ard!( + does not refer to o t"ard a##idents! b t to

the (s bstan#e!( the eternal so l. The sla)e in re%ly rged that the a##idents of good "or0s and tho ghts "ill in so$e "ay bear fr it in the ne,t "orld! %ointing o t that tho ght is al"ays the %re# rsor of the #o$%leted "or0! as the %lan of the ar#hite#t %re#edes the b ilding! and the gardener2s design the %erfe#t fr it res lting fro$ his labors. He added that the "orld is only the realiEed tho ght of (Ani)ersal Reason( 8 The 0ing then sent a"ay the sla)e "ith "ho$ he had held this dis#o rse! and s $$oned the other! and told hi$ that his fello" sla)e had gi)en a bad a##o nt of hi$! and as0ed "hat he had to say. He re%lied that his fello" sla)e "as a liar and a ras#al! and the 0ing then dis$issed hi$! obser)ing that! in a##ordan#e "ith the tradition! (E)ery $an is hidden nder his o"n tong e!( his tong e had betrayed his inner )ileness. (The safety of a $an lies in holding his tong e.( The a+#s*#li)al su))essi#n #, *he +(#+he*s and *he sain*s% With that (brightness of lightning( : He 0indled their so ls 9o that Ada$ a#> ired 0no"ledge fro$ that light. That! "hi#h shone fro$ Ada$ "as gathered by 9eth! Wherefore Ada$ $ade hi$ his )i#eroy "hen he sa" it. When Noah re#ei)ed the gift of that l stre! He be#a$e a so l bearing %earls in the te$%est of the flood. .y that light the so l of Abraha$ "as led! Witho t fear he entered Ni$rod2s fiery f rna#e. When +sh$ael so ght o t that light! He $ee0ly laid his head beneath his father2s bright 0nife. The so l of 5a)id "as "ar$ed by its heat! +ron be#a$e %liable by the for#e of his "ea)ing. = When 9olo$on "as n rt red by its fr ition! The de)ils be#a$e the s b$issi)e sla)es of his "ill. When Ia#ob bo"ed his head to the 5i)ine de#ree! He re#o)ered his sight at the s#ent of his son. ? When $oonli0e Iose%h sa" that brilliant s n! He be#a$e so e,%ert as he "as in inter%reting drea$s. When the staff dre" $ight fro$ the hand of *oses! +t de)o red the real$ of 7haraoh at a $o thf l. When the so l of Iir-is B be#a$e %ri)y to its light! He sa#rifi#ed his life se)en ti$es! and regained it. When La0hariah J boasted of his lo)e for it! He ranso$ed his life in the hollo" of the tree. When Ionah s"allo"ed a dra ght fro$ that # %! He fo nd re%ose in the belly of the fish. When Iohn the .a%tist be#a$e filled "ith its n#tion! He laid his head in the golden #harger in ardo r for it. When Iethro be#a$e a"are of this e,altation!

He ris0ed his life to find it. 7atient Iob ga)e than0s for se)en years! @or in his #ala$ities he sa" signs of its a%%roa#h. When KhiEr and Elias boasted of gaining it! They fo nd the "ater of life and "ere no $ore seen. When Ies s. 9on of *ary! fo nd that ladder of as#ent! He as#ended to the height of the fo rth hea)en. When * ha$$ad gained that blessed %ossession! +n a $o$ent he #left as nder the dis0 of the $oon. 8 When Ab .a0r be#a$e the e,e$%lar of that gra#e! He "as #o$%anion of that &ord! and a 2# faithf l "itness.( When 26$ar "as enra%t red "ith that bea ty! &i0e a $ind he dis#erned tr e and false. 9 When 6s$an )ie"ed those brilliant sights! He diff sed light and be#a$e (&ord of the t"o lights.( 1F When *artaEa G2AliH shined "ith its refle#tion! He be#a$e the (&ion of <od( in the so l2s do$ain. When his t"o sons "ere ill $ined by this light! They be#a$e the (%early earrings of highest hea)en3( 11 6ne of the$ losing his life by %oison! The other losing his head as he "ent abo t his $ar#h. When I naid "as s ##o red by the for#es of that light! His e#stati# states e,#eeded #o nting. .ayaEid sa" his "ay to in#reased fr ition thereof! And gained fro$ <od the na$e (7olestar of <nosti#s.( What ti$e King *ans r be#a$e )i#torio s! 18 He left his throne and hastened to the sta0e. When Kar0hi of Kar0h be#a$e its 0ee%er! He be#a$e lord of lo)e and of the breath of Ies s. +brahi$ son of Adha$ rode his horse to that %oint! And be#a$e 0ing of 0ings of e> ity. And that 9ha0i0 starting fro$ that - n#tion .e#a$e a s n of "it and a# te of geni s. @aEil fro$ a high"ay robber be#a$e a sage of the "ay! 1: When he "as regarded "ith estee$ by the King. To .ishr Hafi the do#trine! "as anno n#ed! And he set his fa#e to"ards the desert of in> iry. When L -1-Ntin be#a$e distra ght "ith #are for it! Egy%t G*il0H as s gar be#a$e the ho se of his so l. When 9ari 1= lost his head in see0ing the "ay thereto! His ran0 "as e,alted abo)e the seats of the $ighty. A h ndred tho sand great Gs%irit alH 0ings E,alted by this di)ine light a%%roa#h the "orld. Their na$es re$ain hidden thro gh <od2s -ealo sy3 E)ery beggar tells not their na$es. 1?

CN6TE9' 1. Koran )i. 1B1. 8. i.e.! the &ogos as 5e$i rge. :. Koran ,,i). =:. The %ro%heti# ins%iration is li0ened to a light handed on fro$ one to another. =. Koran ,,i. 8F. ?. Koran l,,)ii. 9B. B. Iir-is or 9t. <eorge is s %%osed by * ha$$adans to be the sa$e %erson as KhiEr or Elias. J. La0hariah the %ro%het is said to ha)e ta0en ref ge fro$ his %erse# tors in the hollo" of a tree. 8. Koran li). 1. 9. 6$ar "as #alled (The 5is#erner.( 1F. He bore this na$e be#a se he had t"o da ghters of * ha$$ad as his "i)es. 11. A tradition gi)es this title to Hasan and H ssain. 18. *ans r Halla-! the #elebrated 9 fi i$%aled at .agdad. 9hah or King "as a title often ass $ed by dar)eshes. 1:. The ("ay( $eans the 9 fi do#trines. 1=. All these saints li)ed in the se#ond and third #ent ries of the @light. 1?. +n the introd #tion to the Nafahat -2l Ans! Ia$i says there are al"ays =FFF saints on the earth "ho are not e)en 0no"n to one another. STOR' I1% The Fal)#n and *he O-ls% A #ertain fal#on lost his "ay! and fo nd hi$self in the "aste %la#es inhabited by o"ls. The o"ls s s%e#ted that he had #o$e to seiEe their nests! and all s rro nded hi$ to $a0e an end of hi$. The fal#on ass red the$ that he had no s #h design as they i$% ted to hi$! that his abode "as on the "rist of the 0ing! and that he did not en)y their fo l habitation. The o"ls re%lied that he "as trying to de#ei)e the$! inas$ #h as s #h a strange bird as he #o ld not be a fa)orite of the 0ing. The fal#on re%eated that he "as indeed a fa)orite of the 0ing! and that the 0ing "o ld ass redly destroy their ho ses if they in- red hi$! and %ro#eeded to gi)e the$ so$e good ad)i#e on the folly of tr sting to o t"ard a%%earan#es. He said! (+t is tr e + a$ not ho$ogeneo s "ith the 0ing! b t yet the 0ing2s light is refle#ted in $e! as "ater be#o$es ho$ogeneo s "ith earth in %lants. + a$! as it "ere! the d st beneath the 0ing2s feet3 and if yo be#o$e li0e $e in this res%e#t! yo "ill be e,alted as + a$. Do%y the o t"ard for$ yo behold in $e! and %er#han#e yo "ill rea#h the real s bstan#e of the 0ing.(

The (i/h* use #, ,#(ms% That $y o t"ard for$ $ay not $islead yo ! 5igest $y s"eet ad)i#e before #o%ying $e. *any are they "ho ha)e been #a%t red by for$! Who ai$ed at for$! and fo nd Allah. After all! so l is lin0ed to body! Tho gh it in no"ise rese$bles the body. The %o"er of the light of the eye is $ated "ith fat! The light of the heart is hidden in a dro% of blood. Ioy harbors in the 0idneys and %ain in the li)er! The la$% of reason in the brains of the head3 9$ell in the nostrils and s%ee#h in the tong e! Don# %is#en#e in the flesh and #o rage in the heart. These #onne#tions are not "itho t a "hy and a ho"! . t reason is at a loss to nderstand the ho". Ani)ersal 9o l had #onne#tion "ith 7artial 9o l! 1 Whi#h then#e #on#ei)ed a %earl and retained it in its boso$. @ro$ that #onne#tion! li0e *ary! 9o l be#a$e %regnant of a fair *essiah3 Not that *essiah "ho "al0ed %on earth and "ater! . t that *essiah "ho is higher than s%a#e. 8 Ne,t! as 9o l be#a$e %regnant by the 9o l of so ls! 9o by the for$er 9o l did the "orld be#o$e %regnant3 Then the World bro ght forth another "orld! And of this last are bro ght forth other "orlds. 9ho ld + re#0on the$ in $y s%ee#h till the last day + sho ld fail to tell the total of these res rre#tions. : CN6TE9' 1. This is a fig rati)e a##o nt of the e$anations of Absol te .eing! "hereby the "orld of %heno$ena is #onstit ted Gsee < lshan i RaE! %. 81! note! and %. BBH. 8. i.e.! the s%irit of the 7ro%het * ha$$ad! "ho$ the 9 fis identify "ith the 7ri$al 9o l. :. Dontin ally is #reation born again in a ne" #reation( G< lshan i RaE! %. BBH. .y #onstant effl ,es fro$ Absol te .eing the "orld of %heno$ena is e)ery $o$ent rene"ed. STOR' 1% The Thi(s*y Man -h# *h(e- "(i)$s in*# *he 6a*e(%

A thirsty $an dis#o)ered a tan0 of "ater! b t #o ld not drin0 of it be#a se it "as s rro nded by a high "all. He too0 so$e of the bri#0s off the to% of the "all and #ast the$ o)er it into the "ater. The "ater #ried o t! (What ad)antage do yo gain by doing this4( He $ade ans"er! (The first ad)antage is this! that + hear yo r )oi#e3 and the se#ond! that the $ore bri#0s + % ll off the "all! the nearer + a%%roa#h to yo .( The $oral is! that so long as the "all of the body inter)enes! "e #annot rea#h the "ater of life. The abase$ent of the body brings $en nearer to nion "ith the 5eity. 5estroy! therefore! the fleshly l sts "hi#h "ar against the so l. Then follo"s another %arable to ill strate the folly of %ro#rastination in this i$%ortant $atter. 4I* -as n#* ye -h# sh#*0 bu* &#d sh#*8 and *h#se a((#-s -e(e &#d's n#* y#u(s4% 9 2Tis <od2s light that ill $ines the senses2 light! That is the $eaning of (&ight %on light.( 8 The senses2 light dra"s s earth"ards! <od2s light #arries s hea)en"ards. As ob-e#ts of sense are of base #ondition! <od2s light is an o#ean! and the senses2 light a de"dro%. . t that light "hi#h is ( %on this light( is not seen! 9a)e thro gh signs and holy dis#o rses. 9in#e the senses2 light is gross and dense! +t lies hidden in the bla#0 % %il of the eye. When yo #annot see the senses2 light "ith the eye! Ho" #an yo see "ith the eye the &ight of the $ind4 As the senses2 light is hidden in these gross )eils! * st not that &ight "hi#h is % re be also hidden4 &i0e the senses! this "orld is r led by a hidden 7o"er. +t #onfesses its i$%oten#e before that hidden 7o"er! Whi#h so$eti$es e,alts it and so$eti$es lays it lo"! 9o$eti$es $a0es it dry and so$eti$es $oist. The hand is hidden! yet "e see the %en "riting3 The horse is gallo%ing! yet the rider is hid fro$ )ie". The arro" s%eeds forth! yet the bo" is not seen3 9o ls are seen! the 9o l of so ls G<odH is hidden. .rea0 not the arro"! for it is the arro" of the King /ea! it is an arro" fro$ the bo" of Wisdo$. (/e shot not "hen ye shot!( "as said by <od3 <od2s a#tion has %redo$inan#e o)er all a#tions. .rea0 yo r o"n %assion! brea0 not that arro"! The eye of %assion ta0es $il0 to be blood. Kiss that arro" and bear it to the King!

/ea! tho gh it be stained "ith yo r o"n blood. Whatsoe)er is seen is "ea0 and base and i$%otent3 What is hidden is e> ally fier#e and headstrong. We are the #a%t red ga$e3 "ho is the snare4 We are the balls3 "here is the bat4 He tears and $ends3 "ho is this tailor4 He fans and 0indles the fla$e3 "ho is this 0indler4 At one ti$e He $a0es the faithf l one an infidel! At another He $a0es the atheist a de)otee1 Ne,t #o$es an ane#dote of a dirty $an "ho ref sed to bathe be#a se he "as asha$ed to go into the "ater! "ith the $oral that (9ha$e hinders religion3( : and then another of L 2l N n! a #elebrated Egy%tian 9 fi of the third #ent ry A.H. L 2l N n a%%eared to his ignorant friends to be $ad! and they a##ordingly #onfined hi$ in a $adho se. After a ti$e they tho ght that he "as not really $ad! b t had feigned $adness for so$e dee% % r%ose! and they "ent to the $adho se to in> ire into the state of his health. When they arri)ed there! L 2l N n as0ed the$ "ho they "ere! and they ans"ered that they "ere his de)oted friends! "ho "ere no" #on)in#ed that the story of his being $ad "as a #al $ny. L 2l N n - $%ed % and dro)e the$ a"ay "ith sti#0s and stones! saying that tr e friendshi% "o ld ha)e been $anifested in sharing his tro bles! e)en as % re gold is tried by fire. CN6TE9' 1. Koran )iii. 1J! $eaning! (<od is the @a2il i Ha0i0i! or 6nly Real Agent.( 8. Koran ,,i). :?. :. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! )ol. ii. %%. :J9 and =18! gi)es t"o %ro)erbs one! (9ha$e is a %art of religion3( and the other! (9ha$e hinders getting a li)elihood.( STOR' 1I% Lu:man's Mas*e( e3amines him and dis)#ve(s his A)u*eness% & >$an the 9age! 1 "ho is so$eti$es identified "ith Eso%! and so$eti$es "ith the ne%he" of the %ro%het. Iob! tho gh (gifted "ith "isdo$ by <od!( "as a sla)e. His $aster! ho"e)er! dis#o)ered his "orth! and be#a$e e,tre$ely atta#hed to hi$! so that he ne)er re#ei)ed any deli#a#y "itho t gi)ing & >$an a share of it. 6ne day! ha)ing re#ei)ed a "ater$elon! he ga)e & >$an the best %art of it! and & >$an de)o red it "ith s #h a%%arent relish that his $aster "as te$%ted to taste it. To his s r%rise he

fo nd it )ery bitter! and as0ed & >$an "hy he had not told hi$ of this. & >$an re%lied that it "as not for hi$! "ho li)ed on his $aster2s bo nty! to #o$%lain if he no" and then re#ei)ed disagreeable things at his hands. Th s! tho gh to o t"ard a%%earan#e a sla)e! & >$an sho"ed hi$self to be a lord. L#ve endu(es ha(dshi+s a* *he hands #, *he "el#ved% Thro gh lo)e bitter things see$ s"eet! Thro gh lo)e bits of #o%%er are $ade gold. Thro gh lo)e dregs taste li0e % re "ine! Thro gh lo)e %ains are as healing bal$s. Thro gh lo)e thorns be#o$e roses! And thro gh lo)e )inegar be#o$es s"eet "ine. Thro gh lo)e the sta0e be#o$es a throne! Thro gh lo)e re)erse of fort ne see$s good fort ne. Thro gh lo)e a %rison see$s a rose bo"er! Witho t lo)e a grate f ll of ashes see$s a garden. Thro gh lo)e b rning fire is %leasing light! Thro gh lo)e the 5e)il be#o$es a Ho ri. Thro gh lo)e hard stones be#o$e soft as b tter! Witho t lo)e soft "a, be#o$es hard iron. Thro gh lo)e grief is as -oy! Thro gh lo)e <ho ls t rn into angels. Thro gh lo)e stings are as honey! Thro gh lo)e lions are har$less as $i#e. Thro gh lo)e si#0ness is health! Thro gh lo)e "rath is as $er#y. Thro gh lo)e the dead rise to life! Thro gh lo)e the 0ing be#o$es a sla)e. E)en "hen an e)il befalls yo ! ha)e d e regard3 Regard "ell hi$ "ho does yo this ill t rn. The sight "hi#h regards the ebb and flo" of good and ill 6%ens a %assage for yo fro$ $isfort ne to ha%%iness. Then#e yo see the one state $o)es yo into the other! 8 6ne o%%osite state generating its o%%osite in e,#hange. 9o long as yo e,%erien#e not fears after -oys! Ho" #an yo loo0 for %leas res after disg sts4 While ye fear the doo$ of the angel on the left hand! *en ho%e for the bliss of the angel on the right. : *ay yo gain t"o "ings1 = A fo"l "ith only one "ing +s i$%otent to fly! 6 "ell-intentioned one1 No" either %er$it $e to hold $y %ea#e altogether! 6r gi)e $e lea)e to e,%lain the "hole $atter. And if yo disli0e this and forbid that!

Who #an tell "hat yo r desire is4 /o $ st ha)e the so l of Abraha$ in order "ith light To see the $ansions of 7aradise in the fire. 9te% by ste% he as#ended abo)e s n and $oon! And so lagged not belo"! as a ring that fastens a door. 9in#e the (@riend of <od( as#ended abo)e the hea)ens! And said! (+ lo)e not <ods that set3( ? 9o this "orld of the body is a breeder of $is#on#e%tions +n all "ho ha)e not fled fro$ l st. CN6TE9' 1. 9ee Koran ,,,i. Another ane#dote of his "it o## rs in .oo0 +. 8. The do#trine of Hera#lit s! that o%%osite states generate one another! is dis# ssed by Ielal din in a %assage > oted in & $sden2s <ra$$ar! ii. :8:! and is $entioned in the 7hado and the Ni#o$a#hean Ethi#s. :. An ana#ol thon Gsee Koran i. 1BH. =. The t"o "ings are ho%e and fear! both of "hi#h are needed to g ide $en2s religio s flight Gsee .oo0 +++. on (7robability the g ide of life(H. ?. Koran )i. JJ. STOR' 1II% M#ses and *he She+he(d% Ne,t follo"s an ane#dote of .il0is! K een of 9heba! "hose reason "as enlightened by the #o nsels of the Hoo%oo sent to her by King 9olo$on. 6 t"ard sense is as o%%osed to tr e reason as Ab Iahl "as to * ha$$ad3 and "hen the o t"ard senses are re%la#ed by the tr e inner reason! $an sees that the body is only foa$! and the heart the li$itless o#ean. After"ards #o$es an ane#dote of a %hiloso%her "ho "as str #0 blind for #a)illing at the )erse! (What thin0 ye4 +f at early $orn yo r "aters shall ha)e s n0 a"ay! "ho "ill then gi)e yo #lear r nning "ater4( 1 This is s ##eeded by the story of *oses and the she%herd. *oses on#e heard a she%herd %raying as follo"s' (6 <od! sho" $e "here tho art! that + $ay be#o$e. Thy ser)ant. + "ill #lean Thy shoes and #o$b Thy hair! and se" Thy #lothes! and fet#h Thee $il0.( When *oses heard hi$ %raying in this senseless $anner! he reb 0ed hi$! saying! (6 foolish one! tho gh yo r father "as a *osal$an! yo ha)e be#o$e an infidel. <od is a 9%irit! and needs not s #h gross $inistrations as! in yo r ignoran#e! yo s %%ose.( The she%herd "as abashed at his reb 0e! and tore his #lothes and fled a"ay into the desert. Then a )oi#e fro$ hea)en "as heard! saying! (6 *oses! "herefore ha)e yo dri)en a"ay $y ser)ant4 /o r offi#e is to re#on#ile $y %eo%le "ith $e! not to dri)e the$ a"ay fro$ $e. + ha)e

gi)en to ea#h ra#e different sages and for$s of %raising and adoring $e. + ha)e no need of their %raises! being e,alted abo)e all s #h needs. + regard not the "ords that are s%o0en! b t the heart that offers the$. + do not re> ire fine "ords! b t a b rning heart. *en2s "ays of sho"ing de)otion to $e are )ario s! b t so long as the de)otions are gen ine! they are a##e%ted.( Reli/i#us ,#(ms indi,,e(en*% A )oi#e #a$e fro$ <od to *oses! (Why hast tho sent $y ser)ant a"ay4 Tho hast #o$e to dra" $en to nion "ith $e! Not to dri)e the$ far a"ay fro$ $e. 9o far as %ossible! engage not in disse)ering3 2The thing $ost re% gnant to $e is di)or#e.2 8 To ea#h %erson ha)e + allotted %e# liar for$s! To ea#h ha)e + gi)en %arti# lar sages. What is %raise"orthy in thee is bla$eable in hi$! What is %oison for thee is honey for hi$. What is good in hi$ is bad in thee! What is fair in hi$ is re% lsi)e in thee. + a$ e,e$%t fro$ all % rity and i$% rity! + need not the laEiness or ala#rity of $y %eo%le. + #reated not $en to gain a %rofit fro$ the$! . t to sho"er $y benefi#en#e %on the$. +n the $en of Hind the sages of Hind are %raise"orthy! +n the $en of 9ind those of 9ind. + a$ not % rified by their %raises! 2Tis they "ho be#o$e % re and shining thereby. + regard not the o tside and the "ords! + regard the inside and the state of heart. + loo0 at the heart if it be h $ble! Tho gh the "ords $ay be the re)erse of h $ble. .e#a se the heart is s bstan#e! and "ords a##idents! A##idents are only a $eans! s bstan#e is the final #a se. Ho" long "ilt tho d"ell on "ords and s %erfi#ialities4 A b rning heart is "hat + "ant3 #onsort "ith b rning1 Kindle in thy heart the fla$e of lo)e! And b rn % tterly tho ghts and fine e,%ressions. 6 *oses1 the lo)ers of fair rites are one #lass! They "hose hearts and so ls b rn "ith lo)e are another. &o)ers $ st b rn e)ery $o$ent! As ta, and tithe are le)ied on a r ined )illage. +f they s%ea0 a$iss! #all the$ not sinners3 +f a $artyr be stained "ith blood! "ash it not a"ay.

.lood is better than "ater for $artyrs! This fa lt is better than a tho sand #orre#t for$s. No need to t rn to the Ka2ba "hen one is in it! And di)ers ha)e no need of shoes. 6ne does not ta0e a dr n0en $an as a g ide on the "ay! Nor s%ea0 of darns to torn gar$ents. The se#t of lo)ers is distin#t fro$ all others! &o)ers ha)e a religion and a faith of their o"n. Tho gh the r by has no sta$%! "hat $atters it4 &o)e is fearless in the $idst of the sea of fear. .e"are! if tho offerest %raises or than0sgi)ings! And 0no" the$ to be e)en as the babble of that she%herd3 Tho gh thy %raises be better #o$%ared "ith his! /et in regard to <od they are f ll of defe#ts. Ho" long "ilt tho say! 2They obs# re the tr th! @or it is not s #h as they fan#y24 Thy o"n %rayers are a##e%ted only thro gh $er#y! They are s ffered as the %rayers of an i$% re "o$an. +f her %rayers are $ade i$% re by the flo" of blood! Thine are stained "ith $eta%hors and si$ilit des. .lood is i$% re! yet its stain is re$o)ed by "ater3 . t that i$% rity of ignoran#e is $ore lasting! 9eeing that "itho t the blessed "ater of <od +t is not banished fro$ the $an "ho is s b-e#t to it. 6 that tho "o ldst t rn thy fa#e to thy o"n %rayers! And be#o$e #ogniEant of the $eaning of thy e-a# lations! And say! 2Ah1 $y %rayers are as defe#ti)e as $y being3 6 re> ite $e good for e)il12( *oses > estions <od as to the reason of the flo rishing state of the "i#0ed. *oses said! (6 benefi#ent Dreator! With "ho$ a $o$ent2s re$e$bran#e is as long ages! + see Thy %lan distorted in this "orld of earth and "ater3 *y heart! li0e the angel2s! feels a diffi# lty thereat. With "hat ob-e#t hast tho fra$ed this %lan! And so"ed therein the seeds of e)il4 Why hast Tho 0indled the fire of )iolen#e and "rong4 Why b rnt % $os> es and the$ "ho "orshi% therein4 7aradise is atta#hed to re> ire$ents n%leasant to s! Hell is atta#hed to things flattering o r l sts. The bran#h f ll of sa% is the $ain f el of thy fire. 2They that are b rnt "ith fire are near to Ka sar.2 : Whoso is in %rison and a#> ainted "ith tro bles! That is in re> ital for his gl ttony and l sts. Whoso is in a %ala#e and en-oying "ealth! That is in re"ard for toils and tro bles.

Whoso is seen en-oying n#o nted gold and sil)er! Kno" that he stro)e %atiently to a#> ire it. He! "hose so l is e,e$%t fro$ nat ral #onditions! And "ho %ossesses the %o"er of o)erriding #a ses! Dan see "itho t #a ses! li0e eyes that %ier#e night3 . t tho ! "ho art de%endent on sense attend to #a ses. Ha)ing left Ies s! tho #herishest an ass Gl stH! And art %erfor#e e,#l ded! li0e an ass3 The %ortion of Ies s is 0no"ledge and "isdo$! Not so the %ortion of an ass! 6 asinine one1 Tho %itiest thine ass "hen it #o$%lains3 9o art tho ignorant! thy ass $a0es thee asinine. Kee% thy %ity for Ies s! not for the ass! *a0e not thy l st to )an> ish thy reason. &ea)e thy nat ral l sts to "hine and ho"l! Tear thee fro$ the$! es#a%e that snare of the so l1 CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,)ii. :F. 8. A tradition. :. A saying of the 7ro%het. STOR' 1III% The Man -h# made a Pe* #, a "ea(% 9 A 0ind $an! seeing a ser%ent o)er#o$ing a bear! "ent to the bear2s assistan#e! and deli)ered hi$ fro$ the ser%ent. The bear "as so sensible of the 0indness the $an had done hi$ that he follo"ed hi$ abo t "here)er he "ent! and be#a$e his faithf l sla)e! g arding hi$ fro$ e)erything that $ight annoy hi$. 6ne day the $an "as lying aslee%! and the bear! a##ording to his # sto$! "as sitting by hi$ and dri)ing off the flies. The flies be#a$e so %ersistent in their annoyan#es that the bear lost %atien#e! and seiEing the largest stone he #o ld find! dashed it at the$ in order to #r sh the$ tterly3 b t nfort nately the flies es#a%ed! and the stone lighted %on the slee%er2s fa#e and #r shed it. The $oral is! (5o not $a0e friends "ith fools.( +n the #o rse of this story o## r ane#dotes of a blind $an! of *oses reb 0ing the "orshi%%ers of the #alf! and of the <ree0 %hysi#ian <alen and a $ad$an. He -h# needs me()y ,inds i*%

5oing 0indness is the ga$e and > arry of good $en! A good $an see0s in the "orld only %ains to # re. Where)er there is a %ain there goes the re$edy! Where)er there is %o)erty there goes relief. 9ee0 not "ater! only sho" yo are thirsty! That "ater $ay s%ring % all aro nd yo . That yo $ay hear the "ords! (The &ord gi)es the$ to drin0!( 8 .e athirst1 Allah 0no"s "hat is best for yo . 9ee0 yo the "ater of $er#y4 .e do"n#ast! And straight"ay drin0 the "ine of $er#y to into,i#ation. *er#y is #alled do"n by $er#y to the last. Withhold not! then! $er#y fro$ any one! 6 son1 +f of yo rself yo #annot -o rney to the Ka2ba! Re%resent yo r hel%lessness to the Relie)er. Dries and groans are a %o"erf l $eans! And the All-*er#if l is a $ighty n rse. The n rse and the $other 0ee% e,# sing the$sel)es! Till their #hild begins to #ry. +n yo too has <od #reated infant needs3 When they #ry o t! their $il0 is bro ght to the$3 <od said! (Dall on <od3( #ontin e #rying! 9o that the $il0 of His lo)e $ay boil %. : *oses and the "orshi%%er of the #alf. *oses said to one of those f ll of )ain i$aginations! (6 $ale)olent one! thro gh error and heresy /o entertain a h ndred do bts as to $y %ro%hethood! Not"ithstanding these %roofs! and $y holy #hara#ter. /o ha)e seen tho sands of $ira#les done by $e! /et they only $ lti%ly yo r do bts and #a)ils. Thro gh do bts and e)il tho ghts yo are in a strait! /o s%ea0 des%itef lly of $y %ro%hethood. + bro ght the host o t of the Red 9ea before all $en! That ye $ight es#a%e the o%%ression of the Egy%tians. @or forty years $eat and drin0 #a$e fro$ hea)en! And "ater s%rang fro$ the ro#0 at $y %rayer. *y staff be#a$e a $ighty ser%ent in $y hand! Water be#a$e blood for $y ill-#onditioned ene$y. The staff be#a$e a sna0e! and $y hand bright as the s n3 @ro$ the refle#tion of that light the s n be#a$e a star. Ha)e not these in#idents! and h ndreds $ore li0e the$! .anished these do bts fro$ yo ! 6 #old-hearted one4 The #alf lo"ed thro gh $agi#! And yo bo"ed do"n to it! saying! 2Tho art $y <od.2 = The golden #alf lo"ed3 b t "hat did it say! That the fools sho ld feel all this de)otion to it4

/o ha)e seen $any $ore "ondro s "or0s done by $e! . t "here is the base $an "ho a##e%ts the tr th4 What is it that #har$s )ain $en b t )anity4 What else %leases the foolish b t folly4 .e#a se ea#h 0ind is #har$ed by its o"n 0ind! 5oes a #o" e)er see0 the lion4 5id the "olf sho" lo)e to Iose%h! ? 6r only fra d %on fra d "ith a )ie" to de)o r hi$4 Tr e! if it lose his "olf-li0e nat re it be#o$es a friend3 E)en as the dog of the #a)e be#a$e a son of $an. B When good Ab .a0r sa" * ha$$ad! He re#ogniEed his tr th! saying! 2This one is tr e32 When Ab .a0r #a ght the %erf $e of * ha$$ad! He said! 2This is no false one.2 . t Ab Iahl! "ho "as not one of the sy$%athiEers! 9a" the $oon s%lit as nder! yet belie)ed not. +f fro$ a sy$%athiEer! to "ho$ it is "ell 0no"n! + "ithhold the tr th! still 2tis not hidden fro$ hi$3 . t he "ho is ignorant and "itho t sy$%athy! Ho"e)er $ #h + sho" hi$ the tr th! he sees it not. The $irror of the heart $ st needs be %olished .efore yo #an disting ish fair and fo l therein.( CN6TE9' 1. An"ari 9 haili! i. 8J. 8. Koran l,,)i. 81. :. Koran ,)ii. 11F. =. 9ee Koran ,,. 9F. ?. Koran ,ii. 1J. B. Koran ,)iii. 1J. STOR' I5% The &a(dene( and *he Th(ee F(iends% A )oi#e #a$e fro$ hea)en to *oses! saying! (6 *oses "hy didst tho not )isit $e "hen + "as si#04( *oses in> ired the $eaning of this dar0 saying! and the ans"er "as! (When one of <od2s saints is si#0! <od regards his si#0ness as His o"n3 and! therefore! he "ho desires to hold #o$%anionshi% "ith <od $ st not forsa0e the saints.( 1 This is ill strated by a story of a gardener "ho sa" three friends "al0ing in his garden! and $a0ing free "ith his fr it. Kno"ing he #o ld not %re)ail against the$ "hile they re$ained nited! he #ontri)ed by tri#0s to se%arate the$! and then

%ro#eeded to #hastise the$ one by one. And this #a sed one of the$ to $a0e the refle#tion that he had a#ted )ery foolishly in deserting his friends. CN6TE9' 1. D%. *atthe" ,,). =F. STOR' 5% "aya2id and *he Sain*% The #elebrated 9 fi! Ab /aEid or .ayaEid of .asta$! in Khorasan! "ho li)ed in the third #ent ry of the @light! "as on#e $a0ing a %ilgri$age to *e##a! and )isiting all the (7illars of insight( "ho li)ed $ the )ario s to"ns that lay on his ro te. At last he dis#o)ered the (KhiEr of the age( in the %erson of a )enerable 5ar)esh! "ith "ho$ he held the follo"ing #on)ersation' The 9age said! (Whither are yo going! 6 .ayaEid4 Where "ill yo bring yo r #ara)an to a halt4( .ayaEid re%lied! (At da"n + start for the Ka2ba.( K oth the 9age! (What %ro)ision for the "ay ha)e yo 4( He ans"ered! (+ ha)e t"o h ndred sil)er dirha$s3 9ee the$ tied % tightly in the #orner of $y #loa0.( The 9age said! (Dir# $a$b late $e se)en ti$es3 Do nt this better than #ir# $a$b lating the Ka2ba3 And as for the dirha$s! gi)e the$ to $e! 6 liberal one! And 0no" yo ha)e finished yo r #o rse and obtained yo r "ish! /o ha)e $ade the %ilgri$age and gained the life to #o$e! /o ha)e be#o$e % re! and that in a $o$ent of ti$e. 6f a tr th that is <od "hi#h yo r so l sees in $e! @or <od has #hosen $e to be His ho se. Tho gh the Ka2ba is the ho se of His gra#e and fa)ors! /et $y body too is the ho se of His se#ret. 9in#e He $ade that ho se He has ne)er entered it! . t none b t That &i)ing 6ne enters this ho se3 When yo ha)e seen $e yo ha)e seen <od! And ha)e #ir# $a$b lated the )eritable Ka2ba. To ser)e $e is to "orshi% and %raise <od3 Thin0 not that <od is distin#t fro$ $e. 6%en #lear eyes and loo0 %on $e! That yo $ay behold the light of <od in a $ortal.

Tho .elo)ed on#e #alled the Ka2ba 2*y ho se!2 . t has said to $e 26 $y ser)ant2 se)enty ti$es3 6 .ayaEid! yo ha)e fo nd the Ka2ba! /o ha)e fo nd a h ndred %re#io s blessings.( .ayaEid ga)e heed to these dee% sayings! And %la#ed the$ as golden earrings in his ears. Then follo" ane#dotes of the 7ro%het %aying a )isit to one of his dis#i%les "ho lay si#0! of 9hai0h .ahlol! ni#0na$ed (The *ad$an!( "ho "as a fa)orite at the #o rt of Har n -2r-Rashid! and of the %eo%le of *oses. The s-ee* uses #, adve(si*y% The si#0 $an said! (9i#0ness has bro ght $e this boon. That this 7rin#e G* ha$$adH has #o$e to $e this $orn! 9o that health and strength $ay ret rn to $e @ro$ the )isit of this n%aralleled King. 6 blessed %ain and si#0ness and fe)er1 6 "el#o$e "eariness and slee%lessness by night1 &o1 <od of His bo nty and fa)or Has sent $e this %ain and si#0ness in $y old age3 He has gi)en $e %ain in the ba#0! that + $ay not fail To s%ring % o t of $y slee% at $idnight3 That + $ay not slee% all night li0e the #attle! <od in His $er#y has sent $e these %ains. At $y bro0en state the %ity of 0ings has boiled %! And hell is % t to silen#e by their threats1( 7ain is a treas re! for it #ontains $er#ies3 The 0ernel is soft "hen the rind is s#ra%ed off. 6 brother! the %la#e of dar0ness and #old +s the fo ntain of life and the # % of e#stasy. 9o also is end ran#e of %ain and si#0ness and disease. @or fro$ abase$ent %ro#eeds e,altation. The s%ring seasons are hidden in the a t $ns! And a t $ns are #harged "ith s%rings3 flee the$ not. Donsort "ith grief and % t % "ith sadness! 9ee0 long life in yo r o"n death1 9in#e 2tis bad! "hate)er l st says on this $atter Heed it not! its b siness is o%%osition. . t a#t #ontrary thereto! for the %ro%hets Ha)e laid this in- n#tion %on the "orld. 8 Tho gh it is right to ta0e #o nsel in affairs! That yo $ay ha)e less to regret in the %shot3 The %ro%hets ha)e labored $ #h To $a0e the "orld re)ol)e on this %i)ot stone3 : . t! in order to destroy the %eo%le! l st desires

To $a0e the$ go astray and lose their heads3 The %eo%le say! 2With "ho$ shall "e ta0e #o nsel42 The %ro%hets ans"er! 2With the reason of yo r #hief.2 Again they say! 29 %%ose a #hild or a "o$an enter! Who la#0s reason and #lear - dg$ent3 2 They re%ly! 2Ta0e #o nsel "ith the$! And a#t #ontrary to "hat they ad)ise.2 Kno" yo r l st to be "o$an! and "orse than "o$an3 Wo$an is %artial e)il! l st ni)ersal e)il. +f yo ta0e #o nsel "ith yo r l st! 9ee yo a#t #ontrary to "hat that base one ad)ises. E)en tho gh it en-oin %rayers and fasting! +t is trea#hero sly laying a snare for yo .2 /o $ st abandon and ignore yo r o"n 0no"ledge! And di% yo r hand in the dish of abnegation of 0no"ledge. Whate)er see$s %rofitable! flee fro$ it! 5rin0 %oison and s%ill the "ater of life. Donte$n "hate)er %raises yo ! &end to %a %ers yo r "ealth and %rofits1 K it yo r se#t and be a s b-e#t of a)ersion! Dast a"ay na$e and fa$e and see0 disgra#e1( <od the A thor of good and e)il. +f yo see0 the e,%lanation of <od2s lo)e and fa)or! +n #onne#tion there"ith read the #ha%ter (.rightness.( = And if yo say e)il also %ro#eeds fro$ Hi$! /et "hat da$age is that to His %erfe#tion4 To send that e)il is one of His %erfe#tions. + "ill gi)e yo an ill stration! 6 arrogant one3 The hea)enly Artist %aints His %i#t res of t"o sorts! @air %i#t res and %i#t res the re)erse of fair. Iose%h he %ainted fair and $ade hi$ bea tif l3 He also %ainted gly %i#t res of de$ons and 2afrits. .oth sorts of %i#t res are of His "or0$anshi%! They %ro#eed not fro$ His i$%erfe#tion! b t His s0ill! That the %erfe#tion of His "isdo$ $ay be sho"n! And the gainsayers of His art be % t to sha$e. Do ld He not %aint gly things He "o ld la#0 art! And therefore He #reates < ebers as "ell as *osle$s. Th s! both infidelity and faith bear "itness to Hi$! .oth ali0e bo" do"n before His al$ighty s"ay. . t 0no"! the faithf l "orshi% Hi$ "illingly! @or they see0 and ai$ at %leasing Hi$3 While < ebers "orshi% Hi$ n"illingly! Their real ai$ and % r%ose being > ite other"ise. E)il itself is t rned into good for the good. The 7ro%het said to that si#0 $an!

(7ray in this "ise and allay yo r diffi# lties3 2<i)e s good in the ho se of o r %resent "orld! And gi)e s good in the ho se of o r ne,t "orld. ? *a0e o r %ath %leasant as a garden! And be Tho ! 6 Holy 6ne! o r goal12( The faithf l "ill say on the last day! (6 King1 Was not Hell on the ro te all of s tra)eled4 5id not faithf l as "ell as infidels %ass thro gh it4 /et on o r "ay "e %er#ei)ed not the s$o0e of the fire3 Nay! it see$ed 7aradise and the $ansion of the blessed.( Then the King "ill ans"er! (That green garden! As it a%%eared to yo on yo r %assage thro gh it! Was indeed Hell and the %la#e of dread tor$ent3 /et for yo it be#a$e a garden green "ith trees. 9in#e yo ha)e labored to $a0e hellish l sts! And the 2fire of %ride that #o rts destr #tion! To $a0e these! + say! % re and #lean! And! to %lease <od! ha)e > en#hed those fires! 9o that the fire of l st! that erst breathed fla$e! Has be#o$e a holy garden and a g iding light! 9in#e yo ha)e t rned the fire of "rath to $ee0ness! And the dar0ness of ignoran#e to shining 0no"ledge! 9in#e yo ha)e t rned the fire of greed into bo nty! And the )ile thorns of $ali#e into a rose-garden3 9in#e yo ha)e > en#hed all these fires of yo r o"n @or $y sa0e! so that those %oisons are no" % re s"eets3 9in#e yo ha)e $ade fiery l st as a )erdant garden! And ha)e so"ed therein the seed of fidelity! 9o that nightingales of %rayer and %raise E)er "arble s"eetly aro nd this garden3 9in#e yo ha)e res%onded to the #all of <od! And ha)e dra"n "ater o t of the hell of l st! @or this #a se $y hell also! for yo r behoof! .e#o$es a )erdant garden and yields lea)es and fr it.( What is the re#o$%ense of "ell-doing! 6 son4 +t is 0indness and good treat$ent and ri#h re> ital. Ha)e ye not said! (We are )i#ti$s! *ere nothings before eternal .eing4 +f "e are dr n0ards or $ad$en! 2Tis that D %-bearer and that D % "hi#h $a0e s so. We bo" do"n o r heads before His edi#t and ordinan#e! We sta0e %re#io s life to gain His fa)or. While the tho ght of the .elo)ed fills o r hearts! All o r "or0 is to do Hi$ ser)i#e and s%end life for Hi$. Where)er He 0indles His destr #ti)e tor#h! *yriads of lo)ers2 so ls are b rnt there"ith.

The lo)ers "ho d"ell "ithin the san#t ary Are $oths b rnt "ith the tor#h of the .elo)ed2s fa#e.( 6 heart haste thither! B for <od "ill shine %on yo ! And see$ to yo a s"eet garden instead of a terror. He "ill inf se into yo r so l a ne" so l! 9o as to fill yo ! li0e a goblet! "ith "ine. Ta0e % yo r abode in His so l1 Ta0e % yo r abode in hea)en! 6 bright f ll $oon1 &i0e the hea)enly 9#ribe!J He "ill o%en yo r heart2s boo0 That He $ay re)eal $ysteries nto yo . Abide "ith yo r @riend! sin#e yo ha)e gone astray! 9tri)e to be a f ll $oon3 yo are no" a frag$ent thereof. Wherefore this shrin0ing of the %art fro$ its "hole4 Why this asso#iation "ith its foes4 .ehold <en s be#o$e 9%e#ies in d e #o rse! .ehold se#rets be#o$e $anifest thro gh his light1 9o long as "o$an-li0e yo s"allo" blandish$ents! Ho"! 6 "ise $an! #an yo get relief fro$ false flatteries4 These flatteries and fair "ords and de#eits Gof l stH /o ta0e! and s"allo"! - st li0e "o$en. . t the re%roa#hes and the blo"s of 5ar)eshes Are really better for yo than the %raises of sinners. Ta0e the light blo"s of 5ar)eshes! not the honey of sinners! And be#o$e! by the fort ne of good! good yo rself. .e#a se fro$ the$ the robe of good fort ne is gained! +n the asyl $ of the s%irit blood be#o$es life. CN6TE9' 1. All ding to the Hadis' (Hea)en and earth #ontain $e not! b t the heart of $y faithf l ser)ant #ontains $e.( 8. @reytag > otes a saying of 26$ar! (A fool $ay indi#ate the right #o rse( GArab $ 7ro)erbia! i. %. ?BBH. :. The la" defining the right #o rse. =. Koran ,#iii. ' (.y the noonday brightness! and by the night "hen it dar0eneth! thy &ord hath not forsa0en thee nor been dis%leased.( ?. (6 &ord! gi)e s good in this "orld and good in the ne,t! and sa)e s fro$ the tor$ent of the fire.( GKoran ii. 19JH. B. i.e.! to annihilation of self in <od! as a $oth in the fla$e. J. Atarid or *er# ry. STOR' 5I% M#'avia and Iblis%

*o2a)ia! the first of the 6$$iad Khalifas! "as one day lying aslee% in his %ala#e! "hen he "as a"a0ened by a strange $an. *o2a)ia as0ed hi$ "ho he "as! and he re%lied that he "as +blis. *o2a)ia then as0ed hi$ "hy he had a"a0ened hi$! and lblis re%lied that the ho r of %rayer "as #o$e! and he feared *o2a)ia "o ld be late. *o2a)ia ans"ered! (Nay1 it #o ld ne)er ha)e been yo r intention to dire#t $e in the right "ay. Ho" #an + tr st a thief li0e yo to g ard $y interests4( +blis ans"ered! (Re$e$ber that + "as bred % as an angel of light! and that + #annot > ite abandon $y original o## %ation. /o $ay tra)el to Ro$e or Dathay! b t still yo retain the lo)e of yo r fatherland. + still retain $y lo)e of <od! "ho fed $e "hen + "as yo ng3 nay! e)en tho gh + re)olted fro$ Hi$! that "as only fro$ -ealo sy Gof Ada$H! and -ealo sy %ro#eeds fro$ lo)e! not fro$ denial of <od. + %layed a ga$e of #hess "ith <od at His o"n desire! and tho gh + "as tterly #he#0$ated and r ined! in $y r in + still e,%erien#e <od2s blessings.( *o2a)ia ans"ered! (What yo say is not #redible. /o r "ords are li0e the de#oy #alls of a fo"ler! "hi#h rese$ble the )oi#es of the birds! and so l re the$ to destr #tion. /o ha)e #a sed the destr #tion of h ndreds of $ortals! s #h as the %eo%le of Noah! the tribe of 2Ad! 1 the fa$ily of &ot! Ni$rod! 7haraoh! Ab Iahl! and so on.( +blis retorted! (/o are $ista0en if yo s %%ose $e to be the #a se of all the e)il yo $ention. + a$ not <od! that + sho ld be able to $a0e good e)il! or fair fo l. *er#y and )engean#e are t"in di)ine attrib tes! and they generate the good and e)il seen in all earthly things. + a$! therefore! not to bla$e for the e,isten#e of e)il! as + a$ only a $irror! "hi#h refle#ts the good and e)il e,isting in the ob-e#ts %resented to it.( *o2a)ia then %rayed to <od to g ard hi$ against the so%histries of lblis! and again ad- red lblis to #ease his arg $ents and tell %lainly the reason "hy he had a"a0ened hi$. +blis! instead of ans"ering! #ontin ed to - stify hi$self! saying ho" hard it "as that $en and "o$en sho ld bla$e hi$ "hen they did anything "rong! instead of bla$ing their o"n e)il l sts. *o2a)ia! in re%ly! re%roa#hed hi$ "ith #on#ealing the tr th! and lti$ately bro ght hi$ to #onfess that the tr e reason "hy he had a"a0ened hi$ "as this! that if he had o)ersle%t hi$self! and so $issed the ho r of %rayer! he "o ld ha)e felt dee% sorro" and ha)e hea)ed $any sighs! and ea#h of these sighs "o ld! in the sight of <od! ha)e #o nted for as $any as t"o h ndred ordinary %rayers. The value #, si/hs%

A #ertain $an "as going into the $os> e! I st as another "as #o$ing o t. He in> ired of hi$ "hat had o## rred to the $eeting! That the %eo%le "ere #o$ing o t of the $os> e so soon. The other told hi$ that the 7ro%het Had #on#l ded the % bli# %rayers and $ysteries. (Whither go yo !( said he! (6 foolish one! 9eeing the 7ro%het has already gi)en the blessing4( The first hea)ed a sigh! and its s$o0e as#ended3 That sigh yielded a %erf $e of his heart2s blood. The other! "ho #a$e fro$ the $os> e! said to hi$! (<i)e $e that sigh! and ta0e $y %rayers instead.( The first said! (+ gi)e it! and ta0e yo r %rayers.( The other too0 that sigh "ith a h ndred than0s. He "ent his "ay "ith dee% h $ility and #ontrition! As a ha"0 "ho had as#ended in the tra#0 of the fal#on. That night! as ho lay aslee%! he heard a )oi#e fro$ hea)en! (Tho hast bo ght the "ater of life and healing3 The "orth of "hat tho hast #hosen and %ossessed E> als that of all the %eo%le2s a##e%ted %rayers.( To ill strate the trea#hery of "ol)es in shee%2s #lothing! - of 9atans reb 0ing sin and %rea#hing religion - an ane#dote is told of a $aster of a ho se "ho #a ght a thief! b t "as ind #ed to let hi$ es#a%e by the stratage$ of the thief2s #onfederate! "ho #ried that he had got the real thief else"here. A%ro%os of the sa$e the$e! the %oet ne,t relates the story of (those "ho b ilt a $os> e for $is#hief!( as re#orded in the Koran. 8 The tribe of .ani <ani$ b ilt a $os> e! and in)ited the 7ro%het to dedi#ate it. The 7ro%het! ho"e)er! dis#o)ered that their real $oti)e "as -ealo sy of the tribe of .ani A$r lbn A f! and of the $os> e at K ba! near *edina! and a trea#hero s nderstanding "ith the 9yrian $on0 Ab A$ir! and therefore he ref sed their re> est! and ordered the $os> e to be raEed to the gro nd. 6isd#m *he believe('s l#s* )amel% *y %eo%le ado%t $y la" "itho t obeying it! They ta0e that #oin "itho t assaying it. The Koran2s "isdo$ is li0e the (belie)er2s lost #a$el!2 : E)ery one is #ertain his #a$el is lost. /o ha)e lost yo r #a$el and see0 it diligently3 /et ho" "ill yo find it if yo 0no" not yo r o"n4 What "as lost4 Was it a fe$ale #a$el that yo lost4 +t es#a%ed fro$ yo r hand! and yo are in a $aEe. The #ara)an is #o$e to be loaded!

/o r #a$el is )anished fro$ the $idst of it. /o r n here and there! yo r $o th %ar#hed "ith heat3 The #ara)an $o)es on! and night a%%roa#hes. /o r goods lie on the gro nd in a dangero s road! /o h rry after yo r #a$el in all dire#tions. /o #ry (6 *osle$s! "ho has seen a #a$el! Whi#h es#a%ed fro$ its stable this $orning4 To hi$ "ho shall gi)e $e ne"s of $y #a$el + "ill gi)e a re"ard of so $any dirhe$s.( /o go on see0ing ne"s of yo r #a$el fro$ e)ery one! And e)ery le"d fello" flatters yo "ith a fresh r $or! 9aying! (+ sa" a #a$el3 it "ent this "ay3 2T"as red! and it "ent to"ards this %ast re.( Another says! (+ts ear "as #ro%%ed.( Another says! (+ts #loth "as e$broidered.( Another that it had only one eye! Another that it had lost its hair fro$ $ange. To gain the re"ard e)ery base fello" *entions a h ndred $ar0s "itho t any fo ndation. All false do#trines #ontain an ele$ent of tr th. I st so e)ery one in $atters of do#trine <i)es a different des#ri%tion of the hidden s b-e#t. A %hiloso%her e,%o nds it in one "ay! And a #riti# at on#e ref tes his %ro%ositions. A third #ens res both of the$3 A fo rth s%ends his life in trad #ing the others. E)ery one $entions indi#ations of this road! +n order to #reate an i$%ression that he has gone it. This tr th and that tr th #annot be all tr e! And yet all of the$ are not entirely astray in error. .e#a se error o## rs not "itho t so$e tr th! @ools b y base #oins fro$ their li0eness to real #oins. +f there "ere no gen ine #oins # rrent in the "orld! Ho" #o ld #oiners s ##eed in %assing false #oins4 +f there "ere no tr th! ho" #o ld falsehood e,ist4 @alsehood deri)es its %la sibility fro$ tr th. 2Tis the desire of right that $a0es $en b y "rong3 &et %oison be $i,ed "ith s gar! and they eat it at on#e. +f "heat "ere not )al ed as s"eet and good for food! The #heat "ho sho"s "heat and sells barley "o ld $a0e no %rofit1 9ay not! then! that all these #reeds are false! The false ones ensnare hearts by the s#ent of tr th. 9ay not that they are all erroneo s fan#ies! There is no fan#y in the ni)erse "itho t so$e tr th. Tr th is the (night of %o"er ( = hidden a$ongst other nights! +n order to try the s%irit of e)ery night.

Not e)ery night is that of %o"er! 6 yo th! Nor yet is e)ery night > ite )oid of %o"er. +n the #ro"d of rag-"earers there is b t one @a>ir3 ? 9ear#h "ell and find o t that tr e one. Tell the "ary and dis#erning belie)er To disting ish the 0ing fro$ the beggar. +f there "ere no bad goods in the "orld! E)ery fool $ight be a s0ilf l $er#hant3 @or then the hard art of - dging goods "o ld be easy. +f there "ere no fa lts! one $an #o ld - dge as "ell as another. Again! if all "ere fa lty! s0ill "o ld be %rofitless. +f all "ood "ere #o$$on! there "o ld be no aloes. He "ho a##e%ts e)erything as tr e is a fool! . t he "ho says all is false is a 0na)e. CN6TE9' 1. 9ee Koran ,i. B:. 8. Koran i,. 1F8. :. This is a %ro)erb as#ribed to Ali. +t $eans! %eo%le are al"ays losing "isdo$ and see0ing it li0e a lost #a$el G@reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! i. %. :8?H. =. The night on "hi#h the Koran "as re)ealed. ?. 9o in the 7haedo! (*any are the "andbearers! b t fe" the *ysti#s.( STOR' 5II% The F#u( Hindus*anis -h# )ensu(ed #ne an#*he(% @o r Hind stanis "ent to the $os> e to say their %rayers. Ea#h one d ly %rono n#ed the Ta0bir! and "as saying his %rayers "ith great de)otion! "hen the * 2aEEin ha%%ened to #o$e in. 6ne of the$ i$$ediately #alled o t! (6 * 2aEEin! ha)e yo yet #alled to %rayer4 +t is ti$e to do so.( Then the se#ond said to the s%ea0er! (Ah1 yo ha)e s%o0en "ords n#onne#ted "ith "orshi%! and therefore! a##ording to the Hadis! yo ha)e s%oiled yo r %rayers.( 1 There %on the third s#olded the last s%ea0er! saying! (6 si$%leton! "hy do yo reb 0e hi$4 Rather reb 0e yo rself.( &ast of all! the fo rth said! (<od be %raised that + ha)e not fallen into the sa$e dit#h as $y three #o$%anions.( The $oral is! not to find fa lt "ith others! b t rather! a##ording to the %ro)erb! 8 to be ad$onished by their bad e,a$%le. A%ro%os of this %ro)erb! a story is told of t"o %risoners #a%t red by the tribe of <h E. The <h Eians "ere abo t to % t one of the$ to death! to frighten the other! and $a0e hi$ #onfess "here the treas re

"as #on#ealed! "hen the doo$ed $an dis#o)ered their ob-e#t! and said! (6 noble sirs! 0ill $y #o$%anion! and frighten $e instead.( CN6TE9' 1. *ish0at l *asabih! by *atthe"s! i. 8F?. 8. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! i. B88. STOR' 5III% The Old Man and *he Physi)ian% An old $an #o$%lained to his %hysi#ian that he s ffered fro$ heada#he. The %hysi#ian re%lied! (That is #a sed by old age.( The old $an ne,t #o$%lained of a defe#t in his sight! and the %hysi#ian again told hi$ that his $alady "as d e to old age. The old $an "ent on to say that he s ffered fro$ %ain in the ba#0! fro$ dys%e%sia! fro$ shortness of breath! fro$ ner)o s debility! fro$ inability to "al0! and so on3 and the %hysi#ian re%lied that ea#h of these ail$ents "as li0e"ise #a sed by old age. The old $an! losing %atien#e! said! (6 fool! 0no" yo not that <od has ordained a re$edy for e)ery $alady4( The %hysi#ian ans"ered! (This %assion and #holer are also sy$%to$s of old age. 9in#e all yo r $e$bers are "ea0! yo ha)e lost the %o"er of self-#ontrol! and fly into a %assion at e)ery "ord.( .ad %rin#i%les al"ays %rod #e bad a#ts. @ools la d and $agnify the $os> e! While they stri)e to o%%ress holy $en of heart. . t the for$er is $ere for$! the latter s%irit and tr th. The only tr e $os> e is that in the hearts of saints. The $os> e that is b ilt in the hearts of the saints +s the %la#e of "orshi% of all! for <od d"ells there. 9o long as the hearts of the saints are not affli#ted! <od ne)er destroys the nation. 6 r forefathers lifted their hands against the %ro%hets3 9eeing their bodies! they too0 the$ for ordinary $en. +n yo also abide the $orals of those $en of old3 Ho" #an yo a)oid fearing that yo "ill a#t li0e the$4 The $orals of those nthan0f l ones d"ell in yo ! /o r rn "ill not al"ays ret rn nbro0en fro$ the "ell. 9eeing that all these bad sy$%to$s are seen in yo ! And that yo are one "ith those $en! ho" #an yo es#a%e4 STOR' 5I1%

The A(ab Ca((ie( and *he S)h#la(% An Arab loaded his #a$el "ith t"o sa#0s! filling one "ith "heat and the se#ond "ith sand! in order to balan#e the first. As he "as %ro#eeding on his "ay he $et a #ertain tradition-$onger! "ho > estioned hi$ abo t the #ontents of his sa#0s. 6n learning that one #ontained nothing b t sand! he %ointed o t that the ob-e#t $ight be attained $ #h better by % tting half the "heat in one sa#0 and half in the other. 6n hearing this! the Arab "as so str #0 by his saga#ity that he #on#ei)ed a great res%e#t for hi$! and $o nted hi$ on his #a$el. Then he said! (As yo %ossess s #h great "isdo$. + %res $e that yo are a 0ing or a ;aEir! or at least a )ery ri#h and %o"erf l noble.( The theologian! re%lied! (6n the #ontrary. + a$ a )ery %oor $an3 all the ri#hes $y learning has bro ght $e are "eariness and heada#hes! and + 0no" not "here to loo0 for a loaf of bread.( The Arab said! (+n that #ase get! off $y #a$el and go yo r "ay! and s ffer $e to go $ine! for + see yo r learning brings ill l #0.( The $oral of the story is the "orthlessness of $ere h $an 0no"ledge! and its inferiority to the di)ine 0no"ledge %ro#eeding fro$ ins%iration. This thesis is f rther ill strated by an a##o nt of the $ighty "or0s "hi#h "ere done by the saint +brahi$ bin Adha$! thro gh the di)ine 0no"ledge that <od had gi)en hi$. +brahi$ "as originally %rin#e of .al0h! b t reno n#ed his 0ingdo$ and be#a$e a saint. 6ne day he "as sitting by the shore $ending his #loa0! "hen one of his for$er s b-e#ts %assed by and $ar)elled to see hi$ engaged in s #h a! $ean o## %ation. The saint at on#e! by ins%ired 0no"ledge! read his tho ghts! and th s #orre#ted his false i$%ressions. He too0 the needle "ith "hi#h he "as $ending! his #loa0 and #ast it into the sea. Then "ith a lo d )oi#e he #ried o t! (6 needle rise again fro$ the $idst of the sea and #o$e ba#0 again into $y hands.( Witho t a $o$ent2s delay tho sands of fishes rose to the s rfa#e of the sea! ea#h bearing in its $o th a golden needle! and #ried o t! (6 9hai0h! ta0e these needles of <od1( +brahi$ then t rned to the noble! saying! (+s not the 0ingdo$ of the heart better than the #onte$%tible earthly 0ingdo$ + for$erly %ossessed4 What yo ha)e - st seen is a )ery trifling sign of $y s%irit al %o"er as it "ere! a $ere leaf %l #0ed to sho" the bea ty of a garden. /o ha)e no" #a ght the s#ent of this garden! and it o ght to attra#t yo r so l to the garden itself! for yo $ st 0no" that s#ents ha)e great infl en#e! e.g.! the s#ent of Iose%h2s #oat! 1 "hi#h restored Ia#ob2s sight! and the s#ents "hi#h "ere lo)ed by the 7ro%het.( 8 CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,ii. 9:. 8. There is a Hedis' (The 7ro%het lo)ed %erf $es and fair "o$en and brightness of eyes in %rayer.(

STOR' 51% The Man -h# b#as*ed *ha* &#d did n#* +unish him ,#( his sins0 and Je*h(#'s ans-e( *# him% That %erson said in the ti$e of 9h 2aib GIethroH! (<od has seen $any fa lts done by $e3 /ea! ho" $any sins and fa lts of $ine has He seen! Ne)ertheless of His $er#y He % nishes $e not.( <od Al$ighty s%a0e in the ear of 9h 2aib! Addressing hi$ "ith an inner )oi#e in ans"er thereto! (Why hast tho said + ha)e sinned so $ #h! And <od of His $er#y has not % nished $y sins4( Tho sayest the )ery re)erse of the tr th! 6 fool1 Wandering fro$ the "ay and lost in the desert1 Ho" $any ti$es do + s$ite thee! and tho 0no"est not4 Tho art bo nd in $y #hains fro$ head to foot. 6n thy heart is r st on r st #olle#ted! 9o tho art blind to $ysteries. Thy r st! layer on layer! 6 bla#0 0ettle1 *a0es the as%e#t of thy inner %arts fo l. +f that s$o0e to #hed a ne" 0ettle! +t "o ld sho" the s$ t! "ere it only as a grain of barley3 @or e)erything is $ade $anifest by its o%%osite! +n #ontrast "ith its "hiteness that bla#0 sho"s fo l. . t "hen the 0ettle is bla#0! then after"ards Who #an see on it the i$%ression of the s$o0e4 +f the bla#0s$ith be a negro! His fa#e agrees in #olor "ith the s$o0e. . t if a $an of R $ does bla#0s$ith2s "or0! His fa#e be#o$es gri$ed by the s$o0e f $es3 Then he > i#0ly %er#ei)es the i$%ression of his fa lt! 9o that he "ails and #ries 26 Allah12 When he is st bborn and follo"s his e)il %ra#ti#es! He #asts d st in the eyes of his dis#ern$ent. He re#0s not of re%entan#e! and! $oreo)er! that sin .e#o$es dear to his heart! so that he be#o$es "itho t faith! 6ld sha$e for sin and #alling on <od > it hi$! R st fi)e layers dee% settles on his $irror! R st s%ots begin to gna" his iron! The #olor in his -e"el gro"s less and less. When yo "rite on "hite %a%er! What is "ritten is read at a glan#e3 . t "hen yo "rite on the fa#e of a "ritten %age!

+t is not %lain! reading it is de#e%ti)e3 @or that bla#0 is "ritten on the to% of other bla#0! .oth the "ritings are illegible and senseless. 6r if! in the third %la#e! yo "rite on the %age! And then bla#0en it li0e an infidel2s so l! Then "hat re$edy b t the aid of the Re$edier4 5es%air is #o%%er and sight its eli,ir. &ay yo r des%air before Hi$! That yo $ay es#a%e fro$ %ain "itho t $edi#ine.( When 9h 2aib s%o0e these a%horis$s to hi$! @ro$ that breath of the so l roses bloo$ed in his heart! His so l heard the re)elations of hea)en3 He said! (+f He has % nished $e! "here is the sign of it4( 9h 2aib said! (6 &ord! he re%els $y arg $ents! He see0s for a sign of that % nish$ent.( The ;eiler of sins re%lied! (+ "ill tell hi$ no se#rets! 9a)e only one! in order to try hi$. 6ne sign that + % nish hi$ is this! That he obser)es obedien#e and fasting and %rayer! And de)otions and al$sgi)ing! and so on! /et ne)er feels the least e,%ansion of so l. He %erfor$s the de)otions and a#ts en-oined by la"! /et deri)es not an ato$ of relish fro$ the$. 6 t"ard de)otion is s"eet to hi$! s%irit is not s"eet! N ts in %lenty! b t no 0ernel in any of the$. Relish is needed for de)otions to bear fr it! Kernels are needed that seeds $ay yield trees. Ho" #an seeds "itho t 0ernels be#o$e trees4 @or$ "itho t so l GlifeH is only a drea$.( STOR' 51I% The &lu**#n#us Su,i% +n a #ertain #on)ent there li)ed a 9 fi "hose #ond #t ga)e - st offen#e to the brethren. They bro ght hi$ before their 9hai0h and th s a## sed hi$! (This 9 fi has three )ery bad > alities3 he babbles e,#eedingly li0e a bell! at his $eals he eats $ore than t"enty $en and "hen he slee%s he is as one of the 9e)en 9lee%ers.( The 9hai0h then ad$onished hi$! insisting on the obligation of 0ee%ing to the golden $ean3 and re$inding hi$ that e)en the %ro%het *oses 1 "as on#e reb 0ed by KhiEr for s%ea0ing to e,#ess. . t the delin> ent e,# sed hi$self on the gro nds that the $ean is relati)e! "hat is e,#ess in one $an being $oderation in another! that he "ho is led by the s%irit is no longer s b-e#t to the o t"ard la"! and that! the (inner )oi#e!( "hi#h r les s #h an one s #ond #t! is its o"n e)iden#e.

