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Da|hous|e Un|vers|ty- Mechan|ca| Lng|neer|ng

MLCP 4010 & 4013


ueslgn ro[ecL l





ConcepLual ueslgn 8eporL









8eel Mower
1eam 13






Clark Calnan
Alex Plggs
!ean-lrancols LeforL
Lrlca McAdam




SubmlLLed: november 8, 2013
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 2 of 30
1ab|e of Contents
LlsL of 1ables ................................................................................................................................................. 3
LlsL of llgures ................................................................................................................................................ 3
1. ro[ecL lnformaLlon ............................................................................................................................ 4
1.1. ro[ecL 1lLle ................................................................................................................................. 4
1.2. ro[ecL CusLomer ........................................................................................................................ 4
1.3. Croup Members .......................................................................................................................... 4
1.4. useful ueflnlLlons and Acronyms ................................................................................................ 4
2. ConcepLual ueslgn Summary .............................................................................................................. 7
3. 8ackground and ConLexL .................................................................................................................... 8
4. 8equlremenLs ................................................................................................................................... 11
3. luncLlonal 8lock ulagram ................................................................................................................. 12
6. ConcepL ClasslflcaLlon 1rees and ConcepL ComblnaLlon 1ables ....................................................... 14
7. Cvervlew of ConcepLual SoluLlon AlLernaLlves ................................................................................. 13
7.1. ConcepL 1: MoLor, gearbox, baLLerles mounLed ln-llne wlLh blade reel .................................. 13
7.2. ConcepL 2: lour-wheel square base ......................................................................................... 16
7.3. ConcepL 3: 1wo wheel deslgn wlLh handle offseL ..................................................................... 17
7.4. ConcepL 4: 1wo wheel deslgn wlLh drlve Lraln aLLached Lo Lhe frame ..................................... 18
8. leaslblllLy .......................................................................................................................................... 19
8.1. LlecLrlc MoLor ........................................................................................................................... 19
8.2. 8aLLery acks ............................................................................................................................. 20
8.2.1. 8aLLery ack 8un 1lme ....................................................................................................... 21
8.2.2. 8aLLery ack Charge 1lme .................................................................................................. 22
8.2.3. 8aLLery ack WelghL ........................................................................................................... 22
9. 1esLlng and verlflcaLlon .................................................................................................................... 24
9.1 8equlremenL 1esLlng ................................................................................................................ 24
9.2 roof of ConcepL ....................................................................................................................... 24
10. 8equlred 1echnlcal LxperLlse............................................................................................................ 26
11. 8esources and 8eferences ................................................................................................................ 27
11.1. laclllLles..................................................................................................................................... 27
11.2. AddlLlonal Advlsors ................................................................................................................... 27
11.3. lunds ......................................................................................................................................... 27
8eferences .................................................................................................................................................. 28
Appendlx A- MoLor and 8aLLery 8esearch .................................................................................................. 29

MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 3 of 30
L|st of 1ab|es
1able 1- 1eam 13 conLacL lnformaLlon ......................................................................................................... 4
1able 2- Comparlson of roLary vs. reel mowers ............................................................................................ 8
1able 3- Comparlson of gas vs. elecLrlc mowers ........................................................................................... 9
1able 4- 8aslc deslgn requlremenLs ............................................................................................................ 11
1able 3- 1echnlcal deslgn requlremenLs ..................................................................................................... 11
1able 6- ros and cons of concepL 1 ........................................................................................................... 13
1able 7- ros and cons of concepL 2 ........................................................................................................... 16
1able 8- ros and cons of concepL 3 ........................................................................................................... 17
1able 9- ros and cons of concepL 4 ........................................................................................................... 18
1able 10- 1lme measuremenLs for 6 meLers of mower Lravel .................................................................... 19
1able 11- 8aLLery pack run Llme feaslblllLy ................................................................................................. 21
1able 12- 8aLLery cell LoLal welghL .............................................................................................................. 22
1able 13- Lnglneerlng and Lechnlcal experLlse ........................................................................................... 26

L|st of I|gures
llgure 1- Manual reel mower componenLs .................................................................................................. 3
llgure 2- Cas powered mower...................................................................................................................... 9
llgure 3- Manual reel mower ..................................................................................................................... 10
llgure 4- LlecLrlc reel mower funcLlonal decomposlLlon dlagram ............................................................. 12
llgure 3- ConcepL classlflcaLlon Lree provldlng coollng soluLlons .............................................................. 14
llgure 6- 1wo wheel, ln-llne deslgn ............................................................................................................ 13
llgure 7- lour wheel deslgn ........................................................................................................................ 16
llgure 8- Pandle offseL deslgn .................................................................................................................... 17
llgure 9- 1wo wheel deslgn, drlve Lraln mounLed on handle ..................................................................... 18



MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 4 of 30
1. ro[ect Informat|on
1.1. ro[ect 1|t|e
Team 1S has been taskeu with the uesign anu builu of an electiic ieel mowei.
1.2. ro[ect Customer
The ieel mowei is a faculty suggesteu pioject, biought foith by Bi. Swan. Team 1S will woik closely
with Bi. Swan to ensuie the iequiiements aie met.
1.3. Group Members
Team 1S consists of foui gioup membeis anu a faculty auvisoi. The team infoimation can be seen in
table 1:
1ab|e 1- 1eam 1S contact |nformat|on
Member hone Number Lma||
Clark Calnan 902-483-6268 cl213898[dal.ca
Alex Plggs 902-237-8316 alex.hlggs[dal.ca
!ean-lrancols LeforL 902-401-2138 [.leforL[dal.ca
Lrlca McAdam 902-830-3997 er334332[dal.ca

Bi. Lukas u. Swan will seive as the faculty auvisoi. Bi. Swan can be ieacheu at lukas.swanual.ca.
1.4. Usefu| Def|n|t|ons and Acronyms
Nanual ieel moweis aie simple mechanically. Figuie 1 uisplays the impoitant components of a
manual ieel type mowei.
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 3 of 30

I|gure 1- Manua| ree| mower components (http:]]home.howstuffworks.com]ree|-mower2.htm,
accessed 2013)

0seful uefinitions:
Banule-The hanule is pusheu by the opeiatoi, tiansfeiiing the powei into the uiive
components of the mowei.
Rolleis- The iolleis pioviue stability.
Cuttei Blaue- The spinning blaues of the mowei uo not actually cut the giass. It manipulates
the giass to be cut by the cuttei blaue oi beuknife. The cutting suiface sheais the giass as it
is caught between the spinning uium anu the cuttei blaue.
Nain Wheel- The main wheels aie the contact point with the giounu. An inteinal geai mesh
allows the powei to be tiansmitteu to the spinning uium.
Pinion ueai- The pinion geai tiansfeis the powei fiom the iotation of the main wheel to the
axle anu spinning blaues.
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 6 of 30
Biush Bai- The biush bai is useu to benu ovei the giass so it can be cut piopeily.
Axle- The axle tiansfeis the powei fiom the pinion geai to the spinning blaues.
Blaue Reel- Although this component is calleu the blaue ieel, it uoes not cut the giass. It
manipulates anu positions the giass to be cut effectively by the cuttei blaue. The contact
between the blaue ieel anu cuttei blaue pioviues a sheaiing foice which cuts the giass.
Aujustment Sciews- The aujustment sciews aie useu to aujust the height of the cuttei blaue
foi vaiiable giass length.
These uefinitions will be useu to uesciibe the opeiation anu uesign of the electiic ieel mowei in this
iepoit.



MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 7 of 30
2. Conceptua| Des|gn Summary
The conceptual uesign iepoit highlights the uesign piocess useu foi this pioject. This iepoit
contains useful infoimation with iegaius to the thought piocess anu techniques useu in analyzing
alteinative solutions.
The backgiounu anu context foi this pioject aie uiscusseu in uetail in this iepoit. Nanual poweieu
ieel moweis uo not have enough powei oi toique foi cutting long, thick anu wet giass. By uesigning
an electiic mowei with incieaseu powei, the mowei can be useu in moie iobust applications.
The iequiiements that have been uefineu weie establisheu by uoing maiket ieseaich anu
examining the pioblems that aiise while using a manual mowei. Basic anu technical iequiiements
have been uefineu foi the pioject. Basic iequiiements incluue physical chaiacteiistics such as
weight anu uimensions. These aie funuamental to the safe anu efficient opeiation of the mowei.
Technical iequiiements have been uefineu aftei initial calculations. The basic iequiiements will not
change thioughout the piocess; howevei the technical iequiiements aie subject to change. A
uetaileu list of basic anu technical iequiiements can be founu in section 4.
The functional block uiagiam in section S shows the flow of eneigy, mateiials anu signals in the
mowei.
The concept tiee in section 6 shows the piocess useu foi making sub component uecisions.
Seveial alteinative uesigns have been sketcheu anu analyzeu in section 7. These incluue two anu
foui wheel uesign. Theie aie seveial pios anu cons associateu with each uesign incluuing stability,
maneuveiability anu oveiall weight.
The feasibility of ciitical components such as batteiy packs anu electiic motoi selection has been
analyzeu in section 8. This allows foi ciitical components to be iuentifieu.
The testing anu valiuation pioceuuie foi the iequiiements is outlineu in section 9. These
pioceuuies incluue iunning the mowei, measuiing the uimensions anu weighing the mowei.
Section 1u uesciibes the engineeiing expeitise that this pioject iequiies such as CAB moueling anu
electiical engineeiing uesign.
Some exteinal iesouices aie uefineu in section 11.
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 8 of 30
3. 8ackground and Context
The objective of this pioject is to uesign anu builu a batteiy poweieu electiic ieel mowei. Theie aie
seveial ieasons why it is beneficial. Table 2 lists the auvantages anu uisauvantages of a iotaiy anu
ieel mowei.
1ab|e 2- Compar|son of rotary vs. ree| mowers
8oLary 8eel
AdvanLages - owerful Lnglne
- CuLs all grass Lypes
- CuLs lawn evenly
- rovldes a close cuL
- Clean cuLLlng meLhod
ulsadvanLages - 1ears grass, whlch could resulL
ln dlscoloraLlon and lncrease
rlsk of dlsease
- uneven cuL
- Doesnt provlde a close cuL

