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CALLIGRAPHY & LETTERING DESIGN

Newhall ByArthur

Publishing FOSTER WALTER

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D ESI G N A N D L E TTERING

BY ART NEWHALL
Publishing, Inc. WalterFoster Hills,CA92653 23062La Cadena Drive,Laguna
@ 1989,WalterFosterPublishing, Inc.All rightsreserved. of the work for This book has been publishedto aid the aspiringartist. Reproduction Any photomechanical reproduction of art from the study or finishedart is permissible. purposes publication is prohibited for commercial withor art drawnfrom the publication from the publisher. out writtenconsent

l ntr od u ction.... Materials Basiclnstruction BasicSan SerifStyle . ViewAnd StrokeSequence Exploded Nu m e r als..... Cursive BasicChancery StrokeSequence Chancery ChanceryStyles Samples Chancery U ncia l Flourishes & Swashes The BlackLetter Ro m a n Spencerian Script Aw ar d s-S pencerian.. Renaissance ... Ba tar d e Ver sa ls Gr e e ti ng Cards l nlin e Lo g o &SymbolDesign Th e SteelB rush LettersAt Work Co n clu sion

3 4
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7 B I 10 11 12 19 20 23 24 30 36 39 40 ....42 ....44 ... 46 . ..... 49 ........50 . . .. . .. . 55 . .. 56 ...... 64

amongthe general of calligraphy and popularity interest Thetremendous the scopeandthe useof thisbeautiful yearshasincreased publicin recent of diplomas, placein the production from its obvious form. Aside lettering has calligraphy of use a contemporary and verses; testimonials awards, logos, the design of it in for a new,excitingdemand creating developed, movie titles, book jackets,album covers,sign design,menus, labels, - to namejust a few. posters, type designand advertising guide and study reference This book offersthe readera comprehensive to study and their applicatons a myriadof alphabets manual.lt presents should alwayshave good examplesin front of and to copy. Beginners can use the letter calligraphers practicing. advanced More them while for reference. stylesamples with It is imporantto first learnthe basicsand to becomecomfortable with different Practice and creative. your tools,but try to be adventurous Developyour own stylesof letteringor pens, papersand techniques. letterstylesto makethem your own. changeestablished

PENSAND INK
Ca llig ra p h ic le t t e rin g is d o n e primarily with a broadpen.There are two types of broad pens: dip pensand fountain pens.Bothhave nibs. There are interchangeable many brandson the market.The main advantage of foqntainpens t is t h e ir a b ilit y o h o ld a la rg e supply of ink, but they have a n u mb e r o f n ib s iz e s a n dd o limit e d n o t u t iliz e p e rma n e n tin k . Dip pens produce a cleaner,crisper line than fountain pens, but are slightly more difficultto master. You will need a jar of black india ink for usewith a dip pen.lt is very importantto keep both types of pens clean.A small jar of water k e p t n e a rb y f o r d ip p in g t h e p e n a n d wip in g it c le a n is recommended.

in The BroadPen is available variety and sizes. of shapes

FinePointNibsfor detail lettering.

Extr a - F in e Po n t

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Po in t Su p e r - F in e

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Fine Point

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Pont ExtraSuper-Fine

A wide,smalljar securedto a piece keeps the ink cardor plastic of heavy should The ink level stable. container be just highenoughfor a dippedpen load.

PAPER
for calligraphy. Thereare manytypesof paperand boardssuitable on the qualityandtypeof work you aredoing.A The choicedepends lettering, 20 lb. ledger bond is good for practice.For all-purpose in two comes board rag bristol board is favored.Bristol 1000/o o f t h e t wo a s it h a s The kid finishis t h e b e t t e r kid and plate. fi nish e s, paper a slight"tooth."For the final "one of a kind"job, a parchment also card board Show is available. for calligraphy madespecifically Giveit a try. takesink beautifully.