The mean is (ela*ive% He said! (Tho gh the %ath of the $ean is "isdo$! /et is this sa$e $ean also relati)e. The "ater "hi#h is ins ffi#ient for a #a$el +s li0e an o#ean to a $o se. Whoso has fo r loa)es as his daily allo"an#e! Whether he eat t"o or three! he obser)es the $ean. . t if he eat all fo r he transgresses the $ean! A )ery sla)e to greed! and )ora#io s as a d #0. Whoso has an a%%etite for ten loa)es! Kno"! tho gh he eat si,! he obser)es the $ean. +f + ha)e an a%%etite for fifty loa)es! While yo #an $anage only si,! "e are not on a %ar. /o are "earied "ith ten %rostrations in %rayer! Whilst + #an end re fi)e h ndred. 9 #h an one goes barefoot to the Ka2ba! Whilst another faints "ith going to the $os> e.( The e#stati# state "hi#h e,alts the s b-e#t of it abo)e la". (At ti$es $y state rese$bles a drea$! *y drea$ing see$s to the$ infidelity. Kno" $y eyes slee%! b t $y heart is a"a0e3 *y body! tho gh tor%id! is instin#t "ith energy. The 7ro%het said! 2*ine eyes slee%! . t $y heart is a"a0e "ith the &ord of $an0ind.2 /o r eyes are a"a0e and yo r heart fast aslee%! *y eyes are #losed! and $y heart at the 2o%en door.2 *y heart has other fi)e senses of its o"n3 These senses of $y heart )ie" the t"o "orlds. &et not a "ea0ling li0e yo #ens re $e! What! see$s night to yo is broad day to $e3 What see$s a %rison to yo is a garden to $e. . siest o## %ation is rest to $e. /o r feet are in the $ire! to $e! $ire is rose! What to yo is f neral "ailing is $arriage dr $ to $e. While + see$ on earth! abiding "ith yo in the ho se! + as#end li0e 9at rn to the se)enth hea)en. 2Tis not + "ho #o$%anion "ith yo ! 2tis $y shado"3 *y e,altation trans#ends yo r tho ghts! .e#a se + ha)e trans#ended tho ght! /ea! + ha)e s%ed beyond rea#h of tho ght. + a$ lord of tho ght! not o)erlorded by tho ght! As the b ilder is lord of the b ilding. All #reat res are ensla)ed to tho ght3

@or this #a se are they sad at heart and sorro"f l. + send $yself on an e$bassy to tho ght! And! at "ill! s%ring ba#0 again fro$ tho ght. + a$ as the bird of hea)en and tho ght as the fly! Ho" #an the fly lend a hel%ing hand to $e4 Whoso has in hi$ a s%ar0 of the light of 6$ni%oten#e! Ho"e)er $ #h he eats! say 2 Eat on32 2tis la"f l to hi$.( To the s%irit al $an the (inner )oi#e( is its o"n e)iden#e! and needs no other %roof. (+f yo are a tr e lo)er of $y so l! This tr th-fra ght saying of $ine is no )ain %reten#e! 2Tho gh + tal0 half the night + a$ s %erior to yo 32 And again! 2@ear not the night3 here a$ +! yo r 0ins$an.2 These t"o assertions of $ine "ill both see$ tr e to yo The $o$ent yo re#ogniEe the )oi#e of yo r 0ins$an. 9 %eriority and 0ins$anshi% are both $ere assertions! /et both are re#ogniEed for tr th by $en of #lear "it. The nearness of the )oi#e %ro)es to s #h an one That the )oi#e %ro#eeds fro$ a friend "ho is near. The s"eetness of the 0ins$an2s )oi#e! too! 6 belo)ed! 7ro)es the )era#ity of that 0ins$an. . t the nins%ired fool "ho fro$ ignoran#e Dannot tell the )oi#e of a stranger fro$ a friend2s! To hi$ the friend2s saying see$s a )ain %retension! His ignoran#e is the $aterial #a se of his disbelief. To the "ise! "hose hearts are enlightened! The $ere so nd of that )oi#e %ro)es its tr th.( (When yo say to a thirsty $an! 2Do$e > i#0ly3 This is "ater in the # %! ta0e and drin0 it!2 5oes the thirsty $an say! 2This is a )ain %retension3 <o! re$o)e yo rself fro$ $e! 6 )ain %retender! 6r %ro#eed to gi)e %roofs and e)iden#e That this is generi# "ater! and #on#rete "ater thereof24 6r "hen a $other #ries to her s #0ing babe! 2Do$e! 6 son! + a$ thy $other!2 5oes the babe ans"er! 26 $other! sho" a %roof That + shall find #o$fort fro$ ta0ing thy $il024 +n the hearts of e)ery se#t that has a taste of the tr th The sight and the )oi#e of %ro%hets "or0 $ira#les. When the %ro%hets raise their #ry to the o t"ard ear! The so ls of ea#h se#t bo" in de)otion "ithin3 .e#a se ne)er in this "orld hath the so l2s ear Heard fro$ any $an the li0e of that #ry. That %oor $an in that strange s"eet )oi#e Re#ogniEes the )oi#e of <od! 2;erily + a$ nigh.2( 8

CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,)iii. JJ. 8. (And "hen $y ser)ants as0 thee #on#erning $e then "ill + be nigh nto the$. + "ill ans"er the #ry of hi$ that #rieth! "hen he #rieth nto $e.( GKoran ii. l88H. STOR' 51II% The T(ee #, Li,e% The %re#eding story is follo"ed by a short ane#dote of the infants of the ;irgin *ary and the $other of Iohn the .a%tist lea%ing in their $others2 "o$bs! 1 and in re%ly to $atter of fa#t #a)illers and > estioners of this ane#dote! the %oet says "e $ st loo0 at its s%irit and essential basis rather than its o t"ard for$. This introd #es the story of the tree of life. A #ertain "ise $an related that in Hind stan there "as a tree of s #h "onderf l )irt e that "hosoe)er ate of its fr it li)ed fore)er. Hearing this! a 0ing de% ted one of his #o rtiers to go in > est of it. The #o rtier a##ordingly %ro#eeded to Hind stan! and tra)eled all o)er that #o ntry! in> iring of e)ery one he $et "here this tree "as to be fo nd. 9o$e of these %ersons %rofessed their entire ignoran#e! others -o0ed hi$! and others ga)e hi$ false infor$ation3 and! finally! he had to ret rn to his #o ntry "ith his $ission na##o$%lished. He then! as a last reso r#e! betoo0 hi$self to the sage "ho had first s%o0en of the tree! and begged for f rther infor$ation abo t it! and the sage re%lied to hi$ as follo"s' The 9hai0h la ghed! and said to hi$! (6 friend! This is the tree of 0no"ledge! 6 0no"ing one3 ;ery high! )ery fine! )ery e,%ansi)e! The )ery "ater of life fro$ the #ir# $fl ent o#ean. Tho hast r n after for$! 6 ill-infor$ed one! Wherefore tho la#0est the fr it of the tree of s bstan#e. 9o$eti$es it is na$ed tree! so$eti$es s n! 9o$eti$es la0e! and so$eti$es #lo d. 2Tis one! tho gh it has tho sands of $anifestations3 +ts least $anifestation is eternal life1 Tho gh 2tis one! it has a tho sand $anifestations! The na$es that fit that one are #o ntless. That one is to thy %ersonality a father! +n regard to another %erson He $ay be a son. +n relation to another He $ay be "rath and )engean#e! +n relation to another! $er#y and goodness. He has tho sands of na$es! yet is 6ne!

Ans"ering to all of His des#ri%tions! yet indes#ribable. E)ery one "ho see0s na$es! if he is a $an of #red lity! &i0e thee! re$ains ho%eless and fr strated of his ai$. Why #lea)est tho to this $ere na$e of tree! 9o that tho art tterly bal0ed and disa%%ointed4 7ass o)er na$es and loo0 to > alities! 9o that > alities $ay lead thee to essen#e1 The differen#es of se#ts arise fro$ His na$es3 When they %ier#e to His essen#e they find His %ea#e1( This story is follo"ed by another ane#dote ill strati)e of the sa$e thesis that attending $erely to na$es and o t"ard for$s! rather than to the s%irit and essen#e of religion! leads $en into error and del sion. @o r %ersons! a 7ersian! an Arab! a T r0! and a <ree0! "ere tra)eling together! and re#ei)ed a %resent of a dirhe$. The 7ersian said he "o ld b y (ang r( "ith it! the Arab said he "o ld b y (inab!( "hile the T r0 and the <ree0 "ere for b ying ( E $( and (asta%hil( Gsta%hyleH! res%e#ti)ely. No" all these "ords $ean one and the sa$e thing! )iE. (gra%es3( b t! o"ing to their ignoran#e of ea#h other2s lang ages! they fan#ied they ea#h "anted to b y so$ething different! and a##ordingly a )iolent > arrel arose bet"een the$. At last a "ise $an "ho 0ne" all their lang ages #a$e % and e,%lained to the$ that they "ere all "ishing for one and the sa$e thing. CN6TE9' 1. & 0e i. =1. STOR' 51III% The '#un/ !u)$s -h# -e(e b(#u/h* u+ unde( a Hen% Altho gh a do$esti# fo"l $ay ha)e ta0en thee! Who art a d #0ling! nder her "ing and n rt red thee! Thy $other "as a d #0 of that o#ean. Thy n rse "as earthy! and her "ing dry land. The longing for the o#ean "hi#h fills thy heart! That nat ral longing of thy so l #o$es fro$ thy $other. Thy longing for dry land #o$es to thee fro$ thy n rse3 K it thy n rse! for she "ill lead thee astray. &ea)e thy n rse on the dry land and % sh on! Enter the o#ean of real .eing! li0e the d #0s1 Tho gh thy n rse $ay frighten thee a"ay fro$ "ater!

5o tho fear not! b t haste on into the o#ean1 Tho art a d #0! and flo rishest on land and "ater! And dost not! li0e a do$esti# fo"l! dig % the ho se. Tho art a 0ing of (the sons of Ada$ honored by <od!( l And settest foot ali0e on sea and land3 @or i$%ress on thy $ind! (We ha)e #arried the$ by sea!( .efore the "ords! (We ha)e #arried the$ by land.( The angels go not on dry land! And the ani$als 0no" nothing of the sea3 Tho in body art an ani$al! in thy so l an angel3 Hen#e tho goest both %on earth and on hea)en.( Hen#e to o t"ard )ie" (He is a $an li0e yo !( 8 While to his shar%-seeing heart (it hath been re)ealed.( His earthy for$ has fallen on earth! His s%irit re)ol)ing abo)e highest hea)en. 6 boy! "e are all of s "aterfo"l! The sea 0no"s f ll "ell o r lang age. 9olo$on : is! as it "ere! that sea! and "e as the birds3 +n 9olo$on "e hold o r #o rse to eternity. Along "ith 9olo$on %l nge into the o#ean! = Then! li0e 5a)id! the "ater "ill $a0e s #oats-of-$ail. That 9olo$on is %resent to e)ery one! . t negligen#e #loses their eyes and be"it#hes the$. Hen#e! thro gh ignoran#e! sloth! and folly! Tho gh he stands hard by s! "e are sh t off fro$ hi$. The noise of th nder $a0es the head of the thirsty a#he3 When he 0no"s not that it nlo#0s the blessed sho"ers! His eyes are fi,ed on the r nning strea$! An"itting of the s"eetness of the rain fro$ hea)en. He rges the steed of his desire to"ards the #a sed! And %erfor#e re$ains sh t off fro$ the Da ser. Whoso beholds the Da ser fa#e to fa#e! Ho" #an he set his heart on things #a sed on earth4 CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,)i. J8' (And no" ha)e "e honored the sons of Ada$! by sea and by land ha)e "e #arried the$.( 8. Koran ,)iii. 11F' (9ay! in sooth + a$ only a $an li0e yo . +t hath been re)ealed nto $e that yo r <od is one only <od.( :. Koran ,,)ii. 1B' (9olo$on said! 6 $en! "e ha)e been ta ght the s%ee#h of birds.( =. Koran ,,)ii. == and ,,i. 8F.

"##$ III%

STOR' I% The T(avele(s -h# a*e *he '#un/ Ele+han*% A 7ART/ of tra)elers lost their "ay in a "ilderness! and "ere "ell nigh fa$ished "ith h nger. While they "ere #onsidering "hat to do! a sage #a$e % and #ondoled "ith the$ on their nfort nate %light. He told the$ that there "ere $any yo ng ele%hants in the ad-a#ent "oods! one of "hi#h "o ld f rnish the$ an a$%le $eal! b t at the sa$e ti$e he "arned the$ that if they 0illed one! its %arents "o ld in all %robability tra#0 the$ o t and be re)enged on the$ for 0illing their offs%ring. 9hortly after the tra)elers sa" a %l $% yo ng ele%hant! and #o ld not resist 0illing and eating it. 6ne alone refrained. Then they lay do"n to rest3 b t no sooner "ere they fast aslee% than a h ge ele%hant $ade his a%%earan#e and %ro#eeded to s$ell the breath of ea#h one of the slee%ers in t rn. Those "ho$ he %er#ei)ed to ha)e eaten of the yo ng ele%hant2s flesh he sle" "itho t $er#y! s%aring only the one "ho had been %r dent eno gh to abstain. &#d's )a(e ,#( His )hild(en% 6 son! the %io s are <od2s #hildren! Absent or %resent He is infor$ed of their state. 5ee$ Hi$ not absent "hen they are endangered! @or He is -ealo s for their li)es. He saith! (These saints are $y #hildren! Tho gh re$ote and alone and a"ay fro$ their &ord. @or their trial they are or%hans and "ret#hed! /et in lo)e + a$ e)er holding #o$$ nion "ith the$. Tho art ba#0ed by all $y %rote#tion3 *y #hildren are! as it "ere! %arts of $e. ;erily these 5ar)eshes of $ine Are tho sands on tho sands! and yet no $ore than 6ne3 @or if not! ho" did *oses "ith one $agi# staff T rn the real$ of 7haraoh %side do"n4 And if it "ere not so! ho" did Noah "ith one # rse *a0e East and West ali0e dro"ned in his flood4 Nor #o ld one %rayer of elo> ent &ot Ha)e raEed their strong #ity against their "ill!

Their $ighty #ity! li0e to 7aradise! .e#a$e as a Tigris of bla#0 "ater3 go! see its )estige1 To"ards 9yria is this )estige and $e$orial! Tho seest it in %assing on the "ay to Ier sale$. Tho sands of <od-fearing %ro%hets +n e)ery age hold di)ine #hastise$ents in hand. 9ho ld + tell of the$ $y li$its "o ld be e,#eeded! And not hearts only b t )ery hills "o ld bleed.( E)il deeds gi)e $en2s %rayers an ill sa)o r in <ods nostrils. Tho art aslee%! and the s$ell of that forbidden fr it As#ends to the aE re s0ies! As#ends along "ith thy fo l breath! Till it o)er%o"ers hea)en "ith sten#h3 9ten#h of %ride! sten#h of l st! sten#h of greed. All these stin0 li0e onions "hen a $an s%ea0s. Tho gh tho s"earest! saying! (When ha)e + eaten4 Ha)e + not abstained fro$ onions and garli#4( The )ery breath of that oath tells tales! As it stri0es the nostrils of the$ that sit "ith thee. 9o too %rayers are $ade in)alid by s #h sten#hes! 1 That #roo0ed heart is betrayed by its s%ee#h. The ans"er to that %rayer is! (.e ye dri)en into hell!( 8 The staff of re% lsion is the re"ard of all de#eit. . t! if thy s%ee#h be #roo0ed and thy $eaning straight! Thy #roo0edness of "ords "ill be a##e%ted of <od. That faithf l .ilal! "hen he #alled to %rayer! Wo ld de)o tly #ry! (Do$e hither! #o$e hither1( At last $en said! (6 7ro%het! this #all is not right! This is "rong3 no"! "hat is thy intention4 6 7ro%het! and 6 a$bassador of the Al$ighty! 7ro)ide another * 2aEEin of better talent. 2Tis an error at the beginning of o r di)ine "orshi% To tter the "ords! 2Do$e to the asyl $12( : The "rath of the 7ro%het boiled %! and he said GAttering one or t"o se#rets fro$ the fo nt of gra#eH! (6 base ones! in <od2s sight the 2Ho12 of .ilal +s better than a h ndred 2Do$e hithers2 and e-a# lations. Ah1 e,#ite not a t $ lt! lest + tell forth o%enly /o r se#ret tho ghts fro$ first to last. +f ye 0ee% not yo r breath s"eet in %rayer! <o! desire a %rayer fro$ the .rethren of 7 rity1( @or this #a se s%a0e <od to *oses! At the ti$e he "as as0ing aid in %rayer! (6 *oses1 desire %rote#tion of $e With a $o th that tho hast not sinned "ithal.( *oses ans"ered! (+ %ossess not s #h a $o th.(

<od said! (Dall %on $e "ith another $o th1 A#t so that all thy $o ths .y night and by day $ay be raising %rayers. When tho hast sinned "ith one $o th! With thy other $o th #ry! 26 Allah12 6r else #leanse thy o"n $o th! And $a0e thy s%irit alert and > i#0. Dalling on <od is % re! and "hen % rity a%%roa#hes! +$% rity arises and ta0es its de%art re. Dontraries flee a"ay fro$ #ontraries3 When day da"ns night ta0es flight. When the % re na$e Gof <odH enters the $o th! Neither does i$% rity nor that i$% re $o th re$ain1( The $an "hose #alling (6 Allah( "as e> i)alent to <od2s ans"ering hi$! (Here a$ +( =. That %erson one night "as #rying! (6 Allah1( That his $o th $ight be s"eetened thereby! And 9atan said to hi$! (.e > iet! 6 a stere one1 Ho" long "ilt tho babble! 6 $an of $any "ords4 No ans"er #o$es to thee fro$ nigh the throne! Ho" long "ilt tho #ry 2Allah2 "ith harsh fa#e4( That %erson "as sad at heart and h ng his head! And then beheld KhiEr %resent before hi$ in a )ision! Who said to hi$! (Ah1 tho hast #eased to #all on <od! Wherefore re%entest tho of #alling %on Hi$4( The $an said! (The ans"er 2Here a$ +2 #a$e not! Wherefore + fear that + a$ re% lsed fro$ the door.( KhiEr re%lied to hi$! (<od has gi)en $e this #o$$and3 <o to hi$ and say! 26 $ #h-tried one! 5id not + engage thee to do $y ser)i#e4 5id not + engage thee to #all %on $e4 That #alling 2Allah2 of thine "as $y 2Here a$ +!2 And that %ain and longing and ardo r of thine $y $essenger3 Thy str ggles and stri)ings for assistan#e Were $y attra#tions! and originated thy %rayer. Thy fear and thy lo)e are the #o)e!rt of $y $er#y! Ea#h 26 &ord12 of thine #ontains $any 2Here a$ +2s.( The so l of fools is alien fro$ this #alling on <od! .e#a se it is not their "ont to #ry! 26 &ord12 6n their $o ths and hearts are lo#0s and bonds! ? That they $ay not #ry to <od in ti$e of distress. <od ga)e 7haraoh ab ndan#e of ri#hes and "ealth! 9o that he boasted that he "as 2&ord 9 %re$e.2 +n the "hole of his life he s ffered no heada#he!

9o that he ne)er #ried to <od! "ret#h that he "as. <od granted hi$ the absol te do$inion of the "orld! . t "ithheld fro$ hi$ %ain and sorro" and #ares3 .e#a se %ain and sorro" and loads of #ares Are the lot of <od2s friends in the "orld. 7ain is better than the do$inion of the "orld! 9o that tho $ayest #all on <od in se#ret. The #ries of those free fro$ %ain are d ll and #old! The #ries of the sorro"f l #o$e fro$ the b rning hearts.( CN6TE9' 1. (Whoe)er eats garli# or onions $ st 0ee% a"ay fro$ $e or fro$ the *as-id.( G*ish0at t *asabih! ii. :81H. 8. Koran ,,iii. 11F' (He "ill say 2.e ye dri)en do"n into it! and address $e not.2( :. R les for the #all to %rayer are gi)en in *ish0at l *asabih i. 1=1. =. 6r! (What dost tho re> ire of $e4( ?. Koran ii. B. STOR' II% The 1illa/e( -h# invi*ed *he T#-nsman *# visi* him% A #ertain )illager %aid a )isit to the to"n! and there re#ei)ed hos%itality fro$ one of the to"ns$en. At his de%art re the )illager "as %rof se of than0s! and %ressed the to"ns$an to #o$e and see hi$ in his )illage! and bring his fa$ily "ith hi$. The to"ns$an hesitated long before a##e%ting his in)itation! ha)ing do bts as to his sin#erity! and re$e$bering the Hadis! (Da tion #onsists in s s%e#ting others.( 1 . t after ten years2 soli#itation he at length yielded! and set off "ith his fa$ily to the )illage. 6n his arri)al the )illager sh t the door in his fa#e! saying that he did not 0no" hi$! and the to"ns$an had to %ass fi)e nights in the #old and rain. At last! e,ha sted "ith s ffering! he i$%lored the )illager to gi)e hi$ shelter! %ro$ising to render ser)i#e in ret rn. The )illager granted it on #ondition that he "o ld %rote#t his garden fro$ the "ol)es. The to"ns$an a##e%ted this #ondition! and ta0ing bo" and arro"s! %ro#eeded to %atrol the garden! b t! o"ing to the rain and the dar0ness! and his o"n fears! ended by shooting the )illager2s %et ass in $ista0e for a "olf. The )illager ab sed hi$ ro ndly! saying that he hi$self "o ld not ha)e ta0en an ass for a "olf! e)en on the dar0est night. The to"ns$an re%lied! (+f that be so! yo are self-#on)i#ted of inh $anity! for yo $ st ha)e re#ogniEed $e! yo r friend of ten years2 standing! the $o$ent + 0no#0ed at yo r door. As for $e! + a$ ignorant of all b t Allah! and! $oreo)er! "as nable to see

in the dar0ness3 and <od has said! 2No #ri$inality is i$% ted to the blind.28 . t yo r blindness in ref sing to re#ogniEe $e "as "illf l! and yo r #lai$s to h $anity are th s %ro)ed to be false by the test to "hi#h yo ha)e been s b$itted.( Jesus healin/ *he si)$% The ho se of 2+sa "as the ban> et of $en of heart! Ho1 affli#ted one! > it not this door1 @ro$ all sides the %eo%le e)er thronged! *any blind and la$e! and halt and affli#ted! To the door of the ho se of 2+sa at da"n! That "ith his breath he $ight heal their ail$ents. As soon as he had finished his orisons! That holy one "o ld #o$e forth at the third ho r3 He )ie"ed those i$%otent fol0! troo% by troo%! 9itting at his door in ho%e and e,%e#tation3 He s%o0e to the$! saying! (6 stri#0en ones1 The desires of all of yo ha)e been granted by <od3 Arise! "al0 "itho t %ain or affli#tion! A#0no"ledge the $er#y and benefi#en#e of <od1( Then all! as #a$els "hose feet are sha#0led! When yo loose their feet in the road! 9traight"ay r sh in -oy and delight to the halting-%la#e! 9o did they r n %on their feet at his #o$$and. Ho" $any affli#tions #a sed by thyself to thyself Hast tho es#a%ed thro gh these %rin#es of the faith4 Ho" long that la$eness of thine "as thy steed1 Ho" seldo$ "as thy so l )oid of sorro" and grief1 6 #areless straggler! bind a ro%e %on thy feet! &est tho lose e)en thine o"n self1 . t thy ingratit de and nthan0f lness @orget the honey dra ght tho hast si%%ed. That road "as %erfor#e #losed to thee When tho didst "o nd the hearts of the $en of heart. K i#01 #las% the$ and as0 %ardon of the$3 &i0e the #lo ds! shed tears of la$entation! 9o that their rose-garden $ay bloo$ for thee! And their ri%e fr its b rst o%en of the$sel)es. 7ress aro nd that door! be not )iler than a dog! +f tho "o ldest ri)al the 9e)en 9lee%ers2 dog. &#d's )laims *# #u( /(a*i*ude%

Whereas "ant of fidelity is sha$ef l e)en in dogs! Ho" #an it be right in $en4 <od Al$ighty Hi$self $a0es boast of fidelity! 9aying! (Who $ore faithf l to his %ro$ise than We4( : Kno"! infidelity is fidelity to <od2s ad)ersary! No one has %re-e$inen#e o)er the rights of <od. The #lai$s of a $other are less than <od2s! for He! That bo nteo s 6ne! $ade her debtor for thy e$bryo. He ga)e thee a for$ "hilst tho "ast in her "o$b! +n her "o$b He ga)e thee needf l rest and n rt re. He )ie"ed her as a %art nited to thee! Then His "isdo$ se%arated that nited %art. <od de)ised a tho sand %lans and arts! To $a0e thy $other la)ish affe#tion %on thee. Wherefore the #lai$s of <od %redo$inate o)er the $other2s! Whoso a#0no"ledges not <od2s #lai$s is a fool. He "ho $ade $other and breast and $il0 Anited $other to father also! des%ise Hi$ not1 6 &ord! 6 An#ient of days! Thy $er#ies! Whether 0no"n to s or n0no"n! are all fro$ Thee1 Tho hast #o$$anded! saying! (Re$e$ber thy <od!( .e#a se <od2s #lai$s are ne)er e,ha sted1 9in#e tho hast been led astray by faithless $en! T rn no" fro$ thy e)il do bts to the o%%osite $ind. + a$ free fro$ error and all faithlessness3 Tho $ st #o$e to $e and res#ind e)il do bts. D t off these e)il do bts and #ast the$ a"ay! @or in the %resen#e of s #h tho be#o$est do ble. Therefore tho hast #hosen harsh friends and #o$%anions3 +f + as0 "here they are tho sayest they are gone. The good friend goes % to highest hea)en! E)il friends sin0 beneath the botto$ of the earth! Whilst tho art left alone in the $idst! forlorn! E)en as the fires left by the de%arted #ara)an.( 6 bra)e friend! gras% His s0irt! Who is re$o)ed ali0e fro$ the "orld abo)e and belo"3 Who neither! li0e. Ies s! as#ends to hea)en! Nor! li0e Korah! sin0s into the earth3 Who "ill abide "ith thee in the ho se and abroad When tho la#0est ho se and ho$e. He "ill bring forth %ea#e o t of %ert rbations! And "hen tho art aflli#ted "ill 0ee% His %ro$ise. Ho" false %retensions to san#tity are disting ished fro$ tr e san#tity. 6 son! a h ndred tho sand tests a"ait thee!

Whoe)er tho art "ho sayest (+ a$ a %rin#e of the gate!( +f the ) lgar dete#t not s #h an one by tests! /et the s0illed "ayfarers see0 of hi$ a sign. When a $an $a0es %retension to be a tailor! The $aster %la#es before hi$ a %ie#e of sil0! 9aying! (D t o t a large head-dress!( And fail re in the test leads hi$ to the %illory. +f all the e)il $en "ere not tested! E)ery #ata$ite "o ld thro gh fra d %ass for a R sta$. 9 %%ose he "ears the se$blan#e of one #lad in $ail! /et "hen "o nded he is at on#e ta0en #a%ti)e. The <od-into,i#ated are not sobered by old age! They re$ain beside the$sel)es till the last tr $%. The "ine of <od is tr e! and not false! . t tho hast dr n0 only so r "hey. Tho $a0est thyself o t to be a I naid or a .ayaEid3 <o1 for do + not 0no" a hat#het fro$ a %lo ghshare4 6 %lotter! ho" #anst tho #on#eal by fra d .aseness! sloth! #o)eto sness! and l st4 Tho holdest thyself o t as a lo)er of <od! . t tho hast #o> etted "ith the e)il de$on. The lo)er and the belo)ed on the last day Will be -oined together and raised in sight of all. Ho" foolish and silly tho hast $ade thyself1 Tho hast dr n0 blood of gra%es! nay! $y blood1 <o1 for + 0no" thee not. <et a"ay1 + a$ a lo)er beside hi$self! "hose "ords are "ild. Tho fan#iest thyself near to <od! 9aying! (The $a0er of the dish is not far fro$ the dish.( Kno"est tho not that the nearness of saints to <od +n)ol)es the %o"er to do $ighty "or0s and signs4 +ron "as as "a, in the hands of 5a)id! Wa, in thy hands is as iron. <od2s nearness and His benefi#en#e are #o$$on to all! . t only e$inent saints en-oy ins%ired lo)e. Nearness is of )ario s 0inds! 6 son! The s n shines ali0e on ro#0s and on gold. /et the s n %ossesses a nearness to gold! Whereof the #o$$on "illo" has no #ogniEan#e. The dry bran#h and the green are ali0e near the s n! 5oes the s n )eil hi$self fro$ either4 /et "hat is the nearness of that green bran#h! Wherefro$ tho eatest ri%e fr its4 . t as for the dry bran#hH fro$ its nearness to the s n! What does it b t $ore > i#0ly gro" dry and sa%less4 .e not into,i#ated after the $anner of this bran#h!

Whi#h! "hen it be#o$es sober! has #a se for re%entan#e! . t! li0e those dr n0ards "ho! "hen they drin0 "ine! .ear ri%e fr its of "isdo$ of %eniten#e. CN6TE9' 1. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! i. %. :JF! as#ribes this saying to the %oet! A>Ea$ bin Eaid. 8. Koran ,,i). BF. :. Koran. i,. 118. STOR' III% The Ja)$al -h# +(e*ended *# be a Pea)#)$% A -a#0al fell into a dye-%it! and his s0in "as dyed of )ario s #olors. 7ro d of his s%lendid a%%earan#e! he ret rned to his #o$%anions! and desired the$ to address hi$ as a %ea#o#0. . t they %ro#eeded to test his %retensions! saying! (5ost tho s#rea$ li0e a %ea#o#0! or str t abo t gardens as %ea#o#0s are "ont to do4( And he "as for#ed to ad$it that he did not! "here %on they re-e#ted his %retensions. Another story! also on the s b-e#t of false %retenders! follo"s. A %ro d $an "ho la#0ed food %ro# red a s0in f ll of fat! greased his beard and li%s "ith it! and #alled on his friends to obser)e ho" l , rio sly he had dined. . t his belly "as )e,ed at this! be#a se it "as h ngry! and he "as destroying his #han#e of being in)ited to dinner by his friends. 9o the belly #ried to <od! and a #at #a$e and #arried off the s0in of fat! and so the $an2s false %reten#es "ere e,%osed. The %oet ta0es o##asion to %oint o t that 7haraoh2s %retensions to di)inity e,a#tly rese$bled the %retensions of this -a#0al! and adds that all s #h false %retenders $ay be dete#ted by the $ar0 noted in the Koran! (/e shall 0no" the$ by the strangeness of their s%ee#h.( 1 This re#alls the story of Har t and *ar t! t"o angels "ho "ere )ery se)ere on the frailties of $an0ind! and "ho$ <od sent do"n %on the earth to be te$%ted! "ith the res lt that they both s ## $bed to the #har$s of the da ghters of $en.8 CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,l)ii. :8. 8. Koran ii. 9B. STOR' I1%

M#ses and Pha(a#h% Then follo"s a long a##o nt of the birth of *oses! of 7haraoh2s de)i#es to 0ill hi$ in his infan#y! of his ed #ation in 7haraoh2s ho se! of his desiring 7haraoh to let the #hildren of +srael go! and of his #ontest "ith the $agi#ians of Egy%t! and his )i#tory o)er the$. +n the #o rse of the story the follo"ing ane#dote is narrated' A sna0e-#at#her! "ho "as follo"ing his o## %ation in the $o ntains! dis#o)ered a large sna0e froEen by the #old! and! i$agining it to be dead! he tied it % and too0 it to .aghdad. There all the idlers of the #ity flo#0ed together to see it! and the sna0e! tha"ed by the "ar$th of the s n! re#o)ered life! and i$$ediately destroyed the s%e#tators. C#m+a(is#n #, ,leshly lus* *# *he sna$e% & st is that sna0e3 Ho" say yo it is dead4 +t is only froEen by the %angs of h nger. +f it obtains the state of 7haraoh! 9o as to #o$$and the GfroEenH ri)ers to flo"! 9traight"ay it is led to %ride li0e 7haraoh2s! And it %l nders the goods of $any a *oses and Aaron. Thro gh %ress re of "ant this sna0e is as a fly! +t be#o$es a gnat thro gh "ealth and ran0 and l , ry. .e"are! 0ee% that sna0e in the frost of h $iliation! 5ra" it not forth into the s nshine of 2+ra>1 9o long as that sna0e is froEen! it is "ell3 When it finds release fro$ frost yo be#o$e its %rey. Don> er it and sa)e yo rself fro$ being #on> ered! 7ity it not! it is not one "ho bears affe#tion. @or that "ar$th of the s n 0indles its l st! And that bat of )ileness fla%s its "ings. 9lay it in sa#red "ar and #o$bat! &i0e a )aliant $an "ill <od re> ite yo "ith nion. When that $an #herished that sna0e! That st bborn br te "as ha%%y in the l , ry of "ar$th3 And of ne#essity "or0ed destr #tion! 6 friend3 /ea! $any $ore $is#hiefs than + ha)e told. +f yo "ish to 0ee% that sna0e tied % Witho t tro ble! be faithf l! be faithf l1 . t ho" #an base $en attain this "ish4 +t re> ires a *oses to slay ser%ents3

And a h ndred tho sand $en "ere slain by his ser%ent! +n dire #onf sion! a##ording to his % r%ose. STOR' 1% The Ele+han* in a !a($ R##m% 9o$e Hindoos "ere e,hibiting an ele%hant in a dar0 roo$! and $any %eo%le #olle#ted to see it. . t as the %la#e "as too dar0 to %er$it the$ to see the ele%hant! they all felt it "ith their hands! to gain an idea of "hat it "as li0e. 6ne felt its tr n0! and de#lared that the beast rese$bled a "ater%i%e3 another felt its ear! and said it $ st be a large fan3 another its leg! and tho ght it $ st be a %illar3 another felt its ba#0! and de#lared the beast $ st be li0e a great throne. A##ording to the %art "hi#h ea#h felt! he ga)e a different des#ri%tion of the ani$al. 6ne! as it "ere! #alled it (5al( and another (Alif.( C#m+a(is#n #, *he sensual eye *# *he hand #, #ne *ha* ,el* *he ele+han*% The eye of o t"ard sense is as the %al$ of a hand! The "hole of the ob-e#t is not gras%ed in the %al$. The sea itself is one thing! the foa$ another3 Negle#t the foa$! and regard the sea "ith yo r eyes. Wa)es of foa$ rise fro$ the sea night and day! /o loo0 at the foa$ ri%%les and not the $ighty sea. We! li0e boats! are tossed hither and thither! We are blind tho gh "e are on the bright o#ean. Ah1 yo "ho are aslee% in the boat of the body! /o see the "ater3 behold the Water of "aters1 Ander the "ater yo see there is another Water $o)ing it! Within the s%irit is a 9%irit that #alls it. Where "ere *oses and Ies s "hen that 9 n 9ho"ered do"n "ater on the fields so"n "ith #orn4 Where "ere Ada$ and E)e "hat ti$e <od Al$ighty fitted the string to His bo"4 The one for$ of s%ee#h is e)il and defe#ti)e3 The other for$! "hi#h is not defe#ti)e! is %erfe#t. +f + s%ea0 thereof yo r feet st $ble! /et if + s%ea0 not of it! "oe be to yo 1 And if + s%ea0 in ter$s of o t"ard for$! /o sti#0 fast in that sa$e for$! 6 son. /o are footbo nd li0e the grass in the gro nd! And yo r head is sha0en by the "ind n#ertainly.

/o r foot stands not fir$ly till yo $o)e it! NayH till yo %l #0 it not % fro$ the $ire. When yo %l #0 % yo r foot yo es#a%e fro$ the $ire! The "ay to this sal)ation is )ery diffi# lt. When yo obtain sal)ation at <od2s hands! 6 "anderer! /o are free fro$ the $ire! and go yo r "ay. When the s #0ling is "eaned fro$ its n rse! +t eats strong $eats and lea)es the n rse. /o are bo nd to the boso$ of earth li0e seeds! 9tri)e to be "eaned thro gh n tri$ent of the heart. Eat the "ords of "isdo$! for )eiled light +s not a##e%ted in %referen#e to n)eiled light. When yo ha)e a##e%ted the light! 6 belo)ed! When yo behold "hat is )eiled "itho t a )eil! &i0e a star yo "ill "al0 %on the hea)ens3 Nay! tho gh not in hea)en! yo "ill "al0 on high. Kee% silen#e! that yo $ay hear Hi$ s%ea0ing Words n tterable by tong e in s%ee#h. Kee% silen#e! that yo $ay hear fro$ that 9 n Things ine,%ressible in boo0s and dis#o rses. Kee% silen#e! that the 9%irit $ay s%ea0 to yo 3 <i)e % s"i$$ing and enter the ar0 of Noah3 Not li0e Danaan "hen he "as s"i$$ing! Who said! (+ desire not to enter the ar0 of Noah %assing by.( Noah and his nbelie)ing son Danaan. Noah #ried! (Ho1 #hild! #o$e into the ar0 and rest! That yo be not dro"ned in the flood! 6 "ea0 one.( 1 Danaan said! (Nay1 + ha)e learned to s"i$! + ha)e lit a tor#h of $y o"n a%art fro$ thy tor#h.( Noah re%lied! (*a0e not light of it! for 2tis the flood of destr #tion! 9"i$$ing "ith hands and feet a)ails na ght today. The "ind of "rath and the stor$ blo" o t tor#hes3 E,#e%t the tor#h of <od! all are e,ting ished.( He ans"ered (Nay1 + a$ going to that high $o ntain! @or that "ill sa)e $e fro$ all har$.( Noah #ried! (.e"are! do not so! $o ntains are no" as grass3 E,#e%t the @riend none #an sa)e thee.( He ans"ered! (Why sho ld + listen to thy ad)i#e4 @or tho desirest to $a0e $e one of thy flo#0. Thy s%ee#h is by no $eans %leasing to $e! + a$ free fro$ thee in this "orld and the ne,t.( Th s the $ore good ad)i#e Noah ga)e hi$! The $ore st bborn ref sals he ret rned. Neither "as his father tired of ad)ising Danaan! Nor did his ad)i#e $a0e any i$%ression on Danaan3

While they "ere yet tal0ing a )iolent "a)e 9$ote Danaan2s head! and he "as o)er"hel$ed. Re)#n)ilia*i#n #, *he *-# *(adi*i#ns0 4A):uies)en)e in in,ideli*y is in,ideli*y4 and 46h#s# a):uies)es n#* in &#d's #(dinan)e desi(es an#*he( L#(d besides me4% /esterday an in> irer > estioned $e! 9in#e he "as interested in the foregoing narrati)e! 9aying! (The 7ro%het! "hose "ords are as a seal! 9aid! 2A#> ies#en#e in infidelity is infidelity.2 And again! 2A#> ies#en#e in <od2s ordinan#e +s in# $bent on all tr e belie)ers.2 +nfidelity and hy%o#risy are not ordained of <od3 +f + a#> ies#e in the$ + a$ at )arian#e "ith <od. And yet! if + a#> ies#e not! that again is "rong3 What "ay of es#a%e is there fro$ this dile$$a4 ( + said to hi$! (This infidelity is ordained! not ordinan#e! 8 Tho gh this infidelity is the "or0 of the ordinan#e. Therefore disting ish the ordinan#e fro$ the ordained! That thy diffi# lty $ay be at on#e re$o)ed. + a#> ies#e in infidelity so far as it is <od2s ordinan#e! Not so far as it is o r e)il and fo l %assions. +nfidelity > a ordinan#e is not infidelity! Dall not <od an infidel. 9et not foot in this %la#e. +nfidelity is folly! ordained infidelity "isdo$! Ho" #an $er#y and )engean#e be the sa$e4 Agliness of the %i#t re is not gliness of the %ainter! Not so! for he erases gly %i#t res. The ability of the %ainter is sho"n in this! That he #an %aint both gly and bea tif l %i#t res. +f + sho ld % rs e this arg $ent %ro%erly! 9o that > estions and ans"ers sho ld be %rolonged! The n#tion of the $ystery of lo)e "o ld es#a%e $e! The %i#t re of obedien#e "o ld be#o$e another %i#t re.( .e"ilder$ent fro$ intense lo)e of <od % ts an end to all thin0ing and arg $ent :. A #ertain $an "hose hair "as half gray #a$e in haste To a barber "ho "as a friend of his! 9aying! (7l #0 o t the "hite hairs fro$ $y beard! @or + ha)e sele#ted a yo ng bride! 6 $y son. The barber # t off his beard and laid it before hi$! 9aying! (5o yo %art the$! the tas0 is beyond $e.( K estions are "hite and ans"ers bla#03 do yo #hoose! @or the $an of faith 0no"s not ho" to #hoose.

Th s! one s$ote Laid a blo"! And Laid atta#0ed hi$ for his trea#hery. The stri0er said! (&et $e first as0 yo a > estion! <i)e $e an ans"er to it and then stri0e $e3 + str #0 yo r ba#0 and a br ise a%%eared! No" + as0 yo a > estion in all 0indliness! 5id this br ise %ro#eed fro$ $y hand! 6r fro$ the s$itten %art of yo r ba#0! 6 #o$%lainer4( Laid re%lied! (Thro gh %ain + a$ not in a #ondition To enter %on tho ght and #onsideration of this. /o ! "ho are free fro$ %ain! thin0 this o t3 9 #h trifling tho ghts o## r not to a $an in %ain.( *en in %ain ha)e no ti$e for other tho ghts! Whether yo enter $os> e or Dhristian #h r#h. /o r #arelessness and in- sti#e s ggest tho ghts And n%re#edented diffi# lties to yo r i$agination. The $an in %ain #ares only for the faith! He is a"are only of $an and his "or0. He set2s <od2s #o$$and %on his head and fa#e! And for thin0ing! he % ts it aside. = CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,i. ==. 8. 6r (de#reed! not de#ree( G$a>Ei nai >aEaH. + #onfess + do not nderstand the distin#tion. :. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 88J. =. The fo r last #o %lets are o$itted in the . la> edition. STOR' 1I% The L#ve( -h# (ead S#nne*s *# his Mis*(ess% A lo)er "as on#e ad$itted to the %resen#e of his $istress! b t! instead of e$bra#ing her! he % lled o t a %a%er of sonnets and read the$ to her! des#ribing her %erfe#tions and #har$s and his o"n lo)e to"ards her at length. His $istress said to hi$! (/o are no" in $y %resen#e! and these lo)er2s sighs and in)o#ations are a "aste of ti$e. +t is not the %art of a tr e lo)er to "aste his ti$e in this "ay. +t sho"s that + a$ not the real ob-e#t of yo r affe#tion! b t that "hat yo really lo)e is yo r o"n eff sions and e#stati# ra%t res. + see! as it "ere! the "ater "hi#h + ha)e longed for before $e! and yet yo "ithhold it. + a$! as it "ere! in . lgaria! and the ob-e#t of yo r lo)e is in Dathay. 6ne "ho is really lo)ed is the single ob-e#t of her lo)er! the Al%ha and 6$ega of his desires. As for yo ! yo are

"ra%%ed % in yo r o"n a$oro s ra%t res! de%ending on the )arying states of yo r o"n feelings! instead of being "ra%%ed % in $e.( The *(ue mys*i) mus* n#* s*#+ a* me(e sub;e)*ive (eli/i#us em#*i#ns0 bu* see$ abs#lu*e uni#n -i*h &#d% 9 Whoso is restri#ted to religio s ra%t res is b t a $an3 9o$eti$es his ra%t re is e,#essi)e! so$eti$es defi#ient. The 9 fi is! as it "ere! the (son of the season!( . t the % re G9afiH is e,alted abo)e season and state. Religio s ra%t res de%end on feelings and "ill! . t the % re one is regenerated by the breath of Ies s. /o are a lo)er of yo r o"n ra%t res! not of $e3 /o t rn to $e only in ho%e of e,%erien#ing ra%t res. Whoso is no" defe#ti)e! no" %erfe#t! +s not adored by Abraha$3 he is (one that sets.( .e#a se the stars set! and are no" %! no" do"n! He lo)ed the$ not3 (+ lo)e not the$ that set.( 8 Whoso is no" %leasing and no" n%leasing +s at one ti$e "ater! at another fire. He $ay be the ho se of the $oon! b t not the tr e $oon3 6r as the %i#t re of a $istress! b t not the li)ing one. The $ere 9 fi is the ( #hild of the season3( He #lings to seasons as to a father! . t the % re one is dro"ned in o)er"hel$ing lo)e. A #hild of any one is ne)er free fro$ season and state. The % re one is dro"ned in the light ## that is not begotten!( (What begets not and is not begotten( is <od. : <o + see0 s #h lo)e as this! if yo are ali)e3 +f not! yo are ensla)ed by )arying seasons. <aEe not on yo r o"n %i#t res! fair or gly! <aEe on yo r lo)e and the ob-e#t of yo r desire. <aEe not at the sight of yo r o"n "ea0ness or )ileness! <aEe at ob-e#t of yo r desire! 6 e,alted one. CN6TE9' 1. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 8?F. 8. Koran )i. JJ. :. Koran #,ii. :. STOR' 1II%

The Man -h# +(ayed ea(nes*ly *# be ,ed -i*h#u* -#($% +n the ti$e of the %ro%het 5a)id there "as a $an "ho sed to %ray day and night! saying! (Tho hast #reated $e "ea0 and hel%less3 gi)e $e $y daily bread "itho t obliging $e to "or0 for it.( The %eo%le derided hi$ for $a0ing s #h a foolish %etition! b t he still %ersisted! and at last a #o" ran into his ho se of its o"n a##ord! and he 0illed and ate it. This ill strates the saying of the 7ro%het that <od lo)es earnest %etitioners! be#a se He regards the sin#erity of the %rayer $ore than the nat re of the thing %rayed for. All things %raise <od! b t the %raises of inani$ate things are different fro$ the %raises of $en! and those of a 9 nni different fro$ those of a Do$% lsionist GIabriH. Ea#h says the other is in the "ay of error! b t none b t the tr ly s%irit al $an 0no"s the tr th. .n#-led/e #( )#nvi)*i#n0 #++#sed *# #+ini#n% &ittle is 0no"n by any one b t the s%irit al $an! Who has in his heart a to #hstone of )ital tr th. The others! ho)ering bet"een t"o o%inions! @ly to"ards their nest on a single "ing. Kno"ledge has t"o "ings! o%inion only one "ing3 6%inion is "ea0 and lo%sided in its flight. The bird ha)ing b t one "ing > i#0ly dro%s do"n! And again flies on t"o ste%s or $ore. This bird of o%inion goes on rising and falling 6n one "ing! in ho%e to rea#h his nest. When he es#a%es fro$ o%inion and 0no"ledge is seen! This bird gains t"o "ings and s%reads both of the$. After"ards he (goes %right on a straight %ath! Not gro)elling on his fa#e or #ree%ing.( l He flies % on t"o "ings e)en as the angel <abriel! @ree of o%inion! of d %li#ity! and of )ain tal0. Tho gh the "hole "orld say to hi$! (Tho art fir$ in the road of <od2s faith!( He is not $ade $ore ardent by their saying this! Nor is his lofty so l in#lined fro$ its #o rse. And tho gh all say to hi$! (Tho art in the "rong "ay Tho thin0est thyself a ro#0 "ho art b t a blade of grass!( He rela%ses not into o%inion at their reb 0es! Nor is he )e,ed at their $ale)olen#e. Nay! e)en if sea and $o ntains sho ld #ry o t! 9aying! (Tho art $ated "ith error!( He "o ld not rela%se one -ot into )ain i$aginations! Nor "o ld he be grie)ed by the re%roa#hes of his foes.

CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,)ii! 88. STOR' 1III% The "#ys and *hei( Tea)he(% To ill strate the for#e of i$agination or o%inion! a story is told of a tri#0 %layed by boys %on their $aster. The boys "ished to obtain a holiday! and the shar%est of the$ s ggested that "hen the $aster #a$e into the s#hool ea#h boy sho ld #ondole "ith hi$ on his alleged si#0ly a%%earan#e. A##ordingly! "hen he entered! one said! (6 $aster! ho" %ale yo are loo0ing1( and another said! (/o are loo0ing )ery ill today!( and so on. The $aster at first ans"ered that there "as nothing the $atter "ith hi$! b t as one boy after another #ontin ed ass ring hi$ that he loo0ed )ery ill! he "as at length del ded into i$agining that he $ st really be ill. 9o he ret rned to his ho se! $a0ing the boys follo" hi$ there! and told his "ife that he "as not "ell! bidding her $ar0 ho" %ale he "as. His "ife ass red hi$ he "as not loo0ing %ale! and offered to #on)in#e hi$ by bringing a $irror3 b t he ref sed to loo0 at it! and too0 to his bed. He then ordered the boys to begin their lessons3 b t they ass red hi$ that the noise $ade his head a#he! and he belie)ed the$! and dis$issed the$ to their ho$es! to the annoyan#e of their $others. A%ro%os of the shar%ness of the boy "ho de)ised this tri#0! the %oet ta0es o##asion to #ontro)ert the o%inion of the * 2taEalites! that all $ en are born "ith e> al ability! and to e,%ress his agree$ent "ith the do#trine of the 9 nnis! that the innate #a%a#ities of $en )ary )ery greatly. STOR' I5% The !a(vesh -h# "(#$e his 1#-% There "as on#e a 5ar)esh "ho too0 % his abode in the $o ntains! in order to en-oy %erfe#t solit de. +n that %la#e "ere $any fr it-trees! and the 5ar)esh $ade a )o" that he "o ld ne)er %l #0 any of the fr it! b t eat only "hat "as sha0en do"n by the "ind. @or a long ti$e he 0e%t his )o"3 b t a ti$e #a$e "hen there "as no "ind! and #onse> ently no fr it "as sha0en do"n. The 5ar)esh "as tr e to his )o" for fi)e days! b t ho #o ld then end re the %angs of h nger no longer! and he stret#hed o t his hand and %l #0ed so$e of the fr it fro$ the bran#hes. The reason of this la%se on his %art "as that he had o$itted to say (+f <od "ill( "hen $a0ing his

)o"3 and as nothing #an be a##o$%lished "itho t <od2s aid! ho #o ld not %ossibly 0ee% his )o". 9hortly after"ards the #hief of the %oli#e )isited the $o ntains in % rs it of a band of robbers! and arrested the 5ar)esh along "ith the$! and # t off his hand. When he dis#o)ered his $ista0e he a%ologiEed )ery earnestly3 b t the 5ar)esh reass red hi$! saying that $en "ere not to bla$e! as <od had e)idently designed to % nish hi$ for brea0ing his )o" 2by de%ri)ing hi$ of the hand "hi#h had sinned in %l #0ing the fr it. 1 All *hin/s de+enden* u+#n *he -ill #, &#d% Therefore hath <od #o$$anded! (*a0e an e,#e%tion! Do %le the "ords 2+f <od "ill2 "ith yo r )o"s. 8 .e#a se the go)ernan#e of a#tions is in $y hands! The "ills of all are s b-e#t to $y "ill. E)ery $o$ent + i$%art a fresh bias to the heart! E)ery instant + set a fresh $ar0 on the heart3 Ea#h day + a$ engaged in a fresh "or0! : There is na ght that s"er)es fro$ $y % r%ose.( There is a tradition! (The heart is li0e a feather +n the desert! "hi#h is borne #a%ti)e by the "inds3 = The "ind dri)es it e)ery"here at rando$! No" to right and no" to left in o%%osite dire#tions.( A##ording to another tradition! 0no" the heart is li0e To "ater in a 0ettle boiling on the fire. 9o e)ery $o$ent a fresh % r%ose o## rs to the heart! Not %ro#eeding fro$ itself! b t fro$ its sit ation. Why! then! are yo #onfident abo t the heart2s % r%oses4 Why $a0e yo )o"s only to be #o)ered "ith sha$e4 All these #hanges %ro#eed fro$ the effe#t of <od2s "ill3 Altho gh yo see the %it! yo #annot a)oid it. The strange thing is! not that "inged fo"l @all into the deadly snare "itho t seeing it! . t that they see the snare and the li$ed t"ig! And yet fall into it! "hether they "ill or no3 Their eyes and ears are o%en and the snare is in front! /et they fly into the snare "ith their o"n "ings1 Do$%arison of the di)ine de#rees to so$ething that is hidden! yet "hose effe#ts are seen. .ehold that 0ing2s son #lad in rags! With bare head and fallen into distress3 Dons $ed by l sts and rioto s li)ing! Ha)ing sold all his #lothes and s bstan#e3 Ha)ing lost ho se and ho$e! tterly disgra#ed! @ lfilling the desire of his ene$ies by his disgra#e.

+f he sees a %io s $an he #ries! (6 sir! Aid $e! for the lo)e of <od3 @or + ha)e fallen into this dire disgra#e3 + ha)e s> andered goods and gold and "ealth. Aid $e so that %er#han#e + $ay es#a%e hen#e! And e,tri#ate $yself fro$ this dee% slo gh.( He re%eats this %rayer to high and lo"! ( Release $e! release $e! release $e1( His eyes and ears are o%en! and he is free fro$ bonds! No -ailer "at#hes hi$! no #hain binds hi$3 What! then! is the bond fro$ "hi#h he as0s release4 What is the %rison fro$ "hi#h ho see0s an e,it4 2Tis the bond of <od2s % r%ose and hidden de#rees3 Ah1 none b t the % re in sight #an see that bond3 Tho gh not )isible! that bond e,ists in #on#eal$ent3 2Tis $ore stringent than %rison or #hains of iron! @or the $ason #an % ll do"n %rison "alls! And bla#0s$iths #an brea0 as nder iron #hains3 . t! strange to say! this %ondero s hidden bond! .la#0s$iths are i$%otent to brea0 this as nder1 Ah$ad alone #o ld see that bond on 6$$ Iahil2s ba#0! ? And the ro%e of %al$ fiber bo nd %on her ne#03 /ea! he sa" "ood on the ba#0 of the "ife of . &ahab! And she! the bearer of the fire"ood! said it "as hea)y. No eye b t his sa" that ro%e and that fire"ood! @or to hi$ things nseen "ere )isible. The others e,%lained it! saying That Ah$ad "as beside hi$self! and they in their senses. Ne)ertheless fro$ the "eight of the load her ba#0 bent! And she #o$%lained of its "eight before hi$! 9aying! (Aid $e to es#a%e fro$ this load! And to sha0e off this grie)o s b rden.( He "ho sees #learly these indi#ations! 5oes he not 0no" also the doo$ed fro$ the ele#t4 /ea! he 0no"s the$! yet #on#eals it by #o$$and of <od! 9in#e <od %er$its hi$ not to re)eal it. CN6TE9' 1. #%. Dran$er. 8. Koran ,)iii. 8:. :. Koran l). 893 #%. Iohn ). 1J. =. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! )ol. iii. %. =9F. ?. 9ee Koran #,i.' Ab &abab! at the instigation of his "ife! 6$$ Iahil! re-e#ted * ha$$ad2s #lai$ to the %ro%heti# offi#e and * ha$$ad

de#lared that they sho ld be b rned in the fiery fla$e!( and the "ife (laden "ith fire"ood! and on her ne#0 a ro%e of %al$ fiber.( STOR' 5% The Old Man -h# made n# Lamen*a*i#n a* *he !ea*h #, his S#ns% After short ane#dotes of 7haraoh2s $agi#ians! of the $ le "ho #o$%lained to the #a$el that he "as al"ays st $bling! and of the %ro%het EEra! #o$es the story of the old $an "ho "e%t not for the death of his sons. An old $an "ho "as noted for san#tity! and "ho realiEed the saying of the 7ro%het! (The 2 la$a of the faith are as the %ro%hets of +srael!( lost all his sons! b t sho"ed no grief or regret. His "ife therefore reb 0ed hi$ for his "ant of feeling! "here %on he re%lied to her as follo"s' He t rned to his "ife and said! (6 da$e! The har)est of 5e#e$ber is not as that of I ly3 Tho gh they be dead or tho gh they be li)ing! Are they not e> ally )isible to the eyes of the heart4 + behold the$ #learly before $e! Wherefore sho ld + disfig re $y #o ntenan#e li0e yo 4 Tho gh they ha)e gone forth by re)ol tion of fort ne! They are "ith $e still! %laying ro nd $e. The #a se of la$entation is se%aration or %arting! . t + a$ still "ith $y dear ones! and e$bra#e the$. 6rdinary %eo%le $ay see the$ in drea$s! . t + see the$ #learly! tho gh "ide a"a0e. + #on#eal $yself a "hile fro$ this "orld! + sha0e do"n the lea)es of o t"ard sense fro$ the tree. Kno"! 6 "ife! o t"ard sense is #a%ti)e to reason! And reason! again! is #a%ti)e to s%irit. 9%irit nlooses the #hained hands of reason3 /ea! it o%ens all things that are #losed. 9ensations and tho ghts rese$ble "eeds Whi#h o## %y the s rfa#e of % re "ater. The hand of reason % ts these "eeds aside! And the % re "ater is then )isible to the "ise. Weeds in %lenty #o)er the strea$ li0e b bbles3 When they are s"e%t aside! the "ater is seen3 . t "hen <od nlooses not the hands of reason! The "eeds on o r "ater gro" thi#0 thro gh #arnal l st3 /ea! they #o)er % yo r "ater $ore and $ore!

While yo r l st is s$iling and yo r reason "ee%ing. When fear of <od binds the hands of l st! Then <od nlooses the t"o hands of reason. Then the %o"erf l senses are s bd ed by yo ! When yo s b$it to reason as yo r #o$$ander Then yo r slee%less sense is l lled into slee%! That $ysteries $ay a%%ear to the so l. /o behold )isions "hen broad a"a0e! And the gates of hea)en are o%en before yo .( STOR' 5I% "ahl#l and *he !a(vesh% The foregoing story is follo"ed by ane#dotes of a blind saint "ho "as $ira# lo sly enabled to read the Koran! of & >$an and 5a)id! and a des#ri%tion of the saints "ho! $indf l of the saying! (7atien#e is the 0ey of ha%%iness! resign the$sel)es to the dis%ensations of 7ro)iden#e! and ne)er %ray to ha)e the$ altered. The story of .ahlol and the 5ar)esh is then gi)en as an e,a$%le of this resignation to the "ill of <od. .ahlol on#e %aid a )isit to a saintly 5ar)esh! and as0ed hi$ ho" he fared. The 5ar)esh re%lied! (+ fare li0e a $an "ho dire#ts the #o rse of the "orld as he "ills! to "ho$ death and life are s bser)ient! and "ho$ tho stars the$sel)es obey.( .ahlol then %ressed hi$ to e,%lain his $eaning $ore #learly! and the 5ar)esh re%lied as follo"s' He said! (This at least is notorio s to all $en! That the "orld obeys the #o$$and of <od. Not a leaf falls fro$ a tree Witho t the de#ree and #o$$and of that &ord of lords3 Not a $orsel goes fro$ the $o th do"n the throat Till <od says to it! 2<o do"n.2 5esire and a%%etite! "hi#h are the reins of $an0ind! Are the$sel)es s bser)ient to the r le of <od. Hear this $ #h! that! "hereas the totality of a#tions +s not effe#ted "itho t <od2s dire#tion! When the de#ree of <od be#o$es the %leas re of $an! Then $an desires the f lfill$ent of <od2s de#rees3 And this too s%ontaneo sly! not in ho%e of re"ard! . t be#a se his )ery nat re is #ongr o s there"ith. He desires not e)en his o"n life for hi$self! Nor is he relying on the ho%e of s"eets of life to #o$e. Whate)er %ath is ta0en by the eternal de#ree! Whether it be life or death! 2tis all one to hi$.

He li)es for the sa0e of <od! not for "ealth3 He dies for the sa0e of <od! not in fear and grief. His faith is based on his desire to do <od2s "ill! Not on ho%e to gain %aradise "ith its gro)es and fo nts. His a)oidan#e of infidelity is also for <od2s sa0e! +t %ro#eeds not fro$ fear of falling into the fire. Th s this te$%er of his arises fro$ his )ery nat re! Not fro$ any dis#i%line and endea)or of his o"n. At ti$es he la ghs "hen he #onte$%lates <od2s %leas re! <od2s de#rees are to hi$ as s"eet$eats of s gar. + as0! does not the "orld $ar#h agreeably to the "ill And #o$$ands of a $an re-oi#ing in this dis%osition4 Why! then! sho ld s #h a one $a0e %rayers and %etitions! 9aying! 26 <od! #hange s #h and s #h a de#ree42 His o"n death and his #hildren2s deaths @or <od2s sa0e see$ to hi$ as s"eets in the $o th. +n the )ie" of that faithf l one his #hildren2s deaths Are as s"eet$eats to a star)ing beggar. Why! therefore! sho ld he $a0e %rayers Anless he %ray for "hat is %leasing to <od4 These %rayers and %etitions! not those of self-%ity *a0e that $an to be end ed "ith sal)ation. He tterly b rned % all his self-%ity! At the ti$e "hen he lit the la$% of lo)e to <od. His lo)e "as the hell that b rned % his in#linations3 /ea! ho b rned % his o"n in#linations one by one.( STOR' 5II% The 1isi#ns seen by *he Sain* !a:u:i% To ill strate the e,alted state of identifi#ation of the "ill "ith the 5i)ine "ill - st des#ribed! the %oet tells the story of the )isions and $ighty "or0s of the holy 5a> >i. 5a> >i "as -o rneying in %io s fer)or! and in ho%e to see the s%lendo r of (The @riend( in h $an sha%e! the 6#ean in a dro% of "ater! and the 9 n in an ato$! "hen late one e)ening he arri)ed at the seashore. T rning his eyes to hea)en! he sa" se)en great lights ne)er before seen of $en! for (<od dire#ts "ho$ He "ill.( 1 6)er"hel$ed "ith a"e! he "at#hed these lights! and "hile he still "at#hed the$ they nited into one light. 9till $ore a$aEed! he "at#hed on! and the single light shortly ass $ed the li0eness of se)en $en. After"ards these se)en $en #hanged into se)en trees3 b t! strange to say! altho gh #ro"ds of %eo%le "ere %assing by! none of the$ #o ld see these trees! so that 5a> >i shared the feelings of the a%ostles ("ho lost all ho%e( Gof #on)in#ing the "orldH! (and dee$ed that! they "ere re#0oned as liars.( 8 7ossessing his

so l in %atien#e! 5a> >i still "at#hed on! and sa" the se)en trees bo"ing do"n in %rayer! and "as re$inded of the te,t! (7lants and trees bend in adoration.( : 7resently the se)en trees again #hanged into se)en $en! and 5a> >i "as a%%ointed to #ond #t their de)otions. While he "as yet a#ting as +$a$ in front of the$! and they "ere follo"ing the %rayers he re#ited! a shi% "as seen in great distress and all b t lost. At 5a> >i2s earnest %rayer the #re" "ere sa)ed! b t straight"ay )anished fro$ sight3 and this led his follo"ers to do bt the reality of the $ira#le "hi#h had - st been %erfor$ed before their eyes. !es)(i+*i#n #, a sain* -h#se -ill -as iden*i,ied -i*h &#d's -ill% That 5a> >i %ossessed a s"eet as%e#t! As a lo)er of <od and a "or0er of $ira#les. He rese$bled the $oon of hea)en #o$e do"n on earth! He "as as a light to the$ that "al0ed in dar0ness. He rarely tarried in one %la#e! And seldo$ stayed t"o days in one )illage. He said! (+f + tarry in one ho se t"o days! Atta#h$ent to that ho se be#o$es a %assion "ith $e. + g ard $yself fro$ being de#ei)ed into lo)ing a ho$e3 A%1 9o l! and tra)el in sear#h of eternal "ealth. *y heart2s in#lination is not satisfied by ho ses! 9o that they sho ld be %la#es of te$%tation for $e.( Th s by day he tra)eled! and by night %rayed! His eyes "ere al"ays gaEing on the King as a fal#on2s3 D t off fro$ $an0ind! tho gh not for any fa lt! 9e)ered fro$ $en and "o$en! tho gh not for baseness3 Ha)ing #o$%assion on $an0ind! and "holeso$e as "ater! A 0ind inter#essor! and one "hose %rayers "ere heard. .ene)olent to the good and the bad! and a fir$ ally! .etter than a $other! and 0inder than a father. The 7ro%het said! (To yo ! 6 blessed ones! + a$ as a father! affe#tionate and ind lgent3 @or this #a se! that yo are all %ortions of $e.( Wherefore sho ld yo tear a"ay the %arts fro$ the "hole4 +f the %art be se)ered fro$ its "hole it is seless3 +f a li$b be rent fro$ the body it dies. Till it is again -oined to its "hole! 2Tis a dead thing! and a stranger to life. Th s 5a> >i! in de)otions and %raises and %rayers! Was e)er see0ing the %arti# lar fa)orites of <od. Thro gho t his long -o rneys his ob-e#t "as this! To inter#hange a "ord "ith the fa)orites of <od. He #ried #ontin ally as he "ent his "ay!