- Less powerful
- Can be Llrlng lf cuLLlng a
very large lawn
- noL well sulLed for long
grass

Rotaiy moweis have a hoiizontal fan-style blaue that spins in a ciiculai motion. They also have a
laige motoi so they can pioviue enough powei to cut thick giass. Bowevei, with the hoiizontal
cutting motion the giass can be toin. When giass is toin iathei than cut it can become uiscolouieu
anu the fiayeu enus make it moie susceptible to uisease.
Nany manually poweieu ieel moweis uo not geneiate as much powei as iotaiy moweis, theiefoie
they can have a uifficult time cutting thiough thick giass anu weeus. With the ieel mowei, the
powei of the blaue ieel is uiiectly ielateu to how much foice the usei applies. If the opeiatoi cannot
piouuce a laige enough foice, they may have uifficulties opeiating the mowei. A batteiy poweieu
ieel mowei woulu sepaiate the iotation of the blaue ieel fiom the iotation of the wheels, allowing
the uium to spin fastei anu making it less susceptible to jamming. Reel moweis also cut lawns moie
evenly anu much closei.
The cylinuiical uium on a ieel mowei cuts eveiy inuiviuual blaue of giass like a paii of scissois.
This piouuces a clean cut, which will piotect the giass fiom uisease anu incieases the health of the
giass. Table S lists the auvantages anu uisauvantages of a gas anu electiic mowei.
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 9 of 30
1ab|e 3- Compar|son of gas vs. e|ectr|c mowers
Cas LlecLrlc
AdvanLages - Cordless
- Long run Llme
- CuleL
- no gas spllls
- LnvlronmenLally frlendly
- Can be cordless
ulsadvanLages - nolsy
- roduces emlsslons
- Cas spllls
- 8equlres oll changes
- vlbraLlons
- LlmlLed run Llme
- Speclal charglng
equlpmenL

uas poweieu lawn moweis have a negative impact on the enviionment. They piouuce toxic
emissions, aie veiy noisy anu gas spills can occui. By using an electiic ieel mowei insteau of a
gasoline poweieu mowei, these pioblems aie eliminateu oi mitigateu. A batteiy poweieu ieel
mowei uoes have a few uisauvantages incluuing limiteu iun time anu iequiiing special equipment
to iechaige the batteiies. Limiteu iun time can be mitigateu thiough the use of two batteiy packs;
one will be in use while the othei is chaiging. The special chaiging equipment intiouuces an up
fiont cost but this expense can be offset thiough the savings in gasoline puichases.

I|gure 2- Gas powered mower (http:]]www.f||ckr.com]photos]14168332QN07]3716809618])
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 10 of 30


I|gure 3- Manua| ree| mower (now 1o: Serv|ce our kee|
Mower,http:]]www.apartmenttherapy.com]how-to-serv|ce-your-ree|-mower-S4176)

Taking these uesign elements into consiueiation, it woulu be beneficial to uesign an electiic
poweieu ieel mowei. This pioject will challenge the team to think on an innovative level, testing
the ability to uesign mechanical anu electiical systems pieviously leaineu in the engineeiing
piogiam.


MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 11 of 30
4. kequ|rements
The iequiiements in this section have been uefineu aftei extensive maiket ieseaich. These
iequiiements will ensuie that the final piouuct can compete with othei piouucts on the maiket.
Table 4 lists the basic uesign iequiiements, which will iemain the same thioughout the uuiation of
the pioject.
1ab|e 4- 8as|c des|gn requ|rements
8equlremenL uescrlpLlon !usLlflcaLlon
8-1 1he blade reel shall noL exceed 20 lnches
(31 cm) ln wldLh.
1hls wldLh allows for an even cuL over
uneven Lerraln.
8-2 1he overall wldLh of Lhe reel mower shall
noL exceed 30 lnches (76 cm).
Less Lhan 30 lnches allows Lhe mower Lo
be pushed Lhrough a sLandard door frame.
8-3 1he mower shall welgh less Lhan 30 lbs
(22.7 kg).
Cne person may operaLe and llfL Lhe
mower.
8-4 1here shall be Lwo baLLery packs. 1wo baLLery packs allows for lncreased run
Llme by provldlng Lhe ablllLy Lo swap
baLLerles.
8-3 1he baLLery packs shall lasL aL leasL 30
mlnuLes on one full charge when used Lo
perform regular lawn malnLenance.
A 30 mlnuLe run Llme ls Lhe lndusLry
sLandard. 1hls wlll allow adequaLe run Llme
for average lawns whlle malnLalnlng an
approprlaLe welghL.
8-6 1he baLLery packs shall charge ln 30
mlnuLes or less.
A charge Llme LhaL ls equal Lo Lhe run Llme
wlll allow for efflclenL baLLery swapplng
when mowlng large lawns.

