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Jos Nez de Arco M.

IEEE 802

IEEE 802 WIRELESS NETWORK TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS


Network definition
Wireless personal area network (WPAN) Low-rate WPAN (LR-WPAN)

IEEE standard
IEEE 802.15.1 IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.16

Known as
Bluetooth ZigBee WiFi WiMAX

Wireless local area network (WLAN)


Wireless metroplitan area network (WMAN)

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IEEE 802 standardisation framework


802.1
Management 802.3 MAC 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC)

802.5 MAC

802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC)

CSMA/CA

802.3 PHY

802.5 PHY

802.11 PHY

802.11a PHY

802.11b PHY

802.11g PHY

CSMA/CD (Ethernet)

Token Ring

CSMA/CA (Wireless LAN)

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802.3

CSMA/CD (Ethernet) Medium Access Control (MAC) CSMA/CA = Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance

802.11

physical layer specified in 802.11 FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) 2Mbps DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) 11mbps signal format is OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) 54Mbps

802.11a

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Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)


802.1 Management 802.2 LLC 802.15.1 MAC + PHY 802.15.4 MAC + PHY 802.16 MAC + PHY

802.3
MAC 802.3 PHY

802.5
MAC Data

802.11

MAC rates up to 700 kbit/s (2.1 Mbit/s) 802.5 802.11 PHY PHY

ISM band: 2.4 2.4835 GHz


Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG)

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Low-rate WPAN (LR-WPAN)


802.1 Management 802.2 LLC 802.15.1 802.15.4 MAC + PHY 802.16 MAC + PHY

802.3
MAC 802.3 PHY

802.5
MAC 802.5 PHY

802.11
MAC

802.11 PHY

Data rates up to MAC 250 kbit/s +


PHY

ISM band: 2.4 2.4835 GHz


ZigBee Alliance

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Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN)


802.1 Management 802.3 MAC 802.3 PHY 802.2 LLC 802.15.1 802.15.4 802.16 MAC + PHY

802.5 MAC 802.5 PHY

802.11 MAC 802.11 PHY

Various data MAC MAC rates up to 100 + Mbit/s and + PHY more PHY

Various frequency bands (not only ISM)


WiMAX

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Multiplexing / multiple access / duplexing (2)


Network
IEEE 802.15.1 WPAN (Bluetooth) IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPAN (ZigBee) IEEE 802.11 WLAN (WiFi) IEEE 802.16 WMAN (WiMAX)

Multiplexing / MA / duplexing
TDMA / TDD CSMA/CA CSMA/CA

TDM/TDMA (down/uplink) / TDD or (semi-duplex) FDD

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Maximum channel data rates


Network
IEEE 802.15.1 WPAN (Bluetooth) IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPAN (ZigBee) IEEE 802.11 WLAN (WiFi) IEEE 802.16 WMAN (WiMAX)

Maximum data rate


1 Mbit/s (Bluetooth v. 1.2) 3 Mbit/s (Bluetooth v. 2.0) 250 kbit/s 11 Mbit/s (802.11b) 54 Mbit/s (802.11g) 134 Mbit/s

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Modulation / Signal spreading


Network
IEEE 802.15.1 WPAN (Bluetooth)
IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPAN (ZigBee)

Modulation / spreading method


Gaussian FSK / FHSS
Offset-QPSK / DSSS

IEEE 802.11 WLAN (WiFi)


IEEE 802.16 WMAN (WiMAX)

DQPSK / DSSS (802.11b) 64-QAM / OFDM (802.11g)


128-QAM / single carrier 64-QAM / OFDM

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IEEE 802.11 WLAN architecture


802.11 defines two BSS (Basic Service Set) options: Infrastructure BSS
wired LAN

Independent BSS (Ad-Hoc network)

AP

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WiMAX fijo (PP) en el 2005-2006,

WiMAX nmade (portable) en 20062007

WiMAX mvil (integrado en PDA, Notebooks, etc.) desde el ao 2008,

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Servicios clase IP clase TDM (ATM)

Bandas licenciadas y libres Cobertura desde metros hasta 30 Km

Velocidades de usuario desde cientos de Kbps hasta decenas de Mbps


Despliegues con vision directa (LOS) indirecta (NLOS) entre estaciones base y CPEs Aplicaciones fijas, portables y mviles en interiores y exteriores

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3G

4G

1G basic mobile voice

3G mobile broadband IP-based network architecture with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based air interface technology WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) , Long Term Evolution (LTE), Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB),

2G capacity and coverage

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mobile phones
Nokia, Motorola, LG, and Samsung

Functionalities:
keyboard, which is virtual and rendered on a touch screen. User friendly graphical user interfaces. Internet services such as email, web browsing and local Wi-Fi connectivity.

Built-in camera with image/video capturing.


Media player with audio and video decoding capability. Smart media management tools for songs, photo albums, videos, etc.. Phone call functionalities including text messaging, visual voicemail

sold 270 000 iPhones in the first 30 hours


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lack

Factors

Mobile TV support to receive live TV programmes. Multi-user networked 3D games support. Realistic 3D scene rendering. Stereo image and video capturing and rendering. High definition visuals.

computational capability power constraints of the mobile devices available bandwidth and transmission efficiency of the wireless network quality of service (QoS) support of the network protocols universal access capability of the communication system infrastructure compression and error control efficiency of video and graphics data.