M I S CEL L A N E O U S
A . d ra win g can be quite simpleo r v e ry e x t e n s iv e You r e q u ipment lig h t a rea mu s t go o d o f s o u rc e a and achair ( a b o ut x 40"), 30" ta b le need a t-square, will also your You work. if you are seriousabout severaltriangles- 30, 45, and 60 degreeangles- and pencils, in k , o p a q u ewh it e a pencils h a rp e n e r, p e n s,pe n cleaner, erasers, brushes' and a few lettering mistakes) paint (forcorrecting

C allig r a p hic lettering is donewith the b ro a dp e n .T h e a n g let h e p e n is "thic k a n d t h in " s t y le .A s imp le ,b a s ic h e ld i s the key to the beautiful letterstylethat is quiteeasyto execute with the broadpen is shownon page7. The letteris a thick and thin Romanstylewithoutserifs. This style is beautiful and practical. lt is sometimes called"Stunt Lydian" b e ca u se i t is similar T h e p e n is h e ldf a irlyrig id , to the Lydian typef a c e . po in ti ngabovethe right shoulder, he ld a t a 3 5 d e g re ea n g le .T h e (down)strokes vertical strokes are madewith a firm and the horizontal wristaction. The pen is heldat a constant angle- neverrotated. Use quality bond paper for practice.lt takes ink beautifully, and is sn a sheet r ela ti vely inexpensive. , ra wg u id e lin e o Usingyour t-sq u a red a sheetof bond of smoothillustration board,then placeit underneath pa p e r .( This eliminaies g u id e lin e s havingto dr a w o n e a c h p ie c eo f bond paper.) Alwayskeepa smallpieceof card or scrappapernearby to che ckthe ink f low of your pen.A ftere a c hd ip o f t h e p e n ,p u lla s h o rt strokeon the card to remove as the excessink. This is very important too much ink creates line. a sloppy Try using differentpen anglesto acquaintyourselfwith the results. to haveEood copy in Constantpractice is a must,and it is important front of you for reference. Also, be sure to cleanyour pen frequently dip it in a jar of waterand wipe it cleanwith a lint-free rag.At the end - ammonia worksfine. of a session, cleanthe nib with pen cleaner SPACING as the letters lettersis as important - The spacingbetween themselves. the optical weight or equalizing Good spacing involves smoothness the narrowest spaceis of the word. In uppercase letters betweenround letterssuch as O and C. A slightly wider space is betweena straightletterand a round letter,like I and O. The widest spaceis between letters suchas H and l. Diagonal two straight, vertical letters are spacedoptically the open area;no dark or light to equalize sections shoulddominate. Properspacingis called"good color."

sansffiStyle

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-INSTRUCTION-

The Chancery letter is a favorite with calligraphersbecause of its beauty, lt is greatfor a largeamountof copy. functionand speedof execution. The ChanceryCursive (italic)letter lends to the broadpen.The shape itselfbeautifully of the lettersare tall ratherthan fat. The pen angle is 45 degrees,but the pitch of the degreesoff the vertical.The stroke is 10-'15 pen does mostof the work and littlepressure is needed.Use one of the larger nibs for practiceas they are much easierto control. as shown.Use Followthe strokesequence boardfor practice. the guideline

BODYOF LOWERCASE 5 PENWIDTHS


Ascenders & Descenders equal to body height

CAPITALHEIGHT 7-8 PEN WDTHS

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SEQUENCE STROKE
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UPPER CASE LETTERS

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CURSIVE CHANCERY

SAMPLES CHANCERY

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-lNsrRUCTloN from the Romaninch of heightThe name"Uncial"is derived

"uncia."

give it an and descenders but its ascenders Uncial is an upper case alphabet, upperand lowercaselook. arefull The letters form is madewith a pen angleof 35 degrees. The Uncialletter to overspace' not be careful so areas, open and rounded with considerable The alphabet two guidelines. between Uncialshouldfeelthat it can be contained wellwith italicalphabets. and widths.lt blends of heights can be usedin a variety

20

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& SWASHES FLOURISHES


the spaceand by enhancing a doublepurpose extra"serves This "stylish interest. adding unexpected It is important that these strokes be executed with disciplineand planning. The bold ribbonswashis done with the samebroad pen used and a fine swashes A smallerpen is usedfor narrower for the lettering. point pen is usedfor hairline flourishes.

23

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INSTRUCTIONThe Black Letter,also called"Old English," is a handsome, strong,condensed style.lt is a greatform for creatinga feelingof times past.Today, it is often used for diplomas, awardsand other certificates. The Black Letteralphabethas many stylesand weights.The basicsolid weight letteris not as difficult as it appears because the letters are quite uniform.The pen is held at a 30 degree angle.The very ornateOld English with hairline flourishes must be drawn carefully with a sharp, hard pencil, then inkedin with a pointedpen.