(6 &ord! let $e dra" near to Thy #hosen ones1( 9o 5a> >i Gthe $er#y of <od be %on hi$1H 9aid! (+ -o rneyed long ti$e to East and to West! + -o rneyed years and $onths for lo)e of that *oon! Heedless of the "ay! absorbed in <od. With bare feet + trod %on thorns and flints! 9eeing + "as be"ildered! and beside $yself! and senseless. Thin0 not $y feet to #hed the earth! @or the lo)er )erily tra)els "ith the heart. What 0no"s the heart of road and stages4 What of distant and near! "hile it is dr n0 "ith lo)e4 5istan#e and nearness are attrib tes of bodies! The -o rneys of s%irits are after another sort. /o -o rneyed fro$ the e$bryo state to rationality Witho t footste%s or stages or #hange of %la#e! The -o rney of the so l in)ol)es not ti$e and %la#e. And $y body learnt fro$ the so l its $ode of -o rneying! No" $y body has reno n#ed the bodily $ode of -o rneying3 +t -o rneys se#retly and "itho t for$! tho gh nder a for$.( He added! (6ne day + "as th s filled "ith longing To behold in h $an for$ the s%lendo rs of 2The @riend!2 To "itness the 6#ean gathered % into a dro%! The 9 n #o$%ressed into a single ato$3 And "hen + dre" near to the shore of the sea The day "as dra"ing to a #lose.( All religions are in s bstan#e one and the sa$e. +n the adorations and benedi#tions of righteo s $en The %raises of all the %ro%hets are 0neaded together. All their %raises are $ingled into one strea$! All the )essels are e$%tied into one e"er. .e#a se He that is %raised is! in fa#t! only 6ne! +n this res%e#t all religions are only one religion. .e#a se all %raises are dire#ted to"ards <od2s light! Their )ario s for$s and fig res are borro"ed fro$ it. *en ne)er address %raises b t to 6ne dee$ed "orthy! They err only thro gh $ista0en o%inions of Hi$. 9o! "hen a light falls %on a "all! That "all is a #onne#ting-lin0 bet"een all its bea$s3 /et "hen it #asts that refle#tion ba#0 to its so r#e! +t "rongly sho"s great as s$all! and halts in its %raises. 6r if the $oon be refle#ted in a "ell! And one loo0s do"n the "ell! and $ista0enly %raises it! +n reality he is intending to %raise the $oon! Altho gh! thro gh ignoran#e! he is loo0ing do"n the "ell. The ob-e#t of his %raises is the $oon! not its refle#tion3 His infidelity arises fro$ $ista0e of the #ir# $stan#es.

That "ell-$eaning $an goes "rong thro gh his $ista0e3 The $oon is in hea)en! and he fan#ies it in the "ell. .y these false idols $an0ind are %er%le,ed! And dri)en by )ain l sts to their sorro" The Man in *he *ime #, *he P(#+he* !avid -h# +(ayed *# be ,ed -i*h#u* havin/ *# -#($ ,#( his ,##d% After the %etitioner had slain and eaten the #o"! the o"ner of the #o" #a$e % and a## sed hi$ of theft! and seiEing hi$ by the #ollar! dragged hi$ before the - dg$ent-seat of the %ro%het 5a)id. When he had stated his #ase! 5a)id ordered the a## sed to $a0e restit tion! telling hi$ that he $ st not brea0 the la". At this order the a## sed redo bled his #ries! telling 5a)id that he "as siding "ith an o%%ressor. 5a)id "as staggered at the $an2s ass ran#e! and finally resol)ed to ta0e f rther ti$e for #onsideration before de#iding the #ase. After %ri)ate $editation he re)ersed his for$er senten#e! and dire#ted the %laintiff to relin> ish his #lai$. 6n the %laintiff ref sing to do this! and sto tly %rotesting against 5a)id2s in- sti#e. 5a)id f rther ordered that all the %laintiff2s goods sho ld be gi)en to the a## sed. The reason for this de#ision "as! that 5a)id dis#o)ered the %laintiff had for$erly slain the grandfather of the a## sed! and stolen all his goods. 5a)id then led all the *osal$ans to a tree in the desert "here the $ rder had been %er%etrated! and there % t the $ rderer to death. The hands and ,ee* #, )(iminals be*(ay *hei( )(imes even in *his -#(ld% He of hi$self lifted the )eil that hid his #ri$e3 Had he not done so! <od "o ld ha)e 0e%t it hidden. Dri$inals and sinners! e)en in the #o rse of sinning! The$sel)es rend the #o)erings of their #ri$es. Their sins are )eiled a$ong the heart2s se#rets! /et the #ri$inal hi$self e,%oses the$ to )ie"! 9aying! (.ehold $e "earing a %air of horns! A #o" of hell in sight of all $en.( Th s! e)en here! in the $idst of thy sin! thy hand and foot .ear "itness of the se#rets of thy heart. Thy se#ret tho ght is as a go)ernor "ho says to thee! (Tell forth thy #on)i#tions! "ithhold the$ not3( Es%e#ially in seasons of %assion and angry tal0 +t betrays thy se#rets one by one. Thy se#ret sins and #ri$es go)ern hand and foot! 9aying! (5is#lose s to $en! 6 hand and foot1(

And sin#e these "itnesses ta0e the bit in their $o ths! Es%e#ially in ti$es of %assion and "rath and re)enge! Therefore the sa$e <od "ho a%%ointed this go)ernor To blaEen forth thy se#ret sins to the "orld +s also able to #reate $any $ore go)ernors To di) lge thy se#ret sins on the day of - dg$ent. = 6 $an "hose only handi"or0 is #ri$e and sin3 Thy se#ret sins are $anifest3 no di) lging is needed. There is no need to %ro#lai$ thy sins! All $en are #ogniEant of thy sin-b rnt heart. Thy so l e)ery $o$ent #asts % s%ar0s of fire! Whi#h say! (9ee $e a $an destined to the fire3 + a$ a %art of the fire! and go to -oin $y "hole3 Not a light! so that + sho ld -oin the 9o r#e of light.( Do$%arison of l st to the $ rderer in the story. Kill thine o"n l st and gi)e life to the "orld3 +t has 0illed its lord! red #e it to ser)it de. That #lai$ant of the #o" is thy l st3 .e"are1 +t has $ade itself lord and $aster. That slayer of the #o" is thy reason3 <o1 .e not obd rate to the %rayers of hi$ that 0ills the #o". Reason is a %oor #a%ti)e! and e)er #ries to <od @or $eat on its dish "itho t laboring and toiling. 6n "hat de%ends its getting $eat "itho t toiling4 6n its 0illing the #o" of the body! the so r#e of e)il. & st says! (Why hast tho 0illed $y #o"4( +t says! (.e#a se l st2s #o" is the for$ of the body.( ? Reason! the &ord2s #hild! has be#o$e a %a %er! & st! the $ rderer! has be#o$e a lord and #hief. Kno"2st tho "hat is $eat ntoiled for4 2Tis the food of s%irits and the ali$ent of the 7ro%het. . t it is attainable only by slaying the #o"3 Treas re is gained by digging! 6 digger of treas re1 CN6TE9' 1. Koran l). ?. 8. Koran ,ii. 11F. :. Koran ii. 1:B. =. (6n that day shall their hands s%ea0 nto s! and their feet shall bear "itness of that "hi#h they ha)e done( GKoran ,,,)i. B?H. ?. .aha -2d-5in A$ili! in his Nan "a Hal"a! #ha%. i).! #o$%ares l st to a #o"! referring to Koran ii. B:. STOR' 5III%

The Pe#+le #, Saba% After an ane#dote of 2+sa being obliged to as#end a $o ntain to get a"ay fro$ the fools #o$es the story of the $en of 9aba. (A sign there "as to 9aba in their d"elling-%la#es t"o gardens! the one on the right hand and the other on the left3 2Eat ye of yo r &ord2s s %%lies! and gi)e than0s to Hi$3 goodly is the #o ntry and gra#io s is the &ord.2 . t they t rned aside! so "e sent %on the$ the flood of lra$. 9 #h "as o r retrib tion on the$ for their ingratit de.( 1 The $en of 9aba "ere all fools! and bro ght destr #tion on the$sel)es by their ingratit de to <od. 6ne "as farsighted! and yet blind3 another shar% of hearing! and yet deaf3 and a third na0ed! and yet "earing a long robe. A)ari#e is blind to its o"n fa lts! b t sees those of others3 the shar%-eared deaf $an hears death a%%roa#hing others! b t not hi$self! and the long-robed na0ed $an is he "ho fears robbers! tho gh he has nothing to lose. +n fa#t! all these $en of 9aba "ere affli#ted "ith follies and self-del sions of this 0ind! and ga)e no than0s to <od for the blessings "hi#h they en-oyed. A##ordingly thirteen %ro%hets "ere sent to ad$onish the$! b t their ad$onitions "ere not listened to! the $en of 9aba > estioning their di)ine $ission and de$anding a $ira#le as a sign. They also told the %ro%hets a %arable of a #le)er hare! "ho! "ishing to frighten an ele%hant a"ay fro$ a fo ntain! "ent to the ele%hant! %retending to be an a$bassador fro$ the $oon.8 The %ro%hets "ere nat rally indignant at the effrontery of the $en of 9aba in $isa%%lying %arables to dis#redit their di)ine $ission! and re$inded the$ that "i#0ed $en had flo ted the %ro%het Noah in the sa$e "ay "hen he "as "arning the$ of the flood. And they de$onstrated at length ho" the $en of 9aba had $isa%%lied the %arable of the hare and the ele%hant! and again ad- red the$ to belie)e. . t the $en of 9aba #ontin ed refra#tory! and "o ld not! a##e%t the 7ro%hets2 #o nsels. They %lied the %ro%hets "ith the arg $ents of the Do$% lsionists GIabriyanH! and ref sed to be #on)in#ed of the falla#y of their reasoning. 9o at last the %ro%hets des%aired of the$! and left the$ to their doo$. #* eve(y #ne )an +(#+e(ly use simili*udes and +a(ables in divine ma**e(s% The fa# lty of sing si$ilit des is %e# liar to a saint Who is signally $ar0ed by 0no"ledge of hidden $ysteries. What 0no" yo of the $ystery hid in a ght! that yo +n yo r folly sho ld se si$ilit des of # rl and #hee04 *oses too0 his staff to be a sti#0! tho gh it "as not3 +t "as a ser%ent! and its $ystery "as re)ealed. +f a saint s #h as he 0ne" not the $ystery of a sti#0! What 0no" yo of the $ystery of the snare and grains4 When the eye of a *oses erred as to a si$ilit de!

Ho" #an a %res $%t o s $o se nderstand one4 Those si$ilit des of yo rs are #hanged into ser%ents To tear yo into %ie#es "ith their -a"s. 9 #h a %arable did # rsed +blis se! 9o that he be#a$e # rsed of <od till the day of doo$. 9 #h a %arable did Korah se in his arg $ent! 9o that he "as s"allo"ed % in the earth "ith his "ealth. 9 #h %arables 0no" to be as #ro"s and o"ls! Whereby a h ndred ho seholds are annihilated. When Noah "as b ilding the ar0 in the desert! A h ndred %arable-$ongers atta#0ed hi$ "ith irony! 9aying! (+n the desert! "here is no "ater or "ell! He b ilds a boat1 What ignorant folly is this1( The arg $ents of the Iabriyan! i.e.! the @atalists or Do$% lsionists. The $en of 9aba said! (6 %rea#hers! eno gh1 What yo say is eno gh! if there are any "ise here. <od has %la#ed a 2lo#0 %on o r hearts!2 : And no $an #an o)er#o$e the Dreator. That great 7ainter has %ainted s th s3 His %ainting #annot be altered by arg $ent. Kee% telling fore)er a stone to be#o$e a r by! Kee% telling fore)er the old to be#o$e yo ng1 Tell earth to ass $e the > ality of "ater! .id "ater to be#o$e honey or $il01 <od is the #reator of hea)en and the$ that d"ell therein3 Also of "ater and of earth! and the$ that d"ell therein3 To hea)en He ga)e its re)ol tions and its % rity! To the earth its dar0 loo0 and a%%earan#e. Dan the hea)en "ill to be#o$e as dregs4 Dan earth "ill to ass $e the #learness of % re "ine4 That 7erson has assigned 2to ea#h its lot! Dan $o ntain by endea)or be#o$e as grass4( The %ro%hets ans"ered! (;erily <od has #reated 9o$e > alities in yo "hi#h yo #annot alter3 . t He has #reated other a##idental > alities! Whi#h! being ob-e#tionable! $ay be $ade good. .id stone be#o$e gold that is i$%ossible3 .id #o%%er be#o$e gold that is %ossible. .id sand bloo$ as a rose it #annot3 .id d st t rn to $ d that is "ithin its #a%a#ity. <od has sent so$e %ains for "hi#h there is no # re! 9 #h! for instan#e! as la$eness! loss of nose! and blindness. <od has sent other %ains for "hi#h there are # res! To "it! #roo0ed $o th and heada#he. <od has ordained these re$edies of His $er#y3 The se of these in %ain and ang ish is not in )ain.

Nay! the $a-ority of %ains $ay be # red3 When yo see0 those # res earnestly yo find the$.( The $en of 9aba re%lied! (6 $en! these %ains of o rs Are not of the sort 2that ad$it of # re. &ong ti$e ye tter these %resages and "arnings! . t o r bonds are $ade thereby hea)ier e)ery $o$ent. +f o r si#0ness ad$itted of a # re! +t "o ld #ertainly ha)e been lessened by yo r s%ells. When the body is obstr #ted "ater rea#hes not the li)er! Tho gh one drin0s the o#ean! it %asses else"here. Then of #o rse the hands and feet be#o$e dro%si#al! And. yet that dra ght does not > en#h his thirst.( The %ro%hets re%lied! (To des%air is "rong! The $er#y and gra#e of <od are bo ndless. 6ne $ st not des%air of the gra#e of s #h a .enefa#tor! 6ne $ st #ling to the stirr %-stra%s of <od. Ah1 $any are the #onditions "hi#h at first are hard! . t! are after"ards relie)ed and lose their harshless. 6ftenti$es ho%e s ##eeds to ho%elessness! *any ti$es does s nlight s ##eed to dar0ness. We ad$it that ye are "eighted as "ith stones! OAnd that ye ha)e lo#0s %on yo r ears and yo r hearts. = No #ondition of o rs is altogether as "e "ish! 6 r b siness is to be resigned and to obey. <od has en-oined this ser)it de %on s3 We say not this $erely on o r o"n a thority. We en-oy life on #ondition of doing His "ill3 +f He bids s! "e so" o r seed %on the sand. The so l of the %ro%het #ares for na ght b t <od! +t has na ght to do "ith a%%ro)ing or disa%%ro)ing His "or0s.( The $en of 9aba re%lied! (+f ye yo rsel)es are ha%%y! /e $a0e s $iserable and annoy and dist rb s. 6 r so ls "ere )oid of all an,ieties! And ye ha)e %l nged s into #ares and an,ieties. The #o$fort and har$ony "hi#h "e en-oyed heretofore Ha)e been rent in %ie#es by yo r e)il %resages. We sed to be as %arrots $ n#hing s gar! /e ha)e $ade s as fo"ls brooding on death. 6n e)ery side stories ins%iring an,iety! 6n e)ery side so nds e,#iting fears' 6n e)ery side in the "orld an e)il %resage! 6n e)ery side e)il %ortents threatening % nish$ent' This is the b rden of yo r %arables and %resages! This the % r%ort of yo r a"e-ins%iring stories.( The %ro%hets re%lied! (6 r e)il %resages Are #orroborated by the state of yo r so ls.

9 %%ose yo are slee%ing in a %la#e of danger! And ser%ents are dra"ing near to bite yo r heads! A 0ind friend "ill infor$ yo of yo r danger! 9aying! 2I $% %! lest the ser%ent de)o r yo .2 /o re%ly! 2Why do yo tter e)il %resages42 He ans"ers! 2What %resage4 A%! and see for yo rself1 .y $eans of this e)il %resage + ro se yo ! And release yo fro$ danger and lead yo to yo r ho$e.2 &i0e a %ro%het he "arns yo of hidden danger! @or a %ro%het sees "hat "orldlings #annot see.( *er#y in#lines the good to de)otion! b t )engean#e the bad. +f yo do a 0indness to a genero s $an! 2tis fitting! @or ea#h 0indness he "ill ret rn se)en h ndredfold. When yo treat a base $an "ith s#orn and #ont $ely! He "ill be#o$e yo r sla)e in all sin#erity. +nfidels "hen en-oying %ros%erity do "rong! When they are in hell they #ry! (6 o r &ord1( @or base $en are % rified "hen they s ffer e)il! And "hen they en-oy %ros%erity they do e)il. Wherefore the $os> e of their de)otion is hell! As the snare is the fetter of "ild fo"l. The %rison is the her$itage of the "i#0ed thief! @or "hen he is there he is e)er #rying to <od. Whereas the ob-e#t of $an2s being is to "orshi% <od! Hell is ordained as a %la#e of "orshi% for the %ro d3 ? *an has the %o"er to engage in any a#tions soe)er! . t "orshi% of <od is the $ain ob-e#t of his e,isten#e. Read the te,t! B (+ ha)e not #reated Iinns and $en b t to "orshi% $e.( The only ob-e#t of the "orld is to "orshi% <od. Tho gh the ob-e#t of a boo0 is to tea#h an art! +f yo $a0e a %illo" of it! it ser)es that % r%ose too. /et its $ain ob-e#t is not to ser)e as a %illo"! . t to i$%art 0no"ledge and sef l instr #tion. +f yo se a s"ord for a tent-%eg! /o %refer the "orse se of it to the better. Tho gh the ob-e#t of all $en2s being is "isdo$! /et ea#h $an has a different %la#e of "orshi%. The %la#e of "orshi% of the noble is nobility! The %la#e of "orshi% of the base is degradation. 9$ite the base to $a0e the$ bo" the head. <i)e to the noble to $a0e the$ re%ay liberally. +nas$ #h as the base are e)il and arrogant! Hell and h $bling are the (s$all gate( for the$. ;erily <od has #reated t"o %la#es of adoration! Hell for the base and in#reased bliss for the noble. E)en so *oses $ade a s$all gate in Ier sale$! J

To $a0e the +sraelites bo" the head in entering it. The dis# ssion is #ontin ed and ill strated by ane#dotes of the 9 fi "ho %referred a table "ith no food %on it! be#a se he e)er so ght (notbeing!( of Ia#ob2s )ision of Iose%h! and of a de)o t sla)e "ho obtained lea)e of his $aster to say his %rayers in a $os> e! b t tarried there so long that the doors "ere sh t! and he #o ld not get o t! nor his $aster in. The %ro%hets at last des%aired of $a0ing any i$%ression %on the nbelie)ers! b t #alled to $ind the te,t (When at last the A%ostles lost all ho%e! and dee$ed that they "ere re#0oned as liars! o r aid rea#hed the$! and "e deli)ered "ho$ "e "o ld! b t o r )engean#e "as not a)erted fro$ the "i#0ed.( 8 The des+ai( #, *he +(#+he*s% The %ro%hets said! (Ho" long! in o r bene)olen#e! 9hall "e gi)e to this and that one good ad)i#e4 Ho" long shall "e ha$$er #old iron in )ain4 Ho" long "aste breath in blo"ing into a latti#e4 *en are $o)ed by <od2s de#ree and fi,ed ordinan#e! 9 As shar%-set teeth are #a sed by heat of belly. 2Tis 7ri$al 9o l that do$inates the 9e#ond 9o l!1F @ish begins to stin0 at the head! not the tail. /et be ad)ised and 0ee% yo r steed straight as an arro"! When <od says 27ro#lai$2 "e $ st obey. 11 6 $en! ye 0no" not to "hi#h %arty ye belong! 18 E,ert yo rsel)es then! till ye see "hi#h ye are. When yo %la#e goods %on a shi%! /o do it in tr st that the )oyage "ill be %ros%ero s3 /o 0no" not "hi#h of the t"o e)ents "ill befall yo ! Whether yo "ill be dro"ned or #o$e safe to land. +f yo say! 2Till + 0no" "hi#h "ill be $y fate + "ill not set foot %on the shi%3 9hall + be dro"ned on the )oyage or a s r)i)or4 Re)eal to $e in "hi#h #lass + shall be. + shall not nderta0e the )oyage on the #han#e 6n the bare ho%e of rea#hing land! as the rest do.2 +n that #ase no trade at all "ill be nderta0en by yo ! As the se#ret of these t"o e)ents is al"ays hidden. The la$% of the heart! that is a ti$id trader! A#> ires neither loss nor gain by its )ent res.1: Nay! it a#> ires loss! for it is %re#l ded fro$ gain3 2Tis the la$% that ta0es fire that a#> ires light. 9in#e all things are de%endent on %robability! Religion is so first of all! for thereby yo find release. +n this "orld no 0no#0ing at the door is %ossible

9a)e ho%e! and <od 0no"s "hat is best.( 7robability the g ide of life in religion as "ell as in #o$$on $atters. (Religion de%endent an ho%e and fear.( 1= The final #a se of trading is ho%e or %robability! When traders "or0 the$sel)es lean as s%indles. 1? When the $er#hant goes to his sho% in the $orning! He does so in ho%e and %robability of gaining bread. +f yo ha)e no ho%e of getting bread! "hy go4 There is the fear of loss! sin#e yo are not strong. . t does not this fear of tter loss in yo r trade .e#o$e "ea0ened in the #o rse of yo r e,ertions4 /o say! (Altho gh the fear of loss is before $e! /et + feel greater fear in re$aining idle. + ha)e a better ho%e thro gh e,erting $yself3 *y fear is in#reased by re$aining idle.( Why then! 6 faint-hearted one! in the $atter of religion Are yo %aralysed by the fear of loss4 9ee yo not ho" the traders in this $ar0et of o rs *a0e large %rofits! both a%ostles and saints4 What a $ine of "ealth a"aits the$ on lea)ing it! 9eeing they $a0e s #h %rofits "hile still here1 @ire is soft to the$ as #otton rai$ent! The o#ean bears the$ gently li0e a %orter3 +ron in their hands is soft as "a,! The "inds are their obedient sla)es. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,,,i). 1=. 8. An)ar i 9 haili! #ha%. i). 9tory +;. :. Koran ,,,)i. B. =. Koran l,i. ?' (<od led their hearts astray.( ?. <od said! (Do$e ye either in obedien#e! or in s%ite of yo r "ishes( GKoran ,li. 1FH. B. Koran li. ?B. J. 9ee Koran ii. ??! "ith 9ale2s note. 8. Koran ,ii. 11. 9. (All things ha)e "e #reated after a fi,ed de#ree! e)ery a#tion great and s$all is "ritten.( Koran li). =9. 1F. The &ogos or first E$anation %rod #ed the se#ond or (Ani)ersal 9o l.( 11. (6 A%ostle1 %ro#lai$ all that hath been sent do"n( GKoran ). J1H. 18. (Whi#h %arty!( i.e.! those doo$ed to be sa)ed or those doo$ed to destr #tion. 1:. (Nothing shall be re#0oned to a $an sa)e that for "hi#h he hath $ade effort( GKoran liii. =FH.

1=. 9o 9a2di .ostan .oo0 +. D%. . tler2s Analogy! Don#l sion. 1?. i.e.! e,ert the$sel)es $ #h. STOR' 5I1% Mi(a)les +e(,#(med by *he P(#+he* Muhammad% +t is related that the 7ro%het "as on#e %resent at a ban> et! and after he had eaten and dr n0! his ser)ant Anas thre" the na%0in "hi#h he had sed into the fire! and the na%0in "as not b rnt! 2b t only % rified by the fire. 6n another o##asion a #ara)an of Arabs "as tra)eling in the desert! and "as in sore distress thro gh la#0 of "ater! "here %on the 7ro%het $ira# lo sly in#reased the "ater in a single "ater-s0in! so that it s ffi#ed to s %%ly the needs of all the tra)elers. *oreo)er! the negro "ho #arried the "ater-s0in "as rendered as "hite and fair as Iose%h. Again! a heathen "o$an #a$e to the 7ro%het #arrying her infant! aged only t"o $onths! and the infant sal ted the 7ro%het as the )eritable a%ostle of <od. Again! "hen the %ro%het "as abo t to % t on his sandals! an eagle s"oo%ed do"n %on one of the$ and #arried it off! "hen a )i%er "as seen to dro% fro$ the sandal. The 7ro%het "as at first in#lined to gr $ble at this stro0e of ill-l #03 b t "hen he sa" the )i%er his dis#ontent "as t rned into than0f lness to <od! "ho had th s $ira# lo sly sa)ed hi$ fro$ being bitten by the )i%er. In di,,i)ul*ies *he(e is +(#vided a -ay #, salva*i#n 9% +n this tale there is a "arning for thee! 6 9o l! That tho $ayest a#> ies#e in <od2s ordinan#es! And be "ary and not do bt <od2s bene)olen#e! When s dden $isfort nes befall thee. &et others gro" %ale fro$ fear of ill fort ne! 5o tho s$ile li0e the rose at loss and gain3 @or the rose! tho gh its %etals be torn as nder! 9till s$iles on! and it is ne)er #ast do"n. +t says! (Why sho ld + fall into grief in disgra#e4 + gather bea ty e)en fro$ the thorn of disgra#e.( Whatsoe)er is lost to thee thro gh <od2s de#ree Kno" of a s rety is so $ #h gained fro$ $isfort ne. What is 9 fiis$4 2Tis to find -oy in the heart Whensoe)er distress and #are assail it. Kno" tro bles to be that eagle of the 7ro%het2s Whi#h #arried off the sandal of that holy one! +n order to sa)e his foot fro$ the bite of the )i%er 6 e,#ellent de)i#e1 to %reser)e hi$ fro$ har$.

2Tis said! (*o rn not for yo r sla ghtered #attle +f a "olf has harried yo r flo#0s3( @or that #ala$ity $ay a)ert a greater #ala$ity! And that loss $ay "ard off a $ore grie)o s loss. CN6TE9' 1. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! )ol. iii. %. ::=. STOR' 51% The Man -h# as$ed M#ses *# *ea)h him *he lan/ua/e #, animals% A #ertain $an #a$e to *oses and desired to be ta ght the lang age of ani$als! for! he said! $en sed their lang age only to get food and for % r%oses of de#e%tion! and %ossibly a 0no"ledge of ani$als2 lang ages $ight sti$ late his faith. *oses "as )ery n"illing to #o$%ly "ith his re> est! as he 0ne" s #h 0no"ledge "o ld %ro)e destr #ti)e to hi$! b t! on his %ersisting! too0 #o nsel of <od! and finally ta ght hi$ the lang age of fo"ls and dogs. Ne,t $orning the $an "ent a$ongst the fo"ls! and heard a dis# ssion bet"een the #o#0 and the dog. The dog "as ab sing the #o#0 for %i#0ing % the $orsels of bread "hi#h fell fro$ their $aster2s table! be#a se the #o#0 #o ld find %lenty of grains of #orn to eat! "hereas the dog #o ld only eat bread. The #o#0! to a%%ease hi$! said that on the $orro" the $aster2s horse "o ld die! and then the dog "o ld ha)e eno gh and to s%are. The $aster! hearing this! at on#e sold his horse! and the dog! being disa%%ointed of his $eal! again atta#0ed the #o#0. The #o#0 then told hi$ the $ le "o ld die! "here %on the $aster sold the $ le. Then the #o#0 foretold the death of a sla)e! and the $aster again sold the sla)e. At this the dog! losing %atien#e! %braided the #o#0 as the #hief of de#ei)ers! and the #o#0 e,# sed hi$self by sho"ing that all three deaths had ta0en %la#e - st as he had %redi#ted! b t the $aster had sold the horse! $ le! and sla)e! and had thro"n the loss on others. He added that! to % nish hi$ for his fra d lent dealing! the $aster "o ld hi$self die on the $orro"! and there "o ld be %lenty for the dog to eat at the f neral feast. Hearing this! the $aster "ent to *oses in great distress! and %rayed to be sa)ed. *oses beso ght the &ord for hi$! and gained %er$ission that he sho ld die in the %ea#e of <od. 6hy ,(ee-ill is /##d ,#( man% <od said! (5o tho grant his earnest re> est! Enlarge his fa# lty a##ording to his free"ill.

@ree"ill is as the salt to %iety! 6ther"ise hea)en itself "ere $atter of #o$% lsion. +n its re)ol tions re"ard and % nish$ent "ere needless! @or 2tis free"ill that has $erit at the great re#0oning. +f the "hole "orld "ere fra$ed to %raise <od! There "o ld be no $erit in %raising <od. 7la#e a s"ord in his hand and re$o)e his i$%oten#e! To see if he t rns o t a "arrior or a robber. .e#a se free"ill is that "here"ith 2"e honor Ada$!2 1 Half the s"ar$ be#o$e bees and half "as%s. The faithf l yield honey#o$bs li0e bees! The infidels yield store of %oison li0e "as%s. @or the faithf l feed on #hoi#e herbs! 9o that! li0e bees! their #hyle yields life-gi)ing food! Whilst infidels feed on filth and garbage! And generate %oison a##ording to their food.( *en ins%ired of <od are the fo ntain of life3 *en of del sions are a synony$ for death. +n the "orld the %raise (Well done faithf l ser)ant1( +s gi)en to free"ill "hi#h is sed "ith %r den#e. +f all dissol te $en "ere sh t % in %rison! They "o ld all be te$%erate and de)o t and %io s. When %o"er of #hoi#e is absent a#tions are "orthless3 . t be"are lest death snat#h a"ay yo r #a%ital1 /o r %o"er of #hoi#e is a #a%ital yielding %rofit! Re$e$ber "ell the day of final a##o nt1 CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,)ii. J8. STOR' 51I% The 6#man -h# l#s* all he( in,an*s% A "o$an bore $any #hildren in s ##ession! b t none of the$ li)ed beyond the age of three or fo r $onths. +n great distress she #ried to <od! and then beheld in a )ision the bea tif l gardens of 7aradise! and $any fair $ansions therein! and %on one of these $ansions she read her o"n na$e ins#ribed. And a )oi#e fro$ hea)en infor$ed her that <od "o ld a##e%t the sorro"s she had end red in lie of her blood shed in holy "ar! as! o"ing to her se,! she "as nable to go o t to battle li0e the $en. 6n loo0ing again! the "o$an beheld in 7aradise all the #hildren she had lost! and she #ried! (6 &ord 1 they "ere lost to $e! b t "ere safe "ith Thee1(

This story is follo"ed by ane#dotos of Ha$Ea going o t to battle "itho t his #oat-of-$ail! of the 7ro%het ad)ising a $an "ho #o$%lained of being #heated in his bargains to ta0e ti$e before #o$%leting the$! and of the death of .ilal! * ha$$ad2s #rier! and by ill strations of the ill si)e nat re of the "orld! of the differen#e bet"een things self-e)ident and $ere $atters of inferen#e! and bet"een 0no"ing a thing thro gh ill strations and on the a thority of others and 0no"ing it as it really is in its essen#e. The differen#e bet"een 0no"ing a thing $erely by si$ilit des and on the a thority of others! and 0no"ing the )ery essen#e thereof. <od2s $er#y is 0no"n thro gh the fr its thereof! . t "ho sa)e <od 0no"s His essen#e4 1 # #ne $n#-s *he ve(y essen)e #, &#d's a**(ibu*es "u* #nly in *hei( e,,e)*s and by simili*udes% A #hild 0no"s na ght of the nat re of se, al inter#o rse! E,#e%t "hat yo tell hi$! that it is li0e s"eet$eats. /et ho" far does the %leas re of se, al inter#o rse Really rese$ble that deri)ed fro$ s"eet$eats4 Ne)ertheless the fi#tion %rod #es a relation .et"een yo ! "ith yo r %erfe#t 0no"ledge! and the #hild3 9o that the #hild 0no"s the $atter by a si$ilit de! Tho gh he 0no"s not its essen#e or a#t al nat re. Hen#e if he says! (+ 0no" it!( 2tis not far "rong And if he says! (+ 0no" it not!( 2tis not "rong. 9ho ld one say! (5o yo 0no" Noah! That %ro%het of <od and l $inary of the 9%irit4( +f yo say! (5o + not 0no" hi$! for that $oon +s $ore fa$ed than the s n and $oon of hea)en4 &ittle #hildren in their s#hools! And elders in their $os> es! All read his na$e %ro$inently in the Koran! And %rea#hers tell his story fro$ ti$es of yore3( /o say tr e! for yo 0no" hi$ by re%ort! Tho gh the real nat re of Noah is not re)ealed to yo . 6n the other hand! if yo say! (What 0no" + of Noah As his #onte$%oraries 0ne" hi$4 + a$ a %oor ant "hat #an + 0no" of the ele%hant4 What 0no"s a fly of the $otions of the ele%hant4( This state$ent also is tr e! 6 brother! 9eeing that yo 0no" not his real nat re. . t this i$%oten#e to %er#ei)e real essen#e! Tho gh #o$$on to ordinary $en! is not ni)ersal3 .e#a se essen#e and its dee%est se#rets Are o%en and $anifest to the eyes of the %erfe#t.

Negation and affir$ation of one %ro%osition are la"f l3 When the as%e#ts differ the relation is do ble. (Tho #astest not "hen tho #astest( 8 sho"s s #h relation! Here negation and affir$ation are both #orre#t. Tho #astest it! sin#e it is in thy hand! Tho #astest not! sin#e 2tis <od "ho affords the strength. The $ight of the sons of Ada$ is li$ited! Ho" #an a handf l of sand shatter an ar$y4 The sand "as in $an2s hands! the #asting "as <od2s. 6"ing to the t"o relations negation and affir$ation are both tr e. The infidels 0no" the %ro%hets! As "ell as they do btless 0no" their o"n #hildren3 /ea! the infidels 0no" the$ as "ell as their o"n sons! .y a h ndred to0ens and a h ndred e)iden#es! . t fro$ en)y and $ali#e #on#eal their 0no"ledge! And in#line the$sel)es to say! (We 0no" the$ not.( 9o "hen <od says in one %la#e (0no"s the$!( +n another He says! (None 0no"s the$ beside $e.( @or in tr th they are hid nder <od2s o)ershado"ing! : And none b t <od 0no"s the$ by a#t al e,%erien#e. Therefore ta0e this de#laration "ith its #onte,t! Re$e$bering ho" yo 0no" and do not 0no" Noah. CN6TE9' 1. There is a Hadis! (Thin0 on <od2s $er#ies! and not on His essen#e.( 8. Koran )iii. 1J. 9aid of the sand #ast into the eyes of the $en of *e##a at .eder. :. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. :?=! "here the #o$$entator says the all sion is to *oses at *o nt 9inai. Koran )ii. 1:9. STOR' 51II% The 1a$il #, *he P(in)e #, "#$ha(a% The 7rin#e of .o0hara had a ;a0il "ho! thro gh fear of % nish$ent for an offen#e he had #o$$itted! ran a"ay and re$ained #on#ealed in K histan and the desert for the s%a#e of ten years. At the end of that ti$e! being nable to end re absen#e fro$ his lord and his ho$e any longer! he deter$ined to ret rn to .o0hara and thro" hi$self at his lord2s feet! and end re "hate)er % nish$ent his lord $ight be %leased to infli#t %on hi$. His friends did all they #o ld to diss ade hi$! ass ring hi$ that the 7rin#e2s "rath "as still hot against hi$! and that if he a%%eared at .o0hara he "o ld be % t to death! or at least i$%risoned for the rest of his life. He

re%lied! (6 ad)isers! be silent! for the for#e of the lo)e "hi#h is dra"ing $e to .o0hara is stronger than the for#e of %r dent #o nsels. When lo)e % lls one "ay all the "isdo$ of Ab Hanifa and Ash-9hafi2i is i$%otent to "ithstand it. +f it shall %lease $y lord to slay $e! + "ill yield % $y life "itho t rel #tan#e! for this life of estrange$ent fro$ hi$ "hi#h + a$ no" leading is the sa$e as death! and release fro$ it "ill be eternal ha%%iness. + "ill ret rn to .o0hara and thro" $yself at $y lord2s feet! and say to hi$! 25eal "ith $e as tho "ilt! for + #an no longer bear absen#e fro$ thee! and life or death at thy hands is all the sa$e to $e12( A##ordingly! he -o rneyed ba#0 to .o0hara! #o nting the )ery toils and dis#o$forts of the road s"eet and delightf l! be#a se they "ere ste%s in his ho$e"ard #o rse. When he rea#hed .o0hara his friends and relations all "arned hi$ not to sho" hi$self! as the 7rin#e "as still $indf l of his offen#e and bent on % nishing hi$3 b t he re%lied to the$ as to his other ad)isers! that he "as tterly regardless of his life! and "as resol)ed to #o$$it hi$self to his lord2s good %leas re. He then "ent to the #o rt and thre" hi$self at his lord2s feet and s"ooned a"ay. The 7rin#e! seeing the strong affe#tion borne to hi$ by his re%entant ser)ant! #on#ei)ed a si$ilar affe#tion to"ards hi$! and des#ended fro$ his throne and gra#io sly raised hi$ fro$ the gro nd! and %ardoned his offen#e. Th s it is that eternal life is gained by tter abandon$ent of one2s o"n life. When <od a%%ears to His ardent lo)er the lo)er is absorbed in Hi$! and not so $ #h as a hair of the lo)er re$ains. Tr e lo)ers are as shado"s! and "hen the s n shines in glory the shado"s )anish a"ay. He is a tr e lo)er of <od to "ho$ <od says! (+ a$ thine! and tho art $ine1( +n the #o rse of this story! "hi#h is narrated at great length! are introd #ed ane#dotes of a lo)er and his $istress! of the ;irgin *ary being )isited by the (.lessed 9%irit( or Angel <abriel! 1 of the fatal $os> e! of <alen2s de)otion to #arnal learning! of 9atan2s trea#hery to the $en of *e##a at the battle of .edr! 8 and of 9olo$on and the gnat. There also o## r #o$$ents on )ario s te,ts! and a # rio s #o$%arison of the trials and "holeso$e affli#tions of the righteo s to the boiling of %otherbs in a sa #e%an by the #oo0. The (e+ly #, *he l#ve( -hen as$ed by his mis*(ess -hi)h )i*y #, all *h#se he had seen -as m#s* +leasin/ in his si/h*% A da$sel said to her lo)er! (6 fond yo th! /o ha)e )isited $any #ities in yo r tra)els3 Whi#h of those #ities see$s $ost delightf l to yo 4( He $ade ans"er! (The #ity "herein $y lo)e d"ells. +n "hate)er noo0 $y > een alights! Tho gh it be as the eye of a needle! 2tis a "ide %lain3 Where)er her / s f-li0e fa#e shines as a $oon!

Tho gh it be the botto$ of a "ell! 2tis 7aradise. With thee! $y lo)e! hell itself "ere hea)en! With thee a %rison "o ld be a rose-garden. With thee hell "o ld be a $ansion of delight! Witho t thee lilies and roses "o ld be as fla$es of fire1( The ans"er of the ;a0il to those "ho ad)ised hi$ not to #o rt death by yielding hi$self % to his lord. He said! (+ a$ a dra"er of "ater3 "ater attra#ts $e! E)en tho gh + 0no" "ater $ay be $y death. No dra"er of "ater flees fro$ "ater! E)en tho gh it $ay #a se hi$ a h ndred deaths. Tho gh it $ay $a0e $y hand and belly dro%si#al! *y lo)e for "ater "ill ne)er be lessened. + sho ld say! "hen they as0ed $e abo t $y belly! 2Wo ld that the o#ean $ight flo" into it12 Tho gh the bottle of $y belly "ere b rst "ith "ater! And tho gh + sho ld die! $y death "o ld be a##e%table. Wheresoe)er + see one see0ing "ater! + en)y hi$! And #ry! 2Wo ld + "ere in his %la#e12 *y hand is a tabor and $y belly a dr $! &i0e the rose + beat the dr $ of lo)e of "ater. &i0e the earth or li0e a fet s + de)o r blood! 9in#e + be#a$e a lo)er this is $y o## %ation. +f that 2@aithf l 9%irit2 sho ld shed $y blood! + "o ld drin0 it % dro% by dro% li0e the earth. At night + boil on the fire li0e a #oo0ing-%ot! @ro$ $orn till e)e + drin0 blood li0e the sand. +t re%ents $e that + %lanned a stratage$! And that + fled fro$ before his "rath. Tell hi$ to sate his "rath on $y %oor life! He is the 2@east of 9a#rifi#e!2 and + his lo)ing #o". : The #o"! "hether it eats or slee%s! Thin0s of na ght b t sa#rifi#ing itself. Kno" $e to be that #o" of *oses "hi#h ga)e its life! Ea#h %art of $e gi)es life to the righteo s. That #o" of *oses "as $ade a sa#rifi#e! And its least %art be#a$e a so r#e of life. That $ rdered $an lea%t % fro$ his deadness At the "ords! 2 9tri0e the #or%se "ith %art of her.2 = 6 %io s ones! slay the #o" Gof l stH! +f ye desire tr e life of so l and s%irit1 + died as inani$ate $atter and arose a %lant! + died as a %lant and rose again an ani$al. ? + died as an ani$al and arose a $an. Why then sho ld + fear to be#o$e less by dying4 + shall die on#e again as a $an

To rise an angel %erfe#t fro$ head to foot1 Again "hen + s ffer dissol tion as an angel! + shall be#o$e "hat %asses the #on#e%tion of $an1 &et $e then be#o$e non-e,istent! for non-e,isten#e 9ings to $e in organ tones! 2To hi$ shall "e ret rn.2 B Kno" death to be the gathering together of the %eo%le. The "ater of life is hidden in the land of dar0ness. &i0e a "ater-lily see0 life there1 /ea! li0e that dra"er of "ater! at the ris0 of life! Water "ill be his death! yet he still see0s "ater! And still drin0s on! and <od 0no"s "hat is right. 6 lo)er! #old-hearted and )oid of loyalty! Who fro$ fear for yo r life sh n the belo)ed1 6 base one! behold a h ndred tho sand so ls 5an#ing to"ards the deadly s"ord of his lo)e' .ehold "ater in a %it#her3 %o r it o t3 Will that "ater r n a"ay fro$ the strea$4 When that "ater -oins the "ater of the strea$ +t is lost therein! and be#o$es itself the strea$. +ts indi)id ality is lost! b t its essen#e re$ains! And hereby it be#o$es not less nor inferior. + "ill hang $yself %on $y lord2s %al$-tree +n e,# se for ha)ing fled a"ay fro$ hi$1( E)en as a ball rolling along on head and fa#e! He fell at the feet of the 7rin#e "ith strea$ing eyes. The %eo%le "ere all on the alert! e,%e#ting That the 7rin#e "o ld b rn hi$ or hang hi$! 9aying! (*oth-li0e he has seen the blaEe of the light! And fool-li0e has %l nged therein and lost his life.( . t the tor#h of lo)e is not li0e that tor#h! 2Tis light! light in the $idst of light! 2Tis the re)erse of tor#hes of fire! +t a%%ears to be fire! b t is all s"eetness. &o)e generates lo)e. (+f ye lo)e <od! <od "ill lo)e yo ( J That. .o0harian then #ast hi$self into the fla$e! . t his lo)e $ade the %ain end rable3 And as his b rning sighs as#ended to hea)en! The lo)e of the 7rin#e "as 0indled to"ards hi$. The heart of $an is li0e the root of a tree! Therefro$ gro" the lea)es on fir$ bran#hes. 8 Dorres%onding to that root gro" % bran#hes As "ell on the tree as on so ls and intelle#ts. The to%s of the %erfe#t trees rea#h the hea)ens! The roots fir$! and the bran#hes in the s0y. 9in#e then the tree of lo)e has gro"n % to hea)en! Ho" shall it not also gro" in the heart of the 7rin#e4

A "a)e "ashes a"ay the re$e$bran#e of the sin fro$ his heart! @or fro$ ea#h heart is a "indo" to other hearts. 9in#e in ea#h heart there is a "indo" to other hearts! They are not! se%arated and sh t off li0e t"o bodies. Th s! e)en tho gh t"o la$%-dishes be not -oined! /et their light is nited in a single ray. No lo)er e)er see0s nion "ith his belo)ed! . t his belo)ed is also see0ing nion "ith hi$. . t the lo)er2s lo)e $a0es his body lean! While the belo)ed2s lo)e $a0es hers fair and l sty. When in this heart the lightning s%ar0 of lo)e arises! .e s re this lo)e is re#i%ro#ated in that heart. When the lo)e of <od arises in thy heart! Witho t do bt <od also feels lo)e for thee. The noise of #la%%ing of hands is ne)er heard @ro$ one of thy hands naided by the other hand The $an athirst #ries! (Where is deli#io s "ater4( Water too #ries! (Where is the "ater-drin0er4( This thirst in $y so l is the attra#tion of the "ater3 + a$ the "ater2s and the "ater is $ine. <od2s "isdo$ in His eternal fore0no"ledge and de#ree *ade s to be lo)ers one of the other. Nay $ore! all the %arts of the "orld by this de#ree Are arranged in %airs! and ea#h lo)es its $ate. E)ery %art of the "orld desires its $ate! I st as a$ber attra#ts blades of stra". Hea)en says to earth! (All hail to thee1 We are related to one another as iron and $agnet.( Hea)en is $an and earth "o$an in #hara#ter3 Whate)er hea)en sends it! earth #herishes. When earth la#0s heat! hea)en sends heat3 When it la#0s $oist re and de"! hea)en sends the$. The earthy sign 9 s ##o rs the terrestrial earth! The "atery sign GA> ari sH sends $oist re to it3 The "indy sign sends the #lo ds to it! To dra" off n"holeso$e e,halations. The fiery sign G&eoH sends forth the heat of the s n! &i0e a dish heated red-hot in front and behind. The hea)en is b sily toiling thro gh ages! I st as $en labor to %ro)ide food for "o$en. And the earth does the "o$an2s "or0! and toils +n bearing offs%ring and s #0ling the$. Kno" then earth and hea)en are end ed "ith sense! 9in#e they a#t li0e %ersons end ed "ith sense. +f these t"o lo)ers did not s #0 n tri$ent fro$ ea#h other! Why sho ld they #ree% together li0e $an and "ife4

Witho t the earth ho" #o ld roses and saffron gro"4 @or na ght #an gro" fro$ the sole heat and rain of hea)en. This is the #a se of the fe$ale see0ing the $ale! That the "or0 of ea#h $ay be a##o$%lished. <od has instilled $ t al lo)e into $an and "o$an! That the "orld $ay be %er%et ated by their nion. Earth says to the earth of the body! (Do$e a"ay! K it the so l and #o$e to $e as d st. Tho art of $y gen s! and "ilt be better "ith $e! 2Tho had2st better > it the so l and fly to $e1( .ody re%lies (Tr e! b t $y feet are fast bo nd! Tho gh li0e thee + s ffer fro$ se%aration.( Water #alls o t to the $oist re of the body! (6 $oist re! ret rn to $e fro$ yo r foreign abode1( @ire also #alls o t to the heat of the body! (Tho art of fire3 ret rn to thy root1( +n the body there are se)enty-and-t"o diseases3 +t is ill #o$%a#ted o"ing to the str ggle of its ele$ents. 5isease #o$es to rend the body as nder! And to drag a%art its #onstit ent ele$ents. The fo r ele$ents are as birds tied together by the feet3 5eath! si#0ness and disease loose their feet as nder. The $o$ent their feet are loosed fro$ the others! 2The bird of ea#h ele$ent flies off by itself. The re% lsion of ea#h of these %rin#i%les and #a ses +nfli#ts e)ery $o$ent a fresh %ang on o r bodies. That it $ay dissol)e these #o$%osite bodies of o rs! The bird of ea#h %art tries to fly a"ay to its origin3 . t the "isdo$ of <od %re)ents this s%eedy end! And %reser)es their nion till the a%%ointed day. He says! (6 %arts! the a%%ointed ti$e is not yet3 +t is seless for yo to ta0e "ing before that day.( . t as ea#h %art desires re nion "ith its original! Ho" is it "ith the so l "ho is a stranger in e,ile4 +t says! (6 %arts of $y habitation here belo"! *y absen#e is sadder than yo rs! as + a$ hea)en-born. The body lo)es green %ast res and r nning "ater! @or this #a se that its origin is fro$ the$. The lo)e of the so l is for life and the li)ing one! .e#a se its origin is the 9o l not bo nd to %la#e. The lo)e of the so l is for "isdo$ and 0no"ledge! That of the body for ho ses! gardens! and )ineyards3 The lo)e of the so l is for things e,alted on high! That of the body for a#> isition of goods and food. The lo)e too of Hi$ on high is dire#ted to the so l' Kno" this for 2He lo)es the$ that lo)e Hi$.2( 1F

The s $ is this! that "hoso see0s another! The so l of that other "ho is so ght in#lines to hi$. &et s > it the s b-e#t. &o)e for that so l athirst Was 0indled in the breast of the 7rin#e of .o0hara. The s$o0e of that lo)e and the grief of that b rning heart As#ended to his $aster and e,#ited his #o$%assion. The %raises addressed to the 7rin#e by the ;a0il. He said! (6 %hoeni, of <od and goal of the s%irit + than0 thee that tho hast #o$e ba#0 fro$ *o nt Kaf1 6 +srafil of the res rre#tion-day of lo)e! 6 lo)e! lo)e! and heart2s desire of lo)e1 &et thy first boon to $e be this! To lend thine ear to $y orisons. Tho gh tho 0no"est $y #ondition #learly! 6 %rote#tor of sla)es! listen to $y s%ee#h. A tho sand ti$es! 6 %rin#e in#o$%arable! Has $y reason ta0en flight in desire to see thee! And to hear thee and to listen to thy "ords! And to behold thy life-gi)ing s$iles. Thy in#lining thine ear to $y s %%li#ations +s as a #aress to $y $isg ided so l. The baseness of $y heart2s #oin is 0no"n to thee! . t tho hast a##e%ted it as gen ine #oin. Tho art %ro d to"ards the arrogant and %ro d3 All #le$en#ies are as na ght to thy #le$en#y. @irst hear this! that "hile + re$ained in absen#e! @irst and last ali0e es#a%ed $e. 9e#ondly! hear this. 6 %rin#e belo)ed! That + sear#hed $ #h! b t fo nd no se#ond to thee. Thirdly! that "hen + had de%arted o tside thee! + said it "as li0e the Dhristian Trinity. 11 @o rthly! "hen $y har)est "as b rned %! + 0ne" not the fo rth fro$ the fifth. Wheresoe)er tho findest blood on the roads! Tra#e it! and 2tis tears of blood fro$ $y eyes. *y "ords are th nder! and these sighs and tears Are dra"n by it as rain fro$ the #lo ds. + a$ distra#ted bet"een s%ea0ing and "ee%ing. 9hall + "ee%! or shall + s%ea0! or "hat shall + do4 +f + s%ea0! $y "ee%ing #eases3 +f + "ee%! + #ease to %raise and $agnify thee.( He s%o0e th s! and then fell to "ee%ing! 9o that high and lo" "e%t "ith hi$. 9o $any (Ahs( and (Alases( %ro#eeded fro$ his heart!

That the %eo%le of .o0hara for$ed a #ir#le ro nd hi$. Tal0ing sadly! "ee%ing sadly! s$iling sadly! *en and "o$en! s$all and great! "ere all asse$bled. The "hole #ity "e%t in #on#ert "ith hi$3 *en and "o$en $ingled together as on the last day. Then Hea)en said to Earth! (+f yo ne)er sa" a res rre#tion-day! see it here1( Reason "as a$aEed! saying! (What lo)e! "hat e#stasy1 +s his se%aration $ore "ondro s! or his re nion4( CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,i,. 18. 8. Koran )iii. 1F. :. The +d l AEha! or the @east of 9a#rifi#es! held on the tenth day of the $onth L l Hi--a. +t is also #alled (The Do" @esti)al.( =. This refers to Koran ii. B:. The #o" "as to be sa#rifi#ed in order that a $ rderer $ight be dis#o)ered by stri0ing the #or%se "ith a %ie#e of her flesh. ?. i.e.! Earth losing its o"n for$ be#o$es )egetable! )egetable again %erishes to feed and be trans$ ted into ani$al! ! and in li0e $anner ani$al be#o$es $an. 9ee the %assage of *ilton > oted belo"! and < lshan i RaE! +. =9F and note. B. Koran ii. 1?:' (;erily "e are <od2s! and to Hi$ shall "e ret rn.( J. Koran iii. 89. 8. (9eest tho not to "hat <od li0eneth a good "ord4 To a good tree! its root fir$ly fi,ed! and its bran#hes in the hea)en( GKoran ,i). 89H. 9. i.e.! of the Eodia#. 1F. Koran ). ?9. 11. (They s rely are infidels "ho say! 2<od is the third of three!2 for there is no <od b t one <od( GKoran ). JJH. STOR' 51III% The !eadly M#s:ue% +n the s b rbs of a #ertain #ity there "as a $os> e in "hi#h none #o ld slee% a night and li)e. 9o$e said it "as ha nted by $ale)olent fairies3 others! that it "as nder the banef l infl en#e of a $agi# s%ell3 so$e %ro%osed to % t % a noti#e "arning %eo%le not to slee% there! and others ad)ised that the door sho ld be 0e%t lo#0ed. At last a stranger #a$e to that #ity and desired to slee% in the $os> e! saying that he did not fear to ris0 his life! as the life of the body "as na ght! and <od has said! (Wish for death if yo are sin#ere.( 1 The $en of the #ity "arned hi$ again and again

of the danger! and reb 0ed hi$ for his foolhardiness! re$inding hi$ that not i$%robably 9atan "as te$%ting hi$ to his o"n destr #tion! as he te$%ted the $en of *e##a at the battle of .edr. 8 The stranger! ho"e)er! "o ld not be diss aded! b t %ersisted in his % r%ose of slee%ing in the $os> e. He said that he "as as one of the de)oted agents of the +s$ailians! "ho "ere al"ays ready to sa#rifi#e their li)es at the bidding of their #hiefs! and that the terrors of death did not a%%al hi$ any $ore than the noise of a little dr $ beaten by a boy to s#are a"ay birds #o ld a%%al the great dr $-bearing #a$el that sed to $ar#h at the head of King *ah$ d2s ar$y. A##ordingly! he sle%t in the $os> e! and at $idnight he "as a"a0ened by a terrible )oi#e! as of one abo t to atta#0 hi$. . t instead of being dis$ayed! he betho ght hi$self of the te,t (Assa lt the$ "ith thy horse$en and thy foot$en!( : and #onfronted his nseen foe! #hallenging hi$ to sho" hi$self and stand to his ar$s. At these "ords the s%ell "as dissi%ated! and sho"ers of gold fell on all sides! "hi#h the bra)e hero %ro#eeded to a%%ro%riate. The 4$n#-led/e #, )e(*ain*y4 and *he 4eye #, )e(*ain*y4% 6 r body and s bstan#e are sno"! doo$ed to %erish! <od is He "ho b ys the$! for (<od hath bo ght the$.( = /o %refer this %erishing sno" to <od2s %ri#e .e#a se yo are in do bt and ha)e not #ertainty3 And! strange to say! o%inion abides in yo ! 6 "ea0 one! And ne)er flies a"ay to the garden of #ertainty. E)ery o%inion is ai$ing at #ertainty! 6 son! And $ore and $ore $o)es its "ings to"ards #ertainty. When it rea#hes 0no"ledge it stands ere#t! And its 0no"ledge again hastes on to"ards #ertainty! .e#a se in the a%%ro)ed road of the faith Kno"ledge is lo"er than #ertainty! b t abo)e o%inion. Kno" 0no"ledge as%ires to #ertainty! And #ertainty again to sight and o# lar e)iden#e. +n the #ha%ter! (5esire of ri#hes o## %ieth yo !( ? After (Nay!( read (Wo ld that ye 0ne"1( Kno"ledge #ond #ts yo to sight! 6 0no"er1 (+f ye are #ertain! ye shall see hell-fire.( 9ight follo"s on #ertainty "ith no inter)al! I st as reasoned 0no"ledge is born of o%inion. 9ee the a##o nt of this in the #ha%ter #ited! Ho" 0no"ledge of #ertainty be#o$es the eye of #ertainty. As for $e! + a$ abo)e both o%inion and #ertainty3 *y head is not affe#ted by yo r #a)ils. 9in#e $y $o th has eaten of His s"eet$eats! + a$ be#o$e #lear-sighted! and see hi$ fa#e to fa#e1

The (i/h*e#us a(e e3+#sed *# *(ials ,#( *hei( im+(#vemen*0 as +#*he(bs a(e b#iled *# ma$e *hem ,i* ,#( ,##d% .ehold these %otherbs boiling in the %ot! Ho" they - $% and toss abo t in the heat of the fire. Whilst they are boiling! they 0ee% lea%ing %! E)en to the to% of the %ot! and tter #ries! 9aying to the ho se"ife! (Why do yo set s on the fire4 No" yo ha)e bo ght s! "hy sho ld yo affli#t s4( The ho se"ife % shes the$ do"n "ith her s%oon! saying! (.e still! and boil "ell! and lea% not off the fire. + do not boil yo be#a se + disli0e yo ! . t that yo $ay a#> ire a good sa)or and taste. When yo be#o$e food yo "ill be $ingled "ith life3 This trial is not i$%osed on yo to distress yo . +n the garden yo dran0 "ater soft and fresh3 That "ater-fed one "as reser)ed for this fire. *er#y "as first sho"n to it before )engean#e! That $er#y $ight train it to be %roof against trial3 *er#y "as sho"n to it %re)io sly to )engean#e! That it $ight a#> ire its s bstan#e of being. .e#a se flesh and s0in gro" not "itho t tender #are! Ho" sho ld they not gro" "hen "ar$ed by the @riend2s lo)e. +f )engean#e follo"s as a ne#essary #onse> en#e! That yo $ay $a0e an offering of that s bstan#e! *er#y follo"s again to #o$%ensate for it! That yo $ay be % rified and raised abo)e yo r nat re. + a$ Abraha$! and yo his son nder the 0nife. &ay do"n yo r head1 2+ ha)e seen + $ st sa#rifi#e yo .2 B /ield yo r head to )engean#e! yo r heart to #onstan#y! That + $ay # t yo r throat li0e an +s$ailian2s. + # t off yo r head! b t that head is s #h That it is restored to life by being # t off1( *y $ain ob-e#t herein is to in# l#ate resignation! 6 *osal$an1 it beho)es yo to see0 resignation. J 6 %otherbs! yo boil in trials and s fferings That neither e,isten#e nor self $ay re$ain in yo . Tho gh yo on#e s$iled in that earthly garden! /o are really roses of the garden of life and sight. +f yo are torn a"ay fro$ the garden of earth! /o be#o$e s"eet food to re)i)e $an2s life3 /ea! be#o$e his food and strength and tho ght1 8 /o "ere only $il0! yo be#o$e a lion of the forest1 /o iss e fro$ <od2s attrib tes at first3 Ret rn again ba#0 to those attrib tes "ith all s%eed1

/o #o$e fro$ the #lo ds and s nshine and s0y! Then ass $e $oral > alities and as#end the s0y. /o #o$e in the for$ of rain and s nshine! /o de%art end ed "ith e,#ellent attrib tes. /o begin as a %art of the s n! #lo ds! and stars! /o rise to be breath! a#t! "ord! and tho ght1 The life of ani$als #o$es fro$ the death of %lants. Tr e is the saying! 2Kill $e! 6 faithf l ones12 9in#e s #h e,altation a"aits s after death. Tr e it is that 2+n o r death is life.2 A#ts! "ords! and faith are the food of the King! 9o that in this as#ent one attains to hea)en. Th s! as %otherbs be#o$e the food of $en! They rise abo)e the grade of $inerals to that of ani$als. 6b-e#tions of fools to the *asna)i. A #ertain goose %o%s his head o t of his #oo%! And dis%lays hi$self as a #riti# of the *asna)i! 9aying! (This %oe$! the *asna)i! is #hildish3 2Tis b t a story of the %ro%hets! and so on. 2Tis not an a##o nt of the arg $ents and dee% $ysteries! Whereto holy $en dire#t their attention3 Don#erning as#eti#is$! and so on to self-annihilation! 9te% by ste%! % to #o$$ nion "ith <od3 An e,%lanation and definition of ea#h se)eral state! Whereto the $en of heart as#end in their flight.( Whereas the .oo0 of <od rese$bles the *asna)i in this! The infidels ab sed it! in the sa$e $anner! 9aying! 2+t #ontains old tales and stories3 9 There is no dee% analysis or lofty in)estigation therein. &ittle boys #an nderstand it3 +t only #ontains #o$$ands and %rohibitions! A##o nts of / s f and his # rled lo#0s! A##o nts of Ia#ob! of L lai0ha and her lo)e! A##o nts of Ada$! of the "heat! and of the ser%ent +blis! A##o nts of H d! of Noah! of Abraha$! and the! fire.( Kno" the "ords of the Koran are si$%le! . t "ithin the o t"ard sense is an inner se#ret one. 1F .eneath that se#ret $eaning is a third! Whereat the highest "it is d $bfo ndered. The fo rth $eaning has been seen by none 9a)e <od! the +n#o$%arable and All-s ffi#ient. Th s they go on! e)en to se)en $eanings! one by one! A##ording to the saying of the 7ro%het! "itho t do bt. 5o tho ! 6 son! #onfine not thy )ie" to the o t"ard $eaning! E)en as the de$ons sa" in Ada$ only #lay. 11 The o t"ard $eaning of the Koran is li0e Ada$2s body!

@or its se$blan#e is )isible! b t its so l is hidden. 6 re)iling dog1 tho $a0est a #la$o r! Tho $a0est thy ab se of the Koran thy destr #tion. 18 This is not a lion! "herefro$ tho #anst sa)e thy life! 6r #anst se# re thyself fro$ his talons1 The Koran #ries o t e)en to the last day! (6 %eo%le! gi)en % as a %rey to ignoran#e! +f ye ha)e i$agined $e to be only e$%ty fables! /e ha)e so"n the seed of re)iling and infidelity. /e yo rsel)es "ho ab se $e "ill see yo rsel)es Annihilated! and $ade li0e a tale that is told1( 9olo$on and the gnat. A gnat #a$e in fro$ the garden and fields! And #alled on 9olo$on for - sti#e! 9aying! (6 9olo$on! yo e,tend yo r e> ity 6)er de$ons and the sons of Ada$ and fairies. @ish and fo"l d"ell nder the shelter of yo r - sti#e3 Where is the o%%ressed one "ho$ yo r $er#y has not so ght4 <rant $e redress! for + a$ $ #h affli#ted! .eing # t off fro$ $y garden and $eado" ha nts.( Then 9olo$on re%lied! (6 see0er of redress! Tell $e fro$ "ho$ do yo desire redress4 Who is the o%%ressor! "ho! % ffed % "ith arrogan#e Has o%%ressed yo and s$itten yo r fa#e4( The gnat re%lied! (He fro$ "ho$ + see0 redress is the Wind! 2Tis he "ho has e$itted the s$o0e of o%%ression at $e3 Thro gh his o%%ression + a$ in a grie)o s strait! Thro gh hi$ + drin0 blood "ith %ar#hed li%1( 9olo$on re%lied to hi$! (6 s"eet )oi#ed one! /o $ st hear the #o$$and of <od "ith all yo r heart. <od has #o$$anded $e saying! 26 dis%enser of - sti#e! Ne)er hear one %arty "itho t the other12 Till both %arties #o$e into the %resen#e! The tr th is ne)er $ade %lain to the - dge.( When the Wind heard the s $$ons! it #a$e s"iftly! And the gnat instantly too0 flight. +n li0e $anner the see0ers of <od2s %resen#e-seat! When <od a%%ears! those see0ers )anish. Tho gh that nion is life eternal! /et at first that life is annihilation. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ii. 88. 8. Koran )iii. ?F

:. Koran ,)ii. BB. =. (;erily of the faithf l hath <od bo ght their %ersons and their s bstan#e! on #ondition of 7aradise for the$ in ret rn( GKoran i,. 118H. ?. (The desire of ri#hes o## %ieth yo till ye #o$e to the gra)e. Nay1 b t in the end ye shall 0no". Nay1 "o ld that ye 0ne" it "ith 0no"ledge of #ertainty. 9 rely ye shall see hell-fire. /e shall s rely see it "ith the eye of #ertainty( GKoran #ii.H B. Koran ,,,)ii. 1F1. J. A##ording to its ety$ology. +sla$ $eans self-s rrender to <od as "ell as safety! %ea#e! and obedien#e to di)ine la"s. 8. D%. *ilton! 7aradise &ost! ). =88' (@lo"2rs and their fr it! *an2s no rish$ent! by grad al s#ale s bli$2d! To )ital s%irits as%ire! to ani$al! To intelle#t al.( 9. Koran ,,)ii. J. 1F. There is a Hadis to the effe#t that ea#h "ord of the Koran has se)en $eanings. 9ee Koran iii. ?. 11. Koran ,)ii. B:. 18. The & #0no" #o$$entator says that @aiEi Gbrother of Ab l @aEl A0bar2s $inisterH on#e s%o0e disres%e#tf lly of the Koran and the *asna)i! and on the lea)es being t rned o)er! this %assage %resented itself. The boo0 ends "ith the beginning of a story "hi#h is finished in the fo rth boo0.