Table S lists the technical uesign iequiiements; these aie subject to change uuiing the couise of the
pioject.
1ab|e S- 1echn|ca| des|gn requ|rements
8equlremenL uescrlpLlon !usLlflcaLlon
1-1 1he mower wlll operaLe wlLh a 130 W
elecLrlc moLor.
An average lndlvldual provldes 60 W whlle
operaLlng a manual reel mower. 130 W ls a
slgnlflcanL lmprovemenL ln power.
1-2 LlLhlum lon baLLery packs wlll be used. 1he energy denslLy (Wh/kg) of llLhlum lon
baLLery cells ls slgnlflcanLly hlgher Lhan
oLher baLLery chemlsLrles.


MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 12 of 30
S. Iunct|ona| 8|ock D|agram
Figuie 4 is a functional uecomposition uiagiam foi the uesign of the electiic ieel mowei. The figuie
iuentifies the tiansfei of eneigy with ieu aiiows, signals with blue aiiows, anu the tiansfei of
mateiial with gieen aiiows.


I|gure 4-L|ectr|c ree| mower funct|ona| decompos|t|on d|agram

The electiic ieel mowei will ieceive thiee inputs: electiicity uuiing iechaiging, opeiatoi eneigy
input by moving the mowei, anu a signal input fiom the opeiatoi.
Electiical eneigy is stoieu in an onboaiu batteiy pack. Fiom theie it is tiansfeiieu to the motoi anu
also uissipateu as heat uuiing opeiation. Electiical oveiheating is a concein; theiefoie
consiueiation will have to be placeu into the tiansmission of the electiical powei, as well as the
methou of heat uissipation. Beat sinks oi fans may be useu to effectively tiansmit the excess heat
eneigy. 0nce electiical eneigy is tiansfeiieu to the motor, it is then transferred to the reel mowers
blaue ieel. This can be accomplished with a gearbox, which will adjust the motors output rotation
to the uesiieu blaue ieel velocity. Finally, the mechanical eneigy in the blaue ieel is tiansfeiieu to
the lawn, cutting the blaues of giass.
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 13 of 30
0peiatoi eneigy input is tiansfeiieu to the mowei thiough the mowei hanule as well as thiough
the wheels. These components shoulu allow foi easy anu comfoitable movement. Aujustable hanule
heights anu a piopeily uesigneu fiame shoulu make this possible. Nowei movement is ciucial foi
allowing the mowei to effectively cut giass. Cutting will occui as a combination of the spinning
blaue ieel anu foiwaiu movement. This iesults in the piouuction of giass clippings, which
iepiesent a mateiial output of the ieel mowei.
An opeiatoi signal input will be uiiecteu to the onboaiu motoi contiollei. This signal will be
tiansfeiieu fiom the contiollei to the motoi. The powei that this contiollei will iequiie will be
ueteimineu by a feeuback contiol loop, which will compute the eiioi between a uesiieu blaue ieel
iotation anu an encouei ieauing of the actual iotation anu will attempt to minimize it.



MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 14 of 30
6. Concept C|ass|f|cat|on 1rees and Concept Comb|nat|on 1ab|es
0ne aiea of inteiest foi this uesign is the methou of heat uissipation fiom the batteiy pack anu the
electiic motoi. It is expecteu that these components will iequiie a cooling system, as the batteiy
uischaige iate will be iapiu. Figuie S piesents a concept classification tiee foi possible cooling
solutions.

I|gure S- Concept c|ass|f|cat|on tree prov|d|ng coo||ng so|ut|ons

The favoieu options fiom this classification tiee involve aii cooling fiom a fan. This woulu not
iequiie a substantial amount of powei anu coulu eithei be uiiven by the electiic motoi oi by the
iotaiy motion of the wheels.

MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 13 of 30
7. Cverv|ew of Conceptua| So|ut|on A|ternat|ves
Seveial alteinatives weie consiueieu foi the uesign of the electiic ieel mowei. These uesigns anu
the pios anu cons aie highlighteu in the following sections.
7.1. Concept 1: Motor, gearbox, batter|es mounted |n-||ne w|th b|ade ree|

I|gure 6- 1wo whee|, |n-||ne des|gn
1ab|e 6- ros and cons of concept 1
!"#$ &#'$
Compact uesign The ineitia of the spinning uium may cause
the mowei to flip. To pievent this, a countei
moment system woulu neeu to be
implementeu
Easy to maneuvei The oveiall length of the mowei may exceeu
Su inches
Able to hanule uneven teiiain Not as stable as a foui wheel uesign


MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 16 of 30
7.2. Concept 2: Iour-whee| square base

I|gure 7- Iour whee| des|gn

1ab|e 7- ros and cons of concept 2
!"#$ &#'$
Impioveu stability ovei a two wheel uesign Inciease in weight anu cost
Easy to mount motoi, batteiies anu geaibox Ability to hanule uneven teiiain woulu
ueciease
Not as easy to maneuvei as the two wheel
uesign
Bifficult to mow up against an euge oi wall


MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 17 of 30
7.3. Concept 3: 1wo whee| des|gn w|th hand|e offset

I|gure 8- nand|e offset des|gn

1ab|e 8- ros and cons of concept 3
!"#$ &#'$
0ffset will pievent the hanule fiom flipping
ovei the mowei
Bifficult to maneuvei the mowei because of
the offset
Limiteu space available foi mounting the
motoi, geaibox anu batteiies
Bifficult to opeiate ovei uneven teiiain
Extia weight on hanule
Bifficult to tiansmit powei fiom motoi to
blaue ieel

MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 18 of 30

7.4. Concept 4: 1wo whee| des|gn w|th dr|ve tra|n attached to the frame

I|gure 9- 1wo whee| des|gn, dr|ve tra|n mounted on hand|e

1ab|e 9- ros and cons of concept 4
!"#$ &#'$
Compact uesign Not as stable as a foui wheel uesign
Installing the uiive tiain on the hanule
woulu mitigate the iolling effect causeu
by the ineitia of the blaue ieel
Limiteu space to mount uiive tiain
Two wheel uesign incieases
maneuveiability anu ability to hanule
uneven teiiain
Extia weight on hanule anu uifficult to
tiansmit powei fiom motoi to blaue ieel

MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 19 of 30
8. Ieas|b|||ty
8.1. L|ectr|c Motor
0ne ciucial sub-function is the piovision of powei to the blaue ieel. This will be accomplisheu with
an electiic motoi, as outlineu by the basic iequiiements of this pioject. In oiuei to assess the
iequiiements of this motoi, a manual ieel mowei was examineu.
To calculate the mowei powei anu blaue ieel iotational velocity, the tianslational velocity at which
the manual ieel mowei is pusheu was calculateu by ieplicating mowing speeu anu ueteimining the
time it takes to tiavel 6 meteis. Table 1u shows the iesults of this expeiiment:

1ab|e 10- 1|me measurements for 6 meters of mower trave|
MeasuremenL 1lme (s)
1 4.83
2 4.30
3 4.33
4 4.70
3 4.60
6 4.34
7 4.62
8 4.39
9 3.03
10 4.80
1
avg
= 4.68

Typical opeiatoi walking speeu was ueteimineu using the aveiage time to walk 6 meteis with the
following calculation:
=
d
t
=
6 m
4.68 s
= 1.Su ms (1)
To calculate the iotational velocity of the blaue ieel, the uium uiametei was measuieu. The
following calculations anu simple physical ielationships weie useu to ueteimine the iotational
velocity of the manual ieel mowei.
B
whccI
= u.2S m
v
waIk
= 1.Su ms
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 20 of 30
ueai iatio = 4.4: 1
C
whccI
= B
whccI
= u.78S m (2)

whccI
=
V
vaIR
C
vheeI
= 99.4 RPN (S)

