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Meditation Systems Table (table is representative and not exhaustive)

Centering Prayer/ Contemplation Traditional Background Founder/ Main Figure/ Teachers

Catholic/ Christian (Inclusive) Thomas Merton; Thomas Keating; Cynthia Bourgeault; M. Basil Pennington

Kabbalah/ Qabalah
Jewish Mystical (Inclusive) Yehuda Ashlag; David Cooper; Michael Laitman

Mindfulness Meditation
Vipassana/ Insight; MBSR Medical (Inclusive) Bhante Gunaratana; Sharon Salzberg; Jon Kabat-Zinn; Jack Kornfield; Thich Nhat Hanh Breath/ Body awareness Mindful walking; Hatha Yoga; Body Scan *Mindfulness in Plain English (by Gunaratana) *Full Catastrophe Living (by JKZ); *A Path with Heart (by Kornfield) Mindfulness-based stress reduction / cognitive therapy (MBSR, MBCT); etc Insight Meditation Society MA; UMass for MBSR; Spirit Rock CA; Plum Village France; Multiple; cfm/mbsr;;;

Ridhwan School Diamond Approach

Sufi Islam/ Mystical/ Psychology (Inclusive) A. H. Almaas (Hameed Ali)

Self-Realization Fellowship
Hindu Kriya Yoga (Inclusive) Paramahansa Yogananda; Sri Daya Mata

Transcendental Meditation
Vedic Hindu (Inclusive) Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

Tibetan Buddhism
Various Tibetan Lineages (Inclusive) HH 14th Dalai Lama; Panchen Lama; Pema Chodron; Lama Zopa; Chogyam Trungpa; Tulku Thondup Mantra; visualization; chanting; Tonglen Rlung-sgom walking; mudras *The World of Tibetan Buddhism; *Path to Bliss (by Gyatso) *Start Where You Are (by Chodron) Teacher-student relationship directed

Zen Buddhism/ Chan

Numerous Chinese & Japanese Lineages (Inclusive) Bodhidharma; Eisai; Dogan; Huang Po; Charlotte Joko Beck; Claude A. Thomas Zazen

Technique Body/ Activity Focus Readings/ Books

Sacred Word repetition; prayer; lectio divina Contemplative walking *New Seeds of Contemplation (by Merton); *Open Mind Open Heart (by Keating)


Inquiry meditation

Hong-Sau; Aum; Kriya Yoga Energization exercises *Autobiography of a Yogi; *Metaphysical Meditations (by Yogananda)

Personalized Mantra repetition Self-directed


Breathing exercises

*A Beginners Guide to Kabbalah (CD); *A Heart of Stillness (by Cooper)


Multiple retreats; Contemplative Outreach Gethsemani KY; Snowmass CO; Multiple/ Regional

Main Sites/ Headquarters

Tree of Life; Ten Sefirot; Devekut; Teacher directed Multiple

*Essence; *The Elixir of Enlightenment; *The Diamond Heart Series I-IV; *Inner Journey Home (by Almaas) Diamond approach lessons; retreats

*Science of Being & Art of LivingTranscendental Meditation (by Maharishi)

Berkeley CA; Boulder CO; Multiple

Websites/ Contact Info

www.centeringprayer .com (Also see Christian Meditation,;; 1-800-kabbalah;

Correspondence lessons; retreats; guru relationship; interviews Los Angeles CA; Multiple (See also Yogoda Satsanga Society of India, sister organization to SRF)

7 step course work; interviews; personal mantra; retreats Fairfield, IA; Multiple; (Transcendental Meditation Independent UK); www.maharishipeace; 1-888-learnTM; (, independent, less $) Popularized in 1960s, expanded meditation in U.S. Large corpus of health research at Maharishi Vedic University

Zen martial arts; Zen arts (ceramics, archery, calligraphy) *Zen Mind Beginners Mind (by Suzuki); *The Three Pillars of Zen (by Kapleau) *Everyday Zen (by Beck) Teacher-student relationship directed

Lhasa, Tibet; Dharamsala, India; Multiple

Shaolin Temple China (birthplace); Multiple Centers; www.deerparkcenter. org; www.dawnmountain. org;;

Contemplation dates Ancient oral tradition Popularized in 1980s Founded in 1970s; Founded in 1920; Model of nonChinese/Japanese back to St. Anthony of wisdom and from 8 week course called the Work, popularized yogaviolence loving tradition arrived in and the Desert mystery; tells of in medical/ research draws from meditation in U.S.; compassion of U.S. after WWII; Fathers, revived Light of Creation; setting; many psychology; teach direct path to enemies; ongoing most Zen meditation after Vatican II; in Jewish renewal vipassana/ insight integrated spiritual Self-realization dialogue with research in Japanese the tradition of movement sanghas or groups approach to Selfthrough ancient Kriya neuroscience Christian saints. liberation Yoga researchers Other popular meditation styles, teachers, and spiritual philosophies include the following: Ram Dass, formerly a Harvard psychologist and researcher, learned Hindu meditation and chanting from his guru Maharaji. Books: Be Here Now and Still Here. Website: Eckhart Tolle, formerly an Oxford research scholar, experienced a spiritual transformation and teaches contemporary spirituality. Book: The Power of Now. Website: Tom Brown Jr. was mentored by Grandfather, an Apache Medicine Man and Scout. Book: The Vision. School: Nature and Wilderness Survival Schools. Website: Ken Wilber, unified field theory of consciousness. Book: A Brief History of Everything. School: Integral Institute. Websites:,, John Main, a Catholic monk, founder of Christian Meditation in-breath mental mantra MA-RA and out-breath NA-THA Sanskrit for Come Lord Jesus. Book: Word into Silence. Website