"##$ I1%
STOR' I% The L#ve( and his Mis*(ess% THE fo rth boo0 begins "ith an address to H sa$ -2d-5in! and this is follo"ed by the story of the lo)er and his $istress! already #o$$en#ed in the third boo0. A #ertain lo)er had been se%arated fro$ his $istress for the s%a#e of se)en years! d ring "hi#h he ne)er rela,ed his efforts to find her. At last his #onstan#y and %erse)eran#e "ere re"arded! in a##ordan#e "ith the %ro$ises (The see0er shall find!( and (Whoso shall ha)e "ro ght an ato$2s "eight of good shall behold it.( 1 6ne night! as he "as "andering thro gh the #ity! he "as % rs ed by the %atrol! and! in order to es#a%e the$! too0 ref ge in a garden! "here he fo nd his long-so ght $istress. This o##asioned hi$ to refle#t ho" often $en (hate the things that are good for the$!( 8 and led hi$ to bless the ro gh %atrol "ho had %ro# red hi$ the bliss of $eeting "ith his $istress. A%ro%os of this! an ane#dote is told of a %rea#her "ho "as in the habit of blessing robbers and o%%ressors! be#a se their e)il e,a$%le had t rned hi$ to righteo sness. The $o$ent the lo)er fo nd hi$self alone "ith his $istress! he atte$%ted to e$bra#e her! b t his $istress re% lsed hi$! saying! that tho gh no $en 2"ere %resent! yet the "ind "as blo"ing and that sho"ed that <od! the $o)er of the "ind! "as also %resent. The lo)er re%lied! (+t $ay be + a$ la#0ing in good $anners! b t + a$ not la#0ing in #onstan#y and fidelity to"ards yo .( His $istress re%lied! (6ne $ st - dge of the hidden by the $anifest3 + see for $yself that yo r o t"ard beha)ior is bad! and then#e + #annot b t infer that yo r boast of hidden )irt es is not "arranted by a#t al fa#ts. /o are asha$ed to $is#ond #t yo rself in the sight of $en! b t ha)e no s#r %le to do so in the %resen#e of the Allseeing <od! and hen#e + do bt the e,isten#e of the )irt o s senti$ents "hi#h yo #lai$ to %ossess! b t "hi#h #an only be 0no"n to yo rself.( To ill strate this! she told the story of a 9 fi and his faithless "ife. This "ife "as one day entertaining a %ara$o r! "hen she "as s r%rised by the s dden ret rn of her h sband. 6n the s% r of the $o$ent she thre" a "o$an2s dress o)er her %ara$o r and %resented hi$ to her h sband as a ri#h lady "ho had #o$e to %ro%ose a $arriage bet"een her son and the 9 fi2s da ghter! saying she did not #are for "ealth! b t only regarded $odesty and re#tit de of #ond #t. To this the 9 fi re%lied! that as fro$ her #o$ing nattended it "as %lain that the lady had not the "ealth she %retended to ha)e! it "as $ore than %robable that her %retensions to e,traordinary $odesty and h $ility "ere also fi#titio s. The lo)er then %ro#eeded to e,# se hi$self by the %lea that he had "ished to test his

$istress! and as#ertain for hi$self "hether she "as a $odest "o$an or not. He said he of #o rse 0ne" beforehand that she "o ld %ro)e to be a $odest "o$an! b t still he "ished to ha)e o# lar de$onstration of the fa#t. His $istress re%ro)ed hi$ for trying to de#ei)e her "ith false %reten#es! ass ring hi$ that! after he had been dete#ted in a fa lt! his only %ro%er #o rse "as to #onfess it! as Ada$ had done. *oreo)er! she added that an atte$%t to % t her to the test "o ld ha)e been an e,tre$ely n"orthy %ro#eeding! only to be %aralleled by Ab Iahl2s atte$%t to %ro)e the tr th of the 7ro%het2s #lai$s by #alling on hi$ to %erfor$ a $ira#le. The s#ul #, /##d in *hin/s evil% Evil #nly (ela*ive% The lo)er in)o0ed blessings on that ro gh %atrol! .e#a se their harshness had "ro ght bliss for hi$. They "ere %oison to $ost $en! b t s"eets to hi$! .e#a se those harsh ones had nited hi$ "ith his lo)e. +n the "orld there is nothing absol tely bad3 Kno"! $oreo)er! e)il is only relati)e. +n the "orld there is neither %oison nor antidote! Whi#h is not a foot to one and a fetter to another3 To one the %o"er of $o)ing! to another a #log3 To one a %oison! to another an antidote. 9er%ents2 %oison is life to ser%ents! +n relation to $an0ind it is death. To the #reat res of the sea the sea is a garden! To the #reat res of the land it is fatal. +n the sa$e "ay! 6 $an! re#0on % "ith intelligen#e The relations of these things in endless )ariety. +n relation to this $an Laid is as 9atan! +n relation to another he is as a 9 ltan. The latter #alls Laid a sin#ere * ss l$an! The for$er #alls hi$ a < eber deser)ing to be 0illed. Laid! one and the sa$e %erson! is life to the one! And to the other an annoyan#e and a %est. +f yo desire that <od $ay be %leasing to yo ! Then loo0 at Hi$ "ith the eyes of the$ that lo)e Hi$. &oo0 not at that .ea ty "ith yo r o"n eyes! &oo0 at that 6b-e#t of desire "ith His )otaries2 eyes3 9h t yo r o"n eyes fro$ beholding that s"eet 6b-e#t! And borro" fro$ His ad$irers their eyes3 Nay! borro" fro$ Hi$ both eyes and sight! And "ith those eyes of His loo0 %on His fa#e! +n order that yo $ay not be disa%%ointed "ith the sight. <od says! (Whoso is <od2s! <od also is his.( <od says! (+ a$ his eye! his hand! his heart!( :

That his good fort ne $ay e$erge fro$ ad)ersity. Whatsoe)er is hatef l to yo ! if it sho ld lead yo To yo r belo)ed! at on#e be#o$es agreeable to yo . Why <od is na$ed (Hearing!( (9eeing( and (Kno"ing(. <od #alls hi$self (9eeing!( to the end that His eye $ay e)ery $o$ent s#are yo fro$ sinning. <od #alls hi$self (Hearing!( to the end that /o $ay #lose yo r li%s against fo l dis#o rse. <od #alls hi$self (Kno"ing!( to the end that /o $ay be afraid to %lot e)il. These na$es are not $ere a##idental na$es of <od! As a negro $ay be #alled Kaf 2r G"hiteH3 They are na$es deri)ed fro$ <od2s essential attrib tes! Not $ere )ain titles of the @irst Da se. @or if so! they "o ld be only e$%ty %leasantries! &i0e #alling the deaf a hearer and the blind a seer! 6r a na$e li0e (i$% dent( for a $odest $an! 6r (bea tif l( for an gly negro! 6r s #h a title as (Ha-i( for a ne"-born boy! 6r that of (<haEi( a%%lied to a noble idler. +f s #h titles as these are sed in %raising %ersons Who do not %ossess the > alities i$%lied! 2tis "rong3 2T"o ld be -esting or $o#0ery or $adness. (<od is e,alted abo)e( "hat is said by e)il $en. = + 0ne" yo before + $et yo fa#e to fa#e3 That yo had a fair fa#e b t an e)il heart3 /ea! + 0ne" yo before + sa" yo ! That yo "ere rooted in ini> ity thro gh g ile. When $y eye is red o"ing to infla$$ation! + 0no" 2tis so fro$ the %ain! tho gh + see it not. /o regarded $e as a la$b "itho t a she%herd3 /o fan#ied that + had no g ardian. &o)ers ha)e s ffered #hastise$ent for this #a se! That they ha)e #ast ill-ti$ed loo0s at fair ones. They ha)e s %%osed the fa"n to ha)e no she%herd! They ha)e s %%osed the #a%ti)e to be going a begging3 Till in the t"in0ling of an eye an arro" %ier#es the$! 9aying! (+ a$ her g ardian3 loo0 not at her rashly1( What1 a$ + less than a la$b or a fallo" deer! That + sho ld ha)e none to she%herd $e4 Nay! + ha)e a < ardian "orthy of do$inion! Who 0no"s e)ery "ind that blo"s %on $e. He is a"are "hether that "ind is #hill or $ild! He is not ignorant nor absent! 6 $ean one. The #arnal so l is $ade by <od blind and deaf3 + sa" "ith the heart2s eye yo r blindness afar off.

@or this #a se + ne)er in> ired abo t yo for eight years .e#a se + sa" yo filled "ith ignoran#e and d %li#ity. Why indeed sho ld + in> ire abo t one in the f rna#e! Who is bo"ed do"n "ith re%roa#h! li0e yo rself4 Do$%arison of the "orld to a bath sto)e! and of %iety to the hot bath. The l st of the "orld is li0e a bath sto)e! Whereby the bath of %iety is heated3 . t the lot of the %io s is % rity fro$ the sto)e2s filth! .e#a se they d"ell in the bath and in #leanliness. The ri#h are as those that #arry d ng To heat the f rna#e of the bath "ithal. <od has instilled into the$ # %idity! That the bath $ay be "ar$ed and %leasant. K it this sto)e and % sh on into the bath3 Kno" > itting the sto)e to be the bath itself. Whoso is in the sto)e-roo$ is as a ser)ant To hi$ "ho is te$%erate and %r dent. /o r l st is as fire in the "orld! With a h ndred greedy $o ths "ide o%en. +n the - dg$ent of reason this gold is fo l d ng! Altho gh! li0e d ng! it ser)es to 0indle the fire. Whoso "as born in the sto)e-roo$ and ne)er sa" % rity! The s$ell of s"eet $ s0 is disagreeable to hi$. +n ill stration of this! a story follo"s of a tanner "ho "as a## sto$ed to bad s$ells in the #o rse of his trade! and "ho "as half 0illed by the s$ell of $ s0 in the baEaar of the %erf $ers! b t "as # red by the a## sto$ed s$ell of d ng. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,#i,. J. 8. Koran ii. 81:. :. (*y ser)ant dra"s nigh to $e by %io s deeds till + lo)e hi$! and! "hen + lo)e hi$! + a$ his eye! his ear! his tong e! his foot! his hand! and by $e he sees! hears! tal0s! "al0s! and feels.( Hadis. =. D%. Koran ,)i :. STOR' II% The "uildin/ #, *he 4M#s* Rem#*e Tem+le4 a* Je(usalem% King 5a)id % r%osed to b ild a te$%le at Ier sale$! b t "as forbidden to do so by a di)ine )oi#e! be#a se he had been a $an of blood. . t! it "as

added! the "or0 sho ld be a##o$%lished by his son 9olo$on! and 9olo$on2s "or0 "o ld be re#0oned the sa$e as 5a)id2s! in a##ordan#e "ith the te,ts! (The faithf l are brethren!( and (9ages are as a single so l!( and (We $a0e no distin#tion bet"een any of the a%ostles.( 1 A##ordingly! "hen 9olo$on #a$e to the throne! he set abo t the b ilding! "hi#h "as attended "ith $any $ira# lo s #ir# $stan#es! e.g.! the stones in the > arry #rying o t and $o)ing of the$sel)es to the site of the te$%le. .il>is! K een of 9aba! sent 9olo$on a %resent of forty #a$els laden "ith ingots of gold3 b t 9olo$on "o ld not re#ei)e the$! and sent her $essengers ba#0 "ith a letter #o$$anding her to abandon the "orshi% of the s n and e$bra#e +sla$. 8 At the sa$e ti$e he #harged the $essengers to re%ort f lly to the K een all they had seen in his 0ingdo$! and to rge her to #o$%ly "ith his #o$$ands to reno n#e her so)ereignty and %resent herself in all h $ility at his #o rt. As she delayed to #o$e! 9olo$on again sent to ass re her that he had no sinister )ie"s regarding her! and desired her attendan#e at his #o rt solely for her o"n s%irit al benefit. At last .il>is reno n#ed her royal state and #ast a"ay all #are for "orldly things! and! i$%elled by earnest desire to learn the tr e faith! %resented herself at the #o rt of King 9olo$on. Then 9olo$on #o$$anded that the throne of .il>is sho ld be bro ght fro$ 9aba! and an 2Afrit offered to fet#h it! b t Asaf! the )iEier anti#i%ated hi$. : After"ards 9olo$on %ro#eeded "ith the b ilding of the te$%le! "herein he "as assisted by de)ils and fairies. Then <od tried 9olo$on by %la#ing on his throne a false #o nter%art of hi$. His $ira#le "or0ing signet "as stolen by a de)il na$ed 9a0har "ho there %on ass $ed his sha%e and %ersonated hi$ for forty days! d ring "hi#h 9olo$on had to "ander abo t and beg his bread. After this he regained his throne! and ha)ing #o$%leted the te$%le! began to "orshi% therein. 6ne day he obser)ed that a t ft of #oarse grass had s%r ng % in a #orner of the te$%le! and he "as greatly distressed be#a se he tho ght it %ortended the r in of the b ilding! b t he too0 #o$fort fro$ the tho ght that "hile he hi$self li)ed the te$%le "o ld not be allo"ed to fall into r in3 so long as he li)ed! at least! he "o ld root % all e)il "eeds that threatened the safety of the te$%le! as "ell the te$%le b ilt "ith hands as the s%irit al te$%le in his heart. +n the #o rse of this story! "hi#h is told at great length! there o## r ane#dotes of the beginning of the reign of 26th$an! of the $ira#les of 2Abd llah *oghrabi! and others! of "hi#h abstra#ts are gi)en belo". Tho gh %hiloso%hers #all $an the $i#ro#os$! di)ines #all hi$ the $a#ro#os$. In #u*-a(d ,#(m *h#u a(* *he mi)(#)#sm0 "u* in (eali*y *he ma)(#)#sm% < 9ee$ingly the bo gh is the #a se of the fr it! ? . t really the bo gh e,ists be#a se of the fr it.

Were he not i$%elled by desire of fr it! The gardener "o ld ne)er ha)e %lanted the tree. Therefore in reality the tree is born fro$ the fr it! Tho gh see$ingly the fr it is born fro$ the tree. @or this #a se * stafa said! (Ada$ and all %ro%hets Are $y follo"ers and gather nder $y standard. Tho gh to o t"ard )ie" + a$ a son of Ada$! +n reality + a$ his first forefather! .e#a se the angels "orshi%%ed hi$ for $y sa0e! And 2t"as in $y footste%s that he as#ended to hea)en. Hen#e in reality o r first %arent "as $y offs%ring! As in reality the tree is born of its o"n fr it.( What is first in tho ght is last in a#t. Tho ght is the s%e#ial attrib te of the Eternal. This %rod #t goes forth fro$ hea)en )ery s"iftly! And #o$es to s li0e a #ara)an. B 2Tis not a long road that this #ara)an tra)els3 Dan the desert sto% the deli)erer4 The heart tra)els to the Ka2ba e)ery $o$ent! And by di)ine gra#e the body a#> ires the sa$e %o"er. 5istan#e and nearness affe#t only the body! What do they $atter in the %la#e "here <od is4 When <od #hanges the body! +t regards not %arasangs or $iles. E)en on earth there is ho%e of a%%roa#hing <od. 7ress on li0e a lo)er! and #ease )ain "ords! 6 son1 +n the #o rse of his reb 0e to the $essengers of .il>is for bringing hi$ $ere gold instead of a h $ble heart! 9olo$on tells the story of the dr ggist "ho sed soa%stone or 7ersian earth for a "eight. A $an #a$e to hi$ to b y s gar-#andy! and as he had no "eight at hand! he sed a l $% of soa%stone instead3 b t! "hile his ba#0 "as t rned! the % r#haser stole a bit of the soa%stone. The dr ggist! tho gh he sa" "hat he "as doing! "o ld not interr %t hi$! for he 0ne" that the $ore soa%stone the % r#haser stole! the less s gar-#andy he "o ld get. +n li0e $anner the $ore $en gras% at the transitory "ealth of this "orld! the less they "ill obtain of the stable "ealth of the "orld to #o$e. 7art of 9olo$on2s $essage to .il>is. Re%ort to .il>is "hat $ar)els ye ha)e seen! And "hat %lains of gold belong to 9olo$on3 Ho" ye beheld forty $ansions fa#ed "ith gold! And ho" ye "ere asha$ed of yo r %resents3 That she $ay 0no" 9olo$on is not #o)eto s of gold3 He has re#ei)ed gold fro$ the Dreator of gold.

The $o$ent he "ills it! e)ery grain of earth2s d st +s #hanged into gold and %re#io s %earls. @or this #a se! 6 tho that lo)est gold! 6n the last day <od "ill $a0e earth all sil)er G"hiteH. J K it thy "ealth! e)en if it be the real$ of 9aba3 Tho "ilt find $any real$s not of this earth. What tho #allest a throne is only a %rison3 Tho thin0est thyself enthroned! b t art o tside the door. Tho hast no so)ereignty o)er thine o"n %assions! Ho" #anst tho s"ay good and e)il4 Thy hair t rns "hite "itho t thy #on# rren#e! Ta0e sha$e to thyself for thy e)il %assions. Whoso bo"s his head to the King of 0ings Will re#ei)e a h ndred 0ingdo$s not of this "orld3 . t the delight of bo"ing do"n before <od Will see$ s"eeter to thee than #o ntless glories.( An ane#dote follo"s of a dar)esh "ho sa" in a drea$ so$e saints! and %rayed the$ to %ro)ide hi$ "ith his daily bread "itho t obliging hi$ to $i, in "orldly affairs. The saints ordered hi$ to go to the forest! and there he fo nd that all the "ild fr its "ere rendered fit for his food. Ha)ing a fe" grains of gold by hi$! "hi#h he had gained by "orldly labo r before this $ira#le had been "ro ght for hi$! he "as abo t to gi)e the$ to a %oor "ood# tter "ho "as %assing that "ay. . t this "ood# tter "as a saint! and at on#e read his tho ghts! and to sho"! li0e 9olo$on! that he had no need of "orldly "ealth! he offered % a short %rayer to <od! and straight"ay his b ndle of fire"ood "as #hanged into gold! and i$$ediately after! at another %rayer! "as #hanged ba#0 again into fire"ood. Ib(ahim bin Adham and his ,#ndness ,#( musi)% 8 Haste to reno n#e thy 0ingdo$! li0e +brahi$ bin Adha$! To obtain! li0e hi$! the 0ingdo$ of eternity. At night that 0ing "o ld slee% on his throne! With his g ards of state s rro nding his %ala#e! Tho gh he needed no g ards for the % r%ose 6f "arding off robbers and )agabonds3 @or he "ho is a - st 0ing 0no"s e)erything! And is safe fro$ har$ and his $ind is at %ea#e. I sti#e is the g ardian of his ste%s! Not g ards "ith dr $s ro nd his %ala#e. His % r%ose in ha)ing this band of $ si# "as this! To re#all to his longing heart that #all of <od. 9 The "ailing of horn and the th nder of dr $

Rese$ble in so$e sort that dread (tr $%et blast.( 1F Wherefore %hiloso%hers say that "e ha)e learned 6 r $elodies fro$ those of the re)ol)ing s%heres. The song of the s%heres in their re)ol tions +s "hat $en sing "ith l te and )oi#e. The faithf l hold that the s"eet infl en#es of hea)en Dan $a0e e)en harsh )oi#es $elodio s. As "e are all $e$bers of Ada$! We ha)e heard these $elodies in 7aradise3 Tho gh earth and "ater ha)e #ast their )eil %on s! We retain faint re$inis#en#es of those hea)enly songs. . t "hile "e are th s shro ded by gross earthly )eils! Ho" #an the tones of the dan#ing s%heres rea#h s4 11 Hen#e it is that listening to $ si# is lo)ers2 food! .e#a se it re#alls to the$ their %ri$al nion "ith <od. The in"ard feelings of the $ind a#> ire strength! Nay! are sho"n o t"ardly! nder infl en#e of $ si#. The fire of lo)e b rns hotter nder sti$ l s of $ si#! E)en as o## rred in the #ase of the n t-gatherer. Ib(ahim's abdi)a*i#n% 6n#e that noble +brahi$! as he sat on his throne! Heard a #la$o r and noise of #ries on the roof! Also hea)y footste%s on the roof of his %ala#e. He said to hi$self! (Whose hea)y feet are those4( He sho ted fro$ his "indo"! (Who goes there4 2Tis no $an2s ste%3 s rely 2tis a fairy.( His g ards! filled "ith #onf sion! bo"ed their heads! 9aying! (+t is "e "ho are going the ro nds in sear#h.( He said! (What see0 ye4( They said (6 r #a$els( 18 He said! (Who e)er sear#hed for #a$els on a ho seto%4( They said! (We follo" thy e,a$%le! Who see0est nion "ith <od "hile sitting on a throne.( This "as all! and no $an e)er sa" hi$ again! I st as fairies are in)isible to $en. His s bstan#e "as hid fro$ $en! tho gh he "as "ith the$! @or "hat #an $en see sa)e the o t"ard as%e#t and dress4 As he "as re$o)ed fro$ the sight of friends and strangers! His fa$e "as noised abroad li0e that of the 2An0a. @or the so l of e)ery bird that rea#hes *o nt Kaf Donfers glory on the "hole fa$ily of birds. l: The ane#dote of the n t-gatherer! introd #ed in the abo)e story! is only another )ersion of the story of the thirsty $an "ho thre" bri#0s into the "ater in order to hear the so nd of the s%lash. 1= This is follo"ed by an

address to H sa$ -2d-5in! in "hi#h the %oet says that his ob-e#t in "riting the *asna)i "as to eli#it "ords fro$ H sa$! as his "ords "ere the sa$e as the "ords of <od. 9olo$on2s %rea#hing to the %eo%le of .il>is. The art of %rea#hing. + tell the tale of 9aba in lo)ers2 style. When the breeEe bore 9olo$on2s "ords to that garden! 2T"as as "hen bodies $eet so ls at the res rre#tion! 6r as "hen boys ret rn to their lo)ed ho$es. The %eo%le of lo)e are hidden a$ongst the %eo%les! As a liberal $an en#o$%assed by the #ont $ely of the base. 9o ls are disgra#ed by nion "ith bodies! .odies are ennobled by nion "ith so ls. Arise! 6 lo)ers3 this s"eet dra ght is yo rs3 /e are they that end re3 eternal life is yo rs. Ho1 ye that see0! arise and ta0e yo r fill of lo)e! 9n ff % that %erf $e of / s f1 A%%roa#h! 6 9olo$on! tho that 0no"est birds2 lang age! 9o nd the note of e)ery bird that dra"s near3 1? When <od sent! thee to the birds! He ta ght thee first the notes of all the birds. To the %redestinarian bird tal0 %redestination! To the bird "ith bro0en "ings %rea#h %atien#e! To the %atient "ell-doer %rea#h #o$fort and %ardon! To the s%irit al 2An0a relate the glories of *o nt Kaf! To the %igeon %rea#h a)oidan#e of the ha"0! To the lordly ha"0 $er#y and self-#ontrol3 As for the bat! "ho lingers hel%less in the dar0! A#> aint hi$ "ith the so#iety of the light3 To the fighting %artridge tea#h %ea#e! To the #o#0 the signs of da"ning day. +n this "ay deal "ith all fro$ the hoo%oo to the eagle. Then follo"s a long a##o nt of )ario s $ira# lo s in#idents that o## rred d ring the #hildhood of the 7ro%het! ho" he "as s #0led by Hali$a! a "o$an of the .ani 9a2ad! ho" the idols bo"ed do"n before hi$! ho" he strayed fro$ ho$e! ho" his grandfather! Abd l * ttalib! %rayed to <od that he $ight be fo nd! and ho" he "as at last fo nd in the Ka2ba and restored to his grandfather. Ne,t a story is told of a # r "ho atta#0ed a blind $an GK rH in the street! rather than h nt the "ild ass G<orH on the $o ntains in #o$%any "ith "ellbred dogs. This is an ill stration of the thesis that $an0ind is %rone to r n after $ean earthly ob-e#ts! and to negle#t as%iring to the s%irit al "orld. S#l#m#n's adm#ni*i#ns *# "il:is%

Ah1 .il>is! bestir thyself no" the $ar0et is thronged! @lee a"ay fro$ the$ "hose traffi# is n%rofitable1 1B Arise! .il>is! no" that tho hast the #hoi#e! .efore that death lays his hea)y hand %on thee. 9oon "ill death % ll thy ears! as if tho "ert A thief dragged before the offi#er in deadly fear. Ho" long "ilt tho steal shoes fro$ asses of the "orld4 +f tho $ st steal! steal %earls of the "orld abo)e. Thy sisters ha)e fo nd the 0ingdo$ that lasts fore)er! Tho #lea)est to the 0ingdo$ of dar0ness. Ha%%y is he "ho > its this earthly 0ingdo$! Whi#h sooner or later death "ill destroy. Arise1 6 .il>is! at least behold The 0ingdo$ of the royal 0ings of the faith1 +n reality they are seated in the garden of the s%irit! Tho gh to o t"ard )ie" they are g iding their friends. That s%irit al garden a##o$%anies the$ e)ery"here! /et it is ne)er re)ealed to the eyes of the %eo%le! +ts fr its e)er as0ing to be gathered! +ts fo nt of life "elling % to be dr n01 <o ro nd abo t the hea)ens "itho t aid of "ings! &i0e s n or f ll $oon or ne" $oon1 Tho "ilt $o)e as a s%irit "itho t aid of feet! Tho "ilt eat s"eet )iands "itho t $o th or %alate. No #ro#odile of sorro" "ill atta#0 thy bar0! Nor "ill sad tho ghts of death assail thee. Tho "ilt be at on#e > een! ar$y! and throne! End ed "ith good fort ne and fort ne itself. 1J Tho sayest tho art a great > een of good fort ne3 . t thy fort ne is a%art fro$ thee and "ill soon fade! Tho "ilt be left li0e a! beggar "itho t s stenan#e3 Therefore! 6 #hosen one! be#o$e thy o"n fort ne. When! 6 s%irit al one! tho hast be#o$e thy o"n fort ne! Then! being thyself thy fort ne! tho "ilt ne)er lose it. Ho". 6 fort nate one! #anst tho e)er lose thyself! When thy real self is thy treas re and thy 0ingdo$4 Ho" $en and de$ons hel%ed 9olo$on in b ilding the te$%le. When 9olo$on laid the fo ndations of the te$%le! *en and Iinns #a$e and lent their aid to the "or0! 9o$e of the$ "ith good-"ill! and others on #o$% lsion! E)en as "orshi%%ers follo" the road of de)otion. *en are as de$ons! and l st of "ealth their #hain! Whi#h drags the$ forth to toil in sho% and field. This #hain is $ade of their fears and an,ieties. 5ee$ not that these $en ha)e no #hain %on the$.

+t #a ses the$ to engage in labor and the #hase! +t for#es the$ to toil in $ines and on the sea! +t rges the$ to"ards good and to"ards e)il. <od saith! (6n their ne#0s is a ro%e of %al$ fibre!( 18 And (;erily on their ne#0s ha)e "e %la#ed ro%es!22 19 (We $a0e this ro%e o t of their o"n dis%ositions3 There is none either i$% re or intelligent! . t "e ha)e fastened his "or0 abo t his ne#0.( 8F Thy l st is e)en as fire b rning in thy e)il deeds3 The bla#0 #oal of these deeds is lighted by the fire3 The bla#0ness of the #oal is first hidden by the fire! . t! "hen it is b rnt! the bla#0ness is $ade )isible. The b ilding of the %ro%hets "as "itho t l st! And a##ordingly its s%lendor e)er in#reased. /ea! $any are the noble te$%les they ha)e raised! Tho gh all "ere not na$ed (The *ost Re$ote Te$%le.( The Ka2ba! "hose reno"n "a,es greater e)ery $o$ent! 6"ed its fo ndation to the %iety of Abraha$. +ts glory is not deri)ed fro$ stones and $ortar! . t fro$ being b ilt "itho t l st or strife. Neither are the %ro%hets2 "ritings li0e other "ritings3 Nor their te$%les! nor their "or0s! nor their fa$ilies3 Nor their $anners! nor their "rath! nor their #hastise$ents3 Nor their drea$s! nor their reason! nor their "ords. Ea#h one of the$ is end ed "ith a different glory! Ea#h so l2s bird "inged "ith different feathers. Ho1 %io s ones! b ild the li)ely te$%le of the heart! That the 5i)ine 9olo$on $ay be seen! and %ea#e be %on yo 1 And if yo r de$ons and fairies be re#al#itrant! /o r good angels $ st %la#e #ollars on their ne#0s. +f yo r de$ons go astray thro gh g ile and fra d! Dhastise$ent $ st o)erta0e the$ s"ift as lightning. .e li0e 9olo$on! so that yo r de$ons *ay dig stones for yo r s%irit al edifi#e. .e li0e 9olo$on! free fro$ e)il tho ghts and g ile! 9o that #arnal de$ons and Iinns $ay be s b$issi)e to yo . /o r heart is as 9olo$on2s signet3 ta0e good #are That it falls not a %rey to de$ons! @or then de$ons "ill r le o)er yo as o)er 9olo$on. < ard then yo r signet fro$ the de$ons! and be at %ea#e. Then follo"s a story of a %oet "ho re#ited a %anegyri# in honor of a liberal 0ing. The 0ing #o$$anded that he sho ld re#ei)e one tho sand %ie#es of gold! b t the )aEir! na$ed Ab l-Hasan! ga)e hi$ ten tho sand. The %oet "ent to his ho$e "ell #ontented! b t after so$e years fell into %o)erty!

and nat rally betho ght hi$ of the genero s 0ing and his )aEir! "ho had before assisted hi$. 9iba"ayh! the gra$$arian of 9hiraE says (Allah( is deri)ed fro$ (Alah( Gfleeing for ref geH and th s "e see all #reat res! and e)en the ele$ents the$sel)es! e)er loo0ing to Allah to s stain the$ in e,isten#e. The %oet! therefore! again %resented hi$self to the 0ing "ith a ne" %anegyri#! and the 0ing! on hearing it! #o$$anded as before that a tho sand %ie#es of gold sho ld be gi)en hi$. . t the ne" )aEir! "ho "as also na$ed Ab l-Hasan! %ers aded the 0ing that the e,#he> er #o ld not afford this large o tlay! and 0e%t the %oet "aiting so long for his $oney! that at last he "as glad to get a"ay "ith only one h ndred %ie#es of gold. These t"o )aEirs re#all Asaf! the good )aEir of King 9olo$on! "ho deser)es the title (&ight %on light!( 81 and Ha$an! the e)il )aEir of 7haraoh! "ho t rned his he!art against *oses! and bro ght $any %lag es %on the 0ingdo$ of Egy%t. H#- all )(ea*u(es )(y *# &#d ,#( sus*enan)e% /ea! all the fish in the seas! And all feathered fo"l in the air abo)e! All ele%hants! "ol)es! and lions of the forest! All dragons and sna0es! and e)en little ants! /ea! e)en air! "ater! earth! and fire! 5ra" their s stenan#e fro$ Hi$! both "inter and s $$er. E)ery $o$ent this hea)en #ries to Hi$! saying! (6 &ord! > it not Thy hold of $e for a $o$ent1 The %illar of $y being is Thy aid and %rote#tion3 The "hole is folded % in that right hand of Thine.( 88 And earth #ries! (6 0ee% $e fi,ed and steadfast! Tho "ho hast %la#ed $e on the to% of "aters1( All of the$ are "aiting and e,%e#ting His aid! All ha)e learned of Hi$ to re%resent their needs. E)ery %ro%het e,tols this %res#ri%tion! (9ee0 ye hel% "ith %atien#e and "ith %rayer.( 8: Ho1 see0 aid of Hi$! not of another than Hi$ 9ee0 "ater in the o#ean! not in a dried- % #hannel. The ne,t ane#dote is that of the ra)en "ho ta ght Dain the art of digging gra)es and b rying #or%ses! as told in Koran ). :=. This is designed to ill strate the thesis that naided h $an reason #an dis#o)er no no" tr th! nless ins%ired by 5i)ine "isdo$! of "hi#h the %ro%hets! and es%e#ially (Ani)ersal Reason!( or the 7ro%het * ha$$ed! are the #hannels. Th s %hysi#ians and herbalists ha)e deri)ed their 0no"ledge of the )irt es of %lants fro$ the instr #tions originally gi)en by King 9olo$on "hen he #lassified the %lants that gre" in the #o rt of the te$%le. The inner eye sees $ore than is )isible to the sight of the ) lgar. To ill strate this! an

ane#dote is told of a 9 fi "ho had a##o$%anied his friends to a bea tif l garden! b t instead of loo0ing abo t and en-oying the fragran#e of the flo"ers and fr its! sat "ith his head s n0 on his breast in 9 fi fashion. His friends said to hi$! in the "ords of the Koran! (&oo0 at the signs of <od2s $er#y! ho" after its death He > i#0eneth the earth1( 8= He ans"ered the$ that these signs "ere far $ore %lainly )isible to hi$ in his heart than in the o t"ard #reation! "hi#h "as $erely as it "ere a bl rred refle#tion fro$ the s%irit al #reation enshrined in his heart. @or <od says! (The life of the "orld is na ght b t a #heating fr ition.( 8? +n other "ords! (Nat re #on#eals <od! b t the s %ernat ral in $an re)eals Hi$.( 8B On )leansin/ *he in-a(d *em+le #, *he hea(* ,(#m sel,-)#n)ei* and (elian)e #n )a(nal (eas#n% When the body bo"s in "orshi%! the heart is a te$%le! And "here there is a te$%le! there bad friends are "eeds When a li0ing for bad friends gro"s % in yo ! @lee fro$ the$! and a)oid #on)erse "ith the$. Root % those "eeds! for! if they attain f ll gro"th! They "ill s b)ert yo and yo r te$%le together. 6 belo)ed! this "eed is de)iation fro$ the (right "ay!( /o #ra"l #roo0edly! li0e infants nable to "al0. @ear not to a#0no"ledge yo r ignoran#e and g ilt! That the Hea)enly *aster $ay not "ithhold instr #tion. When yo say! (+ a$ ignorant3 6 tea#h $e!( 9 #h o%en #onfession is better than false %ride. 6 ingen o s one! learn of o r father Ada$! Who said of yore! (6 &ord! "e ha)e dealt n- stly.( 8J He $ade no )ain e,# ses and %re)ari#ated not! Nor did he raise the standard of g ile and #raft. 6n the other hand! +blis raised arg $ents! saying! (+ sed to be honorable3 Tho hast disgra#ed $e. *y stain is o"ing to Thee3 Tho art $y dyer3 Tho hast #a sed $y sin and transgression.( Read the te,t! (&ord! Tho hast #a sed $e to err!( 88 That yo %lead not #o$% lsion! and so err Gli0e +blisH. Ho" long "ill yo #li$b into that tree of #o$% lsion4 Ho" long #ast o t of sight yo r o"n free"ill4 Ho" long! li0e +blis and his e)il #re"! Thro" the bla$e of yo r o"n sins %on <od4 Ho" "ere yo #o$%elled to sin "hen yo too0 s #h %leas re And %ride in engaging in those sins4 5oes a $an feel s #h %leas re in a#ting on #o$% lsion As he e,hibits "hen #o$$itting "rong a#tions4 /o battle li0e t"enty $en against those

Who gi)e yo good ad)i#e not to do that a#t3 9aying to the$! (This is right and > ite %ro%er3 Who diss ades $e fro$ it b t $en of no a##o nt4( 5oes a $an a#ting on #o$% lsion tal0 li0e this4 6r rather one "ho is erring of his o"n free"ill4 Whate)er yo r l st "ills yo dee$ free"ill! What reason de$ands yo dee$ #o$% lsion. Whoso is "ise and %r dent 0no"s this! That #le)erness #o$es fro$ +blis! b t lo)e fro$ Ada$. Dle)erness is li0e Danaan2s s"i$$ing in the o#ean3 89 2Tis no ri)er or s$all strea$3 2tis the $ighty o#ean. A"ay "ith this atte$%t to s"i$3 > it self-#on#eit. 2T"ill not sa)e yo 3 Danaan "as dro"ned at last. &o)e is as the ar0 a%%ointed for the righteo s! Whi#h ann ls the danger and %ro)ides a "ay of es#a%e. 9ell yo r #le)erness and b y be"ilder$ent3 Dle)erness is $ere o%inion! be"ilder$ent int ition. *a0e sa#rifi#e of yo r reason at the feet of * stafa! 9ay! (<od 9 ffi#eth $e! for He! is s ffi#ient for $e.( :F 5o not! li0e Danaan! hang ba#0 fro$ entering the ar0! .eing % ffed % "ith )ain #on#eit of #le)erness. He said! (+ "ill es#a%e to the to% of high $o ntains! Why need + % t $yself nder obligation to Noah4( Ah1 better for hi$ had he ne)er learnt s"i$$ing1 Then he "o ld ha)e based his ho%es on Noah2s ar0. Wo ld he had been ignorant of #raft as a babe1 Then li0e a babe he "o ld ha)e #l ng to his $other. Wo ld he had been less f ll of borro"ed 0no"ledge1 Then he "o ld ha)e a##e%ted ins%ired 0no"ledge fro$ his father. When! "ith ins%iration at hand! yo see0 boo0-learning! /o r heart! as if ins%ired! loads yo "ith re%roa#h. :1 Traditional 0no"ledge! "hen ins%iration is a)ailable! +s li0e $a0ing abl tions "ith sand "hen "ater is near. *a0e yo rself ignorant! be s b$issi)e! and then /o "ill obtain release fro$ yo r ignoran#e. @or this #a se! 6 son! the 7rin#e of $en de#lared! (The $a-ority of those in 7aradise are the foolish.( :8 Dle)erness is as a "ind raising stor$s of %ride3 .e foolish! so that yo r heart $ay be at %ea#e3 Not "ith the folly that do bles itself by )ain babble! . t "ith that arising fro$ be"ilder$ent at (The Tr th.( Those Egy%tian "o$en "ho # t their hands "ere fools :: @ools as to their hands! being a$aEed at / s f2s fa#e. *a0e sa#rifi#e of reason to lo)e of (The @riend!( Tr e reason is to be fo nd "here He is. *en of "isdo$ dire#t their reason hea)en"ards!

;ain babblers halt on earth "here no (@riend( is. +f thro gh be"ilder$ent yo r reason > its yo r head! E)ery hair of yo r head be#o$es tr e reason and a head. Then follo" #o$$entaries on the te,t! (6 tho enfolded in thy $antle3( := on the %ro)erb! (9ilen#e is the %ro%er ans"er to a fool3( on the Hadis! (<od #reated the angels "ith reason and the br tes "ith l st! b t $an he #reated "ith both reason and l st3 the $an "ho follo"s reason is higher than the angels! and the $an "ho follo"s l st is lo"er than the br tes3( on the te,t! (As to those in "hose heart is a disease! it "ill add do bt to their do bt! and they shall die infidels!( :? and a #o$%arison of the str ggle bet"een reason and l st to that bet"een *a-n n and his she#a$el! he trying to get to his $istress &aila! and the she-#a$el trying to r n ho$e to her foal. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,li,. 1F3 ,,,i. 8J3 ii. 88?. 8. The letter is gi)en in Koran ,,)ii. :F. :. All these legends are deri)ed fro$ Koran ,,i.! ,,)ii.! and ,,,)iii. 9ee 9ale2s notes. =. This refers to * ha$$ad! "ho is at on#e the (@irst reason( G&ogosH and the (7erfe#t $an!( "ho is (the s $ of all the "orlds( and the (<reat "orld.( 9ee Noti#es et E,traits des *99.! ,. %. 8B. ?. He "as also the final #a se of #reation. (+f it had not been for thee! the "orld had not been #reated.( B. * ha$$ad as the &ogos is the #hannel by "hi#h di)ine gra#e is #on)eyed to $an. The (#hange of the body( is an all sion to the as#ension of * ha$$ad G*i ra-H. J. A Hadis. 8. * si# is $ #h sed in the religio s ser)i#es of the (*a la)i( order of 5ar)eshes! fo nded by Ialal -d-5in R $i. 9ee (The 5er)ishes!( by I.7. .ro"n! %. 19J. 9. (A$ not + yo r lord4( GKoran )ii. 1J1H. 1F. (When there shall be a tr $%et blast! that shall be a dreadf l day( GKoran l,,i). JH. 11. The so-#alled 7ythagorean do#trine of the (Har$ony of the s%heres( "as as "ell 0no"n to 7ersian %oets as to 9ha0es%eare. 18. This is an all sion to the story of the (.elie)er2s lost #a$el.( .oo0 ii.! 9tory ,i. 1:. This all des to the "ell-0no"n %oe$ of @arid -d-5in 2Attar the (*anti> -t-Tair.( 1=. .oo0 ii. 9tory ). 1?. Koran ,,)ii. 1B. There is a Hadis! (9%ea0 to $en a##ording to the a$o nt of their intelligen#e.(

1B. (These are they "ho ha)e bo ght error at the %ri#e of g idan#e! b t their traffi# hath not been gainf l( GKoran ii. 1?H. 1J. Anion attained! all d ality and se%arate %heno$enal e,isten#e are s"allo"ed % in the 6ne GNo $enonH. G9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 8:? and 8=?H. 18. Koran iii. ?. 19. Koran ,,,)i. J. 8F. (And e)ery $an2s "or0 ha)e "e fastened abo t his ne#0! and on the last day "ill "e bring forth to hi$ a boo0! "hi#h shall be sho"n to hi$ "ide o%en. Read thy boo03 there needeth none b t thyself to $a0e o t an a##o nt against thee that day ( GKoran ,)ii. 1=H. 81. Koran ,,i). :?. 88. Koran ,,,i,. BJ. 8:. Koran ii. 1=8. 8=. Koran ,,,. =9. 8?. Koran iii. 188. 8B. (. t is it nreasonable to #onfess that "e belie)e in <od! not by reason of the nat re "hi#h #on#eals hi$! b t by reason of the s %ernat ral in $an! "hi#h alone re)eals hi$ and %ro)es hi$ to e,ist4 ( GIa#obi! > oted in 9ir W. Ha$ilton2s &e#t res on *eta%hysi#s! )ol. i. %. =FH. 8J. Koran )ii. 88. 88. He said! (That tho hast #a sed $e to err( GKoran )ii. 1?H. This is the b rden of $any of 26$ar Khayya$2s %oe$s. 89. Koran ,i. =:. 9ee .oo0 iii.! 9tory ?. :F. Koran i,. 1:F. :1. Kno"ledge of (The Tr th( is to be attained not by e,er#ise of the reason! b t by ill $ination fro$ abo)e. When the light of (The Tr th( is re)ealed! reason is dro"ned in be"ilder$ent. < lshan i RaE! Ans"er ii. :8. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! )ol. ii. %. 8983 1 Dor. i). 1F. ::. (They "ere a$aEed at / s f! and # t their hands! and said! 2<od 0ee% s! this is no $an12( GKoran ,ii. :1H. :=. Koran l,,iii. 1. :?. Koran i,. 18B. STOR' III% The '#u*h -h# -(#*e a le**e( #, )#m+lain* ab#u* his (a*i#ns *# *he .in/% A #ertain yo th in the ser)i#e of a great 0ing "as dissatisfied "ith his rations! so he "ent to the #oo0 and re%roa#hed hi$ "ith dishonoring his $aster by his stinginess. The yo th "o ld not listen to his e,# ses! b t "rote off an angry letter of #o$%laint to the 0ing! in ter$s of o t"ard #o$%li$ent and res%e#t! b t betraying an angry s%irit. 6n re#ei)ing this letter! the 0ing obser)ed that it #ontained only #o$%laints abo t $eat and drin0! and e)in#ed no as%irations after s%irit al food! and therefore

needed no ans"er! as (the %ro%er ans"er to a fool is silen#e.( 1 When the yo th re#ei)ed no ans"er to his letter! he "as $ #h s r%rised! and thre" the bla$e on the #oo0 and on the $essenger! ignoring the fa#t that the folly of his o"n letter "as the real reason of its being left nans"ered. He "rote in all fi)e letters! b t the 0ing %ersisted in his ref sal to re%ly! saying that fools are ene$ies to <od and $an! and that he "ho has any dealings "ith a fool fo ls his o"n nest. @ools only regard $aterial $eat and drin0! "hereas the food of the "ise is the light of <od! as it is said by the 7ro%het! (+ %ass the night in the %resen#e of $y &ord! "ho gi)eth $e $eat and drin0!( 8 and again! (@asting is the food of <od!( i.e.! the $eans by "hi#h s%irit al food is obtained. : E3+lana*i#n #, *he *e3* 4And M#ses )#n)eived a se)(e* ,ea( -i*hin him% 6e said 'Fea( n#*0 ,#( *h#u shal* be u++e(m#s* =#ve( Pha(a#h's ma/i)ians> '4% < *oses said! (Their sor#ery #onf ses the$3 What #an + do4 These %eo%le ha)e no dis#ern$ent.( <od said! (+ "ill generate in the$ dis#ern$ent3 + "ill $a0e their ndis#erning reason to see #learly. Altho gh li0e a sea their "a)es #ast % foa$! 6 *oses! tho shalt %re)ail o)er the$3 fear not1( The $agi#ians gloried in their o"n a#hie)e$ents! . t "hen *oses2 rod be#a$e a sna0e! they "ere #onfo nded. Whoso boasts of his bea ty and "it! The stone of death is a to #hstone of his boasts. 9or#ery fades a"ay! b t the $ira#les of *oses ad)an#e. .oth rese$ble a dish falling fro$ a roof' The noise of the dish of sor#ery lea)es only # rsing3 The noise of the dish of faith lea)es edifi#ation. When the to #hstone is hidden fro$ the sight of all! Then #o$e forth to battle and boast! 6 base #oin1 /o r ti$e for boasting is "hen the to #hstone is a"ay3 The hand of %o"er "ill soon #r sh yo r e,altation. The base #oin says to $e "ith %ride e)ery $o$ent! (6 % re gold! ho" a$ + inferior to yo 4( The gold re%lies! (E)en so! 6 #o$rade3 . t the to #hstone is at hand3 be ready to $eet it1( 5eath of the body is a benefa#tion to the s%irit al3 What da$age has % re gold to dread fro$ the shears4 +f the base #oin "ere of itself far-sighted! +t "o ld re)eal at first the bla#0ness it sho"s at last. +f it had sho"ed its bla#0ness at first on its fa#e! 2T"o ld ha)e a)oided hy%o#risy no" and $isery at last. 2T"o ld ha)e so ght the al#he$y of gra#e in d e ti$e3

+ts reason "o ld ha)e %re)ailed o)er its hy%o#risy. +f it be#a$e bro0en-hearted thro gh its o"n bad state! 2T"o ld loo0 on"ard to Hi$ that heals the bro0en3 2T"o ld loo0 to the res lt and be bro0en-hearted And be $ade "hole at on#e by the Healer of bro0en hearts. 5i)ine gra#e %la#es base #o%%er in the ale$bi#! Ad lterated gold is e,#l ded fro$ that fa)or. 6 ad lterated gold! boast not! b t see #learly That thy 7 r#haser is not blind to thy defe#ts. The light of the - dg$ent-day "ill enlighten his eyes And destroy the gla$o r of thy fas#inations. .ehold the$ that ha)e regard to the lti$ate res lt! And also the regrets of foolish so ls and their en)y. .ehold the$ that regard only the %resent! And #ast a"ay tho ghts of e)il to #o$e fro$ their $inds. CN6TE9' 1. 9ee @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! i. ??1! for a %arallel. 8. Koran ,,)i. J9. :. 9ee *ish0at l *asabih! )ol. i. %. =B:. =. Koran ,,. JF. STOR' I1% "aya2id and his im+i#us sayin/s -hen beside himsel,% The holy saint .ayaEid before his death %redi#ted the birth of the saint Ab l-Hasan Khir>ani! and s%e#ified all the %e# liar > alities "hi#h "o ld be seen in hi$. And after his death it #a$e to %ass as he had %redi#ted! and Ab l-Hasan! hearing "hat .ayaEid had said! sed to fre> ent his to$b. 6ne day he )isited the to$b as s al! and fo nd it #o)ered "ith sno"! and a )oi#e "as heard saying! (The "orld is fleeting as sno". + a$ #alling thee1 @ollo" $e and forsa0e the "orld1( H#- "aya2id )(ied #u*0 -hen beside himsel,0 4&l#(y be *# me?4 and h#his dis)i+les -e(e s)andali2ed a* *his sayin/0 and h#- "aya2id ans-e(ed *hem% 6n#e that fa$o s saint .ayaEid #a$e to his dis#i%les! 9aying! (&o! + $yself a$ <od Al$ighty.( That $an of s%irit al gifts being )isibly beside hi$self3 9aid! (There is no <od beside $e3 "orshi% $e1(

Ne,t $orning! "hen his e#stati# state had %assed! They said! (/o said so and so! "hi#h "as i$%io s.( He ans"ered! (+f + do so again! 9traight"ay slay $e "ith yo r 0ni)es1 <od is inde%endent of $e3 + a$ in the body. +f + say that again yo $ st 0ill $e1( When that holy %erson had gi)en this in- n#tion! Ea#h of his dis#i%les $ade ready his 0nife. Again that o)erflo"ing # % be#a$e beside hi$self! And his re#ent in- n#tions %assed fro$ his $ind. Alienation #a$e %on hi$! reason "ent astray! The da"n shone forth and his la$% %aled at its light. Reason is li0e an offi#er "hen the 0ing a%%ears3 The offi#er then loses his %o"er and hides hi$self. Reason is <od2s shado"3 <od is the s n. What %o"er has the shado" before the s n4 When a $an is %ossessed by an e)il s%irit The > alities of h $anity are lost in hi$. Whate)er he says is really said by that s%irit! Tho gh it see$s to %ro#eed fro$ the $an2s $o th. When the s%irit has this r le and do$inan#e o)er hi$! The agent is the %ro%erty of the s%irit! and not hi$self3 His self is de%arted! and he has be#o$e the s%irit. The T r0 "itho t instr #tion s%ea0s Arabi#3 1 When he ret rns to hi$self he 0no"s not a "ord of it. 9eeing <od is lord of s%irits and of $an! Ho" #an He be inferior in %o"er to a s%irit4 When the eagle of alienation fro$ self too0 "ing! .ayaEid began to tter si$ilar s%ee#hes3 The torrent of $adness bore a"ay his reason! And he s%o0e $ore i$%io sly than before. (Within $y )est re is na ght b t <od! Whether yo see0 Hi$ on earth or in hea)en.( His dis#i%les all be#a$e $ad "ith horror! And str #0 "ith their 0ni)es at his holy body. Ea#h one! li0e the assassins of Kard0oh! 8 Witho t fear ai$ed at the body of his #hief. Ea#h "ho ai$ed at the body of the 9hai0h! His stro0e "as re)ersed and "o nded the stri0er. No stro0e too0 effe#t on that $an of s%irit al gifts! . t the dis#i%les "ere "o nded and dro"ned in blood. Ea#h "ho had ai$ed a blo" at his ne#0! 9a" his o"n throat # t! and ga)e % the ghost3 He "ho had str #0 at his breast Had #left his o"n breast and 0illed hi$self. They "ho 0ne" better that lord of feli#ity!

Who had not #o rage eno gh to stri0e a deadly blo"! Their half-0no"ledge held their hands ba#03 They sa)ed their li)es b t slightly "o nded the$sel)es. 6n the $orro" those dis#i%les! di$inished in n $ber! Raised la$entations in their ho ses. They "ent to .ayaEid! tho sands of $en and "o$en! 9aying! (The t"o "orlds are hidden in thy )est re3 +f this body of thine "ere that of a $an! +t "o ld ha)e %erished of s"ord-"o nds! li0e a $an2s.( The $an in his senses fo ght "ith hi$ 2beside hi$self! And thr st the thorn into his o"n eyes.( Ah1 yo "ho s$ite "ith yo r s"ord hi$ beside hi$self! /o s$ite yo rself there"ith3 .e"are1 @or he that is beside hi$self is annihilated and safe3 /ea! he d"ells in se# rity fore)er. His for$ is )anished! he is a $ere $irror3 Nothing is seen in hi$ b t the refle#tion of another. +f yo s%it at it! yo s%it at yo r o"n fa#e! And if yo hit that $irror! yo hit yo rself3 And if yo see an gly fa#e in it! 2tis yo r o"n! And if yo see an 2+sa there! yo are its $other *ary. He is neither this nor that he is )oid of for$3 2Tis yo r o"n for$ "hi#h is refle#ted ba#0 to yo . . t "hen the dis#o rse rea#hes this %oint! li% is #losed3 When %en rea#hes this %oint! it is s%lit in t"ain. Dlose then yo r li%s! tho gh elo> en#e be %ossible. Kee% silen#e3 <od 0no"s the right "ay1 This is follo"ed by an ane#dote of the 7ro%het a%%ointing an H dhaili yo th to be #a%tain of a band of "arriors a$ongst "ho$ "ere $any older and $ore e,%erien#ed soldiers! and of the ob-e#tions $ade to this a%%oint$ent! and of the 7ro%het2s ans"er to the ob-e#tors. 6hy *he P(#+he* +(#m#*ed *he y#u*h *# )#mmand his seni#(s% The 7ro%het said! (6 ye "ho regard only the o tside! Regard hi$ not as a yo th )oid of talents. *any are they "hose beards are bla#0 yet are old! *any too ha)e "hite beards and hearts li0e %it#h. + ha)e $ade trial of his "isdo$ often and often! And that yo th has sho"n hi$self old in his a#tions. Age #onsists in $at rity of "isdo$! 6 son! Not! in "hiteness of the beard and hair. Ho" #an any one be older than +blis4 /et! if he has no "isdo$! he is na ght.

9 %%ose hi$ an infant! if he has 2+sa2s so l! He is % re fro$ %ride and fro$ #arnal l st. That "hiteness of the hair is a sign of $at rity 6nly to % rblind eyes "hose )ision is li$ited. 9in#e that shortsighted one - dges by o t"ard signs! He see0s the right #o rse by o t"ard to0ens. @or his sa0e + said that if ye desire #o nsel /e o ght to $a0e #hoi#e of an old $an. He "ho has e$erged fro$ the )eil of blind belief .eholds by the light of <od all things that e,ist. His % re light! "itho t signs or to0ens! Dlea)es for hi$ the rind and brings hi$ to the 0ernel. To the regarder of e,ternals! gen ine and base #oin are ali0e. Ho" #an he 0no" "hat is inside the bas0et4 *any are the gold #oins $ade bla#0 "ith s$o0e! 9o that they el de the #l t#hes of greedy thie)es3 *any are the #o%%er #oins gilded "ith gold! And sold as gold to $en of slender "its. We "ho regard the inside of the "orld! We loo0 at the heart and disregard the o tside. The - dges "ho #onfine their )ie" to e,ternals And base their de#isions on o t"ard a%%earan#es! As they testify and $a0e o t"ard sho" of faith! : Are straight"ay d bbed faithf l by $en of e,ternals. Therefore these hereti#s! "ho regard only e,ternals! Ha)e se#retly shed the blood of $any tr e belie)ers. 9tri)e then to be old in "isdo$ and in faith! That! li0e Ani)ersal Reason! yo $ay see "ithin.( = CN6TE9' 1. All ding to the story of the K rd! 9yad Ab l-Wafa! .oo0 i 9tory ,i). note. 8. A hill in *aEandaran. :. (And so$e there are "ho say! 2We belie)e in <od and in the last day!2 yet they are not belie)ers( GKoran ii. JH. =. Ani)ersal Reason! here a%%lied to * ha$$ad. (The first thing "hi#h <od #reated "as G2a>lH Reason or +ntelligen#e!( i.e.! the &ogos. STOR' 1% The Th(ee Fishes% This story! "hi#h is ta0en fro$ the boo0 of Kalila and 5a$nah!1 is as follo"s. There "as in a se#l ded %la#e a la0e! "hi#h "as fed by a r nning

strea$! and in this la0e "ere three fishes! one )ery "ise! the se#ond half "ise! and the third foolish. 6ne day so$e fisher$en %assed by that la0e! and ha)ing es%ied the fish! hastened ho$e to fet#h their nets. The fish also sa" the fisher$en and "ere sorely dis> ieted. The )ery "ise fish! "itho t a $in te2s delay! > itted the la0e and too0 ref ge in the r nning strea$ "hi#h #o$$ ni#ated "ith it! and th s es#a%ed the i$%ending danger. The half "ise fish delayed doing anything till the fisher$en a#t ally $ade their a%%earan#e "ith their nets. He then floated %on the s rfa#e of the "ater! %retending to be dead! and the fisher$an too0 hi$ % and thre" hi$ into the strea$! and by this de)i#e he sa)ed his life. . t the foolish fish did nothing b t s"i$ "ildly abo t! and "as ta0en and 0illed by the fisher$en. The ma($s #, *he -ise man0 #, *he hal, -ise0 and #, *he ,##l% The "ise $an is he "ho %ossesses a tor#h of his o"n3 He is the g ide and leader of the #ara)an. That leader is his o"n dire#tor and light3 That ill $inated one follo"s his o"n lead. He is his o"n %rote#tor3 do ye also see0 %rote#tion @ro$ that light "hereon his so l is n rt red. The se#ond! he! na$ely! "ho is half "ise! Kno"s the "ise $an to be the light of his eyes. He #lings to the "ise $an li0e a blind $an to his g ide! 9o as to be#o$e %ossessed of the "ise $an2s sight. . t the fool! "ho has no %arti#le of "isdo$! Has no "isdo$ of his o"n! and > its the "ise $an. He 0no"s nothing of the "ay! great or s$all! And is asha$ed to follo" the footste%s of the g ide. He "anders into the bo ndless desert! 9o$eti$es halting and des%airing! so$eti$es r nning. He has no la$% "here"ith to light hi$self on his "ay! Nor half a la$% "hi#h $ight re#ogniEe and see0 light. He la#0s "isdo$! so as to boast of being ali)e! And also half "isdo$! so as to ass $e to be dead4 That half "ise one be#a$e as one tterly dead +n order to rise % o t of his degradation. +f yo la#0 %erfe#t "isdo$! $a0e yo rself as dead Ander the shado" of the "ise! "hose "ords gi)e life. The fool is neither ali)e so as to #o$%anion "ith 2+sa! Nor yet dead so as to feel the %o"er of 2+sa2s breath. His blind so l "anders in e)ery dire#tion! And at last $a0es a s%ring! b t s%rings not %"ards. The )#unsels #, *he bi(d%

A $an #a%t red a bird by "iles and snares3 The bird said to hi$! (6 noble sir! +n yo r ti$e yo ha)e eaten $any o,en and shee%! And li0e"ise sa#rifi#ed $any #a$els3 /o ha)e ne)er be#o$e satisfied "ith their $eat! 9o yo "ill not be satisfied "ith $y flesh. &et $e go! that + $ay gi)e yo three #o nsels! When#e yo "ill see "hether + a$ "ise or foolish. The first of $y #o nsels shall be gi)en on yo r "rist! The se#ond on yo r "ell-%lastered roof! And the third + "ill gi)e yo fro$ the to% of a tree. 6n hearing all three yo "ill dee$ yo rself ha%%y. As regards the #o nsel on yo r "rist! 2tis this. 2.elie)e not foolish assertions of any one12( When he had s%o0en this #o nsel on his "rist! he fle" A% to the to% of the roof! entirely free. Then he said! (5o not grie)e for "hat is %ast3 When a thing is done! )e, not yo rself abo t it.( He #ontin ed! (Hidden inside this body of $ine +s a %re#io s %earl! ten dra#h$s in "eight. That -e"el of right! belonged to yo ! Wealth for yo rself and %ros%erity for yo r #hildren. /o ha)e lost it! as it! "as not fated yo sho ld get it! That %earl "hose li0e #an no"here be fo nd.( There %on the $an! li0e a "o$an in her tra)ail! <a)e )ent to la$entations and "ee%ing. The bird said to hi$! (5id + not #o nsel yo ! saying! 2.e"are of grie)ing o)er "hat is %ast and gone42 When 2tis %ast and gone! "hy sorro" for it4 Either yo nderstood not $y #o nsel or are deaf. The se#ond #o nsel + ga)e yo "as this! na$ely! 2.e not $isg ided eno gh to belie)e foolish assertions.2 6 fool! altogether + do not "eigh three dra#h$s! Ho" #an a %earl of ten dra#h$s be "ithin $e4( The $an re#o)ered hi$self and said! (Well then! Tell $e no" yo r third good #o nsel1( The bird re%lied! (/o ha)e $ade a fine se of the others! That + sho ld "aste $y third #o nsel %on yo . To gi)e #o nsel to a slee%y ignora$ s +s to so" seeds %on salt land. Torn gar$ents of folly and ignoran#e #annot be %at#hed. 6 #o nselors! "aste not the seed of #o nsel on the$1( CN6TE9'

1. An)ar i 9 haili. .oo0 i. 9tory 1?. STOR' 1I% M#ses and Pha(a#h% 9 Then follo"s a )ery long a##o nt of the dealings of *oses! an in#arnation of tr e reason! "ith 7haraoh! the e,%onent of $ere o%inion or ill sion. +t begins "ith a long dis# ssion bet"een *oses and 7haraoh. *oses tells 7haraoh that both of the$ ali0e o"e their bodies to earth and their so ls to <od! and that <od is their only lord. 7haraoh re%lies that he is lord of *oses! and #hides *oses for his "ant of gratit de to hi$self for n rt ring hi$ in his #hildhood. *oses re%lies that he re#ogniEes no lord b t <od! and re$inds 7haraoh ho" he had tried to 0ill hi$ in his infan#y. 7haraoh #o$%lains that he is $ade of no a##o nt by *oses! and *oses retorts that in order to # lti)ate a "aste field it is ne#essary to brea0 % the soil3 and in order to $a0e a good gar$ent! the st ff $ st first be # t %3 and in order to $a0e bread! the "heat $ st first be gro nd in the $ill! and so on. The best ret rn he #an $a0e to 7haraoh for his hos%itality to hi$ in his infan#y is to set hi$ free fro$ his l st-engendered ill sions! li0e a fish fro$ the fish-hoo0 "hi#h has #a ght hi$. 7haraoh then t"its *oses "ith his sor#eries in #hanging his staff into a ser%ent! and thereby beg iling the %eo%le. *oses re%lies that all this "as a##o$%lished not by sor#ery! li0e that of 7haraoh2s o"n $agi#ians! b t by the %o"er of <od! tho gh 7haraoh #o ld not see it! o"ing to his "ant of %er#e%tion of di)ine things. The ear and the nose #annot see bea tif l ob-e#ts! b t only the eye! and si$ilarly the sens al eye! blinded by l st! is i$%otent to behold s%irit al tr th. 6n the other hand! $en of s%irit al insight! "hose )ision is % rged fro$ l st! be#o$e as it "ere all eyes! and no longer see do ble! b t only the 6ne sole real .eing. *an2s body! it is tr e! is for$ed of earth! b t by dis#i%line and #ontrition it $ay be $ade to refle#t s%irit al )erities! e)en as #oarse and hard iron $ay be %olished into a steel $irror. 7haraoh o ght to #leanse the r st of e)il-doing fro$ his so l! and then he "o ld be able to see the s%irit al tr ths "hi#h *oses "as dis%laying before hi$. The door of re%entan#e is al"ays o%en. *oses then %ro$ised that if 7haraoh "o ld obey one ad$onition he sho ld re#ei)e in ret rn fo r ad)antages. 7haraoh "as te$%ted by this %ro$ise! and as0ed "hat the ad$onition "as. *oses ans"ered that it "as this! that 7haraoh sho ld #onfess that there is no <od e,#e%t the 6ne Dreator of all things in hea)en and on earth. 7haraoh then %rayed hi$ to e,%o nd the fo r ad)antages he had %ro$ised! saying that %ossibly they $ight # re hi$ of infidelity! and #a se hi$ to be#o$e a )essel of $er#y! instead of one of "rath. *oses then e,%lained that they "ere as follo"s

G1H Health. G8H &ong life! ending in the #on)i#tion that death is gain. E)en as one "ho 0no"s of a treas re hid in a r ined ho se % lls do"n the ho se to find that treas re! so does the "ise $an! f ll of years and e,%erien#e! % ll do"n the ho se of the body to gain the treas re of eternal life. The tradition (+ "as a hidden treas re!( bears on this $atter. G:H A better 0ingdo$ than that of Egy%t! one of %ea#e in %la#e of one of en$ity and #ontention. G=H 7er%et al yo th. 7haraoh then %ro#eeded to ta0e #o nsel "ith his "ife! Asiya! "hether it "o ld be ad)isable to > it his infidelity and belie)e in the %ro$ises of *oses. Asiya! being a %io s "o$an and "ell in#lined to *oses! "ho$ she had n rt red in his infan#y! rged hi$ to do so! b t 7haraoh said he "o ld first #ons lt his )aEir Ha$an. Asiya had a bad o%inion of Ha$an! "ho$ she 0ne" to be as blind to s%irit al tr ths as 7haraoh hi$self! and she did her best to diss ade 7haraoh fro$ #ons lting hi$. To ill strate Ha$an2s s%irit al blindness! she told the story of a royal fal#on "ho fell into the hands of an ignorant old "o$an. This old "o$an 0ne" nothing of the )irt es of a fal#on! and "as dis%leased at the fal#on2s a%%earan#e! and said to it! (What "as yo r $other abo t to lea)e yo r #la"s and bea0 so long4( 9he then %ro#eeded to tri$ the$ short! a##ording to her fan#y! and of #o rse s%oiled the fal#on for all % r%oses of fal#onry. 7haraoh! ho"e)er! "o ld not be di)erted fro$ his % r%ose of #ons lting Ha$an! and Asiya "as fain to #onsole herself "ith the refle#tion that li0e al"ays herds "ith li0e! and so 7haraoh $ st needs #onsort "ith Ha$an! "ho "as in so $any res%e#ts a d %li#ate of hi$self. To ill strate this she re#alled the story of a "o$an "hose infant had #ra"led to the brin0 of a #anal! "here it %ersisted in re$aining! at the i$$inent %eril of its life! des%ite all her #alls and entreaties. +n her distress she as0ed aid of Ali! "ho told her to %la#e another infant on the to% of the ban0. 9he did so! and her o"n infant! seeing its %layfello"! left the brin0 of its o"n a##ord and #a$e to -oin its fello". The s%irit of $an is of li0e gen s "ith the holy %ro%hets! b t $an2s ani$al l st "ith the de$ons. And as things of li0e nat re attra#t one another! so nli0e things re%el one another. Th s it is said that "hen holy $en %ray to be deli)ered fro$ hell! hell also %rays that they $ay be 0e%t a"ay fro$ it. 7haraoh then %ro#eeded to #ons lt Ha$an! and Ha$an! on hearing that *oses had %ro%osed to 7haraoh to h $ble hi$self and #onfess the s %re$e lordshi% of Allah! "as indignant and rent his #lothes! saying! (+s not the 0ingdo$ of Egy%t thine4 Art tho not $ightier than this des%i#able fello"4 8 Who is he to degrade 7haraoh fro$ his 2s %re$e lordshi%42( 9o 7haraoh listened to Ha$an and ref sed to be #on)erted to the tr e faith. Then *oses "as $ #h dis#o raged! b t he "as #onsoled by a )oi#e fro$ hea)en ass ring hi$ that he "as "ell-belo)ed of <od!

be#a se in s%ite of disa%%oint$ents and thro gh good and e)il he #l ng to <od. On *he *(adi*i#n0 4I -as a hidden *(easu(e and I desi(ed *# be $n#-n0 and I )(ea*ed *he -#(ld in #(de( *# be $n#-n4% 5estroy yo r ho se! and "ith the treas re hidden in it : /o "ill be able to b ild tho sands of ho ses. The treas re lies nder it3 there is no hel% for it3 Hesitate not to % ll it do"n3 do not tarry1 @or "ith the #oin of that treas re A tho sand ho ses #an be b ilt "itho t labor. At last of a s rety that ho se "ill be destroyed! And the di)ine treas re "ill be seen beneath it. . t 2t"ill not belong to yo ! be#a se in tr th = That %riEe is the "ages for destroying the ho se. When one has not done the "or0 he gets no "ages3 (*an gets nothing he has not "or0ed for.( ? Then yo "ill bite yo r finger! saying! (Alas1 That bright $oon "as hidden nder a #lo d. + did not do "hat they told $e for $y good3 No" ho se and treas re are lost and $y hand is e$%ty.( /o ha)e ta0en yo r ho se on lease or hired it3 2Tis not yo r o"n %ro%erty to b y and sell. As to the ter$ of the lease! it is till yo r death3 +n that ter$ yo ha)e to t rn it to se. +f before the end of the ter$ of the lease /o o$it to deri)e %rofit fro$ the ho se! Then the o"ner % ts yo o t of it! And % lls it do"n hi$self to find the gold-$ine. While yo are no" s$iting yo r head in dee% regret! And no" tearing yo r beard to thin0 of yo r folly! 9aying! (Alas1 that ho se belonged to $e3 + "as blind and did not deri)e %rofit fro$ it. Alas1 the "ind has #arried off $y d"elling @ore)er1 26 $isery that rests on sla)es12 B +n that ho se of $ine + sa" b t for$s and %i#t res3 + "as en#hanted "ith that ho se so fleetin1 + "as ignorant of the treas re hidden beneath it! 6ther"ise + "o ld ha)e gras%ed an a,e as a %erf $e. Ah1 if + had ad$inistered the - sti#e of the a,e! + sho ld no" ha)e been > it of sorro". . t + fi,ed $y gaEe on o t"ard for$s! &i0e an infant + s%orted "ith %laythings. Well said the fa$o s Ha0i$ 9anai!