drum
=
whccI
ueai iatio = 4S7 RPN (4)
This magnituue of velocity will easily be exceeueu by most electiic motois. A geaibox pioviuing a
geai ieuuction of at least S:1 will likely be iequiieu to ieuuce the pioviueu iotational velocity to a
value of appioximately 4Su RPN.
The iequiieu foice to opeiate the mowei was measuieu using a simple bathioom scale. The
measuieu opeiatoi input foice to uiive the mowei at a typical speeu was ueteimineu to be
appioximately Su newtons.
= = (SuN) [1.Su
m
s
6u W (S)
This appioximate value of powei input iepiesents the iequiieu opeiatoi input to move the mowei
anu spin the blaue ieel. The electiic ieel mowei must pioviue moie powei than a manual ieel
mowei. values ianging fiom 1Su to 2Su watts iepiesent the uesiieu powei that the electiic motoi
must pioviue. These values aie easily obtainable with many electiic motois.
vaiious motoi types weie examineu in oiuei to select the most appiopiiate electiic motoi foi this
application. Following ieseaich anu consultation with the uesign team supeivisoi, it was
ueteimineu that a biushless BC motoi paiieu with a geaibox woulu be capable of ueliveiing the
iequiieu amount of powei anu velocity foi this application, while peifoiming ieliably at a ielatively
high efficiency. This type of motoi woulu also uissipate heat much moie ieauily than othei motoi
types uue to the location of electiomagnets on the statoi.
Appenuix A contains fuithei infoimation obtaineu fiom motoi ieseaich.
8.2. 8attery acks
Two batteiy packs will be useu to supply the iequiieu powei. 0ne pack will be in use while the
othei is chaiging. vaiious batteiy chemistiies aie available to peifoim this task. Aftei conuucting
ieseaich anu assessing each type of batteiy cell, lithium ion batteiies will likely be useu as uefineu
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 21 of 30
in the technical iequiiements. Lithium ion (Li-Ion) batteiy cells can be expensive, howevei, the
powei-to-weight iatio is significantly highei than othei batteiy chemistiies. A uiiect compaiison
can be seen in Table B in Appenuix A. 0nique cells will be a ciitical component as they aie
consiueieu to be a specialty piouuct.
The motoi uesciibeu in section 8.1 is 1Su W. Seveial types of Li-Ion batteiy cells aie available, such
as piismatic anu cylinuiical. Piismatic cells can be packeu tightei than cylinuiical cells. Since the
cells will be uischaigeu in a ielatively shoit time, heat geneiation will be a pioblem. Cylinuiical cells
woulu be the best selection uue to the aii gaps between the cells when packeu togethei. A cooling
system woulu be useu to foice aii thiough these gaps, which woulu inciease heat tiansfei anu
ieuuce the iisk of uamaging the cells.
The 1Su W motoi will be poweieu with a batteiy pack of 48 v oi 72 v. These voltages pioviue low
cuiient uiaw foi 1Su W. Low ampeiage ieuuces the nominal capacity iequiieu of the packs,
howevei it incieases the oveiall weight of the pack. The feasibility of these two chaiacteiistics will
be assesseu in the following sections.
8.2.1. 8attery ack kun 1|me
A thiity minute iun time is neeueu as uefineu in the iequiiements section. Table 11 illustiates the
capacity iequiieu fiom the batteiy packs to achieve this iun time:
1ab|e 11- 8attery pack run t|me feas|b|||ty
ower volLage CurrenL (l=/v) Ah (A*0.3hr) Ah*0.8 (Cl)
130 W 48 v 3.13 1.36 1.93
130 W 72 v 2.08 1.04 1.30

Table 11 shows that the capacity iequiieu foi 48 v anu 72 v is 1.9S Ah (amp houis) anu 1.Su Ah,
iespectively. Pieliminaiy batteiy ieseaich showeu that theie aie many Li-Ion cells available with a
nominal capacity greater than 1.95 Ah and 1.30 Ah. One specific model is the ANR266Sum1
cylinuiical cell maue by A12S. The nominal voltage is S.S v anu the nominal capacity is 2.S Ah.
The capacity iequiieu foi the motoi is less than the 2.S Ah available fiom the batteiy cell. Batteiy
cells connecteu in seiies incieases the voltage, howevei the capacity (Ah) iemains the same.
Connecteu batteiy cells in paiallel incieases the capacity but the voltage iemains the same. With
this cell compaiison, it is eviuent that the iun time iequiieu fiom the cells can be achieveu using
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 22 of 30
seveial cells connecteu in seiies. To auu a laigei opeiational factoi, the same size pack can be
connecteu in paiallel to uouble the capacity.
Aftei ieseaich into available cells anu basic electiical calculations, it has been ueteimineu that a
batteiy pack iun time of Su minutes is feasible.
8.2.2. 8attery ack Charge 1|me
The chaige time is Su minutes as pieviously uefineu in the iequiiements section. The feasibility of
this iequiiement was assesseu by calculating the cuiient iequiieu to chaige the cells in Su minutes.
The following equation can be useu to ielate the cuiient iequiieu to chaige in a ceitain time
inteival:
=
Cupuct (A)
tmc ()
(6)
Evaluating equation 6 with the nominal capacity of 2.S Ah (A12S cell) anu a chaige time of Su
minutes, 4.6 A is iequiieu. This ampeiage is easily obtaineu with a mouein Batteiy Nanagement
System (BNS).
The maximum allowable chaiging cuiient foi the iapiu chaige of the A12S Cell is 1u A (A12S,
2uu6). The evaluation of 4.6 A uemonstiates that a Su minute iun time is feasible.
8.2.3. 8attery ack We|ght
The oveiall weight of the mowei is iequiieu to be less than 22.7 kg. A measuiement of the manual
push mowei was caiiieu out anu it was ueteimineu to weigh 11.4 lbs. This allows foi a maximum of
11.4 kg of auueu mateiial such as the motoi, batteiy pack anu housing.
To determine the weight of an individual battery pack, the ANR266Sum1 cylinuiical Li-Ion
batteiy cell was useu foi compaiison. With a nominal voltage of S.S v, anu a weight of u.u7 kg pei
cell table 12 shows batteiy pack weight chaiacteiistics:
1ab|e 12- 8attery ce|| tota| we|ght
volLage (v) number of Cells 8are Cell WelghL (kg) 1oLal ack WelghL (kg)
48 13 1.1 2.1
72 22 1.3 3.1

MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 23 of 30
The weight of the batteiy pack anu the weight of the motoi uesciibeu in sections 8.1 anu 8.2 show
that incoipoiating a motoi anu batteiy pack while limiting the weight to Su lbs is feasible.




MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 24 of 30
9. 1est|ng and Ver|f|cat|on
Theie aie seveial tests which will be peifoimeu to ensuie that the batteiy poweieu ieel mowei
satisfies all of the necessaiy iequiiements. The iequiiements weie split into two categoiies: basic
anu technical iequiiements. The basic iequiiements will be useu as a guiue thioughout the uesign
piocess anu will be veiifieu once the mowei is complete. Piecautions will be taken thioughout the
couise of the pioject to ensuie that these iequiiements aie met. The testing iequiieu has been
bioken into two sections: iequiiement testing anu pioof of concept testing. The puipose of the
iequiiements testing is to piove that the basic iequiiements have been met. The pioof of concept
testing will be useu to ueteimine the feasibility of the technical iequiiements at an eaily stage in
the uesign.
9.1 kequ|rement 1est|ng
The physical chaiacteiistics of the mowei, such as the uimensions anu weight will be veiifieu using
simple measuiement techniques. The uimensions will be veiifieu using a tape measuie anu the
weight will be veiifieu using a scale with a iesolution of u.uS kg. The iesolution of these
measuiement uevices is appiopiiate foi these tests.
To test the functionality of the batteiy packs, two expeiiments will be uone. The fiist will consist of
timing how long it takes foi one of the batteiy packs to fully chaige. The seconu test will consist of
timing how long it takes to fully uischaige the batteiy while the mowei is being useu.
9.2 roof of Concept
Thiee pioof of concepts will be uone. The fiist test will be peifoimeu to ueteimine the heat
geneiation which occuis uuiing a quick batteiy uischaige. This test will ueteimine if a cooling
system must be implementeu into the uesign. This expeiiment will be uone by connecting a batteiy
pack to an electiical iesistoi, which will uischaige the batteiy in Su minutes. The heat geneiation
will be monitoieu closely by measuiing the tempeiatuie inciease of the suiiounuing aii.
The seconu test will occui at an eaily stage in the uesign piocess anu will consist of hooking up an
electiic motoi of appioximately 1Su watts to the manual ieel mowei. This will opeiate the same
way as a batteiy-poweieu motoi. Buiing the test, the peifoimance of the motoi anu electiical feeu
will be measuieu. This will allow the aveiage powei to be calculateu.
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 23 of 30
A thiiu test will be peifoimeu to ueteimine the iequiieu powei input fiom a ieel mowei opeiatoi.
This will be uone by measuiing the input foice anu walking speeu. With these two measuiements,
the powei iequiieu to tuin the blaue ieel can be calculateu. A uigital scale will be fixeu to the
hanule of the manual ieel mowei. When the opeiatoi applies a pushing foice to the scale, the
weight will be iecoiueu fiom the scale anu monitoieu.
If these tests aie successful, the pioposeu uesign will continue as planneu. If these tests ieveal
conceptual uesign eiiois, uesign mouifications will be maue.
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 26 of 30
10. kequ|red 1echn|ca| Lxpert|se
The uesign of the ieel mowei will iequiie mechanical anu electiical engineeiing skills. Betaileu CAB
uiawings will be iequiieu foi the constiuction of the mowei. Basic assembly skills will be neeueu
when the piototype is built. Table 1S shows the engineeiing expeitise iequiieu foi this pioject anu
the level of knowleuge that each inuiviuual has:
1ab|e 13- Lng|neer|ng and techn|ca| expert|se
Technical Area Team Member Responsible Level of Expertise
SolidWorks/CAD Erica McAdam Medium
Welding JF Lefort Low
Electrical/Programming Clark Calnan Medium-Low
Electrical Wiring JF Lefort Low
Mech. Assembly Erica McAdam Medium-Low
Battery Spec. Alex Higgs Low
MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 27 of 30
11. kesources and keferences
Theie aie seveial iesouices iequiieu foi the success of this pioject. These iesouices incluue testing
facilities, auuitional expeitise anu extia funuing.
11.1. Iac|||t|es
In oiuei to test some of the electiical equipment such as the batteiy uischaige iate anu mowei
powei tiain, a testing facility will be neeueu. Bi. Swan has offeieu his lab anu expeitise foi these
tests. In oiuei to use these iesouices, a test anu safety plan will be uone to his satisfaction.
Assembling the mowei will iequiieu space anu tools. If the uesign stuuio is insufficient foi the
pioject, peisonal woikshop space anu tools will be useu.
11.2. Add|t|ona| Adv|sors
To peifoim the pioof of concept test, Bi. Allen has offeieu a 1Su W electiic motoi. A safety anu test
plan will be uiafteu anu Bi. Allen will play a small iole in auvising the team on this test.
11.3. Iunds
The scope of woik foi this pioject is buuget-uepenuent. If sufficient funus aie not available fiom the
uepaitment, seveial thiiu paity companies will be appioacheu foi small uonations.








MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 28 of 30
keferences
A12S Systems Inc. !"#$ &'()* +",$"-. /'0 12345567.8.2uu6.























MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 29 of 30
Append|x A- Motor and 8attery kesearch

lrom Wlklpedla: hLLp://en.wlklpedla.org/wlkl/LlecLrlc_moLors#Comparlson_by_ma[or_caLegorles

Table A- Summaiy of pios anu cons foi uiffeient motoi types
1ype AdvanLages ulsadvanLages 1yplcal appllcaLlon 1yplcal drlve, ouLpuL
8rushed
uC
Slmple speed
conLrol
MalnLenance (brushes)
Medlum llfespan
CosLly commuLaLor and
brushes
SLeel mllls
aper maklng
machlnes
1readmlll exerclsers
AuLomoLlve
accessorles
8ecLlfler, llnear LranslsLor(s) or
uC chopper conLroller.[73]
8rushless
uC moLor
(8LuC)
or
(8LuM)
Long llfespan
Low malnLenance
Plgh efflclency
Plgher lnlLlal cosL
8equlres LC conLroller
wlLh closed-loop conLrol
8lgld ("hard") dlsk
drlves
Cu/uvu players
LlecLrlc vehlcles
8C vehlcles
uAvs
Synchronous, slngle-phase or
Lhree-phase wlLh M roLor and
Lrapezoldal sLaLor wlndlng,
vlu Lyplcally vSWM lnverLer
Lype.[69][73][74]
SwlLched
relucLance
moLor
(S8M)
Long llfespan
Low malnLenance
Plgh efflclency
no permanenL
magneLs
Low cosL
Slmple
consLrucLlon
Mechanlcal resonance
posslble
Plgh lron losses
noL posslble:
* Cpen or vecLor conLrol
* arallel operaLlon
8equlres LC conLroller[71]
Appllances
LlecLrlc vehlcles
1exLlle mllls
AlrcrafL appllcaLlons
WM and varlous oLher drlve
Lypes, whlch Lend Lo be used ln
very speclallzed
/ CLM appllcaLlons.[71][73]
unlversal
moLor
Plgh sLarLlng
Lorque, compacL,
hlgh speed.
MalnLenance (brushes)
ShorLer llfespan
usually acousLlcally nolsy
Cnly small raLlngs are
economlcal
Pandheld power
Lools, blenders,
vacuum cleaners,
lnsulaLlon blowers
varlable slngle phase AC, half-
wave or full-wave phase-angle
conLrol wlLh Lrlac(s), closed-
loop conLrol opLlonal.[73]
Summary of uC properLles (underllned lLems are safeLy relaLed):
Plgher efflclency (greaLesL aL low loads) and less wear Lhan brushed
More complex and expenslve Lo conLrol Lhan brushed
More Lorque per welghL Lhan brushed
More Lorque per WaLL Lhan brushed
More rellable Lhan brushed
8equlre no alrflow for coollng (wlndlngs are on Lhe sLaLor and conducLlon ls posslble)
no sparklng from movlng brushes
Some specs for 8LuC moLors from Maxon, lLLman, and 8aldor:
230W for 24v, 36v, 48v approx. $630 Maxon
444W 27.6v wlLh bullL ln conLroller 8.3 kg lLLman
8rushless uC avallable ln x and x P 8aldor


MLCP 4010/4013 Croup 13 8eel Mower
ualhousle unlverslLy: uepL. of Mechanlcal Lng age 30 of 30
()*+, -. &#/0)"1$#' #2 *)33,"1,$ 4$#5"6,
http:en.wikipeuia.oigwikiCompaiison_of_batteiy_types, accesseu 2u1S)
ChemlsLrles v Wh/kg W/kg Cycles Wh/$
Lead Acld 2.1 30-40 180 300-800 3-8
nlckel Cadmlum 1.2 40-60 130 1300 1.23-2.3
nlckel-MeLal
Pydrlde
1.2 30-80 230-1000

300-1000 2.73
LlLhlum lon 3.6 130-230 1800 400-1200 2.8-3
LlLhlum lron
phosphaLe
3.23 80-120 1400 2000+ 0.7-3.0