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Key Technologies

3GPP LTE/LTE-Advanced

3GPP2 UMB
Mobile WiMAX based on IEEE 802.16m

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3GPP LTE
scalable bandwidth from 1.25 to 20MHz

FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex)

downlink peak rate of 100Mbps and uplink with peak rate of 50Mbps in 20MHz channel

latency of less than 100 msec for control-plane, and less than 5 msec for user-plane

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LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA)

Downlink based on OFDMA

Uplink based on SC-FDMA

MIMO (multiple input multiple output) system

MBMS (multimedia broadcast multicast services) either in single cell or multi-cell mode

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Mobile WiMAX
scalable channel bandwidth from 1.25 to 20MHz

scalable OFDMA peak downlink data rate of up to 63Mbps peak uplink data rate of up to 28Mbps in the 10MHz channel MIMO antenna techniques and flexible sub channelization schemes end-of-end QoS is supported by mapping the service flows to the DiffServ code points of MPLS flow labels. optimized handover schemes are supported in Mobile WiMAX by latencies of less than 50 milliseconds

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advanced features of

MOBILE WIMAX
smart antenna technologies including Beamforming, Space-Time Code, and Spatial Multiplexing

spatial diversity and fade margin reduction by STC, and SM

Flexible sub-channel reuse is supported by subchannel segmentation and permutation zone.

The Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS) is supported.

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Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology multiantenna system technology

phased array, spatial division multiple access (SDMA), spatial processing, digital beamforming, adaptive antenna (AAS)
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Diversity Techniques
Frequency diversity

Time diversity

Space diversity Antenna Diversity Polarization diversity Antenna Diversity Angle diversity Antenna Diversity

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Frequency diversity
carries the signals in different carrier frequencies far apart with each other. Frequency separation must be more than the coherence bandwidth to achieve uncorrelated signal fading.

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Time diversity
sends the data over the channel at different times. Time separation is directly proportional to the reciprocal of the fading bandwidth, which is proportional to the speed of the mobile station.
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Space diversity Antenna Diversity

uses multiple antennas in the receiver, which have distance in between to ensure independent fading. The separation around half-wavelength is ample to obtain uncorrelated signals.

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Polarization diversity Antenna Diversity


utilizes the antennas either for a horizontal polarized wave or a vertical polarized wave. This can be a special case of space diversity and only two diversity branches can be possible.
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Angle diversity Antenna Diversity

is achieved by directional antennas. The received signal arrives at the antenna via several paths, each with a different angle of arrival. The signals that are received from different directional antennas pointing at different angles are uncorrelated.

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STATISTICAL PARAMETERS TO CHARACTERIZE A WIRELESS CHANNEL

Delay spread Coherence bandwidth Doppler spread Coherence time Flat and frequency selective fading

Slow and fast fading


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IP Address Classification

Reusable private addresses

there can be 4,294,967,296 IP addresses


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IPv6
IP address field is increased from 32 to 128 bits in length and incorporation of address hierarchy is
supported,

Simplified header format is introduced, Extension headers and options are supported, Authentication and privacy is provided, Auto-reconfiguration is provided, Incremental upgrade is possible, Low start-up costs is provided, Quality of service capabilities is provided,

Mobility is supported.
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IP session
connection-oriented (TCP)

connectionless (UDP)

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IP Routing Protocols
Internal Gateway Protocols (IGP) such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) carry out routing within a network managed by a single operator.

External Gateway Protocols such as Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) handle routing between autonomous systems and are used, for example, to connect the gateways belonging to different ISPs on the Internet.

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consider three interfaces

DiffServ: Differentiated Services IntServ: Integrated Services RSVP: Resource Reservation Protocol MPLS: Multiprotocol Label Switching DPI: Deep Packet Inspection

air access network core network

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IP Security
CONFIDENTIALITY

AUTHENTICATION

INTEGRITY

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IP Tunneling PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol

AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting

RADIUS protocol

DIAMETER base protocol

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SIP Agent

SIP Proxy

SIP Registrar

SIP Redirect

SIP Location

User Agent (UA) is the peer entity

Proxy server forwards requests to the correct location of the UAs.

UAs register their current location info to Registrar server. Location info may include IP address, cell ID

UA request is responded with redirection response for UA to initiate new call to the location.

UA location info is stored and updated.

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P-CSCF:
Proxy-Call Session Control Function

S-CSCF:
Serving-Call Session Control

I-CSCF:
Interrogating-Call Session Control

AS:
Application Server hosts services for subscriber

HSS:
Home Subscriber Server

BGCF:
Breakout Gateway Control Function is used to select the circuit-switched network

MGCF:
Media Gateway Control Function controls Media Gateway (MGW External signaling (SS7/ISUP) from circuitswitched network is translated to SIP in MGCF.

MRF:
Multimedia Resource Function

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is a flat, all-IP based core network with a simplified architecture and open interfaces
MME Mobility Management Entity SGW Serving Gateway PDN GW Packet Data Network Gateway

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eNBs, which is the base station of LTE Evolved NodeB UE: User Equipment

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BCCH:
Broadcast Control Channel is to transmit broadcasting system control information.

PCCH:
Paging Control Channel is to transmit paging information when UE is unlocated.

CCCH:
common Control Channel is used by UE when UE has no RRC
connection.

MCCH:
Multicast Control Channel is used to transmit MBMS control information, which is point-tomultipoint (eNB to UEs) and only
UEs that receive MBMS use it.

DCCH:
Dedicated Control Channel is a point-to-point bidirectional channel used by UE for RRC connection.

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DTCH: Dedicated Traffic Channel is a point-to-point bidirectional channel dedicated to one UE


to transfer user information.

MTCH: Multicast Traffic Channel is a point-to-multipoint channel for transmitting traffic data
from the network to the UE

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LTE with WiMAX

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WiMAX + IMS/NGN Solution

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WiMAX + 2G Solution

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Huawei 16e Standalone Solution

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16e Integration into Existing 2G/3G Network

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