2Tho art a #hild3 thy ho se is f ll of %i#t res.2 +n his di)ine %oe$ he gi)es this ad)i#e! 29"ee% a"ay the d st fro$ thy ho se12( They -h# (e)#/ni2e *he almi/h*y +#-e( #, &#d d# n#* as$ -he(e heaven is #( -he(e hell is% (6 7haraoh! if yo are "ise! + sho" yo $er#y3 . t if yo are an ass! + gi)e yo the sti#0 as an ass. 9o + "ill dri)e yo o t of yo r stable! E)en as + $a0e yo r head and ears bleed "ith $y sti#0. +n this stable asses and $en ali0e Are de%ri)ed of %ea#e by yo r o%%ressions. 9ee1 + ha)e bro ght a staff for the % r%ose of #orre#ting E)ery ass "ho does not %ro)e tra#table. +t t rns into a ser%ent in )engean#e against yo ! .e#a se yo ha)e be#o$e a ser%ent in deed and #hara#ter. /o are an e)il ser%ent! s"elled to the siEe of a hill. /et loo0 at the 9er%ent G#onstellationH in hea)en. This staff is a foretaste to yo of hell! 9aying! 2Ho! ta0e ref ge in the light1 6ther"ise yo "ill fall into $y -a"s! And "ill find no es#a%e fro$ $y #l t#hes12 This staff e)en no" be#a$e a ser%ent! 9o that yo need not as0! 2Where is <od2s hell42 <od $a0es a hell "hereso)er He "ills3 He $a0es the )ery s0y a snare and tra% for birds. He %rod #es %ains and a#hes in yo r teeth! 9o that yo say! (Tis a hell and ser%ent2s bite.2 6r again He $a0es yo r s%ittle as honey! 9o that yo say! 22Tis hea)en and "ine of 7aradise.2 He $a0es s gar to gro" in yo r $o th! That yo $ay 0no" the $ight of the di)ine de#rees. Therefore! bite not the inno#ent "ith yo r teeth3 .ear in $ind the di)ine stro0e that tarries not.( <od $ade the Nile blood to the Egy%tians! He %reser)ed the +sraelites fro$ the %eril! That yo $ight 0no" ho" <od dis#erns .et"een the "ise and the foolish "ayfarers. The Nile learned of <od dis#ern$ent When it let the ones thro gh and eng l%hed the others. <od2s $er#y $ade the Nile "ise! His "rath $ade Dain foolish. 6f His $er#y He #reated "isdo$ in inani$ate things! And of His "rath He de%ri)ed the "ise of "isdo$.

6f His $er#y "isdo$ a##r ed to inani$ate things! As a #hastise$ent He too0 "isdo$ fro$ the "ise. Here at His #o$$and "isdo$ "as shed do"n li0e rain! Whilst there "isdo$ sa" His "rath and fled a"ay. Dlo ds and s n! and $oon and lofty stars! All #o$e and go in obedien#e to His ordinan#e3 No one of the$ #o$es sa)e at His a%%ointed ti$e3 +t lingers not behind nor anti#i%ates that ti$e. Whereas yo nderstood not this se#ret! the %ro%hets Ha)e instilled this 0no"ledge into stone and staff3 9o that yo $ay infer that other inani$ate things Witho t do bt rese$ble in this stones and sta)es. The obedien#e of stone and staff is sho"n to yo ! And infor$s yo of that of other inani$ate things. They #ry! (We are all a"are of <od and obey Hi$3 We are not destr #ti)e by $ere fort ito s #han#e.( Th s yo 0no" the "ater of the Nile "hen in flood *ade distin#tion bet"een the Egy%tians and the +sraelites. /o 0no" the others are "ise as earth! "ho! "hen #left! Kne" Kar n and s"allo"ed hi$ % in )engean#e. 6r li0e the $oon! "ho heard the #o$$and and hasted To se)er itself into t"o hal)es in the s0y. J 6r li0e the trees and stones! "hi#h in all %la#es Were seen to bo" do"n at the feet of * stafa. The a(/umen*s be*-een a Sunni and a Ma*e(ialis* @ =!ah(i> de)ided by *he a(bi*(amen* #, ,i(e% &ast night a 9 nni said! (The "orld is transitory3 The hea)ens "ill %ass a"ay3 2<od "ill be the heir.2( 9 A %hiloso%her re%lied! (Ho" 0no" yo they are transitory4 Ho" 0no"s the rain the transitory nat re of the #lo d4 Are yo not a $ere $ote floating in the s nbea$s4 Ho" 0no" yo that the s n is transitory4 A $ere "or$ b ried in a d ng-hea%! Ho" #an it 0no" the origin and end of the earth4 +n blind belief yo ha)e a##e%ted this fro$ yo r father! And thro gh folly ha)e #l ng to it e)er sin#e. Tell $e "hat is the %roof of its transitoriness! 6r else be silent and ind lge not in idle tal0.( The 9 nni said! (6ne day + sa" t"o %ersons Engaged in arg $ent on this dee% > estion! /ea! in dis% te and #ontro)ersy and arg $ent. At last a #ro"d "as gathered ro nd the$. + %ro#eeded to"ards that #o$%any

To infor$ $yself of the s b-e#t of their dis#o rse. 6ne said! 2This s0y "ill %ass a"ay3 5o btless this b ilding had a b ilder.2 The other said! 2+t is eternal and "itho t %eriod3 +t had no b ilder! or it "as its o"n b ilder.2 The first said! 25o yo then deny the Dreator! The .ringer of day and night! the 9 stainer of $en42 He ans"ered! 2Witho t %roof + "ill not listen To "hat yo say3 2tis only based on blind belief. <o1 bring %roof and e)iden#e! for ne)er Will + a##e%t this state$ent "itho t %roof.2 He ans"ered! 2The %roof is "ithin $y heart! /ea! $y %roofs are hidden in $y heart. @ro$ "ea0ness of )ision yo see not the ne" $oon3 +f + see it! be not angry "ith $e12 * #h tal0 follo"ed! and the %eo%le "ere %er%le,ed Abo t the origin and end of the re)ol)ing hea)ens. Then the first said! 26 friend! "ithin $e is a %roof Whi#h ass res $e of the transitoriness of the hea)ens. + hold it for #ertain! and the sign of #ertainty +n hi$ "ho %ossesses it is entering into fire. Kno" this %roof is not to be e,%ressed in s%ee#h! Any $ore than the feeling of lo)e felt by lo)ers. The se#ret + labor to e,%ress is not re)ealed 9a)e by the %allor and e$a#iation of $y fa#e. When the tears #o rse do"n $y #hee0s! They are a %roof of the bea ty and gra#e of $y belo)ed.2 The other said! (+ ta0e not these for a %roof! Tho gh they $ay be a %roof to #o$$on %eo%le.( The 9 nni said! (When gen ine and base #oin boast! 9aying! 2Tho art false! + a$ good and gen ine!2 @ire is the test lti$ately! When the t"o ri)als are #ast into the f rna#e.( A##ordingly both of the$ entered the f rna#e! .oth lea%t into the fiery fla$e3 And the %hiloso%her "as b rnt to ashes! . t the <od-fearing 9 nni "as $ade fairer than before. CN6TE9' 1. This story is an e,%ansion of Koran ,liii. ?F and follo"ing )erses! and of Koran ,i. 8. 9ee Koran ,liii. ?F. :. Do$%are the Hadis! (5ie before yo die!( i.e.! $ortify yo r #arnal desires! and yo "ill find s%irit al treas re.

=. The T r0ish #o$$entator translates r h by Ha>> /ol na! (for the sa0e of tr th!( (in the "ay of tr th.( The & #0no" #o$$entator! as s al! shir0s the diffi# lty. ?. Koran liii. =F. B. Koran ,,,)i! 89. J. Koran li). 1. 8. <haEEali di)ides the an#ient <ree0 %hiloso%hers into three #lasses' 5ahriy n! Tabayi n! and +lahiy n. 9#h$olders! E#oles 7hiloso%hi> es! %. 89. 9. Koran ,). 8:. STOR' 1II% The C#u(*ie( -h# :ua((eled -i*h his F(iend ,#( savin/ his Li,e% A 0ing "as enraged against one of his #o rtiers! and dre" his s"ord to slay hi$. The bystanders "ere all afraid to interfere! "ith the e,#e%tion of one "ho boldly thre" hi$self at the 0ing2s feet and begged hi$ to s%are the offender. The 0ing at on#e stayed his hand! and laid do"n his s"ord! saying! (As yo ha)e inter#eded for hi$! + "o ld gladly %ardon hi$! e)en if he had a#ted as a )ery de$on. + #annot ref se yo r entreaties! be#a se they are the sa$e as $y o"n. +n reality! it is not yo "ho $a0e these entreaties for hi$! b t + "ho $a0e the$ thro gh yo r $o th. + a$ the real a#tor in this $atter and yo are only $y agent. Re$e$ber the te,t! 2/o shot not "hen yo shot32 1 yo are! as it "ere! the foa$! and + the $ighty o#ean beneath it. The $er#y yo sho" to this offender is really sho"n by $e! the 0ing.( The offender "as a##ordingly released and "ent his "ay3 b t! strange to say! he sho"ed no gratit de to his %rote#tor! b t! on the #ontrary! o$itted to greet hi$ "hen he $et hi$! and in other "ays ref sed to re#ogniEe the fa)or he had re#ei)ed fro$ hi$. This beha)ior e,#ited re$ar0! and %eo%le > estioned hi$ as to the #a se of his ingratit de to his benefa#tor. He re%lied! (+ had offered % $y life to the 0ing "hen this $an inter)ened. +t "as a $o$ent "hen! a##ording to the tradition! 2+ "as "ith <od in s #h a $anner that neither %ro%het nor angel fo nd entran#e along "ith $e!2 8 and this $an intr ded bet"een s. + desired no $er#y sa)e the 0ing2s blo"s3 + so ght no shelter sa)e the 0ing. +f the 0ing had # t off $y head he "o ld ha)e gi)en $e eternal life in ret rn for it. *y d ty is to sa#rifi#e $y life3 it is the 0ing2s %rerogati)e to gi)e life. The night "hi#h is $ade dar0 as %it#h by the 0ing s#orns the brightness of the brightest festal day. He "ho beholds the 0ing is e,alted abo)e all tho ghts of $er#y and )engean#e. 6f a $an raised to this e,alted state no des#ri%tion is %ossible in this "orld! for he is hidden in <od! and "ords li0e 2$er#y2 and 2)engean#e2 only e,%ress $en2s %artial and "ea0 )ie"s of the $atter. +t is tr e 2<od ta ght Ada$ the na$es of all things!2 : b t that $eans the real > alities of things! and not s #h na$es as

ordinary $en se! #lad in the dress of h $an s%ee#h. The "ords and e,%ressions "e se ha)e $erely a relati)e tr th! and do not nfold absol te tr th.( He ill strates this by the re%ly $ade to the angel <abriel by Abraha$ "hen he "as #ast into the fire by Ni$rod. = <abriel as0ed hi$ if he #o ld assist hi$! and Abraha$ ans"ered! (No1 + ha)e no need of yo r hel%.( When one has attained nion "ith <od he has no need of inter$ediaries. 7ro%hets and a%ostles are needed as lin0s to #onne#t ordinary $en "ith <od! b t he "ho hears the (inner )oi#e( "ithin hi$ has no need to listen to o t"ard "ords! e)en of a%ostles. Altho gh that inter#essor is hi$self d"elling in <od! yet $y state is higher and $ore lo)ely than his. Tho gh he is <od2s agent! yet + desire not his inter#ession to sa)e $e fro$ e)il sent $e by <od! for e)il at <od2s hand see$s to $e good. What see$s $er#y and 0indness to the ) lgar see$s "rath and )engean#e to <od-into,i#ated saints. <od2s se)erity and #hastise$ents ser)e to e,alt his saints! tho gh they $a0e the ) lgar $ore ngodly than before! e)en as the "ater of the Nile "as % re "ater to the +sraelites! b t blood to the Egy%tians. M#ses as$s *he Almi/h*y0 46hy has* Th#u made men *# des*(#y *hemA4 B *oses said! (6 &ord of the day of a##o nt! Tho $a0est for$s3 "herefore! then! destroyest Tho the$4 Tho $a0est #har$ing for$s! both $en and "o$en3 Wherefore! then! dost Tho lay the$ "aste4( <od ans"ered! (+ 0no" that this > ery of thine 7ro#eeds not fro$ negation or )ain # riosity. 6ther"ise + sho ld #hastise and % nish thee3 /ea! + sho ld reb 0e thee for this > estion. . t tho see0est to dis#o)er in $y a#tions The r ling %rin#i%le and the eternal $ystery! +n order to infor$ the %eo%le thereof! And to $a0e 2ri%e2 e)ery 2ra"2 %erson. /ea! 6 $essenger! tho > estionest $e that + $ay re)eal *y "ays to the %eo%le! tho gh tho 0no"est the$. 6 *oses! go and so" seed in the gro nd +n order to do - sti#e to this > estion.( When *oses had so"ed and his seed had gro"n %! He too0 a si#0le and rea%ed the #orn! And then a di)ine )oi#e rea#hed his ears' (Why hast tho so"n and n rt red the #orn! And then # t it do"n dire#tly it "as ri%e4( *oses re%lied! (&ord! + # t it and lay it lo" .e#a se here + ha)e grain and stra". <rain is o t of %la#e in the stra"-yard!

And stra" is seless in the "heat-barn. 2Tis "rong to $i, these t"o! +t is needf l to sift the$ one fro$ the other.( <od said! (@ro$ "ho$ learnest tho this 0no"ledge Whereby tho hast #onstr #ted a threshing-floor4( *oses said! (6 &ord! Tho hast gi)en $e dis#ern$ent.( <od said! (Then ha)e not + also dis#ern$ent4 A$ongst $y #reat res there are % re s%irits! And also dar0 and befo led s%irits. The oyster-shells are not all of the sa$e )al e3 9o$e #ontain %earls! and others bla#0 stones. +t is needf l to dis#ern the bad fro$ the good! I st as $ #h as to sift "heat fro$ stra". The %eo%le of this "orld e,ist in order to $anifest And to dis#lose the 2hidden treas re.2 Read! 2+ "as a hidden treas re! and desired to be 0no"n3 Hide not the hidden treas re! b t dis#lose it. /o r tr e treas re is hidden nder a false one! I st as b tter is hidden "ithin the s bstan#e of $il0. The false one is this transitory body of yo rs! The tr e one yo r di)ine so l. &ong ti$e this $il0 is e,%osed to )ie"! And the so l2s b tter is hidden and of no a##o nt. 9tir % yo r $il0 assid o sly "ith 0no"ledge! 9o that "hat is hidden in it $ay be dis#losed3 .e#a se this $ortal is the g ide to i$$ortality! As the #ries of re)ellers indi#ate the # %-bearer.( CN6TE9' 1. Koran )iii. 1J. 8. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 18F. :. Koran ii. 89. =. 9ee Koran ,,i. B8! and the Do$$entators thereon. ?. 9o Iob ,. 8' ( Thy hands ha)e $ade $e! yet Tho dost destroy $e.( STOR' 1III% The P(in)e -h#0 a,*e( havin/ been be/uiled by a C#u(*esan0 (e*u(ned *# his T(ue L#ve% A #ertain 0ing drea$ed that his dearly belo)ed son! a yo th of great %ro$ise! had #o$e to an nti$ely end. 6n a"a0ing he "as re-oi#ed to find

that his son "as still ali)e3 b t he refle#ted that an a##ident $ight #arry hi$ off at any $o$ent! and therefore de#ided to $arry hi$ "itho t delay! in order that the s ##ession $ight be se# red. A##ordingly he #hose the da ghter of a %io s 5ar)esh as a bride for his son! and $ade %re%arations for the "edding. . t his "ife and the other ladies of his hare$ did not a%%ro)e of the $at#h! #onsidering it belo" the dignity of the %rin#e to $arry the da ghter of a beggar. The 0ing reb 0ed the$! saying that a 5ar)esh "ho had reno n#ed "orldly "ealth for the sa0e of <od "as not to be #onfo nded "ith an ordinary beggar! and insisted on the #ons $$ation of the $arriage. After the $arriage the %rin#e ref sed to ha)e anything to do "ith his bride! tho gh she "as )ery fair to loo0 on! and he #arried on an intrig e "ith an gly old "o$an "ho had be"it#hed hi$ by sor#ery. After a year! ho"e)er! the 0ing fo nd so$e %hysi#ians "ho s ##eeded in brea0ing the s%ell! and the %rin#e ret rned to his senses! and his eyes "ere o%ened to the s %erior attra#tions of his "ife! and he reno n#ed his gly %ara$o r and fell in lo)e "ith his "ife. This is a %arable! the tr e "ife being the 5eity! the old %ara$o r the "orld! and the %hysi#ians the %ro%hets and saints. Another ill stration is a #hild "ho %layed at besieging a $i$i# fort "ith his fello"s! and s ##eeded in #a%t ring it and 0ee%ing the others o t. At this $o$ent <od (besto"ed on hi$ "isdo$! tho gh a #hild!( 1 and it be#a$e to hi$ a day ("hen a $an flees fro$ his brethren!( 8 and he re#ogniEed the e$%tiness of this idle s%ort! and engaged in the % rs it of holiness and %iety. This is follo"ed by an ane#dote of a de)otee "ho had so #on#entrated his tho ghts on things abo)e that he "as tterly #areless of all earthly tro bles! and "as #heerf l and re-oi#ing e)en in the $idst of a se)ere fa$ine. The -#(ld is *he #u*-a(d ,#(m #, 4Unive(sal Reas#n4 =Muhammad>0 and he -h# /(ieves him mus* e3+e)* *(#uble in *he -#(ld% C The "hole "orld is the o t"ard for$ of Ani)ersal Reason! @or it is the father of all #reat res of reason. When a $an a#ts basely to"ards Ani)ersal Reason! +ts for$! the "orld! sho"s its teeth at hi$. .e loyal to this father and reno n#e disobedien#e! That this earthy ho se $ay f rnish yo golden #ar%ets. Then the - dg$ent-day "ill be the (#ash of yo r state!( Earth and hea)ens "ill be transfig red before yo . = + a$ e)er in #on#ord "ith this father of o rs! And earth e)er a%%ears to $e as a 7aradise. Ea#h $o$ent a f1Pesh for$! a ne" bea ty! 9o that "eariness )anishes at these e)er-fresh sights. + see the "orld filled "ith blessings! @resh "aters e)er "elling % fro$ ne" fo ntains. The so nd of those "aters rea#hes $y ears!

*y brain and senses are into,i#ated there"ith. .ran#hes of trees dan#ing li0e fair da$sels! &ea)es #la%%ing hands li0e singers. These glories are a $irror shining thro gh a )eil3 +f the $irror "ere n)eiled! ho" "o ld it be4 + tell not one in a tho sand of the$! .e#a se e)ery ear is sto%%ed "ith do bt. To $en of ill sions these tales are $ere good tidings! . t $en of 0no"ledge dee$ the$ not tidings! b t ready #ash. This is ill strated by an ane#dote of EEra or 2AEair and his sons.? 6n his ret rn fro$ .abylon! "hither he had been #arried #a%ti)e by Neb #hadneEEar! EEra beheld the r ins of Ier sale$! and he said! (Ho" shall <od gi)e life to this #ity after it hath been dead4( And <od #a sed hi$ to die for a h ndred years! and then raised hi$ again to life! and said to hi$! (Ho" long hast tho "aited4( He said! (+ ha)e "aited a day.( <od said! (Nay! tho hast "aited a h ndred years. &oo0 at the dead bones of thine ass3 "e "ill raise the$ and #lothe the$ "ith flesh.( EEra "as raised fro$ the dead as a yo ng $an! "hereas his sons "ere then! of #o rse! )ery old $en. They $et hi$! and as0ed if he had seen their father. He re%lied! (+ ha)e seen hi$3 he is #o$ing.( 9o$e of the$ re-oi#ed! #onsidering this good ne"s3 b t others! "ho had lo)ed hi$ $ore dearly! 0ne" hi$ and fainted "ith -oy. What "as $ere good tidings to the $en of o%inion "as the (ready $oney of their state( to $en of real 0no"ledge. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,i,. 1:. 8. Koran l,,,. :=. :. (A>l i K ll! Ani)ersal Reason! or the &ogos! "as identified "ith the %ro%het * ha$$ad.( =. Koran ,i). =9. ?. This story #o$es fro$ Koran ii. 8B1. STOR' I5% The Mule and *he Camel% A $ le said to a #a$el! (Ho" is it that + a$ al"ays st $bling and falling do"n! "hilst yo ne)er $a0e a false ste%4( The #a$el re%lied! (*y eyes are al"ays dire#ted %"ards! and + see a long "ay before $e! "hile yo r eyes loo0 do"n! and yo only see "hat is i$$ediately nder yo r feet.( The $ le ad$itted the tr th of the #a$el2s state$ent! and beso ght hi$

to a#t as his g ide in f t re! and the #a$el #onsented to do so. I st so %artial reason #annot see beyond the gra)e! b t real reason loo0s on"ard to the day of - dg$ent! and! therefore! is enabled to steer a better #o rse in this "orld. @or this #a se! $en ha)ing only %artial reason or $ere o%inion of their o"n o ght to follo" the g idan#e of the saints! a##ording to the te,t! (6 belie)ers! enter not %on any affair ere <od and his A%ostle lead the "ay.( 1 Then follo"s another ane#dote of an Egy%tian "ho as0ed an +sraelite to dra" "ater for hi$ fro$ the Nile! be#a se the "ater of the Nile t rned to blood "hen dra"n by an Egy%tian. After"ards the Egy%tian as0ed the +sraelite to %ray for hi$! and the +sraelite ad$onished hi$ to reno n#e his egotis$ and #on#eit of his o"n e,isten#e! "hi#h blinded his eyes to di)ine )erities. +n ill stration of this he tells the sa$e story of an ad ltero s "o$an! "hi#h is 0no"n as the (*er#hant2s Tale( in Dha #er. This "o$an! desiring to #arry on an intrig e "ith her %ara$o r! #li$bed % a %ear-tree to gather the fr it! and "hen she had rea#hed the to% she loo0ed do"n! and %retended that she sa" her h sband $is#ond #ting hi$self "ith another "o$an. The h sband ass red her there "as no one b t hi$self there! and desired her to #o$e do"n and see for herself. 9he #a$e do"n and ad$itted there "as no one there. Her h sband then! at her re> est! as#ended the tree! and she at on#e #alled her %ara$o r! and began to a$ se herself "ith hi$. Her h sband sa" her fro$ his %ost in the tree! and began to ab se her3 b t she de#lared there "as no $an "ith her! and that the %ear-tree $ade her h sband see do ble! - st as it had $ade her see do ble %re)io sly. The ev#lu*i#n #, man% @irst he a%%eared in the #lass of inorgani# things! 8 Ne,t he %assed therefro$ into that of %lants. @or years he li)ed as one of the %lants! Re$e$bering na ght of his inorgani# state so different3 And "hen he %assed fro$ the )egetati)e to the ani$al state He had no re$e$bran#e of his state as a %lant! E,#e%t the in#lination he felt to the "orld of %lants! Es%e#ially at the ti$e of s%ring and s"eet flo"ers. &i0e the in#lination of infants to"ards their $others! Whi#h 0no" not the #a se of their in#lination to the breast! 6r the e,#essi)e in#lination of yo ng dis#i%les To"ards their noble and ill strio s tea#hers. The dis#i%le2s %artial reason #o$es fro$ that Reason! The dis#i%le2s shado" is fro$ that bo gh. When the shado"s in the dis#i%les #ease! They 0no" the reason of their atta#h$ent to the tea#hers.

@or! 6 fort nate one! ho" #an the shado" $o)e! Anless the tree that #asts the shado" $o)e as "ell4 Again! the great Dreator! as yo 0no"! 5re" $an o t of the ani$al into the h $an state. Th s $an %assed fro$ one order of nat re to another! Till he be#a$e "ise and 0no"ing and strong as he is no". 6f his first so ls he has no" no re$e$bran#e! And he "ill be again #hanged fro$ his %resent so l. +n order to es#a%e fro$ his %resent so l f ll of l sts He $ st behold tho sands of reasonable so ls. Tho gh $an fell aslee% and forgot his %re)io s states! /et <od "ill not lea)e hi$ in this self-forgetf lness3 And then he "ill la gh at his o"n for$er state 9aying! ( What $attered $y e,%erien#es "hen aslee%4 When + had forgotten $y %ros%ero s #ondition! And 0ne" not that the grief and ills + e,%erien#ed Were the effe#t of slee% and ill sion and fan#y4 +n li0e $anner this "orld! "hi#h is only a drea$. 9ee$s to the slee%er as a thing end ring for e)er . t "hen the $orn of the last day shall da"n! The slee%er "ill es#a%e fro$ the #lo d of ill sion3 &a ghter "ill o)er%o"er hi$ at his o"n fan#ied grie)es When he beholds his abiding ho$e and %la#e. Whate)er yo see in this slee%! both good and e)il! Will all be e,%osed to )ie" on the res rre#tion day. Whate)er yo ha)e done d ring yo r slee% in the "orld Will be dis%layed to yo #learly "hen yo a"a0e. +$agine not that these ill deeds of yo rs e,ist not +n this slee% of yo rs! and "ill not be re)ealed to yo . . t yo r %resent la ghter "ill t rn to "ee%ing and "oe 6n the day of re)ealing! 6 yo "ho o%%ress #a%ti)es1 /o r %resent "ailing and sorro" and grie)es! 6n the other hand! "ill be -oy "hen yo a"a0e! 6 yo ! "ho ha)e rent the gar$ents of $any Iose%hs! /o "ill rise fro$ yo r hea)y slee% as a "olf. /o r bad > alities "ill rise in the sha%e of "ol)es And rend yo li$b fro$ li$b in )engean#e. .y the la" of retaliation blood slee%s not after death3 9ay not! (+ shall die and obtain %ardon.( The retaliation of this "orld is ill si)e! +t is $ere s%ort #o$%ared to the retaliation to #o$e. Therefore <od #alls the "orld (a %asti$e and a s%ort!( : @or % nish$ent in this "orld is s%ort #o$%ared to that. Here % nish$ent is as the re%ression of > arrels! There it is as #astration or #ir# $#ision.

. t this dis#o rse is endless! 6 *oses! <o and lea)e these asses to their graEing1 &et the$ fatten the$sel)es "ith the food they lo)e! @or they are )ery "ol)es and ob-e#ts of $y "rath. L 2l Karnain at *o nt Kaf. = L 2l Karnain -o rneyed to *o nt Kaf3 He sa" it "as for$ed of a bright e$erald! @or$ing as it "ere a ring ro nd the "orld! Whereat all %eo%le are filled "ith "onder. He said! (Tho $ighty hill! "hat are other hills4 .efore thee they are $ere %laythings.( The *o nt re%lied! (Those hills are $y )eins! . t they are not li0e $e in bea ty and i$%ortan#e. A hidden )ein fro$ $e r ns to e)ery #ity! The > arters of the "orld are bo nd to $y )eins. When <od desires an earth> a0e nder any #ity! He bids $e sha0e one of $y )eins. Then in anger + sha0e that )ein Whi#h is #onne#ted "ith that %arti# lar #ity. When He says! 2Eno gh!2 $y )ein re$ains still! + re$ain still! and then haste to %erfor$ $y "or0. No" still li0e a %laster! and no" o%erating3 No" still li0e tho ght! and then s%ea0ing $y tho ght. . t they "ho are )oid of reason i$agine That these earth> a0es %ro#eed fro$ earth2s )a%ors.( I st so an ant "ho sa" a %en "riting on %a%er! 5eli)ered hi$self to another ant in this "ay 2That %en is $a0ing )ery "onderf l fig res! &i0e hya#inths and lilies and roses.2 The other said! 2The finger is the real "or0er! The %en is only the instr $ent of its "or0ing.2 A third ant said! 2 No3 the a#tion %ro#eeds fro$ the ar$! The "ea0 finger "rites "ith the ar$2s $ight.2 9o it "ent on %"ards! till at last A %rin#e of the ants! "ho had so$e "it 9aid! 2/e regard only the o t"ard for$ of this $ar)el! Whi#h for$ be#o$es senseless in slee% and death. @or$ is only as a dress or a staff in the hand! +t is only fro$ reason and $ind these fig res %ro#eed.2 . t he 0ne" not that this reason and $ind Wo ld be b t lifeless things "itho t <od2s i$% lsion. The angel <abriel a%%ears to the 7ro%het * ha$$ad. * stafa said to the angel <abriel!

(6 friend! sho" $e thy for$ as it really is3 9ho" it to $e o%enly and %er#e%tibly! That + $ay behold thee "ith $y eyes.( <abriel said! (Tho #anst not do so! tho art too "ea0! Thy senses are e,#eeding "ea0 and frail.( * ha$$ad said! (9ho" it! that this body of $ine $ay see To "hat e,tent its senses are frail and i$%otent. Tr e! $an2s bodily senses are frail! . t he %ossesses "ithin hi$ a $ighty %ro%erty. ? This body rese$bles flint and steel! . t li0e the$ it has the %o"er of 0indling fire. @lint and steel are able to generate fire! @ro$ the$ s%rings fire "hi#h #an destroy its %arents.( As he #ontin ed i$%ort ning hi$! <abriel dis%layed His a"f l for$! "hereat the $o ntains "ere rent as nder. +t o## %ied the s0y fro$ east to "est. And * stafa s"ooned "ith fear. When <abriel beheld hi$ s"ooning "ith fear! He #a$e and #las%ed hi$ in his ar$s. Add(ess *# Husamu-'d-!in% 6 light of <od! H sa$ -2d-5in! ad$it This ass2s head into that $elon-garden1 @or "hen this ass is 0illed in the sla ghter-ho se That 0it#hen "ill besto" %on hi$ a ne" e,isten#e. @ro$ $e %ro#eeds the for$! fro$ thee the s%irit3 Nay! for$ and s%irit both %ro#eed fro$ thee1 Tho art as * ha$$ad in hea)en! 6 brilliant 9 n1 .e also as * ha$$ad on earth fore)er and e)er1 9o that earth and hea)en on high $ay be nited With one heart! one "orshi%! one as%iration1 And s#his$ and %olytheis$ and d ality disa%%ear! And Anity abide in the Real 9%irit al .eing1 When $y s%irit re#ogniEes thy s%irit! We re$e$ber o r essential nion and origin. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,li,. 1. 8. 9ee the %arallel %assage in < lshan i RaE! +. :1J! and the note. +t is based on the Aristotelian do#trine of the as#ending grades of the so l! or )ital %rin#i%le. :. Koran ,,i,. B=.

=. L 2l Karnain! Dha #er2s 5 l0arn! $eans (He of the t"o horns!( and here denotes Ale,ander the <reat. ?. 9ee the %arallel %assage in < lshan i RaE! +. =:1! and the note thereon. This %ro%erty is the $ysti# (inner light( or s%irit al int ition.

"##$ 1%
STOR' I% The P(#+he* and his In,idel &ues*% A@TER the s al address to H sa$ -2d-5in follo"s a #o$$ent on the %re#e%t addressed to Abraha$! (Ta0e fo r birds and dra" the$ to"ards thee! and # t the$ in %ie#es.(1 The birds are e,%lained to be the d #0 of gl ttony! the #o#0 of #on# %is#en#e! the %ea#o#0 of a$bition and ostentation! and the #ro" of bad desires! and this is $ade the te,t of se)eral stories. .eginning "ith gl ttony! the %oet tells the follo"ing story to ill strate the o##asion of the 7ro%het2s ttering the saying! +nfidels eat "ith se)en bellies! b t the faithf l "ith one.( 6ne day so$e infidels begged food and lodging of the 7ro%het. The 7ro%het "as $o)ed by their entreaties! and desired ea#h of his dis#i%les to ta0e one of the infidels to his ho se and feed and lodge hi$! re$ar0ing that it "as their d ty to sho" 0indness to strangers at his #o$$and! as $ #h as to do battle "ith his foes. 9o ea#h dis#i%le sele#ted one of the infidels and #arried hi$ off to his ho se3 b t there "as one big and #oarse $an! a )ery giant 6g! "ho$ no one "o ld re#ei)e! and the 7ro%het too0 hi$ to his o"n ho se. +n his ho se the 7ro%het had se)en she-goats to s %%ly his fa$ily "ith $il0! and the h ngry infidel de)o red all the $il0 of those se)en goats! to say nothing of bread and other )iands. He left not a dro% for the 7ro%het2s fa$ily! "ho "ere therefore $ #h annoyed "ith hi$! and "hen he retired to his #ha$ber one of the ser)ant-$aids lo#0ed hi$ in. 5 ring the night the infidel felt )ery n"ell in #onse> en#e of ha)ing o)ereaten hi$self! and tried to get o t into the o%en air! b t "as nable to do so! o"ing to the door being lo#0ed. @inally! he "as )ery si#0! and defiled his bedding. +n the $orning he "as e,tre$ely asha$ed! and the $o$ent the door "as o%ened he ran a"ay. The 7ro%het "as a"are of "hat had ha%%ened! b t let the $an es#a%e! so as not to % t hi$ to sha$e. After he had gone the ser)ants sa" the $ess he had $ade! and infor$ed the 7ro%het of it3 b t the 7ro%het $ade light of it! and said he "o ld #lean it % hi$self. His friends "ere sho#0ed at the tho ght of the 7ro%het soiling his sa#red hands "ith s #h filth! and tried to %re)ent hi$! b t he %ersisted in doing it! #alling to $ind the te,t! (As tho li)est! 6 * ha$$ad! they "ere be"ildered by dr n0enness!( 8 and being! in fa#t! rged to it by a di)ine #o$$and. While he "as engaged in the "or0 the infidel #a$e ba#0 to loo0 for a talis$an "hi#h he had left behind hi$ in his h rry to es#a%e! and seeing the 7ro%het2s o## %ation he b rst into tears! and be"ailed his o"n filthy #ond #t. The 7ro%het #onsoled hi$! saying that "ee%ing and %eniten#e "o ld % rge the offen#e! for <od says! (&ittle let the$ la gh! and $ #h let the$ "ee%3( : and again! (&end <od a liberal loan3( = and

again! (<od only desireth to % t a"ay filthiness fro$ yo as His ho sehold! and "ith #leansing to #leanse yo .( ? 7ro%het then rged hi$ to bear "itness that <od "as the &ord! e)en as "as done by the sons of Ada$! B e,%lained ho" the o t"ard a#ts of %rayer and fasting bear "itness of the s%irit al light "ithin. After being n rt red on this s%irit al food the infidel #onfessed the tr th of +sla$! and reno n#ed his infidelity and gl ttony. He ret rned than0s to the 7ro%het for bringing hi$ to the 0no"ledge of the tr e faith and regenerating hi$! e)en as 2+sa had regenerated &aEar s. The 7ro%het "as satisfied of his sin#erity! and as0ed hi$ to s % "ith hi$ again. At s %%er he dran0 only half the %ortion of $il0 yielded by one goat! and steadfastly ref sed to ta0e $ore! saying he felt %erfe#tly satisfied "ith the little he had already ta0en. The other g ests $ar)eled $ #h to see his gl ttony so soon # red! and "ere led to refle#t on the )irt es of the s%irit al food ad$inistered to hi$ by the 7ro%het. Ou*-a(d a)*s bea( -i*ness #, *he s*a*e #, *he hea(* -i*hin% 7rayer and fasting and %ilgri$age and holy "ar .ear "itness of the faith of the heart. <i)ing al$s and offerings and > itting a)ari#e Also bear "itness of the se#ret tho ghts. 9o! a table s%read for g ests ser)es as a %lain sign! 9aying! (6 g est! + a$ yo r sin#ere "ell-"isher.( 9o! offerings and %resents and oblations .ear "itness! saying! (+ a$ "ell %leased "ith yo .( Ea#h of these $en la)ishes his "ealth or %ains! What $eans it b t to say! (+ ha)e a )irt e "ithin $e! /ea! a )irt e of %iety or liberality! Whereof $y oblations and fasting bear "itness(4 @asting %ro#lai$s that he abstains fro$ la"f l food! And that therefore he do btless a)oids nla"f l food. And his al$s say! (He gi)es a"ay his o"n goods3 +t is therefore %lain that he does not rob others.( +f he a#ts th s fro$ fra d! his t"o "itnesses G@asting and al$sH are re-e#ted in <od2s #o rt3 +f the h nter s#atters grain Not o t of $er#y! b t to #at#h ga$e3 +f the #at 0ee%s fast! and re$ains still +n fasting only to entra% n"ary birds3 *a0ing h ndreds of %eo%le s s%i#io s! And gi)ing a bad na$e to $en "ho fast and are liberal3 /et the gra#e of <od! des%ite this fra d! *ay lti$ately % rge hi$ fro$ all this hy%o#risy. *er#y $ay %re)ail o)er )engean#e! and gi)e the hy%o#rite 9 #h light as is not %ossessed by the f ll $oon.

<od $ay % rge his dealings fro$ that hy%o#risy! And in $er#y "ash hi$ #lean of that defile$ent. +n order that the %ardoning gra#e of <od $ay be seen! <od %ardons all sins that need %ardon. Wherefore <od rains do"n "ater fro$ the sign 7is#es! To % rify the i$% re fro$ their i$% rities. J Th s a#ts and "ords are "itnesses of the $ind "ithin! @ro$ these t"o ded #e inferen#es as to the tho ghts. When yo r )ision #annot %enetrate "ithin! +ns%e#t the "ater )oided by the si#0 $an. A#ts and "ords rese$ble the si#0 $an2s "ater! Whi#h ser)es as e)iden#e to the %hysi#ian of the body. . t the %hysi#ian of the s%irit %enetrates the so l! And then#e as#ertains the $an2s faith. 9 #h an one needs not the e)iden#e of fair a#ts and "ords (.e"are of s #h! they s%y o t the heart.( Re> ire this e)iden#e of a#t and "ord only fro$ one Who is not -oined to the di)ine 6#ean li0e a strea$. . t the light of the tra)eler arri)ed at the goal! ;erily that light fills deserts and "astes. That "itness of his is e,e$%t fro$ bearing "itness! And fro$ all tro ble and ris0 and good "or0s. 9in#e the brillian#e of that -e"el bea$s forth! +t is e,e$%ted fro$ these obligations. Wherefore re> ire not fro$ hi$ a#t and "ord e)iden#e! .e#a se both "orlds thro gh hi$ bloo$ li0e roses. What is this e)iden#e b t $anifestation of hidden things! Whether it be e)iden#e in "ord! or deed! or other"ise4 A##idents ser)e only to $anifest the se#ret essen#e3 The essential > ality abides! and a##idents %ass a"ay. This $ar0 of gold end res not the to #hstone! . t only the gold itself! gen ine and ndo bted. These %rayers and holy "ar and fasting Will not end re! only the noble so l end res. The so l e,hibits a#ts and "ords of this sort! Then it r bs its s bstan#e on the to #hstone of <od2s #o$$and! 9aying! (*y faith is tr e! behold $y "itnesses1( . t "itnesses are o%en to s s%i#ion. Kno" that "itnesses $ st be % rified! And their % rifi#ation is sin#erity! on that yo $ay de%end. The "itness of "ord #onsists in s%ea0ing the tr th! The "itness of a#ts in 0ee%ing one2s %ro$ises. +f the "itness of "ord lie! its e)iden#e is re-e#ted! And if the "itness of a#t %lay false! it is re-e#ted. /o r "ords and a#ts $ st be "itho t self-#ontradi#tion +n order to be a##e%ted "itho t > estion.

(/o r ai$s are different!( 8 and yo #ontradi#t yo rsel)es! /o se" by day! and tear to %ie#es by night. Ho" #an <od listen to s #h #ontradi#tory "itness! Anless He be %leased to de#ide on it in $er#y4 A#t and "ord $anifest the se#ret tho ghts and $ind! .oth of the$ e,%ose to )ie" the )eiled se#ret. When yo r "itnesses are % rified they are a##e%ted! 6ther"ise they are arrested and 0e%t in d ran#e. They enter into #onfli#t "ith yo ! 6 stiff-ne#0ed one3 (9tand aloof and "ait for the$! for they too "ait.( 9 P(aye(s ,#( s+i(i*ual enli/h*enmen*% 6 <od! "ho hast no %eer! besto" Thy fa)or %on $e3 9in#e Tho hast "ith this dis#o rse % t a ring in $y ear! Ta0e $e by the ear! and dra" $e into that holy asse$bly Where Thy saints in e#stasy drin0 of Thy % re "ine1 No" that Tho hast #a sed $e to s$ell its %erf $e! Withhold not fro$ $e that $ s0y "ine! 6 &ord of faith 6f Thy bo nty all %arta0e! both $en and "o$en! Tho art ngr dging in bo nties! 6 Hearer of %rayer. 7rayers are granted by Thee before they are ttered! Tho o%enest the door to ad$it hearts e)ery $o$ent1 Ho" $any letters Tho "ritest "ith Thy Al$ighty %en1 Thro gh $ar)eling thereat stones be#o$e as "a,. Tho "ritest the N n of the bro"! the 9ad of the eye! And the Ii$ of the ear! to a$aEe reason and sense. These letters e,er#ise and %er%le, reason3 Write on! 6 s0ilf l @air-"riter1 +$%rinting e)ery $o$ent on Not-being the fair for$s 6f the "orld of ideals! to #onfo nd all tho ght1 1F /ea! #o%ying thereon the fair letters of the %age of ideals! To "it! eye and bro" and $o sta#he and $ole1 @or $e! + "ill be a lo)er of Not-being! not of e,isten#e! .e#a se the belo)ed of Not-being is $ore blessed. 11 <od $ade reason a reader of all these letters! To s ggest to it refle#tions on that o t%o ring of gra#e. 18 Reason! li0e <abriel! learns day by day +ts daily %ortion fro$ the (+ndelible Tablet.( 1: .ehold the letters "ritten "itho t hands on Not-being1 .ehold the %er%le,ity of $an0ind at those letters1 E)ery one is be"ildered by these tho ghts! And digs for hidden treas re in ho%e to find it. This be"ilder$ent of $an0ind as to their tr e ai$s is #o$%ared to the

be"ilder$ent of $en in the dar0 loo0ing in all dire#tions for the Kibla! and re#alls the te,t! (6 the $isery that rests %on $y ser)ants.( 1= Then follo" refle#tions on the sa#rifi#e by Abraha$ of the %ea#o#0 of a$bition and ostentation. Ne,t #o$es a dis#o rse on the thesis that all $en #an re#ogniEe the $er#ies of <od and the "rath of <od3 b t <od2s $er#ies are often hidden in His #hastise$ents! and )i#e )ersa! and it is only $en of dee% s%irit al dis#ern$ent "ho #an re#ogniEe a#ts of $er#y and a#ts of "rath #on#ealed in their o%%osites. The ob-e#t of this #on#eal$ent is to try and test $en2s dis%ositions3 a##ording to the te,t! (To %ro)e "hi#h of yo "ill be $ost righteo s in deed.( 1? CN6TE9' 1. Koran ii. 8B8. 8. Koran ,). J8. :. Koran i,. ::. =. Koran l,,iii. 8F. ?. Koran ,,,iii. ::. B. Koran )ii. 1J1. J. (+sla$ is the ba%tis$ of <od( GKoran ii. 1:8H. 8. Koran ,#ii. =. 9. Koran ,,,ii. :F. i.e.! Wait tho for their % nish$ent! as they "ait for thy do"nfall GRod"ellH. 1F. Here "e ha)e another 7latoni# do#trine. (9o$e say the belief of the 9 fis is the sa$e as that of the +shra>in G7latonistsH.( 5abistan i * Eahib! by 9hea and Troyer! iii. 881. 11. +.e.! + "ill re#ogniEe the nonentity of all this %heno$enal being! and #o rt self-annihilation. 18. The . la> translator renders An na"ard th s. 1:. The (+ndelible Tablet( Gof <od2s de#reesH is here a%%lied to the &ogosthe #hannel thro gh "ho$ <od rene"s the ("orld of #reation( day by day. 1=. Koran ,,,)i. 89. 1?. Koran l,)ii. 8. STOR' II% The A(ab and his !#/% The do#trine of the * 2taEilites! 1 $entioned! that all $en2s intelle#ts are ali0e and e> al at birth! is again #ontro)erted! and the %oet d"ells on the essential differen#es "hi#h #hara#teriEe the intelle#ts a0in to Ani)ersal Reason or the &ogos! and those s"ayed by %artial or #arnal reason3 the for$er! li0e the #hildren of +srael! see0ing e,altation thro gh self-

abase$ent3 and the others! li0e 7haraoh! r nning after "orldly ran0 and %o"er! to their o"n destr #tion. +n order to $a0e %robation of $en! as already e,%lained! <od fills the "orld "ith de#e%tions! 8 $a0ing a%%arent blessings destr #ti)e to s! and a%%arent e)ils sal tary. 6n the other hand! if $en try to de#ei)e <od! they fail signally. Hy%o#riti#al "ee%ing and "ailing li0e that of Iose%h2s brethren is at on#e dete#ted by <od. Th s a #ertain Arab had a dog to "hi#h he "as $ #h atta#hed3 b t one day the dog died of h nger. He at on#e began to "ee% and "ail! and dist rbed the "hole neighborhood by his ostentatio s grief 6ne of the neighbors #a$e and in> ired into the $atter! and on hearing that the dog had died of h nger! he as0ed the Arab "hy he had not fed hi$ fro$ the "allet of food "hi#h he had in his hand. The Arab said that he had #olle#ted this food to s %%ort hi$self! and $ade it a %rin#i%le not to %art "ith any of it to any one "ho #o ld not %ay for it3 b t that! as his tears #ost hi$ nothing! he "as %o ring the$ forth in to0en of the sorro" he felt for his dog2s death. The neighbor! on hearing this! reb 0ed hi$ for his hy%o#risy! and "ent his "ay. Then follo"s a #o$$entary on the te,t! (Al$ost "o ld the infidels stri0e thee do"n "ith their )ery loo0s "hen they hear the reading of the Koran.( : CN6TE9' 1. The * 2taEilites "ere one of the %rin#i%al northodo, se#ts. 9ee 9ale! 7reli$. 5is#.! %. 118. 8. (6f the$ "ho de)ise stratage$s! <od is beast( GKoran iii. =JH. :. Koran l,)iii. ?1. STOR' III% The Sa/e and *he Pea)#)$% A sage "ent o t to till his field! and sa" a %ea#o#0 b sily engaged in destroying his o"n %l $age "ith his bea0. At seeing this insane selfdestr #tion the sage #o ld not refrain hi$self! b t #ried o t to the %ea#o#0 to forbear fro$ $ tilating hi$self and s%oiling his bea ty in so "anton a $anner. The %ea#o#0 then e,%lained to hi$ that the bright %l $age "hi#h he ad$ired so $ #h "as a fr itf l so r#e of danger to its nfort nate o"ner! as it led to his being #onstantly % rs ed by h nters! "ho$ he had no strength to #ontend against3 and he had a##ordingly de#ided on ridding hi$self of it "ith his o"n bea0! and $a0ing hi$self so gly that no h nter "o ld in f t re #are to $olest hi$. The %oet %ro#eeds to %oint o t that "orldly #le)erness and a##o$%lish$ents and "ealth endanger $an2s s%irit al life! li0e the %ea#o#02s %l $age3 b t! ne)ertheless! they are

a%%ointed for o r %robation! and "itho t s #h trials there #an be no )irt e. 4The(e is n# m#n$e(y in Islam%41 Tear not thy %l $age off it #annot be re%la#ed3 5isfig re not thy fa#e in "antonness! 6 fair one1 That fa#e "hi#h is bright as the forenoon s n! To disfig re it "ere a grie)o s sin. 2T"ere %aganis$ to $ar s #h a fa#e as thine1 The $oon itself "o ld "ee% to lose sight of it1 Kno"est tho not the bea ty of thine o"n fa#e4 K it this te$%er that leads thee to "ar "ith thyself1 +t is the #la"s of thine o"n foolish tho ghts That in s%ite "o nd the fa#e of thy > iet so l. Kno" s #h tho ghts to be #la"s fra ght "ith %oison! Whi#h s#ore dee% "o nds on the fa#e of thy so l. Rend not thy %l $age off! b t a)ert thy heart fro$ it @or hostility bet"een the$ is the la" of this holy "ar. Were there no hostility! that "ar "o ld be i$%ossible. lladst tho no l st! obedien#e to the la" #o ld not be. 8 Hadst tho no #on# %is#en#e there #o ld be no abstinen#e. Where no antagonist! "hat need is there of ar$ies4 Ah1 $a0e not thyself an e n #h! : not a $on0! .e#a se #hastity is $ortgaged to l st. Witho t l st denial of l st is i$%ossible No $an #an dis%lay bra)ery against the dead. <od says! (E,%end3( = "herefore earn $oney. 9in#e e,%endit re is i$%ossible "itho t %re)io s gain4 Altho gh the %assage #ontains only the "ord (E,%end!( Read (A#> ire first! and then e,%end.( +n li0e $anner! "hen the King of 0ings says (Abstain!( ? +t i$%lies an ob-e#t of desire "herefro$ to abstain. Again! (Eat ye!( is said re#ognising the snares of l st! And after"ards! ( E,#eed not!( B to en-oin te$%eran#e. When there is no s b-e#t! The e,isten#e of a %redi#ate is not %ossible. J When tho end rest not the %ains of abstinen#e And f lfillest not the ter$s! tho gainest no re"ard. Ho" easy those ter$s1 ho" ab ndant that re"ard1 A re"ard that en#hants the heart and #har$s the so l1 This is follo"ed by the ad$onition that the only "ay to be safe fro$ one2s internal ene$ies is to annihilate self! and to be absorbed in the eternity of <od! as the light of the stars is lost in the light of the noonday s n.

E)erything b t <od is at on#e %reyed on by others! and itself %reys on others! li0e the fo"l "hi#h! "hen #at#hing a "or$! "as itself #a ght by a #at. *en are so intent on their o"n lo" ob-e#ts of % rs it that they see not their foes "ho are trying to $a0e the$ their %rey. Th s it is said! (.efore the$ ha)e "e set a barrier! and behind the$ a barrier! so that they shall not see.( 8 7ersons "ho l st after the )ile %leas res of this "orld! and desire long life! not to ser)e <od! b t to satisfy their o"n #arnal l sts! rese$ble the #ro" slain by Abraha$! be#a se he only li)ed for the sa0e of #arrion3 or +blis! "ho %rayed to be res%ited till the day of - dg$ent! not for the % r%ose of refor$ing hi$self b t only to do $is#hief to $an0ind. 9 7rayers to <od to #hange o r base in#linations and gi)e s higher as%irations. 6 Tho that #hangest earth into gold! And o t of other earth $adest the father of $an0ind! Thy b siness is #hanging things and besto"ing fa)ors! *y b siness is $ista0es and forgetf lness and error. Dhange $y $ista0es and forgetf lness to 0no"ledge3 + a$ altogether )ile! $a0e $e te$%erate and $ee0. 6 Tho that #on)ertest salt earth into bread! And bread again into the life of $en3 Tho "ho $adest the erring so l a g ide to $en! And hi$ that erred fro$ the "ay a %ro%het3 1F Tho $a0est so$e earth-born $en as hea)en! And $ iti%liest hea)en-born saints on earth1 . t "hoso see0s his "ater of life in "orldly -oys! To hi$ #o$es death > i#0er than to the rest. The eyes of the heart "hi#h behold the hea)ens 9ee that the Al$ighty Al#he$ist is e)er "or0ing here. *an0ind are e)er being #hanged! and <od2s eli,ir Ioins the body2s gar$ent "itho t aid of needle. 6n the day that yo entered %on e,isten#e! /o "ere first fire! or earth! or air. +f yo had #ontin ed in that! yo r original state! Ho" #o ld yo ha)e arri)ed at this dignity of h $anity4 . t thro gh #hange yo r first e,isten#e re$ained not +n lien thereof <od ga)e yo a better e,isten#e +n li0e $anner He "ill gi)e yo tho sands of e,isten#es! 6ne after another! the s ##eeding ones better than the for$er. Regard yo r original state! not the $ean states! @or these $ean states re$o)e yo fro$ yo r origin. As these $ean states in#rease! nion re#edes3 As they de#rease! the n#tion of nion in#reases. @ro$ 0no"ing $eans and #a ses holy be"ilder$ent fails3 /ea! the be"ilder$ent that leads yo to <od2s %resen#e.

/o ha)e obtained these e,isten#es after annihilations3 Wherefore! then! do yo shrin0 fro$ annihilation4 What har$ ha)e these annihilations done yo That yo #ling so to %resent e,isten#e! 6 si$%leton4 9in#e the latter of yo r states "ere better than the for$er! 9ee0 annihilation and adore #hange of state. /o ha)e already seen h ndreds of res rre#tions 6## r e)ery $o$ent fro$ yo r origin till no"3 6ne fro$ the inorgani# state to the )egeti)e state! @ro$ the )egeti)e state to the ani$al state of trial3 Then#e again to rationality and good dis#ern$ent3 Again yo "ill rise fro$ this "orld of sense and for$. Ah1 6 #ro"! gi)e % this life and li)e ane"1 +n )ie" of <od2s #hanges #ast a"ay yo r life1 Dhoose the ne"! gi)e % the old! @or ea#h single %resent year is better than three %ast. This is follo"ed by a #o$$entary on the saying of the 7ro%het! (7ity the %io s $an "ho falls into sin! and the ri#h $an "ho falls into %o)erty! and the "ise $an "ho falls into the #o$%any of fools.( This is ill strated by an ane#dote of a yo ng deer "ho "as %la#ed in the asses stable! and -eered at and $altreated by the$. This s ggests. CN6TE9' 1. A Hadis. 8. D%. .%. . tler! (6n a state of %robation as i$%lying trial and danger( GAnalogy! Dha%. i). 7t. 1H. :. 7robably referring to 6rigin. =. Koran ii. 8B=. ?. Koran iii. 8FF. B. Koran )i. 1=8' (Eat of their fr it! b t be not %rodigal! and e,#eed not.( J. 6r! (+f there be no s %%orter! there #an be nothing s %%orted.( 8. Koran ,,,)i. 8. 9. Koran )ii. 1:. 1F. Koran ,#iii. J. STOR' I1% Muhammad .h-a(a2m Shah and *he Ra,i2is #, Sab2a-a(% * ha$$ad 9hah "as the last %rin#e b t one of the Kh"araE$ dynasty of .al0h! to "hi#h fa$ily both the %oet2s $other and grand$other belonged.

He "as the reigning %rin#e in A5. 18F9! the year in "hi#h the %oet2s father fled fro$ .al0h! and "as defeated by DhingiE Khan a year or t"o later. +n one of his #a$%aigns * ha$$ad 9hah #a%t red the #ity of 9abEa"ar! in Khorasan! "hi#h #ity as inhabited by RafiEis or ran0 9hi2as! nat rally $ost obno,io s to a 9 nni %rin#e #lai$ing des#ent fro$ the first Khahif Ab .a0r. After the #ity "as ta0en the inhabitants #a$e o t! and %ro#eeded "ith all h $ility to beg their li)es! offering to %ay any a$o nt of ranso$ and trib te that he $ight i$%ose %on the$. . t the %rin#e re%lied that he "o ld s%are their li)es only on one #ondition! )iE.! that they %rod #ed fro$ 9abEa"ar a $an bearing the na$e Ab .a0r. They re%resented to hi$ that it "o ld be i$%ossible to find in the "hole #ity a single $an bearing a na$e so hatef l to the 9hi2as3 b t the %rin#e "as ine,orable! and ref sed to alter the #onditions. 9o they "ent and sear#hed all the neighbo rhood! and at last fo nd a tra)eler lying at the roadside at the %oint of death! "ho bore the na$e of Ab .a0r. As he "as nable to "al0! they %la#ed hi$ on a bier and #arried hi$ into the 0ing2s %resen#e. The 0ing re%roa#hed the$ for their #onte$%t and negle#t of this %io s 9 nni! the only tr e heart a$ongst the$! and re$inded the$ of the saying of the 7ro%het! (<od regards not yo r o t"ard sho" and yo r "ealth! b t yo r hearts and yo r deeds.( +n this %arable! says the %oet! 9abEa"ar is the "orld! the %oor 9 nni the $an of <od! des%ised and re-e#ted of $en! and the 0ing is <od Al$ighty! "ho see0s a tr e heart a$ongst e)il $en. 9atan2s snares for $an0ind. Th s s%a0e # rsed +blis to the Al$ighty! (+ "ant a $ighty tra% to #at#h h $an ga$e "ithal.( <od ga)e hi$ gold and sil)er and troo%s of horses 9aying! (/o #an #at#h $y #reat res "ith these.( +blis said! (.ra)o1( b t at the sa$e ti$e h ng his li%! And fro"ned so rly li0e a bitter orange. Then <od offered gold and -e"els fro$ %re#io s $ines To that laggard in the faith! 9aying! (Ta0e these other tra%s! 6 # rsed one.( . t +blis said! (<i)e $e $ore! 6 blessed 5efender.( <od ga)e hi$ s ## lent and s"eet and #ostly "ines! And also store of sil0en gar$ents. . t +blis said! ( 6 &ord! + "ant $ore aids than these! +n order to bind $en in $y t"isted ro%e 9o fir$ly that Thy adorers! "ho are )aliant $en *ay not! $an-li0e! brea0 $y bonds as nder.( When at last <od sho"ed hi$ the bea ty of "o$en! Whi#h berea)es $en of reason and self-#ontrol! Then +blis #la%%ed his hands and began to dan#e! 9aying! (<i)e $e these3 + shall > i#0ly %re)ail "ith these1( This is follo"ed by #o$$ents on the te,t! (6f goodliest fabri# "e #reated

$an! and then bro ght hi$ do"n to the lo"est of the lo"! sa)ing those "ho belie)e and do the things that are right3( 1 and on the )erses! (+f tho goest the road! they "ill sho" thee the road3 +f tho be#o$est na ght! they "ill t rn thee to being.( CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,#). =. STOR' 1% The Man -h# )laimed *# be a P(#+he*% A $an #ried o t to the %eo%le! (+ a$ a %ro%het3 yea! the $ost e,#ellent of the %ro%hets.( The %eo%le seiEed hi$ by the #ollar! saying! (Ho" are yo any $ore a %ro%het than "e are4( He re%lied! (/e #a$e to earth fro$ the s%irit-"orld as slee%ing #hildren! seeing nothing of the "ay3 b t + #a$e hither "ith $y eyes o%en! and $ar0ed all the stages of the "ay li0e a g ide.( 6n this they led hi$ before the 0ing! and begged the 0ing to % nish hi$. The 0ing! seeing that he "as )ery infir$! too0 %ity on hi$! and led hi$ a%art and as0ed hi$ "here his ho$e "as. The $an re%lied! (6 0ing! $y ho$e is in the ho se of %ea#e Ghea)enH! and + a$ #o$e then#e into this ho se of re%roa#h.( The 0ing then as0ed hi$ "hat he had been eating to $a0e hi$ ra)e as he did! and he said if he li)ed on $ere earthly bread he sho ld not ha)e #lai$ed to be a %ro%het. His %rea#hing "as entirely thro"n a"ay on "orldly $en! "ho only desire to hear ne"s of gold or "o$en! 1 and are annoyed "ith all "ho s%ea0 to the$ of the eternal life to #o$e. They #lea)e to the %resent life so fast that they hate those "ho tell the$ of another. They say! (/e are telling s old fables and ra)ing idly3( and "hen they see %io s $en %ros%ering they en)y the$! and! li0e 9atan! be#o$e $ore o%%osed to the$. <od said! (What thin0est tho of hi$ "ho holdeth ba#0 a ser)ant of <od "hen he %rayeth4 ( 8 The 0ing then said to hi$! (What is this ins%iration of yo rs! and "hat %rofit do yo deri)e fro$ it4( The $an ans"ered! (What %rofit is there that + do not deri)e fro$ it4 + grant + a$ not ri#h in "orldly "ealth! yet the ins%iration <od tea#hes $e is s rely as %re#io s as that "hi#h He ta ght the bees. : <od ta ght the$ to $a0e "a, and honey! and He tea#hes $e nobler things than these. Whoso has his fa#e reddened "ith #elestial "ine is a %ro%het of li0e dis%osition "ith * ha$$ad! and "hoso is naffe#ted by that s%irit al drin0 is to be a##o nted an ene$y to <od and $an.( The P(#+he*'s +(aye( ,#( *he envi#us +e#+le%

6 Tho that gi)est ali$ent and %o"er and stability! 9et free the %eo%le fro$ their instability. To the so l that is bent do ble by en)y <i)e %rightness in the %ath of d ty! <i)e the$ self-#ontrol! ("eigh do"n their s#ales!( = Release the$ fro$ the arts of de#ei)ers. Redee$ the$ fro$ en)ying! 6 gra#io s 6ne! That thro gh en)y they be not stoned li0e +blis. ? E)en in their fleeting %ros%erity! see ho" the %eo%le . rn % "ealth and $en thro gh en)y1 9ee the 0ings "ho lead forth their ar$ies To slay their o"n %eo%le fro$ en)y1 &o)ers of s"eethearts ha)e #on#ei)ed -ealo sy! And atte$%ted one another2s li)es! Read ( Wais and Ra$in( and (Khosra and 9hirin( To see "hat these fools ha)e done to one another. &o)ers and belo)ed ha)e both %erished3 And not the$sel)es only! b t their lo)e as "ell. 2Tis <od alone "ho agitates these nonentities *a0ing one nonentity fall in lo)e "ith another. +n the heart that is no heart en)y #o$es to a head! Th s .eing tro bles nonentity. This is follo"ed by an ane#dote of a lo)er "ho re#o nted to his $istress all the ser)i#es he had done! and all the toils he had ndergone for her sa0e! and in> ired if there "as anything else he #o ld do to testify the sin#erity of his lo)e. His $istress re%lied! (All these things yo ha)e done are b t the bran#hes of lo)e3 yo ha)e not yet attained to the root! "hi#h is to gi)e % life itself for the sa0e of yo r belo)ed.( The lo)er a##ordingly ga)e % his life! and en-oyed eternal fr ition of his lo)e! a##ording to the te,t! (6 tho so l "hi#h art at rest! ret rn to thy &ord! %leased! and %leasing Hi$.( B This is follo"ed by a state$ent of the do#trine of the - rist Ab hanifa! to "hose s#hool the %oet belonged! that "ee%ing! e)en alo d! d ring %rayer does not render the %rayers )oid! %ro)ided that the "ee%ing be #a sed by tho ghts of the "orld to #o$e! and not by tho ghts of this %resent "orld. J And! a%%arently in all sion to the na$e Ab Hanifa! the %oet re#alls the te,t! (They follo"ed the faith of Abraha$! the orthodo,( GHanif nH. 8 CN6TE9' 1. Koran iii. 88. 8. Koran ,#)i. 9. :. Koran ,)i. JF. =. Koran #i. ?.

?. Koran ,). 1J. The sin of +blis "as his en)y of Ada$. B. Koran l,,,i,. 8J J. *ish0at l *asabih! i. %. 8F9! note. 8. Koran i). 18=. STOR' 1I% The !is)i+le -h# blindly imi*a*ed his Shai$h% An ignorant yo th entered an asse$bly of %io s %ersons "ho "ere being addressed by a holy 9hai0h. He sa" the 9hai0h "ee%ing #o%io sly! and in $ere blind and senseless i$itation he #o%ied the 9hai0h2s beha)ior! and "e%t as #o%io sly hi$self! tho gh he nderstood not a "ord of the dis#o rse. +n fa#t! he beha)ed - st li0e a deaf $an "ho sees those aro nd hi$ la ghing! and la ghs hi$self o t of #o$%li$ent to the$! tho gh he 0no"s not the s b-e#t of their $erri$ent! and is obliged to ha)e it e,%lained to hi$ before he #an la gh again "ith real %er#e%tion of the -o0e. After he had "e%t in this ignorant "ay for so$e ti$e he $ade d e obeisan#e to the 9hai0h! and too0 his de%art re. . t one of the 9hai0h2s tr e dis#i%les! being -ealo s for the honor of his $aster! follo"ed hi$! and th s addressed hi$! (+ ad- re yo by Allah that yo go not and say! 2+ sa" the 9hai0h "ee%ing! and + too "e%t li0e hi$.2 /o r ignorant and $ere i$itati)e "ee%ing is totally nli0e the "ee%ing of that holy saint. 9 #h "ee%ing as his is only %ossible to one "ho has! li0e hi$! "aged the s%irit al "ar for thirty years. His "ee%ing is not #a sed by "orldly grie)es! b t by the dee% #on#erns of the s%irit. /o #annot %er#ei)e by reason or sense the s%irit al $ysteries that are o%en and %lain to his enlightened )ision! any $ore than the dar0ness #an behold the light. His breathings are as those of 2+sa! and not li0e $ere h $an sighs raised by "orldly sorro"s. His tears and his s$iles and his s%ee#hes are not his o"n! b t %ro#eed fro$ Allah. @ools li0e yo are ignorant of the $oti)e and design of saints2 a#tions! and therefore only har$ the$sel)es if they try to i$itate the$! "itho t nderstanding their $eaning.( To ill strate this a # rio s story is told of a foolish lady "ho #o%ied a tri#0 of her #le)er sla)e-girl! "itho t nderstanding the $od s o%erandi! and by so doing #a sed her o"n death. +n li0e $anner %arrots are ta ght to s%ea0 "itho t nderstanding the "ords. The $ethod is to %la#e a $irror bet"een the %arrot and the trainer. The trainer! hidden by the $irror! tters the "ords! and the %arrot! seeing his o"n refle#tion in the $irror! fan#ies another %arrot is s%ea0ing! and i$itates all that is said by the trainer behind the $irror. 9o <od ses %ro%hets and saints as $irrors "hereby to instr #t $en! being Hi$self all the ti$e hidden behind these $irrors! )iE.! the bodies of these saints and %ro%hets3 and $en! "hen they hear the "ords %ro#eeding fro$ these $irrors! are tterly ignorant that they are really being s%o0en by (Ani)ersal Reason( or the (Word of <od( behind the $irrors of the saints.

The -#(*hlessness #, me(e blind imi*a*i#n =*a:lid> #, (eli/i#us e3e()ises% When a friend tells a -o0e to his friend! The deaf $an "ho listens la ghs t"i#e o)er3 The first ti$e fro$ i$itation and foolishness! .e#a se he sees all the %arty la ghing3 /et! tho gh he la ghs li0e the others! He is then ignorant of the s b-e#t of their la ghter3 Then he in> ires "hat the la ghter "as abo t! And! on hearing it! %ro#eeds to la gh a se#ond ti$e. Wherefore the blind i$itator is li0e a deaf $an! +n regard to the -oy he feigns to feel. The light is the 9hai0h2s! the fo ntain the 9hai0h2s! And the o t%o ring of -oy is also the 9hai0h2s! not his. 2Tis li0e "ater in a )essel! or light thro gh a glass3 +f they thin0 they #o$e fro$ the$sel)es! they are "rong. When the )essel lea)es the fo ntain! it sees its error3 +t sees the "ater in it #o$es fro$ the fo ntain. The glass also learns! "hen the $oon sets! That its light %ro#eeded fro$ the shining of the $oon. When his eyes are o%ened by the #o$$and! (Arise1( 1 Then that dis#i%le s$iles a se#ond ti$e! li0e the da"n. He la ghs also at his o"n %re)io s la ghter! Whi#h o)ertoo0 hi$ o t of $ere blind i$itation. When he ret rns fro$ his long and distant "anderings He says! (&o1 this "as the tr th! this the se#ret1 With "hat blindness and $is#on#e%tion did + %retend. To e,%erien#e -oy in that distant )alley4 What a del sion + "as nder1 "hat a $ista0e1 *y feeble "it #on- red % )ain i$aginations.( Ho" #an an infant on the road 0no" the tho ghts of $en4 Ho" far its fan#ies are re$o)ed fro$ tr e 0no"ledge1 The tho ghts of infants r n on the n rse and $il0! 6r on raisins or n ts! or on #rying and "ailing. The blind i$itator is li0e a feeble infant! E)en tho gh he %ossesses fine arg $ents and %roofs. His %reo## %ation "ith obs# re arg $ents and %roofs 5rags hi$ a"ay fro$ insight into tr th. His sto#0 of lore! "hi#h is the sal)e of his eyes! .ears hi$ off and %l nges hi$ in diffi# lt > estions. Ah1 $an of i$itation! #o$e o t of .o0hara1 8 And h $ble yo rself in order to be e,alted. Then yo "ill! behold another .o0hara "ithin yo ! Whereof the heroes ignore these > estions of la".

Tho gh a foot$an $ay be s"ift of foot on land! /et on the sea he is as one "ith r %t red tendons. That foot$an is only (#arried by land!( : . t he "ho is (#arried by sea( is the tr ly learned one. The King of 0ings sho"ers s%e#ial fa)ors %on hi$3 Kno" this! 6 $an %ledged to )ain ill sions1 The $ere legal theologian is i$%otent to behold the light of the 9%irit. When the day da"ns fro$ hea)en night flees a"ay3 What! then! #an its dar0ness 0no" of the nat re of light4 The gnat s# ds a"ay before the blast of the "inds3 What! then! 0no"s the gnat of the sa)or of the "inds4 When the Eternal a%%ears the transitory is ann lled3 What! then! 0no"s he transitory of the Eternal4 When He sets foot on the transitory He be"ilders it3 When it is be#o$e na ght He sheds his light %on it! = +f yo "ish! yo #an add #e h ndreds of %re#edents! . t + ta0e no heed of the$! 6 $an %oor in s%irit1 The letters &a$! *i$! and Ha! *i$ %refi,ed to so$e 9 ras Rese$ble the staff of *oses! "hen f lly nderstood. ? 6rdinary letters rese$ble these 2to o t"ard )ie"! . t are far beneath the$ in signifi#ation. +f an ordinary $an 2ta0e a staff and try it! Will it %ro)e li0e the staff of *oses in the test4 This breath of 2+sa is not li0e e)ery ordinary breath! Whi#h %ro#eeds fro$ $ere h $an -oy or sorro". These Alif! *i$! Ha and *i$! 6 father! 7ro#eed fro$ the &ord of $an0ind. +f yo ha)e sense! regard not in the sa$e "ay as these E)ery ordinary Alif and &a$ "hi#h rese$bles these3 Altho gh these sa#red letters #onsist of #o$$on ones! And rese$ble #o$$on ones in their #o$%osition. * ha$$ad hi$self "as for$ed of flesh and s0in! Altho gh no $an is of the sa$e gen s as he. He had flesh and s0in and bones! Altho gh no $an rese$bles hi$ in #o$%osition3 .e#a se in his #o$%osition "ere #ontained di)ine %o"ers! Whereby all h $an flesh "as #onfo nded. +n li0e $anner the #o$%osition of the letters Ha! *i$ +s far e,alted abo)e ordinary #o$%o nds of letters3 .e#a se fro$ these $ysterio s #o$%ositions #o$es life! E)en as tter #onf sion follo"s the last tr $%. That staff be#o$es a ser%ent and di)ides the Nile! &i0e the staff of Ha! *i$! by the gra#e of <od. +ts o t"ard for$ rese$bles the o t"ard for$s of others! /et the dis0 of a #a0e differs $ #h fro$ the $oon2s dis0. The saint2s "ee%ing and la ghter and s%ee#h

Are not his o"n! b t %ro#eed fro$ <od. Whereas fools loo0 only to o t"ard a%%earan#es! These $ysteries are totally hidden fro$ the$3 6f ne#essity the real $eaning is )eiled fro$ the$! @or the $ystery is lost in the inter)ening $edi $. Then follo"s an ane#dote of a $an "ho heard "hel%s bar0ing in their $other2s "o$b. A )oi#e #a$e fro$ hea)en and e,%lained that these "hel%s "ere li0e the $en "ho ha)e not e$erged into the light of tr th! b t are still )eiled in s%irit al dar0ness! and! tho gh they $a0e %retensions to s%irit al sight! their dis#o rses are seless! both to %ro# re s%irit al food for the$sel)es! and to "arn their hearers of s%irit al dangers. Ne,t #o$es an ane#dote of a %io s $an of Lar"an! "ho $ade a %oint of gi)ing to the %oor fo r ti$es the legal a$o nt of al$s d e fro$ his gro"ing #ro%s. Th s! instead of %aying one-tenth on ea#h #ro%! "hi#h is the legal a$o nt en-oined by the 7ro%het! B he "as "ont to %ay one-tenth of the green ears of #orn! another tenth of the ri%e "heat! a third tenth of the threshed grain! and a fo rth of the bread $ade therefro$! and so on "ith gra%es and other %rod #e of hi garden. +n re#ognition of his %iety <od blessed his garden and $ade it bear fr it ab ndantly. . t his sons! "ho "ere blind to s%irit al $atters! sa" only his la)ish e,%endit re %on the %oor! and #o ld not see the di)ine blessing %on the garden! #alled do"n by his liberality! and reb 0ed hi$ for his e,tra)agan#e. There is no li$it to the di)ine bo nty! be#a se <od2s ability to besto" bo nties! nli0e h $an ability! is nbo nded and infinite. CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,,i). 8. 5a"n s$iles first as (false da"n!( and the se#ond ti$e as (tr e da"n.( 8. All ding to .o0hari! the a thor of the (9ahih .o0hari!( the first and $ost estee$ed #olle#tion of traditions. :. Koran ,)ii. J8. The $an of (e,ternal 0no"ledge( is (#arried only by land!( b t the $ysti# is led o)er sea as "ell. =. When reason is annihilated! the (Tr th( is refle#ted in the res lting #a% t $ort $ or Not-being! as in a $irror G< lshan i RaE! +. 18?H. ?. These letters "ere s %%osed to ha)e $ysterio s $eanings. 9ee Rod"ell! Koran! %. 1J! note. B. *is0at l *asabih! i. =1J. STOR' 1II% H#- Adam -as )(ea*ed #u* #, a hand,ul #, ea(*h b(#u/h* by an An/el%

When the Al$ighty deter$ined to #reate $an0ind to be %ro)ed by good and e)il! He de% ted the angel <abriel to bring a handf l of earth for the % r%ose of for$ing Ada$2s body. <abriel a##ordingly girded his loins and %ro#eeded to the Earth to e,e# te the di)ine #o$$ands. . t the Earth! being a%%rehensi)e that the $an so #reated "o ld rebel against <od and dra" do"n <od2s # rse %on her! re$onstrated "ith <abriel! and beso ght hi$ to forbear. 9he re%resented that <abriel "o ld at the last day be %re-e$inent o)er all the eight angels "ho "o ld then s %%ort the throne! 1 and that it therefore "as only right that he sho ld %refer $er#y to - dg$ent. At last <abriel granted her %rayer! and ret rned to hea)en "itho t ta0ing the handf l of earth. Then <od de% ted *i#hael on the sa$e errand! and the Earth $ade si$ilar e,# ses to hi$! and he also listened to her #rying! and ret rned to hea)en "itho t ta0ing a handf l. He e,# sed hi$self to the Al$ighty by #iting the e,a$%le of the %eo%le to "ho$ the %ro%het Ionah "as sent! "ho "ere deli)ered fro$ the threatened %enalty in #onse> en#e of their la$entation for their sins3 8 and the te,t! (+f He %lease! He "ill deli)er yo fro$ that "hi#h ye shall #ry to Hi$ to a)ert.( : Then <od sent the angel +srafil on the sa$e errand! and he also "as di)erted fro$ the e,e# tion of it by a di)ine inti$ation. At last <od sent 2+Erail! the angel of death! "ho! being of sterner dis%osition than the others! resol tely sh t his ears to the Earth2s entreaties! and bro ght ba#0 the re> ired handf l of earth. The Earth %ressed hi$ "ith the arg $ent that <od2s #o$$and to bear a"ay a handf l of her s bstan#e against her "ill did not o)erride the other di)ine #o$$and to ta0e %ity on s %%liants3 b t 2+Erail "o ld not listen to her! re$ar0ing that! a##ording to the #anons of theologi#al inter%retation! it "as not allo"able to ha)e re#o rse to analogi#al reasoning to e)ade a %lain and #ategori#al in- n#tion. He added! that in e,e# ting this in- n#tion! %ainf l tho gh it $ight be! he "as to be regarded only as a s%ear in the hand of the Al$ighty. The $oral is! that "hen any of <od2s #reat res do s a har$! "e o ght to regard the$ only as instr $ents of <od! "ho is the 6nly Real Agent. &#d *he Only Real A/en*% 5o not! li0e fools! #ra)e $er#y fro$ the s%ear! . t fro$ the King in "hose hand the s%ear is held. Wherefore do yo #ry to s%ear and s"ord! 9eeing they are #a%ti)es in the hand of that Noble 6ne4 He is as AEar! $a0er of idols3 + a$ only the idol3 Whate)er instr $ent He $a0es $e! that + a$. +f He $a0es of $e a # %! a # % a$ +3 +f He $a0es of $e a dagger! a dagger a$ +. +f He $a0es $e a fo ntain! + %o r forth "ater3

+f He $a0es $e fire! + gi)e forth heat. +f He $a0es $e rain! + %rod #e ri#h #ro%s3 +f He $a0es $e a dart! + %ier#e bodies. +f He $a0es $e a sna0e! + dart forth %oison3 +f He $a0es $e a friend! + ser)e $y friends. + a$ as the %en in the fingers of the "riter! + a$ not in a %osition to obey or not at "ill. 6n the ret rn of 2+Erail to hea)en "ith the handf l of earth! <od said he "o ld $a0e hi$ the angel of death. 2+Erail re%resented that this "o ld $a0e hi$ )ery hatef l to $en3 b t <od said 2+Erail "o ld o%erate by disease and si#0ness! and $en "o ld not loo0 for any #a se beyond these diseases! a##ording to the te,t! (He is nearer to yo than ye are3 yet ye see Hi$ not.( = *oreo)er! death is in reality a boon to the s%irit al! and it is only fools "ho #ry! (Wo ld that this "orld $ight end re for e)er! and that there "ere no s #h thing as death1( !ea*h is /ain0 ,#( 4&#d -ill )han/e *hei( evil *hin/s in*# /##d *hin/s%4 ? 6ne said! (The "orld "o ld be a %leasant %la#e +f death ne)er set foot "ithin it.( Another ans"ered! (+f there "ere no death! The #o$%li#ated "orld "o ld be "orth not a -ot. +t "o ld be a #ro% raised in a desert! &eft negle#ted and ne)er threshed o t. Tho fan#iest that to be death! "hi#h is life! Tho so"est thy seed in salt gro nd. Darnal reason de#ei)es s3 do tho #ontradi#t it! @or that fool ta0es "hat is really death to be life. 6 <od! sho" s all things in this ho se of de#e%tion! 9ho" the$ all as they really are1( B +t is said in the Hadis that on the last day The #o$$and! (Arise!( "ill #o$e to e)ery single body. The blast of the last tr $% "ill be <od2s #o$$and To e)ery ato$ to lift its head fro$ the earth. The so ls! also! of ea#h "ill ret rn to their bodies! E)en as sense ret rns to bodies a"a0ing fro$ slee%. 6n that $orn ea#h so l "ill re#ogniEe its o"n body! And ret rn to its o"n r in li0e hidden treas re. +t "ill re#ogniEe its o"n body and enter it. The so l of the golds$ith "ill not enter the tailor3 The so l of the "ise "ill enter the body of the "ise! The so l of the n- st the body of the n- st. +n li0e $anner as the so ls "ill fly into their #lay! 9o "ill the boo0s fly into their right hands and left. J

<od "ill %la#e in their hands their boo0s of greed and liberality! 6f sin and %iety! and "hate)er they ha)e %ra#ti#ed. When they shall a"a0e fro$ slee% on that $orning! All the e)il and good they ha)e done "ill re# r to the$. E)ery tho ght "hi#h has d"elt in the$ d ring life Will a%%ear as a for$ )isible to all! 8 &i0e the tho ght of an ar#hite#t realiEed in a ho se! 6r the %erfe#t %lant iss ing fro$ the seed in the gro nd. @ro$ onion and saffron and %o%%y The hand of s%ring "ill nfold the se#ret of "inter. This one "ill be )erdant and flo rish! saying! (We are the %io s3( That other "ill hang his head li0e the )iolet! With tears starting fro$ his eyes thro gh deadly fear3 /ea! tens of fo nts of tears thro gh terrible dread3 With eyes "ide o%ened in deadly a%%rehension &est his boo0 $ay be %la#ed in his left hand. Then "ill the e)ildoer be sent to the fiery %rison! @or thorn #an in no "ise es#a%e the fla$e. When his g ardian angels behind and before! Who before "ere nseen! shall a%%ear li0e %atrols! They "ill h rry hi$ off! %ri#0ing hi$ "ith their s%ears! And saying! (6 dog! begone to thy 0ennel1( Then the %risoner "ill #ry! (6 &ord! + a$ a h ndred! /ea! a h ndred ti$es as "i#0ed as Tho sayest. . t in $er#y Tho )eilest $y sins! 6ther"ise $y )ileness "ere 0no"n to Thy all-seeing eye. . t! inde%endently of $y o"n "or0s and "arfare! +nde%endently of $y faith or nfaith! good or e)il! +nde%endently of $y %oor de)otion to Thee! And of $y tho ghts and the tho ghts of h ndreds li0e $e! + fi, $y ho%es on Thy $er#y alone. Whether Tho ad- dge $e %right or rebellio s! + s e for free %ardon fro$ Thy nbo ght - sti#e. 6 &ord! "ho art gra#io s "itho t tho ght of #onse> en#e! + set $y fa#e to"ards that free gra#e of Thine3 + ha)e no regard to $y o"n a#ts. + set $y fa#e to"ards this ho%e! 9eeing that Tho gayest $e $y being first of all3 Tho gayest $e the gar$ent of being nas0ed! Wherefore + fir$ly tr st in Thy free gra#e. When he th s en $erates his sins and fa lts! <od at last "ill grant hi$ %ardon as a free gift! 9aying! (6 angels! bring hi$ ba#0 to $e! 9in#e the eyes of his heart "ere set on ho%e! Witho t #are for #onse> en#es + set hi$ free! And dra" the %en thro gh the re#ord of his sins1(

CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,i,. 1J. 8. Koran ,. 98. :. Koran )i =1. =. Koran l)i. 8=. ?. Koran ,,). JF. The (final restit tion( of all by free gra#e. B. D%. the Hadis' (+ns%iration is a light that shines in the heart! and sho"s the nat re of all things as they really are.( J. 9ee Koran l,i,. 18. 8. 9ee the %arallel %assage in < ishan i RaE! 1. B9F. STOR' 1III% Mahmud and Aya2% 9 *ah$ d! the #elebrated 0ing of <haEni! had a fa)orite na$ed AyaE! "ho "as greatly en)ied by the other #o rtiers. 6ne day they #a$e to the 0ing and infor$ed hi$ that AyaE "as in the habit of retiring to a se#ret #ha$ber! and lo#0ing hi$self in! and that they s s%e#ted he had there #on#ealed #oin stolen fro$ the treas ry! or else "ine and forbidden drin0. The fa#t "as! that AyaE had %la#ed in that #ha$ber his old shoes and the ragged dress "hi#h he sed to "ear before the 0ing had %ro$oted hi$ to honor! and sed to retire there e)ery day and "ear the$ for a ti$e! in order to re$ind hi$self of his lo"ly origin! and to %re)ent hi$self fro$ being % ffed % "ith %ride. This he did in a##ordan#e "ith the te,t! (&et $an refle#t o t of "hat he "as #reated.( 8 The into,i#ation of the %resent life % ffs % $any "ith false %ride! e)en as +blis! "ho ref sed to "orshi% Ada$! saying! (Who is Ada$! that he sho ld be lord o)er $e4( This he said be#a se he "as one of the Iinn! "ho are all #reated of fire. : Ada$! on the other hand! #onfessed his o"n )ileness! saying! (Tho hast for$ed $e o t of #lay.( The 0ing "as "ell ass red of the fidelity of AyaE3 b t in order to #onf te those "ho s s%e#ted hi$! he ordered the$ to go by night and brea0 o%en that #ha$ber and bring a"ay all the treas re and other things hidden in it. +t is a #hara#teristi# of e)ildoers to thin0 e)il of the saints! be#a se they - dge of their #ond #t by the light of their o"n e)il nat res! as the #roo0ed foot $a0es a #roo0ed foot%rint! and as the s%ider sees things distorted thro gh the "eb he has s% n hi$self The h g2s #ond #t in this did not beto0en any di$in tion of his lo)e for AyaE! be#a se lo)er and belo)ed are al"ays as ono so l! tho gh they $ay be o%%osed to o t"ard )ie". A##ordingly the #o rtiers %ro#eeded to the #ha$ber of AyaE at night! and bro0e o%en the door! and sear#hed the floor and the "alls! b t fo nd only the old shoes and the ragged dress. They then ret rned to the 0ing

dis#o$fited and sha$efa#ed! e)en as the "i#0ed "ho ha)e slandered the saints "ill be on the day of - dg$ent! a##ording to the te,t! (6n the res rre#tion day tho shalt see those "ho ha)e lied of <od "ith their fa#es bla#0.( = Then they beso ght the 0ing to %ardon their offen#e! b t he ref sed! saying that their offen#e had been #o$$itted against AyaE! and that he "o ld lea)e it to AyaE to de#ide "hether they sho ld be % nished or %ardoned. +f AyaE sho"ed $er#y it "o ld be "ell3 and if he % nished it "o ld be "ell also! for (the la" of retaliation is the se# rity for life.( ? 6nly he en-oined hi$ to %rono n#e his senten#e "itho t delay! be#a se (Waiting is % nish$ent.( A des#ri%tion of gen ine nion "ith <od. A lo)ed one said to her lo)er to try hi$! Early one $orning! (6 s #h an one! son of s #h an one! + $ar)el "hether yo hold $e $ore dear! 6r yo rself3 tell $e tr ly! 6 ardent s itor1( He ans"ered! (+ a$ so entirely absorbed in yo ! That + a$ f ll of yo fro$ head to foot. 6f $y o"n e,isten#e nothing b t the na$e re$ains +n $y being is nothing besides yo ! 6 6b-e#t of desire1 Therefore a$ + th s lost in yo ! I st as )inegar is absorbed in honey3 6r as a stone! "hi#h is #hanged into a % re r by! +s filled "ith the bright light of the s n. +n that stone its o"n %ro%erties abide not +t is filled "ith the s n2s %ro%erties altogether3 9o that! if after"ards it holds itself dear 2Tis the sa$e as holding the s n dear! 6 belo)ed1 And if it hold the s n dear in its heart! 2Tis #learly the sa$e as holding itself dear. Whether that % re r by hold itself dear! 6r hold the s n dear! There is no differen#e bet"een the t"o %reteren#es3 6n either hand is na ght b t the light of da"n. . t till that stone be#o$es a r by it hates itself @or till it be#o$es one 2+!2 it is t"o se%arate 2+2s!2 @or 2tis then dar0ened and % rblind! And dar0ness is the essential ene$y of light. +f it then hold itself dear! it is an infidel3 .e#a se that self is an o%%onent of the $ighty 9 n. Wherefore 2tis nla"f l for the stone then to say 2+! .e#a se it is entirely in dar0ness and nothingness.( 7haraoh said! (+ a$ the Tr th!( and "as laid lo". *ans r Halla- said! (+ a$ the Tr th!( and es#a%ed free.2 B 7haraoh2s (+( "as follo"ed by the # rse of <od3

*ans r2s (+( "as follo"ed by the $er#y of <od! 6 belo)ed1 .e#a se 7haraoh "as a stone! *ans r a r by3 7haraoh an ene$y of light! *ans r a friend. 6 %rattler! *ans r2s (+ a$ He( "as a dee% $ysti# saying! E,%ressing nion "ith the light! not $ere in#arnation. J CN6TE9' 1. All the latter %art of this story is a %arable of the last - dge$ent. 8. Koran l,,,)i. ?. :. Koran ,)iii. =8! and l). 1=. =. Koran ,,,i,. B1. ?. Koran ii. 1J. B. 9ee < ishan i RaE! Ans"er )ii. %. =?. *ans r Halla- G"ool#arderH! the #elebrated 9 fi "ho "as % t to death at .aghdad in :F9 GA.H.H J. 9ee < ishan i RaE! i. =?=! and note. The do#trine of the des#ent of the 5eity into $an GHal lH! or in#arnation! is re-e#ted both by R $i and 9habistari in fa)or of the do#trine of inti$ate nion G+ttihad or WahdatH. STOR' I5% The sin)e(e (e+en*an)e #, asuh% AyaE! in "eighing the %ros and #ons in regard to %ardoning the #o rtiers! re$ar0s that %rofessions of faith and %eniten#e "hen #ontradi#ted by a#ts are "orthless! a##ording to the te,t! (+f ye as0 the$ "ho hath #reated the hea)ens and the earth! they "ill say 2<od32 yet they de)ise lies.( 1 And in ill stration of this he tells a story of a faithless h sband "ho retired to a se#ret #ha$ber ostensibly to say his %rayers! b t really to #arry on an intrig e "ith a sla)e-girl! and the falsity of "hose %reten#es "as de$onstrated by o# lar %roof of his #ondition. +n li0e $anner! on the day of res rre#tion $an2s hands and eyes and feet "ill bear "itness against hi$ of the e)il a#tions done by hi$! th s #onf ting his %reten#es to %iety. The test of a sin#ere re%entan#e is abhorren#e of %ast sins and tter abandon$ent of all %leas re in the$! the old lo)e for sin being s %erseded by the ne" lo)e for holiness. 9 #h a re%entan#e "as that of Nas h. Nas h in his yo th disg ised hi$self in fe$ale attire and obtained e$%loy$ent as attendant at the "o$en2s baths! "here he sed to #arry on sha$ef l intrig es "ith so$e of the "o$en "ho fre> ented the bath. At last! ho"e)er! his eyes "ere o%ened to the "i#0edness of his #ond #t! and be "ent to a holy $an and beso ght hi$ to %ray for hi$. The holy $an! i$itating the long-s ffering of the (;eiler of sins( did not so $ #h as na$e his sin! b t %rayed! saying! (<od gi)e thee re%entan#e of the sin tho 0no"est1( The %rayer of that holy $an "as a##e%ted! be#a se the %rayers

of s #h an one are the sa$e as <od2s o"n "ill! a##ording to the tradition! (*y ser)ant dra"s nigh to $e by %io s "or0s till + lo)e hi$3 and "hen + lo)e hi$ + a$ his ear! his eye! his tong e! his foot! his hand3 and by $e he hears! sees! tal0s! "al0s! and feels. (Nas h then ret rned to the bath a tr ly re%entant $an3 b t soon after"ards one of the "o$en fre> enting the bath lost a )al able -e"el! and the 0ing ga)e order that all %ersons #onne#ted "ith the bath sho ld be stri%%ed and sear#hed. When the offi#ers #a$e to the bath to e,e# te this order Nas h "as o)er"hel$ed "ith fear! for he 0ne" that if his se, "ere dis#o)ered he "o ld #ertainly be % t to death. +n his fear he #alled %on <od for deli)eran#e! and s"ooned "ith fear and be#a$e beside hi$self! so that his nat ral self "as annihilated! and he be#a$e a ne" #reat re! e)en as a #or%se rising fro$ the gra)e. When he #a$e to hi$self he fo nd that the lost -e"el had been fo nd! and those "ho had s s%e#ted hi$ #a$e and begged his %ardon. 9hortly after"ards the 0ing2s da ghter sent for hi$ to #o$e and "ash her head3 b t! in s%ite of her i$%erati)e #o$$ands! he ref sed to %la#e hi$self again in the "ay of te$%tation! lest he $ight fall again! and <od $ight ($a0e easy to hi$ the %ath to destr #tion.( 8 Man's membe(s -ill bea( -i*ness a/ains* him #n *he day #, ;ud/emen*0 and )#n,u*e his )laims *# +ie*y% 6n the res rre#tion day all se#rets "ill be dis#losed3 /ea! e)ery g ilty one "ill be #on)i#ted by hi$self. Hand and foot "ill bear testi$ony o%enly .efore the Al$ighty #on#erning their o"ner2s sins. Hand "ill say! (+ stole s #h and s #h things3( &i% "ill say! (+ as0ed for s #h and s #h things.( @oot "ill say! (+ "ent after $y o"n desires3( Ar$ "ill say! (+ e$bra#ed the harlot.( Eye "ill say! (+ loo0ed after forbidden things3( Ear "ill say! (+ listened to e)il tal0.( Th s the $an "ill be sho"n to be a liar fro$ head to foot! 9in#e his o"n $e$bers "ill %ro)e hi$ to be a liar. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,,i,. B1. 8. Koran ,#ii. 1F. STOR' 5% The Li#n0 *he F#30 and *he Ass%

As an instan#e of false and insin#ere re%entan#e! a story is ne,t told! "hi#h is also fo nd in the fifth #ha%ter of the An"ar i 9 haili. A lion had been "o nded in fight "ith a $ale ele%hant! and "as nable to h nt ga$e for hi$self. +n this strait he #alled a fo, "ho "as "ont to attend %on hi$! and to li)e on the $eat that "as left fro$ his re%asts! - st as dis#i%les attending on a saint s bsist on the hea)enly food dro%%ing fro$ his li%s. He #alled this fo,! and bade hi$ go and enti#e so$e ani$al to #o$e near his lair! so that he $ight 0ill it and $a0e a $eal of it. The fo, "ent and sear#hed the neighborhood! and at last fo nd a lean and h ngry ass "ho "as graEing in a stony %la#e "here there "as little or no grass. The fo,! after $a0ing d e sal tations! #ondoled "ith the ass on his nfort nate #ondition3 b t the ass re%lied that it "as his di)inely a%%ointed lot! and that it "o ld be i$%io s to #o$%lain of the dis%ensations of 7ro)iden#e. He also instan#ed the #ase of the ass of a "ater-#arrier! "hi#h! after ha)ing star)ed and "or0ed hard in its $aster2s ser)i#e! by #han#e fo nd ad$ittan#e to the 0ing2s stables! "here it "as str #0 by the slee0 a%%earan#e of the horses. . t one day the horses "ere ta0en o t to battle! and ret rned in a $ost $iserable %light! so$e grie)o sly "o nded! and others dying. After seeing this sight it deter$ined that its o"n hard life "as %referable! and ret rned to its $aster. The fo, re%lied that the ass "as "rong in #arrying %assi)e resignation to s #h an e,tent as to ref se to try to better his #ondition "hen the o%%ort nity of doing so %resented itself! be#a se <od says! (<o in > est of the bo nties of <od.( 1 He added! if the ass "o ld #o$e "ith hi$! he "o ld ta0e hi$ to a delightf l $eado"! "here he "o ld ne)er la#0 %lenty of grass all the year ro nd. The ass re-oined that the #o$$and to stri)e for s stenan#e "as only iss ed on a##o nt of the "ea0ness of $an2s faith. The fo, re%lied that this e,alted faith "as only )o #hsafed to a fe" great saints! be#a se the 7ro%het des#ribes #ontent$ent as a treas re! and treas re is not fo nd by e)eryone. The ass re-oined that the fo, "as %er)erting the 9#ri%t re! as no %io s $an "ho tr sted in <od "as e)er forsa0en. +n ill stration of this he told an ane#dote of a de)otee "ho deter$ined to % t the $atter to the test! and "ent o t into the desert! tr sting only to <od to s %%ly his "ants! and resol)ed to see0 no aid of $an! and not to e,ert hi$self in any "ay to gain food. He lay do"n on a stone and "ent to slee%3 and <od sent a #ara)an of tra)elers that "ay! "ho fo nd hi$! and for#ed hi$ to ta0e food in s%ite of hi$self. The fo, again %ressed the ass to try to better his #ondition! saying that <od had gi)en $en hands to se and not to do anything "ith. The ass ans"ered that he 0ne" of no o## %ation and e,ertion better than tr st in <od! as "orldly o## %ations often lead to r in! a##ording to the te,t! (Thro" not yo rsel)es "ith yo r o"n hands into r in.( 8 . t tho gh the ass re%eated all these e,#ellent %re#e%ts! yet it "as only so $ #h #ant on his %art! be#a se he "as not fir$ly rooted in. the faith. He had all the ti$e a #arnal han0ering after the %leasant graEinggro nd the fo, told hi$ of! and the ob-e#tions he $ade "ere only a %arrot-

li0e re%etition of %re#e%ts heard! b t not thoro ghly nderstood and ta0en to heart. To ill strate the "orthless nat re of $ere i$itated religion and %rofession di)or#ed fro$ %ra#ti#e! a story is told of an infa$o s fello" "ho sed to #arry a dagger to %rote#t as he said! his honor! tho gh his e)ery a#tion sho"ed that he had neither honor to %rote#t nor $anliness to %rote#t it. The ass! tho gh li0e Abraha$! he had bro0en his idols! had not a s ffi#iently rooted faith to lea%! li0e Abraha$! into the fire! and th s %ro)e his faith. [Here the %oet a%ologiEes for the tri)ial ill strations he ses by #iting the te,t! (;erily <od is not asha$ed to set forth as "ell the instan#e of a gnat as of any nobler ob-e#t( :.] @inally the ass yielded to the fo,2s enti#e$ent! and a##o$%anied hi$ to the lion2s lair. The lion! being fa$ished "ith h nger! s%rang %on hi$ the $o$ent he a%%eared. .eing! ho"e)er! "ea0 "ith si#0ness and fasting! he $issed his ai$! and the ass es#a%ed "ith a slight "o nd. Then the fo, bla$ed the lion for his %re#i%itation! and the lion! after e,# sing hi$self as best he #o ld! %ers aded the fo, to try to all re the ass a se#ond ti$e into his lair. The fo, #onsented to try! obser)ing that e,%erien#e "o ld %robably ha)e been thro"n a"ay on an ass! and his )o"s of re%entan#e forgotten. Those "ho la%se fro$ re%entan#e! in forgetf lness of their for$er e,%erien#e! $ay be #o$%ared to the Ie"s #hanged into a%es and s"ine by 2+sa. = The fo, "as re#ei)ed by the ass "ith $any re%roa#hes for ha)ing de#ei)ed hi$3 b t he at last $anaged to %ers ade the ass that "hat he had seen "as not a real lion! b t only a har$less talis$an3 and the silly ass allo"ed hi$self to be again del ded! and forgot his )o"s of re%entan#e! and again follo"ed the fo, to the lion2s lair! "here he s%eedily $et his doo$. Men -h# ma$e +(#,essi#ns #, h#liness me(ely ,(#m blind imi*a*i#n #, #*he(s a(e de*e)*ed and )#n,u*ed by *he #++#si*i#n be*-een *hei( -#(ds and *hei( deeds% A $an as0ed a #a$el! saying! (Ho1 "hen#e #o$est tho ! Tho beast of a s%i#io s footste%4( He re%lied! ( @ro$ the hot bath of thy street.( The $an said! ( That is %ro)ed false by thy dirty legs1( 9o! "hen st bborn 7haraoh sa" *oses2 staff a ser%ent! And begged for a delay Gto fet#h $agi#iansH ? and relented! Wise $en said! (He o ght to ha)e be#o$e harsher! +f He really be! as He says! the &ord 9 %re$e. B What #o ld $ira#les s #h as these of ser%ents! 6r e)en dragons! $atter to the $a-esty of His di)inity4 +f He be really &ord 9 %re$e! seated on His throne! What need has He to "heedle a "or$ li0e *oses4( 6 babbler! "hile thy so l is dr n0 "ith $ere date "ine! Thy s%irit hath not tasted the gen ine gra%es. @or the to0en of thy ha)ing seen that di)ine light

+s this! to "ithdra" thyself fro$ the ho se of %ride. When a fo"l flies to the salt "ater! +t has ne)er beheld the blessing of s"eet "ater3 . t its faith is $ere i$itation of other fo"l! And its so l has ne)er seen the fa#e of real faith. Wherefore the blind i$itator en#o nters great %erils! 7erils of the road! of robbers! of # rsed 9atans. . t "hen he has seen the light of <od! he is safe @ro$ the agitation of do bt! and is fir$ in the faith. Till the foa$ has landed on the shore and dry land! Whi#h is its ho$e! it is e)er tossed to and fro. 2Tis at ho$e on the land! b t a stranger on the "ater. While it re$ains a stranger! it $ st be tossed abo t. When its eyes are o%ened! and it sees the )ision of land! 9atan has no longer any do$ination o)er it. Altho gh the ass re%eated )erities to the fo,! He s%o0e the$ idly and in the "ay of #ant. He %raised the "ater! b t "as not eager to drin03 He rent his gar$ents and his hair! b t "as no real lo)er. The e,# se of a hy%o#rite is re-e#ted! not a%%ro)ed! .e#a se it #o$es only fro$ the li%s! not fro$ the heart. He has the s#ent of the a%%le! b t not a %ie#e of it! And the s#ent only for the % r%ose of $isleading others. Th s a "o$an2s onset in the $idst of a battle array! 9he 0ee%s in line! and for$s %art of the battle array! /et! tho gh she loo0s a )ery lion as she stands in line! Her hand begins to tre$ble as soon as she ta0es a s"ord. Woe to hi$ "hose reason is li0e a "o$an While his l st is li0e a resol te $an1 6f a #ertainty his reason "ill be "orsted in the fight! And his i$itation of a $an "ill only lead hi$ to r in. Ha%%y is he "hose reason is $as# line! And his gly l st fe$inine and nder s b-e#tion1 Tho gh the $ere i$itator > otes a h ndred %roofs! They are all based on o%inion! not on #on)i#tion. He is only s#ented "ith $ s0! he is not hi$self $ s03 He s$ells of $ s0! b t is really na ght b t d ng. @or his d ng to be#o$e $ s0! 6 dis#i%le! He $ st graEe year after year in the di)ine %ast re. @or he "ho! li0e the $ s0-deer! feeds on saffron of Khoten * st not eat grass and oats li0e asses. That $an of #ant has at his tong e2s end A h ndred %roofs and %re#e%ts! b t there is no life in hi$. When the %rea#her has hi$self no light or life! Ho" #an his "ords yield lea)es and fr it4 He i$% dently %rea#hes to others to "al0 aright!

While hi$self He is nsteady as a reed sha0en by "ind. Th s! tho gh his %rea#hing is )ery elo> ent! +t hides "ithin it nsteadiness in the faith. +n order to gain tr e "isdo$ $an $ st sha0e off "orldly ill sions. The fo, said! (+n $y % re "ine there are no dregs3 These )ain s s%i#ions are not be#o$ing. All this is only baseless s s%i#ion! 6 si$%le one! Else yo "o ld 0no" + a$ not %lotting against yo . /o re% diate $e on a##o nt of yo r o"n bad fan#ies3 Why do yo th s s s%e#t yo r tr e friends4 Thin0 "ell of the 2.rothers of % rity!2 J E)en tho gh they sho" harshness to"ard yo 3 @or "hen e)il s s%i#ion ta0es hold of yo ! +t se)ers yo fro$ h ndreds of friends. +f a tender friend treats yo ro ghly to try yo ! 2Tis #ontrary to reason to distr st hi$. Tho gh + bear a bad na$e! $y nat re is not $ale)olent3 What yo sa" "as not dangero s! it "as only a talis$an. . t e)en if there "ere danger in that ob-e#t of s s%i#ion! @riends al"ays %ardon an offen#e.( This "orld of ill sions! fan#ies! desires! and fears! +s a $ighty obsta#le in the tra)eler2s %ath. Th s! "hen these for$s of del si)e i$aginations *isled Abraha$! "ho "as a )ery $o ntain of "isdo$! He said of the star! ( This is $y &ord!( 8 Ha)ing fallen into the $idst of the "orld of ill sion. He th s inter%reted the $eaning of s n and stars! /ea! he! that great $an "ho threaded -e"els of inter%retation! 9eeing then that this "orld of eye-fas#inating ill sion 9ed #ed fro$ the right %ath s #h a $o ntain as Abraha$! 9o that he said of the star! (This is $y &ord!( What "ill not its ill sions effe#t on a st %id ass4 H $an reason is dro"ned! li0e the high $o ntains! in the flood of ill sion and )ain i$aginations. The )ery $o ntains are o)er"hel$ed by this flood! Where is safety to be fo nd sa)e in Noah2s ar04 .y ill sions that %l nder the road of faith The faithf l ha)e been s%lit into se)enty-t"o se#ts. . t the $an of #on)i#tion es#a%es ill sion3 He does not $ista0e his eyelash for the ne" $oon. He "ho is di)or#ed fro$ 26$ar2s light +s de#ei)ed by his o"n #roo0ed eyelash. 9 Tho sands of shi%s! in all their $a-esty and %o$%! Ha)e gone to %ie#es in this sea of ill sion.

Then follo"s an ane#dote of 9hai0h * ha$$ad of <haEni! "ho "as na$ed (9ar i RaEi!( be#a se he sed to ta0e only a )ine-leaf to brea0 his fast. He d"elt a long ti$e in the desert! and "as there $ira# lo sly %reser)ed fro$ death! and dire#ted by di)ine inti$ation to %ro#eed to <haEni! and beg $oney of the ri#h and distrib te it to the %oor. After he had done this so$e ti$e a se#ond inti$ation #a$e to hi$ to beg no longer! as the $oney for his #harities "o ld be s %%lied to hi$ $ira# lo sly. He at last attained to s #h a degree of s%irit al insight that he 0ne" the "ants of those "ho #a$e to hi$ for aid before they ttered the$. He said the reason of this %reternat ral dis#ern$ent "as! that he had % rified his heart of all b t the lo)e of <od! and th s! "hene)er tho ghts of anything besides <od o## rred to his $ind! he 0ne" they did not a%%ertain to hi$! b t $ st ha)e been in so$e "ay s ggested to hi$ by the %erson as0ing aid of hi$. Then follo" so$e refle#tions on the %o"er of fasting and abstinen#e to s bd e the #arnal l sts "hi#h lead $an to destr #tion3 and t"o short ane#dotes to ill strate the thesis that <od ne)er fails to %ro)ide s stenan#e for those "ho ta0e no tho ght for the $orro"! b t %la#e absol te tr st in Hi$. The fate of the ass then s ggests to the %oet another train of refle#tions. After the lion had slain the ass! he "ent to the ri)er to > en#h his thirst! telling the fo, to "at#h the dead body till he ret rned3 b t the $o$ent the lion2s ba#0 "as t rned the fo, ate % the heart and li)er! "hi#h are the daintiest %arts. When the lion ret rned and in> ired for the$! the fo, ass red hi$ that the ass had %ossessed neither a heart nor a li)er! for if he had he "o ld ne)er ha)e sho"n hi$self so st %id. *en "itho t nderstanding are not really $en at all! b t only si$ la#ra or for$s of $en. @or la#0 of nderstanding $any "ill #ry in the "orld to #o$e! (Had "e b t hear0ened or nderstood! "e had not been a$ong the d"ellers in the fla$e( 1F Then follo"s a story of a $on0 G5iogenesH "ho too0 a lantern and sear#hed all thro gh a baEaar #ro"ded "ith $en to find! as he said! a $an. The m#n$'s sea()h ,#( a man% The $on0 said! (+ a$ sear#hing e)ery"here for a $an Who li)es by the life of the breath of <od.( The other said! (Here are $en3 the baEaar is f ll3 These are s rely $en! 6 enlightened sage1( The $on0 said! (+ see0 a $an "ho "al0s straight As "ell in the road of anger as in that of l st.

Where is one "ho sho"s hi$self a $an in anger and l st4 +n sear#h of s #h a one + r n fro$ street to street. +f there be one "ho is a tr e $an in these t"o states! + "ill yield % $y life for hi$ this day1( The other! "ho "as a fatalist! said! (What yo see0 is rare. . t yo are ignorant of the for#e of the di)ine de#ree3 /o see the bran#hes! b t ignore the root. We $en are b t bran#hes! <od2s eternal de#ree the root. That de#ree t rns fro$ its #o rse the re)ol)ing s0y! And $a0es foolish h ndreds of %lanets li0e *er# ry. +t red #es to hel%lessness the "orld of de)i#es3 +t t rns steel and stone to "ater. 6 yo "ho attrib te stability to these ste%s on the road! /o are one of the ra" ones3 yea! ra"! ra"1 When yo ha)e seen the $illstone t rning ro nd! Then! %rithee! go and see the strea$ that t rns it. When yo ha)e seen the d st rising % into the air! <o and $ar0 the air in the $idst of the d st. /o see the 0ettles of tho ght boiling o)er! &oo0 "ith intelligen#e at the fire beneath the$. <od said to Iob! 26 t of $y #le$en#y + ha)e gi)en a grain of %atien#e to e)ery hair of thine.2 &oo0 not! then! so $ #h at yo r o"n %atien#e3 After seeing %atien#e! loo0 to the <i)er of %atien#e. Ho" long "ill yo #onfine yo r )ie" to the "ater"heel4 &ift % yo r head and )ie" also the "ater.( CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,ii. 1F. 8. Koran ii. 191. :. Koran ii. 8=. =. Koran ). B?. ?. Koran ,,. 8?. B. Koran ,,)iii. :8. J. A so#iety at .asra! "ho "rote! abo t 98F A5.! an en#y#1o%edia of %hiloso%hy Gtrans. by 5ieteri#iH. 8. Koran )i. JB. 9. All ding to the first ane#dote in .oo0 ++. 1F. Koran l,,)ii. 1F. STOR' 5I% The M#salman -h# *(ied *# )#nve(* a Ma/ian%

A *osal$an %ressed a *agian to e$bra#e the tr e faith. The *agian re%lied! (+f <od "ills it! no do bt + shall do so.( 1 The *osal$an re%lied! (<od #ertainly "ills it! that yo r so l $ay be sa)ed fro$ hell3 b t yo r o"n e)il l sts and the 5e)il hold yo ba#0.( The *agian retorted! sing the arg $ents of the Iabriyan or (Do$% lsionists!( that on earth <od is sole so)ereign! and that 9atan and l st e,ist and a#t only in f rtheran#e of <od2s "ill. To hold that <od is % lling $en one "ay and 9atan another is to derogate fro$ <od2s so)ereignty. *an #annot hel% $o)ing in the dire#tion he is $ost strongly i$%elled to go3 if he is i$%elled "rongly he is no $ore to bla$e than a b ilding designed for a $os> e b t degraded into a firete$%le! or a %ie#e of #loth designed for a #oat b t altered into a %air of tro sers. The tr th is! that "hate)er o## rs is a##ording to <od2s "ill! and 9atan hi$self is only one of His agents. 9atan rese$bles the T r0o$an2s dog "ho sits at the door of the tent! and is( )ehe$ent against aliens! b t f ll of tenderness to friends.( 8 The *osal$an then re%lied "ith the arg $ents of the Kadarians and * taEilites! to %ro)e the freedo$ of the "ill and #onse> ent res%onsibility of $an for his a#tions. He rged that $an2s free agen#y and #onse> ent res%onsibility are re#ogniEed in #o$$on %arlan#e! as "hen "e order a $an to a#t in a #ertain "ay!-that <od e,%ressly ass $es $an to be a free agent by addressing #o$$ands and %rohibitions to hi$! and by s%e#ially e,e$%ting so$e! s #h as the blind! : fro$ res%onsibility for #ertain a#ts! that o r internal #ons#io sness ass res s of o r %o"er of #hoi#e! - st as o t"ard sense ass res s of %ro%erties in $aterial ob-e#ts! and that it is - st as so%histi#al to disbelie)e the de#larations of the interior #ons#io sness! as those of the o t"ard senses as to the reality of the $aterial "orld. He then told an ane#dote of a $an #a ght robbing a garden and defending hi$self "ith the fatalist %lea of irres%onsibility! to "ho$ the o"ner of the garden re%lied by ad$inistering a )ery se)ere beating! and ass ring hi$ that this beating "as also %redestined! and that he therefore #o ld not hel% ad$inistering it. He #on#l ded his arg $ent by re%eating that the traditions! (Whate)er <od "ills is!( and (The %en is dry! and alters not its "riting!( are not in#onsistent "ith the e,isten#e of free"ill in $an. They are not intended to red #e good a#tion and e)il to the sa$e le)el! b t good a#tions "ill al"ays entail good #onse> en#es! and bad a#tions the re)erse. A de)otee ad$ired the s%lendid a%%arel of the sla)es of the Dhief of Herat! and #ried to Hea)en! (Ah1 learn fro$ this Dhief ho" to treat faithf l sla)es1( 9hortly after the Dhief "as de%osed! and his sla)es "ere % t to the tort re to $a0e the$ re)eal "here the Dhief had hidden his treas re! b t not one "o ld betray the se#ret. Then a )oi#e fro$ hea)en #a$e to the de)otee! saying! (&earn fro$ the$ ho" to be a faithf l sla)e! and then loo0 for re#o$%ense.( The *agian! n#on)in#ed by the arg $ents of the *osal$an! again %lied hi$ "ith (Do$% lsionist( arg $ents! and the dis# ssion "as %rotra#ted! "ith the s al res lt of lea)ing both the dis% tants of the sa$e o%inion as "hen they began. The %oet re$ar0s that

the #ontest of the (Do$% lsionists( and the ad)o#ates of $an2s free agen#y "ill end re till the day of - dg$ent3 for nothing #an resol)e these diffi# lties = b t the tr e lo)e "hi#h is (a gift i$%arted by <od to "ho$ He "ill.( ? L#ve +u*s (eas#n *# silen)e% &o)e is a %erfe#t $ EEle of e)il s ggestions3 Witho t lo)e "ho e)er s ##eeded in sto%%ing the$4 .e a lo)er! and see0 that fair .ea ty! H nt for that Waterfo"l in e)ery strea$1 Ho" #an yo get "ater fro$ that "hi#h # ts it off4 Ho" gain nderstanding fro$ "hat destroys nderstanding4 A%art fro$ %rin#i%les of reason are other %rin#i%les 6f light and great %ri#e to be gained by lo)e of <od. .esides this reason of yo rs <od has other reasons Whi#h "ill %ro# re for yo hea)enly no rish$ent. .y yo r #arnal reason yo $ay %ro# re earthly food! .y <od-gi)en reason yo $ay $o nt the hea)ens. When! to "in end ring lo)e of <od! yo sa#rifi#e reason! <od gi)es yo (a tenfold re#o$%ense3( B yea! se)en h ndred fold. When those Egy%tian "o$en sa#rifi#ed their reason! J They %enetrated the $ansion of Iose%h2s lo)e3 The D %-bearer of life bore a"ay their reason! They "ere filled "ith "isdo$ of the "orld "itho t end. Iose%h2s bea ty "as only an offshoot of <od2s bea ty3 .e lost! then! in <od2s bea ty $ore than those "o$en. &o)e of <od # ts short reasoning! 6 belo)ed! @or it is a %resent ref ge fro$ %er%le,ities. Thro gh lo)e be"ilder$ent befalls the %o"er of s%ee#h! +t no longer dares to tter "hat %asses3 @or if it sets forth an ans"er! it fears greatly That its se#ret treas re $ay es#a%e its li%s. Therefore it #loses li%s fro$ saying good or bad! 9o that its treas re $ay not es#a%e it. +n li0e $anner the 7ro%het2s #o$%anions tell s (When the 7ro%het sed to tell s dee% sayings! That #hosen one! "hile s#attering %earls of s%ee#h! Wo ld bid s %reser)e %erfe#t > iet and silen#e.( 9o! "hen the $ighty %hoeni, ho)ers o)er yo r head! 8 Da sing yo r so l to tre$ble at the $otion of its "ings! /o )ent re not to stir fro$ yo r %la#e! &est that bird of good fort ne sho ld ta0e "ing. /o hold yo r breath and re%ress yo r #o ghs! 9o as not to s#are that %hoeni, into flying a"ay.

And if one say a "ord to yo ! "hether good or bad! /o %la#e finger on li%! as $ #h as to say! (.e silent.( That %hoeni, is be"ilder$ent! 9 it $a0es yo silent3 The 0ettle is silent! tho gh it is boiling all the "hile CN6TE9' 1. Note the tr e belie)er is here re%resented as sing the arg $ents of the Kadarians or * taEilites for free "ill! as against the Iabriyan or fatalist arg $ent % t into the $o th of the *agian. 8. Koran ,l)iii. 89. :. Koran ,,i). BF. =. The 7ro%het said! (9it not "ith a dis% ter abo t fate! nor #on)erse "ith hi$.( ?. Koran iii. BB. B. Koran )i. 1B1. J. (And "hen they sa" hi$ they "ere a$aEed at hi$! and # t their hands( GKoran ,ii. :1H. 8. +t is s %%osed to bring good fort ne. 9. .e"ilder$ent is the (tr ly $ysti#al dar0ness of ignoran#e( "hi#h falls %on the $ysti# "hen the light of absol te .eing dra"s near to hi$! and (blinds hi$ "ith e,#ess of light.( 9ee < lshan i RaE! %. ::! and notes. STOR' 5II% The !ev#*ee -h# b(#$e *he n#ble's -ine-;a(% A #ertain noble! "ho li)ed nder the Dhristian dis%ensation "hen "ine "as allo"ed! sent his ser)ant to a $onastery to fet#h so$e "ine. The ser)ant "ent and bo ght the "ine! and "as ret rning "ith it! "hen he %assed the ho se of a )ery a stere and testy de)otee. This de)otee #alled o t to hi$! (What ha)e yo got there4( The ser)ant said! (Wine! belonging to s #h a noble.( The de)otee said! (What1 does a follo"er of <od ind lge in "ine4 @ollo"ers of <od sho ld ha)e na ght to do "ith %leas re and drin0ing3 for "ine is a )ery 9atan! and steals $en2s "its. /o r "its are not too bright already! so yo ha)e no need to render the$ still d ller by drin0.( +n ill stration of this! he told the story of one Liayi 5ala>! a )ery tall $an! "ho had a d"arfish brother. This brother one day re#ei)ed hi$ )ery ngra#io sly! only half rising fro$ his seat in ans"er to his sal tation! and Liayi 5ala> said to hi$! (/o see$ to thin0 yo rself so tall that it is ne#essary to #li% off so$e"hat of yo r height.( @inally the de)otee bro0e the "ine--ar "ith a stone! and the ser)ant "ent and told his $aster. The noble "as )ery "rathf l at the %res $%tion of the de)otee in ta0ing %on hi$self to %rohibit "ine! as #onde$ned by the la" of nat re! "hen it had

not been %rohibited by the <os%el! and he too0 a thi#0 sti#0 and "ent to the de)otee2s ho se to #hastise hi$. The de)otee heard of his a%%roa#h and hid hi$self nder so$e "ool! "hi#h belonged to the ro%e$a0ers of the )illage! He said to hi$self! (To tell an angry $an of his fa lts one needs to ha)e a fa#e as hard as a $irror! "hi#h refle#ts his gliness "itho t fear or fa)or.( I st so the 7rin#e of Tir$id "as on#e %laying #hess "ith a #o rtier! and being #he#0$ated! got into a rage and thre" the #hessboard at his #o rtier2s head. 9o before %laying the ne,t ga$e the #o rtier %rote#ted his head by "ra%%ings of felt. Then the neighbors of the de)otee! hearing the noise! #a$e o t and inter#eded for hi$ "ith the noble! telling hi$ that the de)otee "as half-"itted! and #o ld not be held res%onsible for his a#tions3 and $oreo)er! that as he "as a fa)orite of <od! 1 it "as seless to atte$%t to slay hi$ before his ti$e! for the 7ro%het and other saints had been $ira# lo sly %reser)ed in #ir# $stan#es fatal to ordinary %ersons. The noble ref sed to be %a#ified3 b t the neighbors redo bled their entreaties! rging that he had so $ #h %leas re in his so)ereignty that he #o ld "ell dis%ense "ith the %leas re of "ine. The noble stren o sly denied this! saying that no other %leas re of so)ereignty! or "hat not! #o ld #o$%ensate hi$ for the loss of "ine! "hi#h $ade hi$ s"ay fro$ side to side li0e the -essa$ine. The %ro%hets the$sel)es had re-e#ted all other %leas res for that of s%irit al into,i#ation! and he "ho has on#e e$bra#ed a li)ing $istress "ill ne)er % t % "ith a dead one. The $oral is! that s%irit al %leas res! ty%ified by "ine! are not to be bartered a"ay for earthly %leas res. The 7ro%het said! (The "orld is #arrion! and they "ho see0 it are dogs3( and the Koran says! (The %resent life is no other than a %asti$e and a s%ort3 b t the f t re $ansion is life indeed.( 8 !es)(i+*i#n #, a dev#*ee -h# *(us*ed *# *he li/h* #, na*u(e% His brain is dried %3 and as for his reason! +t is no" less than that of a #hild. Age and abstinen#e ha)e added infir$ity to infir$ity! And his abstinen#e has yielded hi$ no re-oi#ing. He has end red toils! b t gained no re"ard fro$ his @riend3 He has done the "or0! b t has not been %aid. Either his "or0 has la#0ed )al e! 6r the ti$e of re#o$%ense is not de#reed as yet. Either his "or0s are as the "or0s of the Ie"s! : 6r his re"ard is held ba#0 till the a%%ointed ti$e. This grief and sorro" are eno gh for hi$! That in this )alley of %ain he is tterly friendless. With sad eyes he sits in his #orner! With fro"ning fa#e and do"n#ast loo0s. There is no o# list "ho #ares to o%en his eyes! =

Nor has he reason eno gh to dis#o)er the eye-sal)e. He stri)es earnestly "ith fir$ resol)e and in ho%e! His "or0 is done on the #han#e of being right. The )ision of (The @riend( is far fro$ his #o rse! @or he loses the 0ernel in his lo)e for the shell. CN6TE9' 1. Half-"itted %ersons are s %%osed to be di)inely %rote#ted. 8. Koran ,,i,. B=. :. (. t as to the infidels! their "or0s are li0e the $irage in the desert( GKoran ,,i). :9H. =. +.e.! he has no dire#tor G* rshid i 0a$ilH to instr #t hi$ in the right #o rse. STOR' 1III% =)#n*inued>% Mahmud and Aya2% The %oet no" ret rns to the story of *ah$ d and AyaE! "hi#h is #ontin ed at inter)als till the end of the boo0. The 0ing in> ired of AyaE "hat $ade hi$ #ontin ally )isit his old shoes and gar$ents! as *a-n n sed to )isit his &aila! or as a Dhristian reg larly )isits his %riest to obtain absol tion for his sins. Why sho ld he #all to these dead things! li0e a fond $other #alling to her dead infant! "ere it not that faith and lo)e $ade the$! as it "ere! li)ing beings to hi$4 The eye sees "hat it brings "ith it to see3 it #an see nothing b t "hat it has gained the fa# lty of seeing. Th s the fa#e of &aila! "hi#h see$ed so lo)ely to the eyes of *a-n n! $ade #lair)oyant by lo)e! see$ed to strangers to ha)e no #lai$s to bea ty. The earthly for$s "hi#h here s rro nd s are! as it "ere! )essels fra ght "ith s%irit al "ine! only )isible to those "ho ha)e learnt to dis#ern the dee% things of the 9%irit. L#ve and ,ai*h a(e a mi/h*y s+ell% 6 AyaE! "hat is this lo)e of yo rs for yo r old shoes! Whi#h rese$bles the lo)e of a lo)er for his $istress4 /o ha)e $ade these old shoes yo r ob-e#t of de)otion! I st as *a-n n $ade an idol of his &aila1 /o ha)e bo nd the affe#tion of yo r so l to the$! And h ng the$ % in yo r se#ret #ha$ber. Ho" long "ill yo say orisons to this old %air of shoes4 And breathe yo r oft-told se#rets into inani$ate ears4 &i0e the Arab lo)er to the ho se of his dead $istress! /o address to the$ long in)o#ations of lo)e.

6f "hat great Asaf "ere yo r shoes the ho se4 +s yo r old gar$ent! thin0 yo ! the #oat of / s f4 &i0e a Dhristian "ho #onfesses to a %riest His %ast year2s sins of forni#ation! fra d! and de#eit3 +n order that the %riest $ay absol)e hi$ of those sins3 He thin0s the %riest2s absol tion the sa$e as <od2s1 That %riest is nable to #onde$n or to absol)e3 . t faith and lo)e are a $ighty en#hant$ent1 <od2s dealings )isible to the s%irit al. The "ine is fro$ that "orld! the )essels fro$ this3 The )essels are seen! b t the "ine is hidden1 Hidden indeed fro$ the sight of the #arnal! . t o%en and $anifest to the s%irit al1 6 <od! o r eyes are blinded1 6 %ardon s! o r sins are a hea)y b rden1 Tho art hidden fro$ s! tho gh the hea)ens are filled With Thy light! "hi#h is brighter than s n and $oon1 Tho art hidden! yet re)ealest o r hidden se#rets1 Tho art the so r#e that #a ses o r ri)ers to flo". Tho art hidden in Thy essen#e! b t seen by Thy bo nties. Tho art li0e the "ater! and "e li0e the $illstone. Tho art li0e the "ind! and "e li0e the d st3 The "ind is nseen! b t the d st is seen by all. Tho art the s%ring! and "e the s"eet green garden3 9%ring is not seen! tho gh its gifts are seen. Tho art as the so l! "e as hand and foot3 9o l instr #ts hand and foot to hold and ta0e. Tho art as reason! "e li0e the tong e3 2Tis reason that tea#hes the tong e to s%ea0. Tho art as -oy! and "e are la ghing3 The la ghter is the #onse> en#e of the -oy. 6 r e)ery $otion e)ery $o$ent testifies! @or it %ro)es the %resen#e of the E)erlasting <od. 9o the re)ol tion of the $illstone! so )iolent! Testifies to the e,isten#e of a strea$ of "ater. 6 Tho "ho art abo)e o r #on#e%tions and des#ri%tions! 5 st be on o r heads! and %on o r si$ilit des of Thee1 /et Thy sla)es ne)er #ease de)ising i$ages of Thee3 They #ry to Thee al"ays! (*y life is Thy footstool1( &i0e that she%herd "ho #ried!( 6 &ord1 1 Do$e nigh to thy faithf l she%herd! That he $ay #leanse thy gar$ent of )er$in! And $end thy shoes! and 0iss the he$ of thy robe1( No one e> aled that she%herd in lo)e and de)otion! Tho gh his $anner of e,%ressing it "as $ost fa lty. His lo)e %it#hed its tent on the hea)ens!

He hi$self "as as the dog at the tent-door. When the sea of lo)e to <od boiled %! +t to #hed his heart! b t it to #hes yo r ears only. The thesis that silen#e $ay indi#ate e$otions too dee% for e,%ression! "hile elo> ent e,%ressions $ay indi#ate that the ears only! and not the heart! ha)e been to #hed! is ne,t ill strated by a l di#ro s ane#dote of a d"arf "ho disg ised hi$self as a "o$an! and %resented hi$self at a ser$on addressed to "o$en. This d"arf %layed a tri#0 on a "o$an sitting ne,t hi$! "hi#h $ade her #ry o t! and the %rea#her fan#ied that his ser$on had to #hed her heart3 b t the d"arf said that if her heart had been to #hed she "o ld not ha)e betrayed her feelings by % blishing the$ to the "hole #ongregation. The 0ing then again %ressed AyaE to e,%lain the $ystery of his regard for the old shoes and rags! in order to ad$onish the #o rtiers! for he said that the bea ty of tr e holiness is s #h that it attra#ts e)en infidels. To ill strate this he told an ane#dote of a *osal$an "ho tried to #on)ert a < eber in the ti$e of .ayaEid. The < eber said that he ad$ired and en)ied the faith of .ayaEid! tho gh he had no %o"er to i$itate it3 b t as for the faith of the $issionary "ho "as trying to #on)ert hi$! it only ins%ired hi$ "ith a)ersion! be#a se it "as %lainly insin#ere and hy%o#riti#al. And he told an ane#dote of a harsh-)oi#ed * 2aEEin "ho "ent into a heathen #o ntry and there ttered the #all to %rayer. +t ha%%ened that there "as a girl in that %la#e "ho had long been in#lined to e$bra#e +sla$! $ #h to the grief of her %arents3 b t "hen she heard this harsh #all she "as at on#e # red of her "ish to forsa0e her o"n religion. Her father "as so delighted at this that he ran o t and loaded the * 2aEEin "ith gifts. The < eber said the $issionary had # red hi$ of the "ish to e$bra#e +sla$! - st as the girl "as # red by the * 2aEEin2s harsh )oi#e. . t he said he still retained his re)eren#e for the faith of .ayaEid! tho gh he failed to nderstand ho" so $ #h s%irit ality as "as seen in .ayaEid #o ld be #ontained in an earthly body. He ga)e a # rio s ill stration of his $eaning. A $an bro ght ho$e a %ie#e of $eat "eighing o)er half a $an! to %ro)ide a $eal for a g est3 b t his "ife! "ho "as )ery greedy! ate it all % se#retly. When the $an $issed his $eat he as0ed his "ife for it! and she said the #at had eaten it. The $an too0 the #at and "eighed her! and fo nd she "eighed only half a $an. Then he said to his "ife! (+f this half-$an is all #at! "here is the $eat4 and if it is $eat! "here is the #at4( The < eber said this "as e,a#tly the diffi# lty he felt abo t the s%irit and the body of .ayaEid. He #on#l ded by saying! in the "ords of the Hadis! (The tr e belie)er is atta#hed to others! and others are atta#hed to hi$! b t the hy%o#rite ins%ires affe#tion in no one. *ah$ d and AyaE. G#ontin edH. *ah$ d again %resses AyaE to re)eal his se#rets! re$ar0ing that e)en if

they s ggest sad tho ghts! they "ill benefit the hearers. The "ise $an is as a g est-ho se! and he ad$its all the tho ghts that o## r to hi$! "hether of -oy or of sorro"! "ith the sa$e "el#o$e! 0no"ing that! li0e Abraha$! he $ay entertain angels na"ares. This is ill strated by the story of a "o$an "ho dro)e a"ay a )al ed g est by a %et lant re$ar0! "hi#h he "as not intended to hear! and after"ards re%ented her dis#o rtesy so dee%ly that she % t on $o rning and t rned her ho se into an inn. &et grief as "ell as -oy lodge in the heart! for grief is sent for o r benefit as "ell as -oy. End re "oe %atiently! li0e Iose%h and Iob! and regard it as a blessing! saying "ith 9olo$on! (9tir $e %! 6 &ord! to be than0f l for Thy fa)or "hi#h Tho hast sho"ed %on $e1( 8 *ah$ d then %raises AyaE for being a tr e $an "ho #an #ontrol both l st and anger. Those "ho are #arried a"ay by anger or l st! li0e the girl of "ho$ an ane#dote is told! do not deser)e the na$e of $en. When anger or l st ta0es hold of a $an reason de%arts fro$ hi$. Then #o$es an ane#dote of a #o"ardly 9 fi "ho boasted of his bra)ery! b t had not #o rage eno gh e)en to slay a #a%ti)e infidel. ;erily! the (greater "arfare!( )iE.! that against one2s o"n l sts and %assions! de$ands as $ #h #o rage as the (lesser "arfare( against the infidels. This is ill strated by a story of a saint na$ed +yaEi! "ho! after ha)ing been a great "arrior against the infidels! reno n#ed the "orld and a%%lied hi$self to "age the (greater "arfare( against his o"n l sts. 6ne day! "hile sitting in his #ell! he heard the noise of the ar$y going o t to fight! and his #arnal %assion rged hi$ to go and -oin in the fight! b t he th s reb 0ed it' Iya2i's (ebu$e *# his +assi#n0 -hi)h lus*ed *# ;#in in *he 4lesse( -a(,a(e4% + said! (6 fo l and faithless %assion! When#e ha)e yo deri)ed this in#lination to "ar4 Tell $e tr ly! 6 %assion! is this yo r tri#0ery4 6r else is it st bbornness sh nning obedien#e to <od4 +f yo say not tr ly + "ill atta#0 yo ! And "ill affli#t yo $ore se)erely "ith dis#i%line.( 7assion then hea)ed a #ry fro$ its breast! And "itho t $o th )ented the follo"ing #o$%laints' (+n this #ell yo slay $e e)ery day3 /o slay $y life li0e the life of a < eber. Not a so l is a"are of $y #ondition3 /o drag $e along "itho t food or slee%. +n the fight "ith one "o nd + shall > it the body! And the %eo%le "ill ad$ire $y )alor and self-de)otion.( + said! (6 bad %assion! yo li)e as an infidel! And as an infidel yo "ill die3 sha$e be %on yo 1 +n both "orlds yo are na ght b t a hy%o#rite3 +n the t"o "orlds only an n%rofitable ser)ant.

+ ha)e )o"ed to <od ne)er to > it this #ell While life re$ains in this body3 .e#a se "hate)er the body does in this %ri)a#y +s not done to $a0e a fair sho" before $en. +ts $o)e$ents and its rest in the %ri)a#y of this #ell Are not intended for the sight of any besides <od. This is the 2greater "arfare!2 that the 2lesser32 .oth these "arfares ha)e their R sta$s and Haidars. They are not to be fo ght by one "hose reason and sense @lee a"ay as soon as a $o se "ags its tail. 9 #h %ersons $ st sh n the array of battle! And 0ee% aloof fro$ it e)en as "o$en do.( This is follo"ed by an ane#dote of another bra)e "arrior "ho ("as a$ong the faithf l! and $ade good "hat he had %ro$ised to <od.( : Then #o$es a long story of a %rin#e of Egy%t "ho sa" the %ortrait of a da$sel belonging to the Dhief of *a sil! and #on#ei)ed an ardent %assion for her! and sent an ar$y to ta0e her by for#e. The ar$y s ##eeded in #a%t ring her! and set o t on the ret rn $ar#h3 b t on the "ay the #a%tain of the ar$y fell in lo)e "ith the da$sel! and she ret rned his affe#tion. When they rea#hed Egy%t she "as $ade o)er to the %rin#e! b t at on#e too0 a disli0e to hi$! as he "as not nearly so $anly as her belo)ed #a%tain. The %rin#e dis#o)ered her se#ret! and tho gh he $ight - stly ha)e resented the trea#hery of the #a%tain! he refrained! and sho"ed tr e $anliness in the (greater "arfare( by %ardoning his fa lt and niting hi$ "ith the da$sel to "ho$ he "as so $ #h atta#hed. Ideas /ained ,(#m hea(in/ a *hin/ lead *# seein/ i*% A %erson % t this > estion to a %hiloso%her! (6 sage! "hat is tr e and "hat is false4( The sage to #hed his ear and said! (This is false! . t the eye is tr e and its re%ort is #ertain.( The ear is false in relation to the eye! And $ost assertions are related to the ear. = +f a bat t rn a"ay its eyes fro$ the s n! 9till it is not )eiled fro$ so$e idea of the s n3 +ts )ery dread of the s n fra$es an idea of the s n! And that idea s#ares it a"ay to the dar0ness. That idea of light terrifies it! And $a0es it #ling to the $ r0y night. I st so 2tis yo r idea of yo r terrible foe Whi#h $a0es yo #ling to yo r friends and allies. 6 *oses! thy re)elations shed glory on the $o nt! . t that frightened one end red not thy realities. ?

.e not too %ro d! b t 0no" that yo $ st first end re The idea of the Tr th! and then#e #o$e to the reality. No one is frightened by the $ere idea of fighting! @or (no #o rage is needed before fighting begins.( B +n the $ere idea of fighting a #o"ard #an i$agine Hi$self as atta#0ing and retreating li0e R sta$. The %i#t res of R sta$ on the "all of a bath Are si$ilar to a #o"ard2s ideas of fighting. . t "hen these ideas are tested by a#t al sight! What of the #o"ard then4 His bra)ery is gone1 9tri)e! then! fro$ $ere hearing to %ress on to seeing3 J What ear has told yo falsely eye "ill tell tr ly. Then ear too "ill a#> ire the %ro%erties of an eye3 /o r ears! no" "orthless as "ool! "ill be#o$e ge$s3 /ea! yo r "hole body "ill be#o$e a $irror! +t "ill be as an eye or a bright ge$ in yo r boso$. @irst the hearing of the ear enables yo to for$ ideas! Then these ideas g ide yo to the .elo)ed. 9tri)e! then! to in#rease the n $ber of these ideas! That they $ay g ide yo ! li0e *a-n n! to the .elo)ed. Don#erning the nbelie)ers "ho say! (There is only this o r %resent life3 "e li)e and "e die! and na ght b t ti$e destroyeth s.( 8 To ret rn3 that %rin#e %layed the fool! And too0 delight in the so#iety of the da$sel. 6 %rin#e! s %%ose yo r do$inion e,tend fro$ east to "est! /et! as it end res not! estee$ it transitory as lightning /ea! 6 slee%ing heart! 0no" the 0ingdo$ that end res not @ore)er and e)er is only a $ere drea$. + $ar)el ho" long yo "ill ind lge in )ain ill sion! Whi#h has seiEed yo by the throat li0e a heads$an. Kno" that e)en in this "orld there is a %la#e of ref ge3 9 Hear0en not to the nbelie)er "ho denies it. His arg $ent is this' he says again and again! (+f there "ere a ght beyond this life "e sho ld see it.( . t if the #hild sees not the state of reason! 5oes the $an of reason therefore forsa0e reason4 And if the $an of reason sees not the state of lo)e! +s the blessed $oon of lo)e thereby e#li%sed4 The bea ty of Iose%h "as not )isible to his brethren3 Was it therefore hidden fro$ the eyes of Ia#ob4 The eyes of *oses regarded his staff as a sti#0! . t the di)ine eye sa" it to be a deadly ser%ent. The eye of the head "as at iss e "ith the di)ine eye! . t the latter %re)ailed and ga)e #on)in#ing %roof. To the eyes of *oses his hand loo0ed a $ere hand! . t to the di)ine eye it a%%eared a flashing light.

This s b-e#t in its entirety is endless! . t to the nbelie)er it is a $ere fan#if l idea. The only realities to hi$ are l st and gl ttony3 9%ea0 not then to hi$ of the $ysteries of the .elo)ed. To s belie)ers l st and gl ttony are only ideas! Therefore "e behold al"ays the bea ty of the .elo)ed. To all $en "hose #reed is l st and gl ttony! A%%lies the te,t! (To yo be yo r #reed! to $e $ine.( 1F +n the fa#e of negations li0e these # t short s%ee#h! (6 Ah$ad! say little to an old @ire-"orshi%%er1( (We distrib te a$ong the$!( 11 to so$e #arnal l sts! and to others angeli# > alities. +f the %rin#e la#0ed the ani$al $anliness of asses! /et he %ossessed the tr e $anliness of the %ro%hets. He reno n#ed l st and anger and #on# %is#en#e! And sho"ed hi$self a $an of the lineage of the %ro%hets. <rant that he la#0ed the )irility of asses! /et <od estee$ed hi$ a lord of lords. &et $e be dead! so long as <od regards $e "ith fa)or1 + a$ better off than the li)ing "ho are re-e#ted of <od3 The for$er is the 0ernel of $anliness! the latter only the rind3 The for$er is borne to 7aradise! the latter to hell. The 7ro%het says! (7aradise is anne,ed to trib lation! . t hell-fire follo"s ind lgen#e in l st.( 18 6 AyaE! "ho slayest de$ons li0e a $ale lion! *anliness of asses is na ght! $anliness of $ind $ #h. What sort of $an dost tho thin0 hi$ "ho s%orts as a boy! . t "ho has no #o$%rehension of these #hief $atters4 o tho "ho hast seen the delight of $y #onnnand$ents! And ris0ed thy life to %erfor$ the$ faithf lly! Hear a tale of the s"eetness of $y #o$$and$ents! That the $eaning of this s"eetness $ay be $ade %lain. The story "hi#h follo"s is one in "hi#h AyaE is hi$self the #hief a#tor! and hen#e it $ay %erha%s be inferred that this %art of the %oe$ had not re#ei)ed its final re)ision "hen the %oet died. The 0ing sho"ed to all his #o rtiers in t rn a )al able -e"el! and as0ed the$ its )al e. Ea#h de#lared it to be %ri#eless. He there %on ordered ea#h of the$ to brea0 it to %ie#es! b t they ref sed! one after the other3 on "hi#h he %raised the$ highly and ga)e the$ %resents. @inally the -e"el #a$e into the hands of AyaE! and he! not being a $ere i$itator li0e the rest! nor being te$%ted by the re"ards gi)en to the rest! de#ided that the 0ing2s #o$$and o ght to be obeyed at all #osts! and therefore bro0e the -e"el to %ie#es. .lind i$itation of # rrent fashions and r ling (% bli# o%inion( is the "ay of the "orld! b t its "orthlessness is at on#e $anifested "hen it is % t to the test. Tr e faith is

a reasonable faith! not one ado%ted and held in $e#hani#al and %arrot-li0e fashion. The 0ing then #o$$anded that those #o rtiers "hose faith had been sho"n to be $ere (ta>lid( or i$itation! and not )ital and intelligent! sho ld be % t to death3 b t AyaE inter#eded for the$! saying! (6 &ord! % nish the$ not if they forget or fall into sin3(1: altho gh their %lea that they sinned thro gh forgetf lness is of no $ore "eight than the %lea of ha)ing sinned thro gh dr n0enness! seeing that both forgetf lness and dr n0enness are "illf lly in# rred. Those "ho die in a$ity "ith <od ha)e no #a se to fear death! (+t #annot har$ the$! for to their &ord "ill they ret rn3(1= b t those "ho die at en$ity "ith <od are in a )ery different %osition! and ha)e therefore a )ery strong #lai$ for $er#y. The Egy%tian $agi#ians! "hen threatened by 7haraoh "ith death for belie)ing in *oses! re#ogniEed the tr th that death in s #h a #a se "o ld nite the$ "ith <od! and that e,tin#tion of the %heno$enal self! on "hi#h 7haraoh %rided hi$self! "o ld bring the$ to the real 9elf fro$ "ho$ they had been estranged by life on earth. &i0e Habib! the #ar%enter of Antio#h! "ho "as $artyred for ta0ing the %art of 2+sa2s t"o a%ostles in that #ity! they said! (6 that $y %eo%le 0ne" ho" gra#io s <od hath been to $e! and that He hath $ade $e one of His honored ones1( 1? A $an #an only say (+( "ith tr th "hen he has $ortified self and nlearnt to say (+( in the sense in "hi#h 7haraoh said it. @a0hr -2d-5in RaEi 1B dis#o rsed learnedly on this %oint! saying $ #h of (in#arnation( and ( nion( as the $odes in "hi#h the real (+( of the 5eity ind"ells in the h $an so l3 b t as he la#0ed the tr e $ysti# n#tion! his "ords only ser)e to dar0en #o nsel. 1J . t here AyaE brea0s off3 saying! (Who a$ + that + sho ld say to the Al$ighty! 2<rant %ardon to these offenders24( The 6$nis#ient <od needs not to be infor$ed of their #ase! for He 0no"s all3 nor to be re$inded of it! for He forgets nothing3 nor to be rged to a#t $er#if lly! for He #reated $en (for their o"n benefit! and not to deri)e benefit fro$ the$.( 9 #h inter#ession! therefore! i$%lies ignoran#e of <od! and (s #h only of His ser)ants as are %ossessed of 0no"ledge of <od tr ly fear <od.( 18 <od is at on#e #enter and #ir# $feren#e of the ni)erse! and the only tr e "isdo$ #onsists in absol te self-s rrender to His "ill! and this s rrender of self "ill bring "ith it its o"n e,#eeding great re"ard. CN6TE9' 1. All ding to 9tory )ii. .oo0 ++. 8. Koran ,,)ii. 19. :. Koran ,,,iii. 8:. =. i.e.! are based on hearsay. ?. (When <od $anifested Hi$self to the $o nt He t rned it to d st! and *oses fell in a s"oon( GKoran )ii. 1:9H. As the bat #annot end re the sight of the s n! $en #annot at on#e end re the f ll blaEe of the beatifi# )ision. B. A %ro)erb "hi#h is not gi)en by @reytag.

J. +deas and ty%es lead $en on to a#t al sight "hen they are strong eno gh to bear it. Iob ,lii. ?. 8. Koran ,l). 8:. 9. 7la#e of ref ge! i.e.! hea)enly )isions3 a foretaste of the "orld to #o$e G< lshan i RaE! +. BJ9H. 1F. Koran #i,. B. 11. Koran ,liii. :1. 18. D%. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! )ol ii. %. 1B?. 1:. Koran ii. 88B. 1=. Koran ,,)i. ?F. 1?. Koran ,,,)i. 8?. 1B. A great theologian of Khorasan "ho li)ed fro$ A.5. 11?F to 181F. 5e 9lane2s +bn Khalli0an! ii. B?8. 1J. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. =?:! note. 18. Koran ,,,). 8?.

"##$ 1I%
PROLO&UE% 6 &+@E of the heart! H sa$ -2d-5in! *y Eeal b rnt "ithin $e to "rite this si,th %art1 The *asna)i be#a$e a standard thro gh thy infl en#e! Thy s"ord GH sa$H has $ade it an e,e$%lar to the "orld 6 s%irit al one! + no" offer it to thee! This si,th %art of the entire *asna)i. Enlighten the "orld2s si, sides "ith its si, %arts! That it $ay ill $inate hi$ "ho is not ill $inated1 &o)e has na ght to do "ith fi)e senses or si, sides! +ts only ai$ is to be attra#ted to the .elo)ed1 . t ha%ly lea)e $ay be gi)en $e hereafter To tell those $ysteries so far as they #an be told! +n a dis#o rse $ore #losely a%%ro,i$ating to the fa#ts Than these faint indi#ations of those abstr se $atters. *ysteries are not #o$$ ni#able! sa)e to those "ho 0no"3 *ystery in the ear of infidels is no $ystery. Ne)ertheless! this is a #all to yo fro$ <od3 +t $atters not to Hi$ "hether ye a##e%t or re-e#t it. Noah re%eated His #all for nine h ndred years! . t his %eo%le only in#reased in rebellion. Ne)er did he dra" ba#0 fro$ ad$onishing the$! Ne)er did he retire into the #a)e of silen#e. He said! (At the bar0ing and ho"ling of the dogs No #ara)an e)er t rned ba#0 in its road. Nor does the f ll $oon on a bright night #ease shining .e#a se of the ho"ling of dogs on earth. The $oon sheds her light! and the dogs ho"l3 E)ery one a#ts a##ording to his nat re. To ea#h one his offi#e is allotted by the di)ine de#ree! And he a#ts agreeably to his nat re.( Art tho thirsting for the 6#ean of s%irit ality4 5is%ort thyself on this island of the *asna)i1 5is%ort thyself so long as tho seest e)ery $o$ent 9%irit al )erities re)ealed in this *asna)i. When the "ind blo"s the grass off the "ater! The "ater then sho"s forth its o"n % rity. .ehold the bright and fresh s%rays of #oral! And the %rin#ely fr its gro"ing in the "ater of life1 9o! "hen the *asna)i is % rged of letters and "ords! +t dro%s all these! and a%%ears as the sea of Anity. Then s%ea0er and hearer and s%o0en "ords

All three gi)e % the ghost in that #ons $$ation. .read-gi)er and bread-eater and bread itself Are % rified of their for$s and t rn to d st. . t their essen#es in ea#h of these three grades Are disting ished! as in those states! so eternally. 1 Their for$ t rns to d st! b t their essen#e not3 +f one says it does! tell hi$ it does not. +n the "orld of s%irits all three a"ait - dg$ent! 9o$eti$es "earing their earthly for$s! so$eti$es not. The "orth of a $an de%ends on the ob-e#ts of his as%iration. 6ne day a st dent as0ed a %rea#her! 9aying! (6 $ost orthodo, orna$ent of the % l%it! + ha)e a > estion to as0! 6 lord of learning3 Tell $e the ans"er to it in this #ongregation. A bird sat on the to% of a "all3 Whi#h "as best! its head or its tail4( He re%lied! (+f its fa#e "as to"ards the to"n! And its tail to the )illages! then its fa#e "as best. . t if its tail "as to"ards the to"n! and its fa#e To"ards the )illages! then %refer its tail to its fa#e.( A bird flies "ith its "ings to"ards its nest! The "ings of a $an are his as%iration and ai$. +f a lo)er be befo led "ith good and e)il! /et regard not these3 regard rather his as%iration. Tho gh a fal#on be all "hite and n$at#hed in for$! +f he h nts $i#e he is #onte$%tible and "orthless. And if an o"l fi,es his affe#tion on the 0ing! He is a fal#on in reality3 regard not his o t"ard for$. Ada$2s #lay "as 0neaded in the li$its of a tro gh! /et "as he e,alted abo)e hea)en and stars. (We ha)e honored Ada$( 8 "as not addressed to the s0y! . t to Ada$ hi$self f ll of defe#ts as he "as. 5id one e)er %ro%ose to earth or hea)en to re#ei)e .ea ty! reason! s%ee#h and as%iration4 : Wo ld yo e)er offer to the hea)ens .ea ty of fa#e and a# teness of tho ght4 6 son! did yo e)er %resent yo r sil)er body As an offering to the da$sels %i#t red on bath "alls4 Nay! yo %ass by those %i#t res tho gh fair as H ris! And offer yo rself sooner to half-blind old "o$en. What is there in the old "o$en "hi#h the %i#t res la#0! Whi#h dra"s yo fro$ the %i#t res to the old "o$en4 9ay not! for + "ill say it in %lain "ords! 2Tis reason! sense! %er#e%tion! tho ght! and life. +n the old "o$an life is inf sed! While the %i#t res of the bath ha)e no life.

+f the %i#t res of the bath sho ld stir "ith life Gso lH! They "o ld %root yo r lo)e to all the old "o$en. What is so l4 2Tis a#> ainted "ith good and e)il! Re-oi#ing at %leasant things! grie)ing at His. 9in#e! then! the %rin#i%le of so l is 0no"ledge! He "ho 0no"s $ost is $ost f ll of so l. Kno"ledge is the effe#t flo"ing fro$ so l3 He "ho has $ost of it is $ost godli0e. 9eeing then! belo)ed! that 0no"ledge is the $ar0 of so l! He "ho 0no"s $ost has the strongest so l. The "orld of so ls is itself entirely 0no"ledge! And he "ho is )oid of 0no"ledge is )oid of so l. When 0no"ledge is la#0ing in a $an s nat re! His so l is li0e a stone on the %lain. 7ri$al 9o l is the theatre of <od2s #o rt! 9o l of so ls the e,hibition of <od Hi$self. All the angels "ere % re reason and so l! /et "hen the ne" so l of Ada$ #a$e! they "ere as its body. When in -oy they #ro"ded ro nd that ne" so l! = They bo"ed before it as body does before so l. Fea( #, men's )ensu(e *he /(ea*es* #bs*a)le *# a))e+*an)e #, *he *(ue ,ai*h% 6 H sa$ -2d-5in! + $ight tell so$e of thy $any )irt es! Were it not for the fear of the e)il eyes. @ro$ e)il eyes and $ali#e-e$%oisoned breaths Already ha)e + s ffered fatal "o nds. Therefore + #annot relate thy e#stati# states! 9a)e by hints of the e#stati# states of others. This $anoe )re is one of the de)i#es of the heart! Whereby the heart2s feet "end their "ay to the tr th. *any hearts and so ls "o ld be#o$e lo)ers of <od 5id not e)il eyes or e)il ears hold the$ ba#0. 6f these Ab Talib! the 7ro%het2s n#le! "as one3 The $ali#e of the Arabs s#ared hi$ fro$ the faith. He said! (What "ill the Arabs say of $e4 That $y o"n ne%he" has %er)erted $e fro$ $y religion1( * ha$$ad said! (6 n#le! #onfess the faith to $e! That + $ay stri)e "ith <od for thee1( He said! (Nay3 it "ill be % blished by the$ that hear3 2A se#ret 0no"n to $ore than t"o is 0no"n to e)ery one.2 ? As + li)e in the $idst of these Arabs! +t "ill #a se $e to lose #aste "ith the$. /et! had the $ighty gra#e of <od led the "ay!

Ho" #o ld this fear ha)e )ied "ith <od2s attra#tion4 6 <ranter of aid! lend s aid +n this dile$$a of the feeble "ill. 7rayers for right g idan#e in the se of free "ill! "hi#h gift "as ref sed by hea)ens and earth! b t a##e%ted by $an to his o"n. B This fl , and refl , of resol)es #a$e to $e fro$ Thee! Else these tides of "ill had rested still! 6 <od1 .y the sa$e fiat "hereby Tho $adest $e th s irresol te! 6f Thy $er#y deli)er $e fro$ this irresol tion1 Tho triest $e3 6 gi)e $e aid1 @or $en are as "o$en thro gh this trial. Ho" long! 6 &ord! is this trial to last4 <i)e $e one r ling %rin#i%le! not ten %rin#i%les1 The "hole "orld flees a"ay fro$ its o"n "ill and being To"ards self-abandon$ent and into,i#ation. +n order to es#a%e a "hile fro$ self-#ons#io sness! *en in# r the re%roa#h of "ine and strong drin03 @or all 0no" "ell this e,isten#e is a snare! This tho ght and $e$ory and "ill only a hell. Therefore they flee fro$ self to being beside the$sel)es! Dall it into,i#ation or #all it %reo## %ation! 6 g ided one. Ere it is annihilated! no single so l @inds ad$ittan#e to the di)ine hall of a dien#e. What is (as#ension( to hea)en4 Annihilation of self3 9elf-abandon$ent is the #reed and religion of lo)ers. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,,,)i. :8' (. t all gathered together shall be set before s.( 8. Koran ,)ii. J8. :. (We %ro%osed to the hea)ens and to the earth to re#ei)e the de%osit! b t they ref sed the b rden. *an ndertoo0 to bear it! b t bath %ro)ed n- st and senseless( GKoran ,,,iii. J8H. =. (We said nto the angels! 27rostrate yo rsel)es before Ada$!2 and they %rostrated the$sel)es! e,#e%t +blis( GKoran )i. 1FH. ?. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! iii. 888. B. Koran ,,,iii. J8! > oted abo)e. (5e%osit( is here inter%reted of the "ill! the ability to go right or "rong. STOR' I% The Hindu Slave -h# l#ved his Mas*e('s !au/h*e(% A #ertain $an had a Hind sla)e! "ho$ he had bro ght % along "ith his

#hildren! one of "ho$ "as a da ghter. When the ti$e #a$e for gi)ing the girl in $arriage $any s itors %resented the$sel)es! and offered large $arriage %ortions to gain her allian#e. At last her father sele#ted one "ho "as by no $eans the ri#hest or noblest of the n $ber! b t %io s and "ell$annered. The "o$en of the fa$ily "o ld ha)e %referred one of the ri#her yo ths! b t the father insisted on ha)ing his o"n "ay! and the $arriage "as settled a##ording to his "ishes. As soon as the Hind sla)e heard of this he fell si#0! and the $istress of the fa$ily dis#o)ered that he "as in lo)e "ith her da ghter! and as%ired to the honor of $arrying her. 9he "as $ #h dis#o$%osed at this nfort nate a##ident! and #ons lted her h sband as to "hat "as best to be done. He said! (Kee% the affair > iet! and + "ill # re the sla)e of his %res $%tion! in s #h a "ay that! a##ording to the %ro)erb! 2The 9hai0h shall not be b rnt! yet the $eat shall be "ell roasted.2( He dire#ted his "ife to flatter the sla)e "ith the ho%e that his "ish "o ld be granted! and the girl gi)en to hi$ in $arriage. He then #elebrated a $o#0 $arriage bet"een the sla)e and the girl! b t at night s bstit ted for the girl a boy dressed in fe$ale attire! "ith the res lt that the bridegroo$ %assed the night in > arrelling "ith his s %%osed bride. Ne,t $orning he had an inter)ie" "ith the girl and her $other! and said he "o ld ha)e no $ore to do "ith her! as! tho gh her a%%earan#e "as )ery sed #ti)e at a distan#e! #loser a#> aintan#e "ith her had altogether destroyed the #har$. I st so the %leas res of the "orld see$ s"eet till they are tried! and then they are fo nd to be )ery bitter and re% lsi)e. The 7ro%het has de#lared that (7atien#e is the 0ey of -oy3( 1 in other "ords! that he "ho #ontrols and restrains hi$self fro$ gras%ing at "orldly %leas res "ill find tr e ha%%iness3 b t this %re#e%t $a0es no lasting i$%ression on the b l0 of $an0ind. When bitter e,%erien#e o)erta0es the$! as the %ain of b rning affli#ts #hildren! or $oths s%orting "ith fire! or the %ain of a$% tation a thief! they # rse the del si)e te$%tations "hi#h bro ght this %ain %on the$3 b t no sooner is the %ain abated than they r n after the sa$e %leas res as eagerly as e)er. This is di)inely ordained! that (<od $ay bring to na ght the #raft of the infidels.( 8 Their hearts ha)e! as it "ere! been 0indled on the tinder-bo, of bitter e,%erien#e! b t <od has % t o t the s%ar0s of good resol tion! and #a sed the$ to forget their e,%erien#e and )o"s of abstinen#e a##ording to the te,t! (6ften as they 0indle a bea#on-fire for "ar doth <od > en#h it.( : This is ill strated by an ane#dote of a $an "ho heard a footste% in his ho se at night! and at on#e str #0 a light3 b t the thief % t it o t "itho t being obser)ed! and the $an re$ained nder the i$%ression that it had gone o t of itself. This leads the %oet again to d"ell on his fa)orite the$e of the sole agen#y of Allah. Then! to s %%ly the ne#essary #orre#ti)e of this do#trine! another ane#dote is told #on#erning *ah$ d and AyaE. The #o rtiers gr $bled be#a se AyaE re#ei)ed the sti%end of thirty #o rtiers! and *ah$ d by a %ra#ti#al

test #on)in#ed the$ that the talents of AyaE e> alled those of thirty $en. The #o rtiers re%lied that this "as d e to <od2s gra#e! not to any $erit on the %art of AyaE3 and the 0ing #onf ted the$ by %ointing o t that $an2s res%onsibility and $erit! or de$erit! for his a#tions are re#ogniEed in the Koran. +blis "as #onde$ned for saying to <od! (Tho hast #a sed $e to err!( = and Ada$ "as #o$$ended or saying! (We ha)e bla#0ened o rsel)es.( ? And else"here it is said! (Whosoe)er shall ha)e "ro ght an ato$2s "eight of good shall behold it3 and "hoso shall ha)e "ro ght an ato$2s "eight of e)il shall behold it.( B CN6TE9' 1. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! iii. 8JF. 8. Koran )iii. 18. :. Koran ). B9. =. Koran )ii. 1? and 88. ?. Koran )ii. 1? and 88. B. Koran ,#i,. J. STOR' II% The F#-le( and *he "i(d% A fo"ler "ent o t to #at#h birds! and disg ised hi$self by "ra%%ing his head % in lea)es and grass! so as to a)oid frightening the birds a"ay fro$ his snare. A bird of so$e saga#ity #a$e near hi$! and s s%e#ted so$ething "rong! b t foolishly lingered near! and began to > estion hi$ as to his b siness. The fo"ler said he "as a her$it "ho had retired fro$ the "orld and dressed hi$self in "eeds for the health of his so l. The bird said he "as s r%rised to see a *osal$an doing this in #ontra)ention of the 7ro%het2s %re#e%t! (There is no $on0ery in +sla$!( and his re%eated de#larations that +sla$ in)ol)es asso#iation "ith the faithf l and a)oidan#e of a solitary life. The fo"ler re%lied that a solitary life "as allo"ed in heathen #o ntries for the so l2s health. 1 The bird then as0ed "hat the grains of "heat "ere that "ere stre"ed on the tra%. The fo"ler re%lied that they "ere the %ro%erty of an or%han! "hi#h had been de%osited "ith hi$ in #onse> en#e of his 0no"n %robity. The bird then as0ed %er$ission to eat so$e! as he "as )ery h ngry! and the fo"ler! "ith $ #h %retended rel #tan#e! allo"ed hi$ to do so. The $o$ent he to #hed the grain the tra% #losed %on hi$! and he fo nd hi$self a %risoner. He then ab sed the fo"ler for his tri#0ery! b t the fo"ler said he had only hi$self to bla$e for his greediness in eating the food "hi#h belonged to an or%han. The $oral is! that it is not destiny "hi#h leads %eo%le into affli#tions! b t their o"n errors and )i#es.

The bi(d's )(ies *# &#d ,#( aid% When he had eaten the grain he "as #a ght in the tra%! And began to re#ite the #ha%ters (/asin( and (An2a$.( Then he began to "ail and #ry lo dly! 9o that the )ery fo"ler and his tra% shoo0 "ith grief. He said! (*y ba#0 is bro0en by the #onfli#t of $y tho ghts3 6 .elo)ed 6ne! #o$e and stro0e $y head in $er#y1 The %al$ of Thy hand on $y head gi)es $e rest! Thy hand is a sign of Thy bo nteo s %ro)iden#e. Re$o)e not Thy shado" fro$ $y head! + a$ affli#ted! affli#ted! affli#ted1 9lee% has deserted $y eyes Thro gh $y longing for Thee! 6 En)y of #y%resses1 Tho gh + be n"orthy of Thy fa)or! ho" "ere it +f tho sho ldst regard the grie)es of n"orthy $e4 What #lai$ of right #an a non-e,istent thing $a0e To ha)e the doors of Thy bo nty o%ened to it4 /et Thy bo nty had regard to $y senseless d st And end ed it "ith the ten -e"els of the senses @i)e e,ternal senses and fi)e internal senses! Whereby inani$ate seed be#a$e a li)ing $an. 6 &ight on high1 "hat is re%entan#e "itho t Thy gra#e . t a $ere $o#0ery of the beard of re%entan#e3 Tho rootest % the hairs of s #h re%entan#e! Re%entan#e is the shado"! Tho the shining *oon. Alas1 Tho hast r ined $y ho se and ho$e3 Ho" #an + #ease "ailing "hile Tho o%%ressest $e4 Ho" #an + flee a"ay "hen there is no li)ing a"ay4 Witho t Thy s staining lordshi% there is no sla)e. 6 ta0e $y life! Tho that art the so r#e of life1 @or a%art fro$ Thee + a$ "earied of $y life. + a$ a lo)er "ell )ersed in lo)ers2 $adness! + a$ "eary of learning and sense. 9in#e $y bashf lness is destroyed! + "ill % blish se#rets3 Ho" long $ st + bear this tre%idation and an,iety4 @or$erly + "as #o)ered by $odesty as by a )eil! No" + "ill lea% fro$ it nder Thy #o)erlet1 6 #o$rades! o r .elo)ed has #losed % all %aths3 We are as la$e deer! and He as a raging lion. 9ay "hat re$edy is there b t resignation 8 When one is fallen into the hands of the raging lion4( The %oet then %asses on to the s b-e#t of the need for #onstant

"at#hf lness! in order to a)oid the snares of the "orld! and not to $iss the di)ine blessing "hene)er it $ay a%%ear. There is a tradition! (When half the night has %assed Allah "ill des#end to earth! and #ry! 2Ho! ye that as0! it shall be ans"ered to yo 3 and ye that #ra)e %ardon! it shall be %ardoned to yo 3 and ye that %etition! yo r %etitions shall be granted.2( . t all "ho slee% the slee% of negligen#e "ill $iss the %ro$ised blessing. This is ill strated by the story of a lo)er "ho obtained an assignation "ith his $istress! b t "hen she #a$e! "as fo nd aslee%! and "as a##ordingly re-e#ted. CN6TE9' 1. 9ee *is00at l *asabih! ii. ?=1. 8. (To <od + #o$$it $y #ase( GKoran ,l. =JH. STOR' III% The !(un$en Tu($ish Ami( and *he Mins*(el% Then follo" e,hortations to ndergo (the %ains of negation!( as they are #alled in the < lshan i RaE! i.e.! e)en as the great saint and %oet @arid -2d5in 2Attar #ast a"ay his dr gs! to #ast one2s o"n "ill! 0no"ledge! %o"er! and 22self( into the ni> e ri)er of (annihilation!( 1 and fro$ that state to rise to the higher state of eternal e,isten#e in <od. The end and ob-e#t of all negation is to attain to s bse> ent affir$ation! as the negation in the #reed! (There is no <od!( finds its #o$%le$ent and % r%ose in the affir$ation (b t <od.( I st so the % r%ose of negation of self is to #lear the "ay for the a%%rehension of the fa#t that there is no e,isten#e b t The 6ne. The into,i#ation of life and its %leas res and o## %ations )eils the Tr th fro$ $en2s eyes! and they o ght to %ass on to the s%irit al into,i#ation "hi#h $a0es $en beside the$sel)es and lifts the$ to the beatifi# )ision of eternal Tr th. This is the sa$e thing as saying they $ st %ass on fro$ negation to affir$ation! fro$ ignoran#e to the highest 0no"ledge. This is ill strated by the story of the T r0ish noble and the $instrel! "hi#h is gi)en "ith an a%ology for sing ill strations deri)ed fro$ dr n0enness. A T r0ish noble a"o0e fro$ his dr n0en slee%! and #alled his $instrel to enli)en hi$. The $instrel "as a s%irit al $an! and %ro#eeded to i$%ro)e the o##asion by singing a song "ith a dee% s%irit al $eaning' (+ 0no" not if tho art a $oon or an idol! + 0no" not "hat tho re> irest of $e. + 0no" not "hat ser)i#e to %ay thee! Whether to 0ee% silen#e or to s%ea0.

Tho art not a%art fro$ $e! yet! strange to say! + 0no" not "here + a$! or "here tho art. + 0no" not "herefore tho art dragging $e! No" e$bra#ing $e! and no" "o nding $e1( Th s the "hole of his song #onsisted of re%etitions of the "ords! (+ 0no" not.( At last the noble #o ld end re it no longer! and he too0 a sti#0 and threatened to beat the $instrel! saying! (6 "ret#h! tell s so$ething yo do 0no"! and do not re%eat "hat yo do not 0no". if + as0 yo "hen#e yo #o$e or "hat yo ha)e eaten! and yo ans"er only by negations! yo r ans"er is a "aste of ti$e. 9ay "hat yo $ean by all these negations.( The $instrel re%lied! (*y $eaning is a #on#ealed one. + fear to $a0e affir$ations in o%%osition to yo r negations! so + state negations that yo $ay get a hint of the #orres%onding affir$ations fro$ the$. + no" hint the tr th to yo in $y song3 and "hen death #o$es to yo ! yo "ill learn the $ysteries "hi#h at %resent + #an only hint.( S+i(i*ual mys*e(ies se* ,#(*h in *he Masnavi unde( similes #, in*#3i)a*i#n% That "ine of <od is gained fro$ that $instrel! 8 This bodily "ine fro$ this $instrel. .oth of these ha)e one and the sa$e na$e in s%ee#h! . t the differen#e bet"een their "orth is great. *en2s bodies are li0e %it#hers "ith #losed $o ths3 .e"are! till yo see "hat is inside the$. The %it#her of this body holds the "ater of life! Whilst that one holds deadly %oison. +f yo loo0 at the #ontents yo are "ise3 +f yo loo0 only at the )essel yo are $isg ided. Kno" "ords rese$ble these bodies! And the $eaning rese$bles the so l. The body2s eyes are e)er intent on bodies! The so l2s eyes on the reasonable so l3 Wherefore! in the fig res of the "ords of the *asna)i! The for$ $isleads! b t the inner $eaning g ides. +n the Koran it is de#lared that its %arables (*islead so$e and g ide so$e.( : 6 <od1 "hen a s%irit al $an tal0s of "ine! Ho" #an a fello" s%irit al $an $ista0e his $eaning4 Th s that $instrel began his into,i#ating song! (6 gi)e $e Thy # %! Tho "ho$ + see not1 Tho art $y fa#e3 "hat "onder if + see it not4 E,tre$e nearness a#ts as an obs# ring )eil. = Tho art $y reason3 "hat "onder if + see Thee not Thro gh the $ ltit de of inter)ening obsta#les4

Tho art 2nearer to $e than $y ne#0 )ein!2 ? Ho" #an + #all to Thee! 2Ho!2 as if tho "ert far off4 Nay! b t + "ill $islead so$e by #alling in the desert! To hide $y .elo)ed fro$ those of "ho$ + a$ -ealo s1( This is ill strated by an ane#dote of the 7ro%het and Ayisha. Ayisha "as on#e sitting "ith the 7ro%het "itho t her )eil! "hen a blind $an #a$e in. Ayisha! 0no"ing "ell the -ealo s dis%osition of her h sband! at on#e %re%ared to retire on "hi#h the 7ro%het said! (The $an is blind and #annot see yo .( Ayisha re%lied by signs that tho gh the $an #o ld not see her she #o ld see hi$. I st so the s%irit al $an is -ealo s of e,%osing his $ysteries to the gaEe of the %rofane! and fro$ e,#ess of #a tion )eils the$ in signs and hints. Then #o$es a #o$$entary on the tradition! (5ie before yo die!( i.e.! $ortify yo r #arnal %assions and l sts! and deny and annihilate yo r #arnal ( self( before the death of the body o)erta0es yo . *en "ho % t off re%entan#e till they are at the %oint of death are li0ened to the 9hi2as of Ale%%o! "ho e)ery year on the Ash ra! or tenth day of * harra$! $eet at the Antio#h gate to be"ail the $artyrdo$ of Hasan and H sain. 6n#e! "hile they "ere th s engaged! a 9 nni %oet arri)ed at the #ity! and in> ired the reason of this e,#essi)e grief and $o rning. The 9hi2as reb 0ed hi$ for his ignoran#e of sa#red history! and he said! (This $artyrdo$ ha%%ened a long ti$e ago3 b t it "o ld see$! fro$ yo r e,#essi)e grief! that the ne"s of it has only - st rea#hed yo . /o $ st ha)e been slee%ing all this ti$e not to ha)e heard it before! and no" yo are $o rning for yo r o"n slee%iness1( To the tr ly s%irit al! "ho ha)e dr n0 of <od2s "ine and bear the (to0ens of it on their foreheads!( B death is an o##asion for re-oi#ing! not for "ailing. The $an "ho is engrossed "ith the trifling %leas res of the "orld and blind to the a$%le %ro)ision $ade for the so l is li0e an ant in a barn of "heat! toiling to #arry off a single grain! "hen a$%le stores of "heat are already at its dis%osal. 9%irit al $en $ st #ontin e rging the "orldly to re%ent and a)ail the$sel)es of this hea)enly %ro)ision for their so ls! #areless! li0e Noah! "hether their %rea#hing is listened to or not. This is ill strated by an ane#dote of a $an "ho 0no#0ed at the door of an e$%ty ho se at $idnight! in order to gi)e noti#e that it "as ti$e to %re%are the $eal ta0en at da"n in Ra$aEan. Reas#n ,#( $n#)$in/ a* *he em+*y h#use% /o ha)e said yo r say3 no" hear $y ans"er! 9o as not to re$ain in astonish$ent and be"ilder$ent. Tho gh to yo this ti$e see$s $idnight!

To $e the da"n of -oyf l $orn see$s nigh. To the ) lgar all %arts of the "orld see$ dead! . t to <od they are instin#t "ith sense and lo)e. And as to yo r saying that (this ho se is e$%ty! Why then sho ld + beat a dr $ before it4( Kno" that the %eo%le of <od e,%end $oney! And b ild $any $os> es and holy %la#es! And s%end health and "ealth in distant %ilgri$ages! +n e#stati# delight! li0e into,i#ated lo)ers3 And none of the$ e)er say! (The Ka2ba is e$%ty3( Ho" #an one "ho 0no"s the tr th say that4 These %eo%le are ranged in battle array! And ris0 their li)es to gain <od2s fa)or3 6ne %l nged in #ala$ities li0e Iob hi$self! Another e,hibiting %atien#e li0e Ia#ob. Tho sands of the$ are thirsty and affli#ted! 9tri)ing in earnest desire to do <od2s "ill. + li0e"ise! in order to %lease the $er#if l <od! .eat $y dr $ at e)ery door in ho%e of da"n. 9ee0 ye a % r#haser "ho "ill %ay yo gold3 Where "ill yo find one $ore liberal than <od4 He b ys the "orthless r bbish "hi#h is yo r "ealth! He %ays yo the light that ill $ines yo r heart. He a##e%ts these froEen and lifeless bodies of yo rs! And gi)es yo a 0ingdo$ beyond "hat yo drea$ of. He ta0es a fe" dro%s of yo r tears! And gi)es yo the di)ine fo nt s"eeter than s gar. He ta0es yo r sighs fra ght "ith grief and sadness! And for ea#h sigh gi)es ran0 in hea)en as interest. +n ret rn for the sigh-"ind that raised tear-#lo ds! <od ga)e Abraha$ the title of (@ather of the faithf l.( Do$e1 in this in#o$%arable and #ro"ded $art 9ell yo r old goods and ta0e a 0ingdo$ in %ay$ent1 CN6TE9' 1. Koran #,ii. =. 8. (A "ine # % te$%ered at the #a$%hor fo ntain shall the - st > aff( GKoran l,,)i. ?H. :. Koran ii. 8=. =. 9ee #o %let 188 of the < ishan i RaE' (When the ob-e#t loo0ed at is )ery #lose to the eye! The eye is dar0ened so that it #annot see it.( +.e.! When $an is nited "ith <od he #an no longer behold Hi$! for he is d"elling in Hi$.

?. Koran l. 1?. B. Koran ,l)iii. 89. STOR' I1% The Pu()hase #, "ilal% To ill strate the ri#h re#o$%ense that is a"arded to those "ho are faithf l in trib lation! the story of .ilal is ne,t re#o nted at length. .ilal "as an Abyssinian sla)e belonging to a Ie" of *e##a! and had in# rred his $aster2s dis%leas re in #onse> en#e of ha)ing e$bra#ed +sla$. @or this offen#e his $aster tort red hi$ by e,%osing hi$ to the heat of the $idday s n! and beating hi$ "ith thorns. . t not"ithstanding his ang ish! .ilal "o ld not re#ant his faith! and ttered only the #ry! (Ahad! Ahad1( (The 6ne! the 6ne <od1( At this $o$ent Ab .a0r! the (@aithf l "itness!( ha%%ened to %ass by! and "as so str #0 by his #onstan#y that he resol)ed to b y hi$ of the Ie". After $ #h higgling and atte$%ts at #heating on the Ie"2s %art he s ##eeded in doing so! and at on#e set hi$ free. When the 7ro%het heard of this % r#hase he said to Ab .a0r! (<i)e $e a share in hi$3( b t Ab .a0r told hi$! so$e"hat to his annoyan#e! that he had already set hi$ free. Not"ithstanding this .ilal atta#hed hi$self to the 7ro%het! and "as after"ards %ro$oted to the hono rable %ost of the 7ro%het2s * 2aEEin. This is follo"ed by the story of Hilal! another holy $an "ho! li0e .ilal and & >$an and Iose%h! ser)ed a noble in the #a%a#ity of groo$. His affe#tions "ere set on things abo)e! and he "as e)er %ressing %"ards to"ards the high $ar0 of s%irit al e,altation! and saying! li0e *oses! (+ "ill not sto% till + rea#h the #onfl en#e of the t"o seas! and for years "ill + -o rney on.( 1 Herein he %resented a great #ontrast to ordinary $en! "ho are e)er gi)ing "ay to their l sts! and so being dragged do"n into the state of $ere ani$als! or e)en lo"er. Hilal2s $aster "as a *osal$an! yet one "hose eyes "ere only %artially o%en to the tr th. He "as in the habit of as0ing his g ests their age3 and if they ans"ered do btf lly! saying! (7erha%s eighteen! or se)enteen! or si,teen! or e)en fifteen!( he "o ld reb 0e the$! saying! (As yo see$ to be % tting yo rself lo"er and lo"er! yo had better go ba#0 at on#e to yo r $other2s "o$b.( These g ests are a ty%e of $en "ho lo"er the$sel)es fro$ the ran0 of h $anity to that of ani$als. This $aster! ho"e)er! "as blind to Hilal2s s%irit al e,#ellen#e! and allo"ed hi$ to drag on a $iserable e,isten#e in his stables. At last Hilal fell si#03 b t no one #ared for hi$! till the 7ro%het hi$self! "arned by a di)ine inti$ation! #a$e to )isit hi$! and #o$$iserated his "ret#hed #ondition. Hilal %ro)ed hi$self to be faithf l thro gh trib lation3 for! instead of gr $bling at his lot! he re%lied! (Ho" is that slee% "ret#hed "hi#h is bro0en by the ad)ent of the 9 n of %ro%he#y4 or ho" #an he be #alled athirst on "hose head is %o red the "ater of life4( +n tr th! Hilal had by

degrees be#o$e % rified fro$ the stain of earthly e,isten#e and earthly > alities! and "ashed in the fo ntain of the "ater of life! i.e.! the holy re)elations of the 7ro%het! till he had attained the e,alted grade of % rity en-oined on those "ho "o ld st dy <od2s Word aright. 8 &(#-*h in /(a)e is a))#m+lished by sl#- de/(ees0 and n#* +e( sal*um% 9in#e yo ha)e told the story of Hilal Gthe ne" $oonH No" set forth the story of .adr Gthe f ll $oonH. That ne" $oon and that f ll $oon are no" nited! Re$o)ed fro$ d ality and defe#t and short#o$ings. That Hilal is no" e,alted abo)e in"ard defe#t3 His o t"ard defe#ts ser)ed as degrees of as#ension. Night after night that $entor ta ght hi$ grades of as#ent And thro gh his %atient "aiting ga)e hi$ ha%%iness. The $entor says! (6 ra" hastener! thro gh %atient "aiting! /o $ st #li$b to the s $$it ste% by ste%. .oil yo r %ot by degrees and in a $asterly "ay3 @ood boiled in $ad haste is s%oiled. 5o btless <od #o ld ha)e #reated the ni)erse .y the fiat 2.e12 in one $o$ent of ti$e3 Why! then! did He %rotra#t His "or0 o)er si, days! Ea#h of "hi#h e> aled a tho sand years! 6 dis#i%le4 Why does the for$ation of an infant ta0e nine $onths4 .e#a se <od2s $ethod is to "or0 by slo" degrees! Why did the for$ation of Ada$ ta0e forty days4 .e#a se his #lay "as 0neaded by slo" degrees. Not h rrying on li0e yo ! 6 ra" one! Who #lai$ to be a 9hai0h "hilst yet only a #hild1 /o r n % li0e a go rd higher than all %lants! . t "here is yo r %o"er of resistan#e or #o$bat4 /o ha)e leant on trees or on "alls! And so $o nted % li0e a go rd! 6 little dog rose3 E)en tho gh yo r %ro% $ay be a lofty #y%ress! At last yo are seen to be dry and hollo". 6 go rd! yo r bright green h e soon t rns yello". @or it is not a nat ral b t an artifi#ial #olor.( This is ill strated by an ane#dote of an gly old hag "ho %ainted her fa#e to $a0e it loo0 %retty! b t "as dete#ted and e,%osed to s#orn. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,)iii. ?9. 8. Koran l)i. J9.

STOR' 1% The Su,i and *he Da2i% A si#0 $an laboring nder an in# rable disease "ent to a %hysi#ian for ad)i#e. The %hysi#ian felt his % lse! and %er#ei)ed that no treat$ent "o ld # re hi$! and therefore told hi$ to go a"ay and do "hate)er he had a fan#y for. This "as the ad)i#e gi)en by <od to the +sraelites "hen they "ere seen to be in# rable by the ad$onitions of the %ro%hets. (5o "hat yo "ill! b t <od2s eye is on all yo r doings.( 1 The si#0 $an blessed the %hysi#ian for his agreeable %res#ri%tion! and at on#e "ent to a strea$! "here he sa" a 9 fi bathing his feet. He "as seiEed "ith a desire to hit the 9 fi on the ba#0! and! #alling to $ind the %hysi#ian2s ad)i#e! at on#e #arried his "ish into effe#t. The 9 fi - $%ed %! and "as abo t to ret rn the blo"! b t "hen he sa" the "ea0ly and infir$ #ondition of his assailant he restrained hi$self. He disregarded his %resent angry i$% lse! and had regard to the f t re! so that the non-e,istent f t re be#a$e to hi$ $ore really e,istent than the e,isting %resent. Here the %oet digresses to %oint o t that "hen "ise $en re#ogniEe the tr e relati)e i$%ortan#e of the %resent and the f t re they #ease to shrin0 fro$ death and annihilation! "hi#h lifts the$ to a higher and nobler life. This is ill strated by an ane#dote of *ah$ d of <haEni! > oted fro$ @arid - 2d-5in 2Attar. *ah$ d! in one of his #a$%aigns! too0 %risoner a Hind boy! "ho at first regarded hi$ "ith the greatest dread! in #onse> en#e of the stories he had heard of hi$ fro$ his $other! b t after"ards e,%erien#ed *ah$ d2s 0indness and tenderness! and #a$e to 0no" hi$ and lo)e hi$. 9o it is "ith death. A##ording to the Hadis (Those "ho ha)e %assed a"ay do not grie)e be#a se of death! b t be#a se of "asted o%%ort nities in life.( The *asna)i is (a sho% of %o)erty and self-abnegation!( and a treas ry #ontaining only the do#trines of (Anity3( and if its stories s ggest a ght else! that is d e to the e)il %ro$%tings of +blis! "ho also $isled the 7ro%het hi$self to attrib te nd e %o"er to the idols &at and 2AEEa and *anat! in a )erse "hi#h "as after"ards #an#elled. 8 The 9 fi! being f ll of the s%irit of self-abnegation! did not retaliate on his "ea0! assailant b t led hi$ before the KaEi. 6n learning the fa#ts of the #ase the KaEi said! (This @a>ir is si#0 to death! and yo ! being a 9 fi! are! a##ording to yo r %rofession! dead to the "orld. Ho"! then! #an + a"ard a %enalty against hi$ in yo r fa)or4 + a$ a - dge! not of the dead! b t of the li)ing.( The 9 fi "as dissatisfied "ith this )ie" of the #ase! and again %ressed the KaEi to do hi$ - sti#e. 6n this the KaEi as0ed the si#0 @a>ir ho" $ #h $oney he had! and on his re%lying! (9i, dirha$s!( too0 %ity on hi$! and let hi$ off "ith a fine of three dirha$s only. The $o$ent the senten#e "as %rono n#ed the si#0 @a>ir "ent % to the KaEi and str #0 hi$ a blo" on the ba#0! and #ried o t! (No" ta0e the other three dirha$s and let $e go1(

The 9 fi then %ointed o t to the KaEi that by his ill-ti$ed lenien#y to the @a>ir he had bro ght this blo" %on hi$self! and rged hi$ to a%%ly in his o"n #ase those %rin#i%les of $er#y and forgi)eness "hi#h he had %ro%osed in the #ase of another. The KaEi said that! for his %art! he re#ogniEed e)ery blo" and $isfort ne that $ight befall hi$ as di)inely ordained! and sent for his good! a##ording to the te,t! (&a gh little and "ee% $ #h!( : and that his - dg$ent in the $atter of the @a>ir had not been di#tated by i$% lse! b t by ins%iration. = The 9 fi again as0ed hi$ ho" e)ils and $isfort nes #o ld %ro#eed fro$ the di)ine fo nt of good! and the KaEi re%lied that "hat see$s good and e)il to s has no absol te e,isten#e! b t is $erely as the foa$ on the s rfa#e of the )ast o#ean. *oreo)er! e)ery $isfort ne o## rring to the faithf l in this life "ill be a$%ly #o$%ensated for in the life to #o$e. The 9 fi as0ed "hy this "orld sho ld not be so arranged that only good sho ld be e,%erien#ed in it! and the KaEi re%lied by telling hi$ an ane#dote of a T r0 and a tailor. The T r0! "ho ty%ifies the #areless %leas re-see0er! "as so intent on listening to the -o0es and a$ sing stories of the tailor! ty%ifying the sed #ti)e "orld! that he allo"ed hi$self to be robbed of the sil0 "hi#h "as to f rnish hi$ "ith a )est re for eternity. The 9 fi again retorted that he did not see "hy the "orld "o ld not get on better "itho t the e)il in it! and the KaEi re%lied "ith the %oet2s fa)orite arg $ent that there "o ld be no %ossibility of being )irt o s if there "ere no te$%tations to be )i#io s. As .isho% . tler says! this life is a state of %robation! and s #h a state ne#essarily in)ol)es trials and diffi# lties and dangers to be resisted and o)er#o$e. The dead (e/(e* n#* dyin/0 bu* havin/ l#s* #++#(*uni*ies in li,e% Well said that &eader of $an0ind! That "hosoe)er %asses a"ay fro$ the "orld 5oes not grie)e and la$ent o)er his death! . t grie)es e)er o)er lost o%%ort nities. He says! (Why did + not 0ee% death al"ays in )ie"! Whi#h is the treas ry of "ealth and s stenan#e4 Why did + blindly all $y life set $y affe#tions 6n )ain shado"s "hi#h %erish at death4 *y regret is not that + ha)e died! . t that + rested on these )ain shado"s in life. + sa" not that $y body "as a $ere shado" or foa$! Whi#h foa$ rises o t of and li)es on the 6#ean G<odH. When the 6#ean #asts its foa$-dro%s to land! <o to the gra)eyard and behold the$! And as0 the$! (Where is yo r $otion and a#ti)ity4 The 6#ean has #ast yo into a $ortal si#0ness1( They "ill ans"er by their #ondition! if not "ith "ords! (7 t this > estion to the 6#ean! not to s1(

Ho" #an $ere foa$ $o)e nless $o)ed by the "a)es4 Ho" #an d st $o nt on high nless raised by "ind4 When yo see the d st-#lo d! see the "ind too1 When yo see the foa$! see the o#ean that hea)es it1 Ah1 loo0 till yo see yo r o"n real final #a se! The rest of yo is only fat and flesh! "ar% and "oof. /o r fat 0indles no light or fla$e in a la$%3 /o r 0neaded flesh is not good for roasting. . rn %! then! all this body of yo rs "ith dis#ern$ent3 Rise to sight! to sight! to sight1 ;irt e #annot e,ist "itho t te$%tation and diffi# lties to be o)er#o$e. The 9 fi said! (The <reat Hel%er is able To %ro# re for s %rofit "itho t loss. He "ho #asts into the fire roses and trees Dan a##o$%lish good "itho t in- ry to any. He "ho e,tra#ts the rose fro$ the thorn Dan also t rn this "inter into s%ring. He "ho e,alts the heads of the #y%resses +s able also o t of sadness to bring -oy. He by "hose fiat all non-e,istent things e,ist! What har$ to Hi$ "ere it if He $ade the$ eternal4 He "ho ga)e to the body a so l and $ade it li)e! What loss to Hi$ "ere it if He ne)er #a sed it to die4 Ho" "o ld it be if That &iberal 6ne "ere to gi)e Their hearts2 desire to his sla)es "itho t toil! And 0ee% a"ay fro$ these feeble ones The a$b shed snares of l st and te$%tations of +blis4( The KaEi said! (+f there "ere no bitter things! And no o%%osition of fair and fo l! stone and %earl! And no l st or 9atan or #on# %is#en#e! And no "o nds or "ar or fra d! 7ray! 6 destroyer of )irt e! by "hat na$e and title Do ld the King of 0ings address His sla)es4 Ho" #o ld He say! 26 te$%erate or 6 $ee0 one12 6r! 26 #o rageo s one! or 6 "ise one42 Ho" #o ld there be te$%erate! gentle! or liberal $en +f there "ere no # rsed 9atan to te$%t the$ astray4 R sta$ and Ha$Ea "o ld be all the sa$e as #o"ards3 Wisdo$ and 0no"ledge "o ld be seless and )ain. Wisdo$ and 0no"ledge ser)e to g ide the "anderers3 Were there b t one road "isdo$ "o ld be needless. To %a$%er the ho se of yo r body fleeting as "ater! 5o yo thin0 it right to r in both "orlds4 + 0no" yo are % re of g ile and ri%e! And as0 this only to edify the ignorant. The ills of fort ne and all tro bles soe)er

Are better than e,ile fro$ <od and negle#t of Hi$3 @or the for$er %ass a"ay! b t the latter abide3 He is ha%%y "ho #arries a "ary heart before <od.( ? This is ill strated by an ane#dote of a "o$an "ho #o$%lained of the hard life she had to lead "ith her h sband o"ing to his %o)erty! and "as silen#ed by being as0ed "hether she "o ld %refer to be di)or#ed. No tro bles are so hard to hear as se%aration fro$ the .elo)ed. @asting and holy "ar bring %ains "ith the$! b t not so great as those in# rred by banish$ent fro$ <od. +n the $idst of their tro bles <od is e)er #aring for His ser)ants! and they $ st not let their trib lations blot o t the $e$ory of <od2s %re)io s goodness to the$. To do this sho"s an entire absen#e of gro"th in gra#e. This is ill strated by an ane#dote of a sage and a $on0. The sage as0ed the $on0 "hi#h "as the older! his "hite beard or hi$self. The $on0 re%lied that he hi$self "as older by so$e years! "here %on the sage reb 0ed hi$ for his ignoran#e! saying his beard had gro"n % re and "hite! b t he "as still bla#0 "ith sin! and had %rogressed not at all in goodness sin#e he "as born. Ea)h #, #u( membe(s *es*i,ies *# &#d's b#un*ies *#-a(ds us% +n> ire no"! + %ray! of ea#h one of yo r $e$bers3 These d $b $e$bers ha)e a tho sand tong es. +n> ire the detail of the bo nties of the All-s stainer! Whi#h are re#orded in the )ol $e of the ni)erse. 5ay and night yo are eagerly as0ing for ne"s! Whilst e)ery $e$ber of yo r body is telling yo ne"s. 9in#e ea#h $e$ber of yo r body iss ed fro$ Not-being! Ho" $ #h %leas re has it seen! and ho" $ #h %ain4 @or no $e$ber gro"s and flo rishes "itho t %leas re! And ea#h $e$ber is "ea0ened by e)ery %ain. B The $e$ber end res! b t that %leas re is forgotten! /et not all forgotten! b t hidden fro$ the senses. &i0e s $$er "herein #otton is %rod #ed! The #otton re$ains! b t the s $$er is forgotten. 6r li0e i#e "hi#h is for$ed in great frost! The frost de%arts! b t the i#e is still before s. The i#e is $indf l of that e,tre$e #old! And e)en in "inter that #ro% is $indf l of the s $$er. +n li0e $anner! 6 son! e)ery $e$ber of yo r body Tells yo tales of <od2s bo nties to yo r body. E)en as a "o$an "ho has borne t"enty #hildren! Ea#h #hild tells a tale of %leas re felt by her.

9he be#a$e not %regnant sa)e after se, al %leas re! Dan a garden bloo$ "itho t the s%ring4 7regnant "o$en and their tee$ing "o$bs Tell tales of lo)e froli#s in the s%ring. 9o e)ery tree "hi#h n rt res its fr its Has been! li0e *ary! i$%regnated by the Anseen King. Tho gh fire2s heat be hidden in the $idst of "ater! /et a tho sand boiling b bbles %ro)e it %resent. Tho gh the heat of the fire be "or0ing nseen! /et its b bbles signify its %resen#e %lainly. +n li0e $anner! the $e$bers of those en-oying ( nion( .e#o$e big "ith #hild! )iE.! "ith for$s of (states( and ("ords.( J <aEing on the bea ty of these for$s they stand aga%e! And the for$s of the "orld )anish fro$ their sight. These s%irit al %rogenies are not born of the ele$ents! And are %erfor#e in)isible to the sens al eye. These %rogenies are born of di)ine a%%aritions! And are therefore bidden by )eils "itho t #olor. + said (born!( b t in reality they are not born3 + sed this e,%ression only by "ay of indi#ation. . t 0ee% silen#e till the King bids yo s%ea0! 6ffer not yo r nightingale songs to these roses3 @or they the$sel)es are saying to yo in lo d tones! (6 nightingale! hold yo r %ea#e! and listen to s1( Those t"o 0inds of fair for$s Ge#stati# states and "ordsH Are ndeniable %roofs of a %re)io s ( nion3( /ea! those t"o 0inds of e,alted $anifestations Are the e)ident fr its of a %re#eding "edlo#0. The e#stasy is %ast! b t yo r $e$bers re#all it3 As0 the$ abo t it! or #all it to $ind yo rself. When sorro" seiEes yo ! if yo are "ise! /o "ill > estion that sorro"-fra ght $o$ent! 9aying to it! (6 sorro"! "ho no" deniest Thy %ortion of bo nty gi)en thee by the 7erfe#t 6ne! E)en if ea#h $o$ent be not to thee a glad s%ring! /et of "hat is thy body! li0e a rose-hea%! a storeho se4 Thy body is a hea% of roses! thy tho ght rose"ater3 2T"ere strange if rose"ater ignored the rose-hea%1( CN6TE9' 1. Koran ,li. =F. 8. Koran liii. 19! and Rod"ell2s note. :. Koran i,. 8=. =. Koran liii. :.

?. Koran ,,)i. 88. B. D%. Ni#o$. Ethi#s! ,.! i). B. J. Do$%are < lshan i RaE! +. B8=. E#stati# "ords and states are the offs%ring of #o$$ nion "ith <od. STOR' 1I% The Fa:i( and *he Hidden T(easu(e% Not"ithstanding the #lear e)iden#e of <od2s bo nty! engendering these s%irit al states in $en! %hiloso%hers and learned $en! "ise in their o"n #on#eit! obstinately sh t their eyes to it! and loo0 afar off for "hat is really #lose to the$! so that they in# r the %enalty of (being branded on the nostrils!( 1 ad- dged against nbelie)ers. This is ill strated by the story of a %oor @a>ir "ho %rayed to <od that he $ight be fed "itho t being obliged to "or0 for his food. A di)ine )oi#e #a$e to hi$ in his slee% and dire#ted hi$ to go to the ho se of a #ertain s#ribe and ta0e a #ertain "riting that he sho ld find there. He did so! and on reading the "riting fo nd that it #ontained dire#tions for finding a hidden treas re. The dire#tions "ere as follo"s' (<o o tside the #ity to the do$e "hi#h #o)ers the to$b of the $artyr3 t rn yo r ba#0 to the to$b and yo r fa#e to"ards *e##a! %la#e an arro" in yo r bo"! and "here the arro" falls there dig for the treas re.( . t before the @a>ir had ti$e to #o$$en#e the sear#h the r $or of the "riting and its #ontents had rea#hed the 0ing! "ho at on#e sent and too0 it a"ay fro$ the @a>ir! and began to sear#h for the treas re on his o"n a##o nt. After shooting $any arro"s and digging in all dire#tions the 0ing failed to find the treas re! and got "eary of sear#hing! and ret rned the "riting to the @a>ir. Then the @a>ir tried "hat he #o ld do! b t failed altogether to hit the s%ot "here the treas re "as b ried. At last! des%airing of s ##ess by his o"n naided efforts! he #ast his #are %on <od! and i$%lored the di)ine assistan#e. Then a )oi#e fro$ hea)en #a$e to hi$! saying! (/o "ere dire#ted to fi, an arro" on yo r bo"! b t not to dra" yo r bo" "ith all yo r $ight! as yo ha)e been doing. 9hoot as gently as %ossible! that the arro" $ay fall #lose to yo ! for the hidden treas re is indeed 2nearer to yo than yo r ne#0-)ein.2 (8 *en o)erloo0 the s%irit al treas res #lose to the$! and for this reason it is that %ro%hets ha)e no honor in their o"n #o ntries! as is ill strated by the #ases of the saint Ab -2l-Hasan Khir>ani and the 7ro%het H d or Heber. &#d (ules men by al*e(na*i#ns #, h#+e and ,ea(% This sad @a>ir too % t % his #ries for aid! And bore off the ball of a##e%tan#e fro$ the field. . t at ti$es he distr sted the effi#a#y of his %rayers!

6n a##o nt of the delay in ans"ering the$. Again! ho%e of the $er#y of the &ord Arose in his heart as an earnest of re-oi#ing. When he "as ho%eless and #easing to %ray in "eariness He heard fro$ <od the "ord (As#end1( <od is an Abaser and an E,alter Witho t these t"o %ro#esses nothing #o$es into being. .ehold the abase$ent of earth and %lifting of hea)en3 Witho t these t"o hea)en "o ld not re)ol)e! 6 $an1 The abase$ent and e,altation of earth is other"ise! Half the year is barren! half green and )erdant. The abase$ent and e,altation of "eary ti$e +s other"ise again! half day and half night. The abase$ent and e,altation of this #o$%o nd body +s no" health and no" grie)o s si#0ness. Kno" all the #onditions of the "orld are in this "ise! 5ro ght! fa$ine! %ea#e! "ar! and trials. This "orld flies! as it "ere! "ith these t"o "ings3 Thro gh these all so ls are ho$es of ho%e and fear3 9o that the "orld 0ee%s tre$bling li0e lea)es! +n the #old and hot "inds of death and res rre#tion. Till tbe -ar of % re "ine of o r 2+sa GAnityH 9hall s %ersede the -ar of $any-#olored "ine G%l ralityH! @or that "orld Gof nityH is as a salt%an3 Whate)er enters it loses its )aried h es. 6n the te,t! (;erily + a$ abo t to %la#e a Khalifa or ;i#egerent on earth( :. Whereas the ai$ and "ill of the *er#if l <od +n#lined to the re)elation and $anifestation of Hi$self! And one o%%osite #annot be sho"n b t by its o%%osite! And that Ani> e King of 0ings has no o%%osite or %eer! = Therefore that &ord of the heart set % a Khalifa! To ser)e as a $irror to refle#t His o"n so)ereignty. Therefore He ga)e hi$ nli$ited % rity and light! And on the other side He set dar0ness o%%osing the light. ? <od set % t"o standards! a "hite and a bla#0 one! The one Ada$ and the other +blis3 And bet"een these t"o $ighty ar$ies Ens ed "ar and battle and all "e ha)e "itnessed. Th s! too! in the se#ond generation li)ed % re Abel3 Dain "as the o%%osite of his % re light. +n li0e $anner these t"o standards of right and "rong Were borne aloft till the age of Ni$rod. Ni$rod "as the o%%onent and ad)ersary of Abraha$! And their o%%osing #a$%s "arred and fo ght one another. When <od gre" "eary of the length of this "ar! His fire "as a%%ointed to arbitrate bet"een the$.

He #o$$anded fire and its fla$ing tor$ent To settle the $atter in dis% te bet"een the$. Age after age these t"o %arties #ontended! E)en till the ti$e of 7haraoh and gentle *oses. .et"een these t"o the "ar "as "aged for years! And "hen it %assed all bo nds and affli#tion in#reased <od $ade the "ater of the Nile a - dge bet"een the$! That the one "ho deser)ed %ree$inen#e sho ld end re. +n li0e $anner it "ent on till the ti$e of * stafa And Ab Iahl! that %rin#e of ini> ity. &i0e"ise did <od ordain a % nish$ent for the Tha$ d! Na$ely! an earth> a0e "hi#h destroyed their li)es. &i0e"ise a % nish$ent for the Adites! Na$ely! a s"iftly rising and )iolent "ind. &i0e"ise <od ordained a# te % nish$ent for Kar n3 @or the earth #on#ealed "rath nder its $ildness! Till all its $ildness "as #on)erted into "rath! And it s"allo"ed % Kar n and his "ealth in its de%th. 9o "ith the $o thf l "hi#h no rishes yo r body And "ards off the darts of h nger li0e a # irass! When <od instils "rath into this $o thf l of bread! That sa$e bread "ill #ho0e yo li0e a halter. This sa$e gar$ent "hi#h %rote#ts yo fro$ the #old! <od $ay gi)e it the > ality of intense #old! 9o that this "ar$ )est $ay be#o$e to yo r body Dold as i#e and biting as frost3 9o that yo "ill #ast off these f rs and sil0s! And see0 for a ref ge fro$ #old "ith #old itself. /o ha)e only one eye! not t"o Gfor these t"o %ossibilitiesH. /o ha)e forgotten the story of the (shado"ing #lo d.( B <od2s #o$$and #a$e to #ity and )illage! And to ho se and "all! saying! (Afford no shade1 Ward not off the %o ring rain and the s n2s heat3( Till those $en hasted to listen to the %ro%het 9h 2aib! 9aying! 26 0ing! ha)e %ity3 $ost of s are dead12 . t read the rest of the tale in the #o$$entaries. When that 6$ni%otent hand $ade the staff a ser%ent! +f yo ha)e reason! that %ortent sho ld s ffi#e. /o ha)e sight indeed! b t fail to $ar0 #aref lly3 /o r eyes are di$$ed and #losed "ith fat. The hea)enly treas re lies (nearer to s than o r ne#0-)ein(. The @a>ir "as in this state "hen a di)ine )oi#e #a$e! And <od th s sol)ed his diffi# lties! 9aying! (The )oi#e told yo to %la#e an arro" on the bo"! +t did not bid yo dra" the bo"string to the t$ost3 +t did not bid yo dra" the bo" "ith all yo r $ight3

+t said! 2Ad- st an arro"!2 not 25ra" the bo" f lly.2 /o ele)ated the bo" to e,#ess! /o $agnified nd ly the bo"$an2s art! <o1 abandon this strong bo"$anshi%! @i, an arro" on the string! b t $a0e it not fly far. When it falls! dig in that s%ot and sear#h! Abandon for#e and see0 the treas re "ith h $ility.( <od is ("hat is nearer to yo than yo r ne#0-)ein!( /o ha)e #ast the arro" of s%e# lation afar off. 6 yo ! "ho ha)e $ade ready yo r bo" and arro"s! The ga$e is #lose to yo ! and yo shoot too far off. The f rther a $an shoots! the f rther off he is! And the $ore re$o)ed fro$ the treas re he see0s. The %hiloso%her 0ills hi$self "ith thin0ing! Tell hi$ that his ba#0 is t rned to that treas re3 Tell hi$ that the $ore he r ns to and fro! The Al$ighty says! (*a0e efforts in o r "ays!( J Not (*a0e efforts a"ay fro$ s!( 6 restless one. &i0e Danaan! "ho "ent a"ay! fro$ sha$e to follo" Noah! A% to the to% of that lofty $o ntain! The $ore he so ght safety on that $o ntain! The f rther "as he re$o)ed fro$ the safe asyl $. 9o this @a>ir! in sear#h of that hidden treas re! 5ay after day dre" his bo" stronger and stronger3 And the harder he dre" his bo"! The f rther "as he fro$ the seat of that treas re. This %arable a%%lies to all ti$es! @or the so l of the ignorant is %ledged to $isfort ne. .e#a se the ignorant $an is asha$ed of a $aster! 7erfor#e he goes and o%ens a ne" s#hool for hi$self. That s#hool is higher than yo r tr e $aster! 6 belo)ed! And hard of a##ess! and f ll of s#or%ions and sna0es. 9traight"ay o)erthro" it! and t rn ba#0 again To the green garden and s"eet "atered $eado"s. Not li0e Danaan! "ho! thro gh %ride and ignoran#e! 9o ght his ar0 of safety on a %rote#ting $o ntain. His far-shooting learning )eiled his eyes! While his heart2s desire "as all the "hile in his gras%. Ah1 oftenti$es ha)e learning and geni s and "it 7ro)ed to the tra)eler to be <ho ls and high"ay$en1 (The $a-ority of those in 7aradise are the si$%le!( 8 Who ha)e es#a%ed the snares of %hiloso%hy. 9tri% yo rself bare of o)er"eening intelle#t! That gra#e $ay e)er be shed %on yo fro$ abo)e. Dle)erness is the o%%osite of h $ility and s b$ission! K it #le)erness! and #onsort "ith si$%le-$indedness1

CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,)iii. 1B. 8. Koran l. 1?. :. Koran ii. 88. =. .e#a se! as 9ir T. .ro"ne says! (<od is all things.( ?. 9ee < lshan i RaE! +. 8B?! and note. B. Koran ,,)i. 189. The #lo d e$itted heat instead of rain! to % nish those "ho disregarded 9h 2aib! or Iethro. J. Koran ,,i,. B9. 8. A Hadis. D%. 1 Dor. i. 8?! 8B. STOR' 1II% The Th(ee T(avele(s% A *osal$an "as tra)eling "ith t"o nbelie)ers! a Ie" and a Dhristian. &i0e "isdo$ lin0ed "ith the flesh and the de)il. <od "as (nigh nto His faithf l ser)ant!( 1 and "hen the first stage "as #o$%leted He #a sed a %resent of s"eet$eats to be laid before the tra)elers. As the Ie" and the Dhristian had already eaten their e)ening $eal "hen the s"eet$eats arri)ed! they %ro%osed to lay the$ aside till the $orro"3 b t the *osal$an! "ho "as 0ee%ing fast! and therefore #o ld not eat before nightfall! %ro%osed to eat the$ that night. To this the other t"o ref sed to #onsent! alleging that the *osal$an "anted to eat the "hole of the s"eet$eats hi$self. Then the *osal$an %ro%osed to di)ide the$ into three %ortions! so that ea#h $ight eat his o"n %ortion "hen he %leased3 b t this also "as ob-e#ted to by the others! "ho > oted the %ro)erb! (The di)ider is in hell( The *osal$an e,%lained to the$ that this %ro)erb $eant the $an "ho di)ides his allegian#e bet"een <od and l st3 b t they still ref sed to gi)e "ay! and the *osal$an therefore s b$itted! and lay do"n to slee% in the end ran#e of the %angs of h nger. Ne,t $orning! "hen they a"o0e! it "as agreed bet"een the$ that ea#h sho ld relate his drea$s! and that the s"eet$eats sho ld be a"arded to hi$ "hose drea$ "as the best. The Ie" said that he had drea$ed that *oses had #arried hi$ to the to% of *o nt 9inai! and sho"n hi$ $ar)elo s )isions of the glory of hea)en and the angels. The Dhristian said he had drea$ed that 2+sa had #arried hi$ % to the fo rth hea)en and sho"n hi$ all the glories of the hea)ens. @inally the *osal$an said that the 7ro%het * ha$$ad had a%%eared to hi$ in %erson! and after #o$$ending hi$ for his %iety in saying his %rayers and 0ee%ing fast so stri#tly on the %re)io s night! had #o$$anded hi$ to eat % those di)inely %ro)ided s"eet$eats as a re"ard! and he had a##ordingly done so. The Ie" and the Dhristian "ere at first annoyed "ith

hi$ for th s stealing a $ar#h %on the$3 b t on his %ointing o t that he had no o%tion b t to obey the 7ro%het2s #o$$ands! they ad$itted that he had done right! and that his drea$ "as the best! as he had been a"a0e! "hile they "ere aslee%. The $oral is! that the di)ine treas re is re)ealed as an i$$ediate int ition to those "ho see0 it "ith %rayer and h $ble obedien#e! and not to those "ho see0 to infer and ded #e its nat re and > ality fro$ the lofty abstra#tions of %hiloso%hy. L#,*y +hil#s#+hi)al s+e)ula*i#n d#es n#* lead *# *he $n#-led/e #, &#d% The *osal$an said! (6 $y friends! *y lord! the 7ro%het * ha$$ad! a%%eared to $e And said! 2The Ie" has h rried to the to% of 9inai! And %lays a ga$e of lo)e "ith <od2s interlo# tor3 The Dhristian has been #arried by 2+sa! &ord of bliss A% to the s $$it of the fo rth hea)en Tho "ho art left behind and hast end red ang ish! Arise > i#0ly and eat the s"eet$eats and #onfe#tions1 Those t"o #le)er and learned $en ha)e as#ended! And read their titles of dignity and e,altation3 Those t"o e,alted ones ha)e fo nd e,alted s#ien#e! And ri)aled the )ery angels in intelle#t3 6 h $ble and si$%le and des%ised one! Arise and eat of the ban> et of the di)ine s"eets1( They said to hi$! (Then yo ha)e been gl ttono s3 Well indeed1 yo ha)e eaten all the s"eets1( He ans"ered! (When $y so)ereign lord #o$$anded $e! Who a$ + that + sho ld abstain fro$ obeying4 Wo ld yo ! 6 Ie"! resist the #o$$ands of *oses +f he bade yo do so$ething! either %leasant or not4 Wo ld yo ! 6 Dhristian! rebel against 2+sa2s #o$$ands! Whether those #o$$ands "ere agreeable or the re)erse4 Ho" #o ld + rebel against the 2<lory of the %ro%hets24 Nay! + ate the s"eets! and a$ no" ha%%y.( They re%lied! (.y Allah! yo ha)e seen a tr e )ision3 /o r )ision is better than a h ndred li0e o rs. /o r drea$ "as seen by yo "hen a"a0e! 6 ha%%y one! @or it "as seen to be real by yo r being a"a0e.( K it e,#essi)e s%e# lation and inordinate s#ien#e! 2Tis ser)i#e of <od and good #ond #t that gains its end. 2Tis for this that <od #reated s! (We #reated not $an0ind sa)e to "orshi% s( 8 What %rofit did his s#ien#e bring to 9a$iri4 : His s#ien#e e,#l ded hi$ fro$ <od2s %ortals. Donsider "hat Kar n gained by his al#he$y3

He "as s"allo"ed % in the de%ths of the earth. Ab -l Iahl! again! "hat gained he fro$ his "it 9a)e to be h rled head-fore$ost into hell for infidelity4 Kno" real s#ien#e is seeing the fire dire#tly! Not $ere tal0! inferring the fire fro$ the s$o0e. /o r s#ientifi# %roofs are $ore offensi)e to the "ise Than the rine and breath "hen#e a %hysi#ian infers. +f these be yo r only %roofs! 6 son! 9$ell fo l breath and ins%e#t rine li0e %hysi#ians. 9 #h %roofs are as the staff of a blind $an! Whi#h %ro)e only the blindness of the holder. All yo r o t#ry and %o$%o s #lai$s and b stle 6nly say! (+ #annot see! hold $e e,# sed1( This is ill strated be an ane#dote of a %easant "ho! hearing a %ro#la$ation iss ed by the 7rin#e of Tir$id! to the effe#t that a large re"ard "o ld be gi)en to hi$ "ho sho ld ta0e a $essage to 9a$ar#a d in the s%a#e of fo r days! h rried to Tir$id by relays of %ost-horses in the t$ost haste! and thre" the "hole #ity into alar$! as the %eo%le tho ght that his e,tre$e haste and b stle $ st %ortend the a%%roa#h of an ene$y or so$e other #ala$ity. . t "hen he "as ad$itted to the %resen#e of the %rin#e! all he had to say "as! that he had h rried to infor$ hi$ that he #o ld not go to 9a$ar#and so > i#0ly. The %rin#e "as )ery angry "ith hi$ for $a0ing all this dist rban#e abo t nothing! and threatened to % nish hi$. The uses #, )has*isemen*s% He said! (Al$s of $er#y re%el #ala$ity! = Al$s # re thy si#0ness! 6 son 2Tis not #haritable to b rn % the %oor! 6r to % t o t the eyes of the $ee0.( The %rin#e re%lied! (Kindness is good in its %la#e! 7ro)ided yo do 0indness in its %ro%er %la#e. +f at #hess yo % t the 0ing in the roo02s %la#e That is "rong3 and so if yo % t the 0night in the 0ing2s! The la" %res#ribes both re"ards and #hastise$ents. The 0ing2s %la#e is the throne! the horse2s the gate. What is - sti#e b t % tting ea#h in his %la#e4 What in- sti#e b t % tting ea#h in "hat is not his %la#e4 Nothing is )ain of all that <od has #reated! Whether )engean#e or $er#y! or %lain dealing or snares. Not one of all these is good absol tely! Nor is any one of the$ absol tely bad. Ea#h is har$f l or benefi#ial a##ording to its %la#e! Wherefore 0no"ledge of these %oints is %ro%er and sef l.

Ah1 $any are the #hastise$ents sent to the %oor Whi#h are $ore benefi#ial to hi$ than bread and s"eets3 .e#a se s"eets o t of season e,#ite bilio sness! While blo"s $a0e hi$ % re fro$ i$% rity. 9tri0e the %oor $an ti$ely blo"s! Whi#h $ay sa)e hi$ fro$ being beheaded later.( The %easant! in re%ly! rged the %rin#e not to be o)er hasty in % nishing hi$! b t to ta0e #o nsel "ith s itable ad)isers! as en-oined in )ario s te,ts! ? and in the Hadis %rohibiting $on0ery! and "arned hi$ that if he sh nned the ad)i#e and so#iety of his e> als he "o ld ass redly be led astray by "ret#hed #o$%anions. B +n ill stration of this a story is told of a $o se "ho #on#ei)ed a great affe#tion for a frog li)ing in a neighboring %ond. J That he $ight be able to #o$$ ni#ate "ith his friend at all ti$es! he fastened a string to the frog2s leg! and the other end of it to his o"n. The %ro)erb says! (6##asional inter$ission of )isits a g$ents lo)e!( 8 b t ardent lo)ers desire to be in #o$$ ni#ation "ith the ob-e#t of their lo)e "itho t inter$ission. The frog "as at first n"illing to enter into s #h #lose relations "ith an ani$al of another s%e#ies! b t at last allo"ed hi$self to be %ers aded to do so! against his better - dg$ent. 9hortly after"ards a ra)en s"oo%ed do"n on the $o se and #arried hi$ off! and the frog! being fastened to the $o se! "as dragged off and destroyed along "ith it. The ra)en2s friends said to hi$! (Ho" is it yo $anaged to #at#h an ani$al that li)es in the "ater4( and he re%lied! (.e#a se it "as so silly as to #onsort "ith one of another s%e#ies that li)ed on dry land.( C#m+a(is#n #, *he b#dy *# *he m#use0 and *he s#ul *# *he ,(#/% The t"o friends dis# ssed the $atter long! And after dis# ssion this %lan "as settled! That they sho ld fet#h a long string! .y $eans of "hi#h to #o$$ ni#ate "ith one another. The $o se said! (6ne end $ st be tied to yo r leg! And the other end to the leg of $e! yo r do ble! That by this #ontri)an#e "e t"o $ay be nited! And be $ingled together li0e so l and body.( .ody is li0e a string tied to sod2s foot! That string drags so l do"n to earth. The so l is the frog in the "ater of e#stati# bliss3 Es#a%ing fro$ the $o se of the body! it is in bliss. The $o se of the body drags it ba#0 "ith that string3 Ah1 "hat sorro" it tastes thro gh being dragged ba#0 +f it "ere not dragged do"n by that insolent $o se! The frog "o ld re$ain at %ea#e in its "ater.

6n the last day! "hen yo shall a"a0e fro$ slee%! /o "ill learn the rest of this fro$ the 9 n of tr th1 +n ill stration of the thesis that the sense "hi#h %er#ei)es the nseen and s%irit al "orld is s %erior to the other senses! and is e,e$%t fro$ death and de#ay! the %oet tells an ane#dote of 9 ltan *ah$ d of <haEni and so$e robbers. 6ne night! "hen "al0ing abo t the #ity alone! he fell in "ith a band of robbers. He told the$ he "as one of the$! and %ro%osed that ea#h sho ld tell his o"n s%e#ial talent. A##ordingly one said he #o ld hear "hat the dogs said "hen they bar0ed3 another that his sight "as so good that "hen he sa" a $an at night he #o ld re#ogniEe hi$ "itho t fail ne,t day3 another said his talent lay in the strength of his ar$s! "hereby he d g holes thro gh the "alls of ho ses another said he #o ld di)ine by his sense of s$ell "here gold "as hidden3 another said his "rist "as so strong that he #o ld thro" a ro%e farther than any one. At last it #a$e to the t rn of the 0ing! and he told the$ that his talent lay in his beard! for "hen he "agged it he #o ld deli)er #ri$inals fro$ the e,e# tioner. The robbers then "ent to the 0ing2s %ala#e! and! ea#h of the$ #o-o%erating by the e,er#ise of his %e# liar talent! they bro0e into it! and %l ndered a large s $ of $oney. The 0ing! after "itnessing the b rglary! "ithdre" fro$ the$ se#retly! and! ha)ing s $$oned his ;aEir! ga)e orders for their a%%rehension. No sooner "ere the robbers bro ght before the 0ing than the one "hose talent lay in re#ogniEing by day those "ho$ he had seen in the dar0ness of night at on#e 0ne" hi$! and said to the others! (This is the $an "ho said his talent lay in his beard1( Th s the only one "hose talent %rofited hi$ at the ti$e of need "as he "ho #o ld re#ogniEe by day "hat he had %re)io sly seen by night3 for he a%%ealed to the 0ing to e,er#ise his talent of deli)eran#e! and the 0ing listened to his entreaty! and deli)ered hi$ fro$ the e,e# tioner. He -h#se eyes dis)e(n &#d in *he -#(ld is sa,e ,(#m des*(u)*i#n% He "ho! "hen he had on#e seen a %erson at night! Re#ogniEed hi$ "itho t fail "hen he sa" hi$ by day! 9a" the 0ing %on the throne! and straight"ay #ried! (This "as he "ho a##o$%anied s on o r nightly "al03 This is he "hose beard %ossessed s #h rare talent3 6 r arrest is d e to his saga#ity.( He added! (2/ea! he "as "ith yo !2 9 this great 0ing3 He beheld o r a#tions and heard o r se#rets. *y eyes g ided $e to re#ogniEe that 0ing at night! And d"elt lo)ingly on his fa#e! li0e the $oon at night. No"! therefore! + "ill i$%lore his gra#e for $yself! @or he "ill ne)er a)ert his fa#e fro$ hi$ that 0ne" hi$.( Kno" the eye of the 2 Kno"er is a safeg ard in both "orlds!

@or therein ye "ill find a )ery .ahra$ to aid yo . @or this #a se * ha$$ad "as the inter#essor for fa lts! .e#a se his eye 2did not "ander2 1F fro$ the King of 0ings. +n the night of this "orld! "hen the s n is hidden! He beheld <od! and %la#ed his ho%es on Hi$. His eyes "ere anointed "ith the "ords! 2 We o%ened thy heart!2 11 He beheld "hat <abriel hi$self had not %o"er to see.( 18 The story of the frog is #on#l ded by the la$entations of the frog o)er his folly in #onsorting "ith an ani$al of a different gen s to his o"n! on "hi#h Reason "arns hi$ that ho$ogeneity lies in s%irit! not in o t"ard for$3 and this is ill strated by an ane#dote of a $an na$ed 2Abd 2l <ha s! "ho "as the son of a fairy $other! and #onse> ently ho$ogeneo s "ith the fairies! tho gh only an ordinary $an to o t"ard a%%earan#e. CN6TE9' 1. Koran ii. 188. 8. Koran ii. ?B. :. 9a$iri! the $a0er of the golden #alf. Kar n Korah. =. @reytag Arab $ 7ro)erbia! iii. 8JJ. ?. Koran l,)ii. 88! iii. 1??! ,lii. :B. B. Koran ,liii. :J. J. An)ari 9 haili! Dha%. )ii. 9tory +++. 8. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! i. 88J. 9. Koran l)ii. =. 1F. Koran liii. 1J. 11. Koran ,#i). 1. 18. < lshan i RaE! +. 18F. STOR' 1III% The Man -h# (e)eived a Pensi#n ,(#m *he P(e,e)* #, Tab(i2% These refle#tions on the nothingness of o t"ard for$ #o$%ared to s%irit lead the %oet to the #orollary that often $en "hose o t"ard for$s are b ried in the gra)e are greater benefa#tors to the %oor and hel%less than $en still li)ing in the body. This is ill strated by the story of the $an "ho "as $aintained by the 7refe#t of TabriE. This $an in# rred hea)y debts on the #redit of his %ension! e)en as the +$a$ Ia2far 9adi> "as able to #a%t re a strong fort single-handed thro gh the %o"er of <od assisting hi$. When the #reditors be#a$e %ressing the $an -o rneyed to TabriE to see0 f rther aid3 b t on arri)ing there he fo nd the 7refe#t "as dead. 6n learning this he "as $ #h #ast do"n! b t e)ent ally re#ogniEed that he had erred in loo0ing to a #reat re instead of his Dreator for aid! a##ording

to the te,t! (The infidels e> aliEe others "ith their &ord.( 1 This obli> ity of s%irit al sight! #a sing hi$ to see a $ere h $an benefa#tor! "here the real benefa#tor "as <od alone! is ill strated by ane#dotes of a $an b ying bread at Kashan! of 9 ltan Kh"araE$ 9hah del ded into disli0ing a fine horse by the interested ad)i#e of his ;aEir! and of Iose%h! "ho "hen i$%risoned by 7haraoh "as ind #ed to tr st for deli)eran#e to the inter#ession of the #hief b tler rather than to <od alone! for "hi#h #a se (he re$ained se)eral years in %rison.( 8 A #haritable %erson of TabriE endea)o red to raise f nds for the %oor $an! and a%%ealed to the #itiEens to aid hi$! b t only s ##eeded in #olle#ting a )ery s$all s $. He then )isited the 7refe#t2s to$b! and i$%lored assistan#e fro$ hi$3 and the sa$e night the 7refe#t a%%eared to hi$ in a drea$! and ga)e hi$ dire#tions "here to find a great treas re! and dire#ted hi$ to $a0e o)er this treas re to the %oor $an. Th s the dead 7refe#t %ro)ed a $ore liberal benefa#tor than the #itiEens of TabriE "ho "ere still li)ing. The +##( man's (e/(e*s ,#( havin/ +la)ed his *(us* in man and n#* in &#d% When he re#o)ered hi$self he said! (6 <od! + ha)e sinned in loo0ing for aid to a #reat re1 Altho gh the 7refe#t sho"ed great liberality! +t "as in no "ise e> al to Thy bo nty. He ga)e $e a #a%! b t Tho $y head f ll of sense3 He ga)e $e a gar$ent! b t Tho $y tall for$. He ga)e $e gold! b t Tho $y hand "hi#h #o nts it3 He ga)e $e a horse! b t Tho $y reason to g ide it3 He ga)e $e a la$%! b t Tho $y l #id eyes3 He ga)e $e s"eet$eats! b t Tho $y a%%etite for the$3 He ga)e $e a %ension! b t Tho $y life and being3 His gift "as gold! b t Thine tr e blessings3 He ga)e $e a ho se! b t Tho hea)en and earth3 +n Thy ho se he and a h ndred li0e hi$ are no rished. The gold "as of Thy %ro)iding! he did not #reate it3 The bread of Thy %ro)iding! and f rnished to hi$ by Thee. Tho also didst gi)e hi$ his liberality! @or thereby Tho didst a g$ent his ha%%iness. + $ade hi$ $y Kibla! and dire#ted $y %rayers to hi$3 + t rned a"ay $y eyes fro$ Thee! the Kibla-$a0er1 Where "as he "hen the 9 %re$e 5is%enser of faith 9o"ed reason in the "ater and #lay of $an! And dre" forth fro$ Not-being this hea)enly do$e! And s%read o t the #ar%et of the earth4 6f the stars He $ade tor#hes to ill $ine the s0y! And of the fo r ele$ents lo#0s "ith 0eys Gof reasonH. Ah1 $any are the b ildings )isible and in)isible

Whi#h <od has $ade bet"een hea)en2s do$e and earth. *an is the astrolabe of those e,alted attrib tes! The attrib te of $an is to $anifest <od2s signs. Whate)er is seen in $an is the refle#tion of <od! E)en as the refle#tion of the $oon in "ater.( 9ay not t"o! 0no" not t"o! #all not on t"o1 Kno" the sla)e is obliterated in his lord1 9o the lord is obliterated in <od that #reated hi$ /ea! lost and dead and b ried in his Dreator1 When yo regard this lord as se%arate fro$ <od! /o annihilate at on#e te,t and %ara%hrase. With eyes and heart loo0 beyond $ere "ater and #lay! <od alone is the Kibla3 regard not t"o Kiblas1 +f yo regard t"o yo lose the benefit of both3 A s%ar0 falls on the tinder and the tinder )anishes1 J#se+h $e+* in +(is#n a l#n/ *ime ,#( havin/ +la)ed his h#+es #, (elease in man and n#* in &#d% +n li0e $anner Iose%h! in the %rison! With h $ble and earnest s %%li#ations .egged aid! saying! (When yo are released! And are o## %ied "ith yo r $inistrations to the 0ing! Re$e$ber $e! and entreat the 0ing To release r e too fro$ this %rison.( Ho" #an one %risoner fettered in the snare 7ro# re release for a fello" %risoner4 The %eo%le of the "orld are all %risoners! A"aiting death on the sta0e of annihilation3 E,#e%t one or t"o rare e,#e%tions! Whose bodies are in %rison b t their so ls in hea)en. After"ards! be#a se Iose%h had loo0ed to $an for aid! He re$ained in %rison for $any years. The 5e)il #a sed the $an to forget Iose%h! And blotted Iose%h2s "ords fro$ his re$e$bran#e3 And on a##o nt of this fa lt of that holy $an <od left hi$ in the %rison for $any years. CN6TE9' 1. Koran )i. 1. 8. Koran ,ii. =8. :. Koran ,ii. =8.

STOR' I5% The .in/ and his Th(ee S#ns% A #ertain 0ing had three sons! "ho "ere the light of his eyes! and! as it "ere! a fo ntain "hen#e the %al$ tree of his heart dran0 the "ater of bliss. 6ne day he #alled his sons before hi$ and #o$$anded the$ to tra)el thro gh his real$! and to ins%e#t the beha)ior of the go)ernors and the state of the ad$inistration3 and he stri#tly #harged the$ not to go near a %arti# lar fort "hi#h he na$ed. . t! a##ording to the saying! (*an han0ers after "hat is forbidden!( the three %rin#es disobeyed their father! and! before going any"here else! %ro#eeded to )isit this fort. The res lt "as! that they fell into #ala$ities! and had o##asion to re%eat the te,t! (Had "e b t hear0ened or nderstood! "e had not been a$ong the d"ellers in the fla$e.( 1 The fort "as f ll of %i#t res! i$ages and for$s! and a$ongst the$ "as a %ortrait of a bea tif l da$sel! the da ghter of the King of Dhina! "hi#h $ade s #h a dee% i$%ression on the three %rin#es that they all be#a$e distra#ted "ith lo)e and deter$ined to -o rney to the #o rt of the King of Dhina and s e for the hand of his da ghter. The si/ni,i)an)e #, ,#(ms% 8 .e not into,i#ated "ith these goblets of for$s! &est yo be#o$e a $a0er and "orshi%%er of idols. 7ass by these # %s f ll of for$s! linger not3 There is "ine in the # %s! b t it %ro#eeds not fro$ the$. &oo0 to the <i)er of the "ine "ith o%en $o th3 When His "ine #o$es! is not # % too s$all to hold it4 6 Ada$! see0 the reality of $y lo)e! K it the $ere h s0 and for$ of the "heat. When sand "as $ade $eal for (The @riend of <od!( : Kno"! 6 $aster! the for$ of "heat "as dis%ensed "ith. @or$ %ro#eeds fro$ the "orld that is "itho t for$! E)en as s$o0e arises fro$ fire. The 5i)ine art "itho t for$ designs for$s GidealsH! = Those for$s fashion bodies "ith senses and instr $ents. Whate)er the for$! it fashions in its o"n li0eness Those bodies either to good or to e)il. +f the for$ be blessing! the $an is than0f l3 +f it be s ffering! he is %atient3 +f it be #herishing! he is #heerf l3 +f it be br ising! he is f ll of la$entation1 9in#e all these for$s are sla)es of Hi$ "itho t for$!

Why do they deny their &ord and *aster4 They e,ist only thro gh Hi$ that is "itho t for$3 What! then! $eans their disa)o"al of their 9 stainer4 This )ery denial of Hi$ %ro#eeds fro$ Hi$! This a#t is na ght b t a refle#tion fro$ Hi$self1 The for$s of the "alls and roofs of ho ses Kno" to be shado"s of the ar#hite#t2s tho ght3 Altho gh stones and %lan0s and bri#0s @ind no entran#e into the san#t ary of tho ght! ;erily the Absol te Agent is "itho t for$! @or$ is only a tool in His hands. 9o$eti$es that @or$less 6ne of His $er#y 9ho"s His fa#e to His for$s fro$ behind the )eil of Not-being! That e)ery for$ $ay deri)e aid therefro$! @ro$ its %erfe#t bea ty and %o"er. Again! "hen that @or$less 6ne hides His fa#e! Those for$s set forth their needs. +f one for$ so ght %erfe#tion fro$ another for$! That "o ld be the height of error. Why then! 6 si$%leton! do yo set forth yo r needs To one "ho is as needy as yo rself4 9in#e for$s are sla)es! a%%ly the$ not to <od! 9ee0 not to se a for$ as a si$ilit de of <od. ? 9ee0 Hi$ "ith h $bleness and self-abase$ent! @or tho ght yields na ght b t for$s of tho ght. 9till! if yo are nable to dis%ense "ith for$s! Those o## rring inde%endently of yo r tho ght are best. B The (Tr th!( "hi#h is o r real self! lies hidden "ithin o r %heno$enal and )isible self! and the 7ro%hets re)eal it to s. (No" ha)e "e seen "hat the 0ing sa" at the first! When that +n#o$%arable 6ne ad- red s.( The %ro%hets ha)e $any #lai$s to o r gratit de! .e#a se they fore"arn s of o r lti$ate lot! 9aying! (What ye so" "ill yield only thorns3 +f ye fly that "ay! ye "ill fly astray. Ta0e seed of s to yield yo a good har)est! @ly "ith o r "ings to hit the $ar0 "ith yo r arro". No" ye 0no" not the tr th and nat re of the 2Tr th!2 J . t at the last ye "ill #ry! 2That "as the (Tr th.(2 The Tr th is yo rself! b t not yo r $ere bodily self! /o r real self is higher than 2yo 2 and 2$e.2 This )isible 2yo 2 "hi#h yo fan#y to be yo rself +s li$ited in %la#e! the real 2yo 2 is not li$ited. Why! 6 %earl! linger yo tre$bling in yo r shell4 Estee$ not yo rself $ere s gar-#ane! b t real s gar. This o t"ard 2yo 2 is foreign to yo r real 2 yo 32

Dling to yo r real self! > it this d al self. /o r last self attains to yo r first GrealH self 6nly thro gh yo r attending earnestly to that nion. /o r real self lies hid beneath yo r o t"ard self! @or 2+ a$ the ser)ant of hi$ "ho loo0s into hi$self.2 ( 8 (What a yo th sees only "hen refle#ted in a glass! 6 r "ise old fathers sa" long ago tho gh hid in stones. . t "e disobeyed the ad)i#e of o r father! And rebelled against his affe#tionate #o nsels. We $ade light of the 0ing2s e,hortations! And slighted his $at#hless inti$ations. No" "e ha)e all fallen into the dit#h! Wo nded and #r shed in this fatal str ggle. We relied on o r o"n reason and dis#ern$ent! And for that #a se ha)e fallen into this #ala$ity. We fan#ied o rsel)es free fro$ defe#ts of sight! E)en as those affe#ted by #olor-blindness. No" at last o r hidden disease has been re)ealed! After "e ha)e been in)ol)ed in these #ala$ities.( (The shado" of a g ide is better than dire#tions to <od! To be satisfied is better than a h ndred ni#e dishes. A seeing eye is better than a h ndred "al0ing-sti#0s! Eye dis#erns -e"els fro$ $ere %ebbles.( The %rin#es as#ertained the na$e of the lady de%i#ted in the fort fro$ an old 9hai0h! "ho "arned the$ of the %erils they "o ld en#o nter on their -o rney to Dhina! and told the$ that the King of Dhina "o ld not besto" his fa)or on those "ho tried to gain it by tri#0s and #le)er stratage$s! b t solely on those "ho "ere %re%ared to yield % their li)es to hi$! a##ording to the saying! (5ie before yo die.( This is ill strated by an ane#dote of a Dhief of .o0hara! "ho $ade it a r le ne)er to besto" his bo nty on beggars "ho as0ed for it! b t only on those "ho a"aited his %leas re in silen#e. A #ertain @a>ir tried $any stratage$s to e)ade this r le! b t his #raft "as at on#e seen thro gh by the Dhief! and t rned to his o"n #onf sion. The thesis that the nbo ght free gra#e of <od is s %erior to any blessing obtainable by h $an e,ertion and #ontri)an#e is f rther ill strated by an abs rd ane#dote of t"o yo ths! one of "ho$ tr sted for %rote#tion to his o"n #ontri)an#e! and fo nd it a bro0en reed. The 7ro%het said! (T"o there are "ho are ne)er satisfied the lo)er of the "orld and the lo)er of 0no"ledge3( and he "ho lo)es 0no"ledge "ill #ontin e to tr st in his 0no"ledge! in s%ite of all e,hortations and e,%erien#e. . t the eldest %rin#e ad)ised his brothers to ris0 the %erils and %erse)ere in the -o rney! re$inding the$ that (7atien#e is the 0ey of -oy.( A##ordingly they abandoned their #o ntry and their %arents! li0e +brahi$ Adha$! "ho reno n#ed the throne of .al0h! and li0e the old Arabian 0ing A$r 2l Kais!

"ho fled fro$ the % rs it of his fe$ale adorers to see0 the 9%irit al .elo)ed in a far #o ntry. H#- *he +(in)es dis)#u(sed -i*h #ne an#*he( in ,i/u(a*ive lan/ua/e )#n)e(nin/ *hei( bel#ved mis*(ess% They told their se#rets to one another in dar0 sayings! 9%ea0ing beneath their breath in fear and tre$bling. None b t <od "as %ri)y to their se#rets! None b t Hea)en "as %artner in their sighs. /ea! they sed te#hni#al e,%ressions one to another! And %ossessed intelligen#e to e,tra#t the sense. The ) lgar learn the "ords of this (lang age of birds!( 9 And $a0e boast of their $astery thereof3 . t these "ords are only the o t"ard for$ of the lang age! The (ra"( $an is ignorant of the birds2 $eaning. He is the tr e 9olo$on "ho 0no"s the birds2 lang age! A de$on! tho gh he s r% his 0ingdo$! is > ite another. The de$on has ta0en %on hi$ the for$ of 9olo$on! His 0no"ledge is fra d! not ("hat "e ha)e been ta ght.( When 9olo$on "as blessed "ith ins%iration fro$ <od! He learned birds2 lang age fro$ ("hat "e "ere ta ght.( . t tho art only a bird of the air3 nderstand then That tho hast ne)er seen the tr e s%irit al birds1 The nest of the 9i$ rgh is beyond *o nt Kaf! 1F Not e)ery tho ght #an attain thereto3 9a)e tho ghts "hi#h #at#h a gli$%se thereof! And after the )ision are again sh t off. /et not all sh t off! rather inter$itted for a "ise end! @or the blessing abides! tho gh sh t off and hidden1 +n order to %reser)e that body "hi#h is as a so l! The 9 n is )eiled for a "hile behind a #lo d3 +n order not to $elt that so l-li0e body! The 9 n "ithdra"s itself as fro$ i#e. @or thy so l2s sa0e see0 #o nsel of these ins%ired ones. 11 Ah1 rob not their "ords of their te#hni#al $eanings1 L lai0ha a%%lied to / s f the na$es of all things! .eginning "ith "ild r e and ending "ith fran0in#ense. 9he )eiled his na$e nder all other na$es! And i$%arted her se#ret $eaning to her #onfidants. When she said! (The "a, is $elted by the fire!( 9he $eant! (*y lo)er is "roth "ith $e.( 9o "hen she said! (9ee! the $oon is risen1( 6r! (&o1 the "illo"-bo gh is % tting forth lea)es3( 6r if she said! (The lea)es > i)er in the "ind!(

6r! (The "ild r e yields %erf $e as it b rns3( 6r if she said! (The rose tells her tale to the . lb l!( 6r! (The 0ing sings his lo)e-strain3( 6r if she said! (Ah1 "hat a blessed lot1( 6r! (Who hath dist rbed $y heart2s re%ose4( 6r if she said! (The "ater-#arrier hath bro ght "ater!( 6r! (&o1 the s n e$erges fro$ the #lo ds3( 6r if she said! (&ast night the )i#t als "ere boiled!( 6r! (The food "as %erfe#tly #oo0ed3( 6r if she said! (*y bread is "itho t sa)or( 6r! (The hea)ens are re)ol)ing the "rong "ay3 6r if she said! (*y head a#hes "ith %ain!( 6r! (*y heada#he is no" relie)ed3( +f she ga)e than0s! 2t"as for being nited to / s f3 +f she "ailed! 2t"as that she "as se%arated fro$ hi$. Tho gh she ga)e )ent to tho sands of na$es! Her $eaning and % r%ort "as only / s f3 Was she an h ngred! "hen she %rono n#ed his na$e! 9he be#a$e filled and #heered by his no rish$ent. Her thirst "as > en#hed by / s f2s na$e! His na$e "as s%irit al "ater to her so l. Was she in %ain! by %rono n#ing his $ighty na$e At on#e her %ain "as t rned into -oy. +n the #old it "as a "ar$ gar$ent3 Her lo)er2s na$e a##o$%lished all this thro gh lo)e. 9trangers $ay %rono n#e the (% re na$e( of <od! /et it effe#ts no s #h $ar)els! for they la#0 lo)e. All that 2+sa a##o$%lished by the na$e of Ieho)ah! L lai0ha attained thro gh the na$e (/ s f.( When the so l is inti$ately nited "ith <od! To na$e the one is the sa$e as na$ing the other. L lai0ha "as e$%ty of self and filled "ith lo)e of / s f! And there flo"ed o t of her -ar "hat it #ontained. The s#ent of the saffron of nion $ade her s$ile! The sten#h of the onion of se%aration $ade her "ee%. Ea#h to ha)e in his heart a h ndred $eanings! 9 #h is not the #reed of tr e lo)e and de)otion. (The @riend( is to the lo)er as day to the s n! The $aterial s n is a )eil o)er the fa#e of the real day. Whoso disting ishes not the )eil fro$ (The @riend2s( fa#e +s a "orshi%%er of the s n3 of s #h a one be"are1 (The @riend( is the real day! and daily food of lo)ers! The heart and the heart2s tor$ent of His lo)ers. After end ring $any toils and $isfort nes the three %rin#es at last arri)ed

in the $etro%olis of Dhina! and there %on the eldest %rin#e e,%ressed his intention of %resenting hi$self before the 0ing! as he #o ld "ait no longer. His brothers tried to diss ade hi$ fro$ ris0ing his life! %ointing o t that if he a#ted on blind i$% lse and )ain #on#eit he "o ld s rely go astray! for (a #on#eit hath na ght of tr th3( 18 and they f rther rged hi$ to listen to the #o nsels of the 7ir! or 9%irit al 5ire#tor. . t the eldest brother ref sed to be diss aded fro$ his % r%ose! saying he "o ld no longer hide his %assion for his belo)ed! li0e one "ho beats a dr $ nder a blan0et! b t "o ld %ro#lai$ it o%enly! and ta0e the ris0 of "hate)er $ight ens e. He added that he "as #on)in#ed that he sho ld obtain his desire in so$e "ay or other! if not in the "ay that he e,%e#ted3 a##ording to the te,t! (Whoso feareth <od! to hi$ "ill he grant a %ros%ero s iss e! and "ill %ro)ide for hi$ in a "ay he re#0oned not.( 1: 9ee0ers after <od fan#y that He is far fro$ the$! and that they $ st tra)el far to rea#h Hi$3 b t these are both erroneo s s %%ositions3 and - st as arith$eti#ians "or0 o t tr e ans"ers to their %roble$s by the (*ethod of Errors!( 1= so $ st the see0ers of <od fro$ these errors "or0 o t the #on)i#tion that <od is )ery nigh to the$ that #all %on Hi$ faithf lly. To ill strate this an ane#dote is told of a $an of .aghdad "ho "as in great distress! and "ho! after #alling on <od for aid! drea$t that a great treas re lay hid in a #ertain s%ot in Egy%t. He a##ordingly -o rneyed to Egy%t! and there fell into the hands of the %atrol! "ho arrested hi$! and beat hi$ se)erely on s s%i#ion of being a thief. Dalling to $ind the %ro)erb that (falsehood is a $is#hief b t tr th a re$edy!( 1? he deter$ined to #onfess the tr e reason of his #o$ing to Egy%t! and a##ordingly told the$ all the %arti# lars of his drea$. 6n hearing the$ they belie)ed hi$! and one of the$ said! (/o $ st be a fool to -o rney all this distan#e $erely on the faith of a drea$. + $yself ha)e $any ti$es drea$t of a treas re lying hid in a #ertain s%ot in .aghdad! b t "as ne)er foolish eno gh to go there.( No" the s%ot in .aghdad na$ed by this %erson "as none other than the ho se of the %oor $an of .aghdad! and he straight"ay ret rned ho$e! and there fo nd the treas re. And he ga)e than0s! and re#ogniEed ho" (<od #a ses ease to follo" tro bles!( 1B and ho" (*en hate "hat is good for the$!( 1J and ho" <od delays the ans"er to %rayer! and allo"s $en to re$ain %oor and h ngry for a season! in order to $a0e the$ #all %on Hi$! e)en as the 7ro%het said! (*y ser)ant is a l te "hi#h so nds best "hen it is e$%ty.( 6hy *he ans-e( *# +(aye( is delayed% Ah1 $any earnest s %%liants "ail forth %rayers! Till the s$o0e of their "ailing rises to hea)en3 /ea! the %erf $e of the in#ense of sinners2 groans *o nts % abo)e the lofty roof of hea)en. Then the angels s %%li#ate <od! saying! (6 Tho that hearest %rayer and relie)est %ain!

Thy faithf l sla)e is bo"ing do"n before Thee. He 0no"s of none on "ho$ to rely sa)e Thee3 Tho besto"est fa)ors on the hel%less. E)ery s %%liant obtains his desire fro$ Thee.( <od $a0es ans"er! (The delay in granting his %rayer +s intended to benefit hi$! not to har$ hi$. His %ressing need dra"s hi$ fro$ his negligen#e to $e3 /ea! drags hi$ by the hair into $y #o rts. +f + at on#e re$o)e his need he "ill go a"ay! And "ill be destroyed in his idle s%orts. Tho gh he is "ailing "ith heartfelt #ry of 26 Aider12 .id hi$ "ail on "ith bro0en heart and #ontrite breast. His )oi#e so nds s"eet in $y ears! And his "ailing and #ries of2 6 <od12 +n this "ay by s %%li#ation and la$entation He %re)ails "ith $e altogether.( +t is on a##o nt of their s"eet )oi#es That #hoi#e %arrots and nightingales are -ailed in #ages. Agly o"ls and #ro"s 18 are ne)er -ailed in #ages3 9 #h a thing "as ne)er heard of in history. The disa%%oint$ents of the %io s! be s re! Are a%%ointed for this "ise % r%ose. The eldest brother then delayed no longer! b t r shed into the %resen#e of the King and 0issed his feet. The King! li0e a good she%herd! "as "ell a"are of the tro bles and #ra)ings of his shee%. He 0ne" that the %rin#e had ab- red earthly ran0 and dignity thro gh lo)e for his da ghter! e)en as a 9 fi #asts a"ay his robe "hen o)er%o"ered by e#stati# ra%t re. The only reason "hy the %rin#e had lagged behind in the ra#e and not %resented hi$self to the King before "as that hitherto he had la#0ed the (inner eye( or s%irit al sense "hi#h dis#erns s%irit al )erities! and had been #onse> ently blind to the King2s %erfe#tions. They "ho la#0 this inner s%irit al sense #an no $ore a%%re#iate s%irit al %leas res than a $an la#0ing the sense of s$ell #an en-oy the %erf $e of flo"ers! or a e n #h the so#iety of fair "o$en. . t his eyes had no" been o%ened by the King2s gra#e! and he had es#a%ed fro$ the bondage of "orldly l sts and ill sions! and! ta ght by e,%erien#e! had resol)ed ne)er again to be led #a%ti)e by the$. This is ill strated by the ane#dote of the KaEi "ho "as beg iled by the "ife of a d"arf. The d"arf and his "ife "ere )ery %oor! and one day the d"arf said to his "ife! (<od has gi)en yo ar#hed bro"s and arro"y glan#es and all $anner of "it#hery3 go and ensnare so$e ri#h $an! so that "e $ay e,tra#t $oney fro$ hi$1( 9o the "o$an "ent to the #o rt of the KaEi! %retending to ha)e a grie)an#e3 and "hen she sa" the KaEi she

beg iled hi$! and ind #ed hi$ to %ay her a )isit at night. While the KaEi "as sitting "ith her the d"arf ret rned ho$e and 0no#0ed )iolently at the door! and the KaEi! in a great fright! hid hi$self in a large #hest. The d"arf at on#e fet#hed a %orter! and told hi$ to ta0e the #hest to the baEar and sell it. 6n the "ay to the baEar the KaEi #ried o t to the %orter to fet#h the 5e% ty3 and "hen the 5e% ty #a$e he redee$ed the #hest for one h ndred 5inars! and th s the KaEi es#a%ed. Ne,t year the "o$an "ent to the #o rt and tried to sed #e the KaEi a se#ond ti$e3 b t he said! (.egone3 + ha)e es#a%ed fro$ yo r toils on#e! and "ill not fall into the$ again. The a#tion of the 5e% ty in freeing the KaEi re$inds the %oet of the saying of the 7ro%het! (6f hi$! of "ho$ + a$ the $aster! 2Ali also is $aster!( and is therefore able to free hi$ fro$ sla)ery. The eldest %rin#e at last fell si#0 of ho%e deferred! and ga)e % the ghost. . t tho gh he failed to obtain the King2s da ghter! the ob-e#t of his earthly atta#h$ent! he obtained nion "ith the King! the real s%irit al ob-e#t of his lo)e! and the eternal fr ition of d"elling in Hi$. The ;#ys #, uni#n -i*h *he S+i(i*ual "el#ved a(e ine3+(essible in s+ee)h% +n short! the King #herished hi$ lo)ingly! And he li0e a $oon "aned in that s n. That "aning of lo)ers $a0es the$ "a, stronger! I st as the $oon "a,es brighter after "aning. 6rdinary si#0 %ersons #ra)e a re$edy for si#0ness . t the lo)esi#0 one #ries! (+n#rease $y "aning1 + ha)e ne)er tasted "ine s"eeter than this %oison! No health #an be s"eeter than this si#0ness1 No de)otion is better than this sin Gof lo)eH! /ears are as a $o$ent #o$%ared to this $o$ent1( &ong ti$e he d"elt "ith the King in this $anner! With b rning heart! as a li)ely sa#rifi#e. Th s his life %assed! yet he gained not the nion He "ished. 7atient "aiting #ons $ed hi$! his so l #o ld not bear it3 He dragged on life "ith %ain and gnashing of teeth. At last life ended before he had attained his desire. The for$ of his earthly .elo)ed "as hidden fro$ hi$3 He de%arted! and fo nd nion "ith his 9%irit al .elo)ed. Then he said! (Tho gh she la#0s #lothes of sil0 and "ool! 2Tis s"eeter to e$bra#e her "itho t those )eils. + ha)e be#o$e na0ed of the body and its ill sions! + a$ ad$itted into the $ost inti$ate nion.( The story ad$its of being told % to this %oint! .at "hat follo"s is hidden and ine,%ressible in "ords. +f yo sho ld s%ea0 and try a h ndred "ays to e,%ress it! 2Tis seless3 the $ystery be#o$es no #learer.

/o #an ride on saddle and horse % to the sea-#oast! . t then yo $ st se a horse of "ood Gi.e.! a boatH. A horse of "ood is seless on dry land! +t is the s%e#ial #on)eyan#e of )oyagers by sea. 9ilen#e is this horse of "ood! 9ilen#e is the g ide and s %%ort of $en at sea. This 9ilen#e "hi#h #a ses yo annoyan#e +s ttering #ries of lo)e a dible to the s%irit al. /o say! (Ho" strange the s%irit al $an is silent1( He ans"ers! (Ho" strange yo ha)e no ears1 Tho gh + tter #ries! yo hear the$ not3 9ens al ears! ho"e)er shar%! are deaf to $y #ries.( The s%irit al $an! as it "ere! #ries in his slee%! Attering tho sands of "ords of #o$fort3 While the #arnal $an at his side hears nothing at all! @or he is aslee%! and deaf to the other2s )oi#e. . t the %erfe#t s%irit alist "ho has bro0en his boat 7l nges into the sea as a fish of the sea Gof Tr thH. He is then neither silent nor s%ea0ing! b t a $ystery. No "ords are a)ailable to e,%ress his #ondition. That $ar)elo s one is in neither of these states 2T"o ld be irre)erent to e,%lain his state $ore f lly. These ill strations are "ea0 and ina%%ro%riate! . t no fitter ones are obtainable fro$ sensible ob-e#ts. When the eldest %rin#e died! the yo ngest "as si#0 and #o ld not #o$e3 b t the se#ond brother #a$e to the #o rt to attend his f neral. There the King obser)ed hi$! and too0 %ity on hi$ and entreated hi$ 0indly. He instilled into hi$ s%irit al 0no"ledge of the )erities hidden beneath %heno$enal ob-e#ts! and #on)eyed to hi$ as dee% a %er#e%tion of s%irit al tr ths as is not gained by a 9 fi after years of fasting and retire$ent fro$ the "orld. +t is a fa#t! that "hen the % re s%irit es#a%es fro$ the bonds of the body! <od gi)es it sight to behold the things of the s%irit. The logi#ian denies the %ossibility of this di)ine ill $ination of the heart! b t he is #onf ted by the 7ro%het! "ho s"ore (by the star( that the Koran "as re)ealed to hi$ by di)ine ill $ination. 19 Those "ho #lea)e to their heresy G.id2atH and obstinate nbelief are li0e to in# r the % nish$ent infle#ted on the tribe of 2Ad for disbelie)ing the 7ro%het H d. 8F Earthly for$s are only shado"s of the 9 n of the Tr th! a #radle for babes! b t too s$all to hold those "ho ha)e gro"n to s%irit al $anhood. When the %rin#e "as th s no rished by the s%irit al food gi)en hi$ by the King! "hi#h "as s #h as the angels of hea)en s bsist %on! not the ns%irit al food of Dhristians and those "ho gi)e %artners to <od! he began to be % ffed % "ith self#on#eit! and forgot "hat he o"ed to the King! and rebelled against hi$. The King "as # t to the heart by his ingratit de! "hi#h e,a#tly rese$bled

that of Ni$rod. When Ni$rod "as an infant he "as ta0en by his $other to sea! and the shi% being "re#0ed! all that "ere in it %erished! sa)e only the infant Ni$rod "ho "as sa)ed thro gh the %ity of +Erail! the Angel of 5eath. <od s%ared hi$! and n rt red hi$ "itho t the aid of $other or n rse3 b t "hen he gre" % he %ro)ed ngratef l! and "as % ffed % "ith self-#on#eit and egotis$! and sho"ed en$ity against <od and Abraha$ His ser)ant. When the %rin#e fo nd hi$self #ast off by the King he #a$e to hi$self! and re%ented and h $bled hi$self "ith dee% #ontrition. The King then %ardoned hi$3 b t his doo$ had already been de#reed by <od! and he "as slain by the King he had in- red! a#0no"ledging the King2s goodness to hi$ "ith his latest breath. The dea*h #, *he se)#nd +(in)e% +n short! the )engean#e of That Iealo s 6ne G<odH After one year bore hi$ to the gra)e. When the King a"o0e o t of his tran#e to #ons#io sness! His *ars-li0e eyes shed tears of blood. When that in#o$%arable one loo0ed into his > i)er! He sa" that one of his arro"-shafts "as $issing. He #ried to <od! (What has be#o$e of $y arro"4( <od ans"ered! (Thy arro" is fi,ed in his throat1( That King! bo ntif l as the sea! had %ardoned hi$3 Ne)ertheless his arro" had dealt hi$ a $ortal "o nd. He "as slain! and #ried o t "ith his last breath! (The King is all in all! $y slayer and $y sa)ior. +f he is not both these! he is not all in all3 Nay! he is both $y slayer and $y $o rner1( That e,%iring $artyr also ga)e than0s! That the King had s$itten his body! not his s%irit3 @or the )isible body $ st %erfor#e %erish! Ere the s%irit #an li)e in ha%%iness for e)er$ore. Tho gh he in# rred #hastise$ent! it affe#ted his body only! And as a friend he no" goes! free of %ain! to his @riend. Th s at first he #l ng to the King2s stirr %! . t at last "ent his "ay g ided by %erfe#t sight. @inally! the yo ngest brother! "ho "as the "ea0est of all! s ##eeded "here his brothers had failed! and obtained his earthly $istress! the 0ing2s da ghter! as his bride! and the 9%irit al .elo)ed as "ell. Here the *asna)i brea0s off3 b t! a##ording to the . la> edition! the follo"ing #on#l sion "as s %%lied by Ialal -2d-5in2s son! .aha -2d-5in 9 ltan ;alad' 7art of the story re$ains ntold3 it "as retained +n his $ind and "as not dis#losed. The story of the %rin#es re$ains nfinished!

The %earl of the third brother re$ains nstr ng. Here s%ee#h! li0e a #a$el! brea0s do"n on its road3 + "ill say no $ore! b t g ard $y tong e fro$ s%ee#h. The rest is told "itho t aid of tong e To the heart of hi$ "hose s%irit is ali)e. CN6TE9' 1. Koran l,)ii. 1F. 8. 9 rat! or (for$!( $eans %i#t re! i$age! o t"ard a%%earan#e as o%%osed to reality! #on#e%tion or (for$ of tho ght!( the (ar#hity%es( or (ideas( in the 5i)ine $ind! (the 9 bstantial for$s( of the Realist %hiloso%hy. Here the %oet r ns thro gh nearly all these $eanings. :. 9ale2s Koran! %. J?! note. =. i.e.! the ar#hity%es in the (+ntelle#t al 7resen#e( or ("orld of #o$$and!( "hi#h are after"ards set forth in the ("orld of #reation or sensible ob-e#ts. ?. 9ee Koran ,lii. 9. B. i.e.! the si$ilit des sed in the Koran. J. (The Tr th!( Al Ha>>! the 5i)ine No $enon. 8. 9ee < lshan i RaE! Ans"er +++.! and the Hadis! (Whoso 0no"s hi$self 0no"s his &ord.( 9. Koran ,,)ii. 1B. 1F. 9i$ rgh! (6isea e,traordinaire > i reside a Da #ase!( as *. <ar#in de Tassy #alls it! $eans (thirty birds( G9i $ rghH! and is sed as a ty%e of the 5i)ine Anity "hi#h e$bra#es all %l rality. 11. i.e.! the %ro%hets and saints. 18. Koran ,. :J. 1:. Koran l,). 8. 1=. i.e.! (The R le of 7osition.(Kh lasat l Hisab! .oo0 i). 1?. @reytag! Arab $ 7ro)erbia! ii. :J9. 1B. Koran ii. 81:. 1J. Koran l,). J. 18. i.e.! hardened sinners li0e 7haraoh. 19. Koran liii. 1. 8F. Koran ,l)i. 8F. Note on A%o#ry%hal 9 %%le$ents to the *asna)i. +n the & #0no" edition there follo"s an e%ilog e "ritten by * ha$$ad +lahi .a0hsh! gi)ing a #ontin ation of the story of the third brother! b t nothing of the 0ind is fo nd in any of the other editions. The . la> edition adds a so-#alled .oo0 ;++.! b t this is 0no"n to be a #o$%arati)ely re#ent forgery. Ha-i Khalfa says' (+t is notorio s that the *asna)i is #ontained in si, boo0s! b t a se)enth boo0 has $ade its a%%earan#e! % t forth by +s$ail 5adah! the #o$$entator. He also "rote a

#o$$entary on it! and therein re%lied "ith elo> en#e and stren o sness to those "ho denied its gen ineness. He says in his #o$$entary that "hen he #a$e to "rite o t his fifth )ol $e in the year 1F:? A.H.! he $et "ith .oo0 ;++. in a #o%y of the *asna)i dated 81= A.H. He bo ght it and read it thro gh! and "as satisfied that it "as ndo btedly a #o$%osition of the a thor of the *asna)i. . t the other 5ar)eshes of the *a la)i order denied the gen ineness of the 9e)enth .oo0.( 1 The #ontents of this 9e)enth .oo0 #onsist of #o$$ents on )ario s te,ts and traditions! ill strated by stories of no interest. They ha)e nothing in #o$$on "ith the E%ilog e of * ha$$ad +lahi .a0hsh! fo nd in the & #0no" edition. CN6TE9' 1. Ha-i Khalfa! ). :JJ. +s$ai1 "as a 5ar)esh of the *a la)i order! s rna$ed Ang ra)i! fro$ his nati)e %la#e Ang ri! in Anatolia.

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