24
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BLACKLETTER

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INSTRUCTION
The Romanletteris the foundationof many of the letterforms usedtoday.Roman of the classicform. Thereare manyvariations stonecuttersand scribesdeveloped unchanged. remain but the basics the Romanletter, The serifson the The Romancapitalsare made with a pen angle of 30 degrees. strokeacrossthe top and lettersare executedby first makingan almosthorizontal and to the left to finish right pen to the is arced Then the the bottom of the letter. F, G, L, T, and S, then E, C, letters finish the serif.A shortverticalstrokeis madeto drawnand inkedin with a arecarefully precise letters classic filledin. The detailed, fine pen.

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ABCDEF GHI NOPBS TUVWX Y

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-tNSTRUcrloN iS idealfOr Or "ROundhand," ThiS claSsyScript,alSOknOwnaS "COpperplate"


- The intricatesinglestrokeletteris written at a slant of 54 COppERpLATE with is developed degreeswith a flexible,pointed,oblique pen. Copperplate from a hairlineto a pressure on the nib. The pressureis graduallyincreased hairline. backto a then decreased swell,

greeting cards or whenevera sophisticated awards,diplomas,testimonials, is desired. feeling

Spencerianis - Used for captions,logos and nameplates, SPENCERIAN laidout on tracingpaperwith pencil, practical The copy is carefully and beautiful. to illustration it is transferred When the letteringis accurate, somewhatoversize. with opaque pen. slips any pointed Correct with a boardand inked in carefully white paint and it's readyfor photo reduction.

FinePoint

SPENC ERI AN

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The weightof the swell shouldbe well abovethe g u id e lin e .

AWARDS SPENCERIAN

INSTRUCTION
whenthe capitals letterstyleadds much classand effectiveness This decorative or a verse. are usedfor the leadinitialin a paragraph the lettermust be carefullylaid out on tracing Beingvery ornateand detailed, paper, then transferred to the finalstockfor inking. nib and buildthe letterup with care. lf usingthe broadpen,usethe smallest it to Transfer the tracingshouldbe slightlyoversize. lf the art is for reproduction, u p t h e a rt b o ardand do the finalinkingw it h a f in ep o in tp e n .S h a rp e n i l l ustr ati on with opaquewhitepaintand it is readyfor photo reduction.

40

RENAISSANCE

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INSTRUCTION
century. in the fifteenth in France was developed angularalphabet This beautiful are form and the strokes for the broadpen.lt is a veryangular is a natural Batarde the to create madewith litiledifficulty.lt is bestto useone of the largernib sizes The uppercaseletters The pen is held at a 45 degreeangle. sharpribboneffect. caseletters' lower tightly-packed the with well are quitewide and contrast and otheritalics' Cursive with Chancery beautifully combines Batarde

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-tNSTRUcrloN "Versals"
The name

comesfrom its originaluse as the initialletterof a verse.

of this letter grace. The maincharacteristic with an angular aretall letters Versals flaircurvingin at the middleof the stroke.lt is bestto styleis the gentletapered pencilin the lettershape, then use a pen width that will giveyou one sideof the the other.Afterthis,the spaceis filled pen widthto create then a different stroke, the stroke.Then thin serifsare madewith a flat pen angle.The in to complete lettersB, D, G, P, R and U haveraisedand loweredloopsaboveand belowthe g u id e lin e s.

with two Buildup the letter then fill it in with strokes, pen or"brush.

Loopsriseaboveand fall b e lo wt h e g u id e lin e s .

44

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-INSTRUCTIONwhen used as a title or as the initial The Inlinestyle can be strikinglyeffective of a word. lt hasgreat"posterpunch." capital as the letters requires some planningbeforeits execution The Inlinetechnique Each letter should be must be wide enoughto containthe stripecomfortably. carefullylaid out with the centerline in place.One approachis to use a small But the the stripein between. broadpen and lettereachsideof the stroke,leaving paint inline the carefully then and form completely letter the is to besttechnique precise brush control. requires This with opaquewhitepaintand a smallbrush.

BOLs
A good logo advertising. Logo designis a vital part of promotional and recognition. indentification instant can provide Ma n yt ime s Th e b e st logosare usuallyquitesi mp lea n d s y mb o lic . signature. graphic the company the symbolalonecreates A powerfuleffectis often achievedby groupingstylizedinitials. 50

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LETTERING WITHTHE

Brwh
RUCTION
and helpfultool. lt is greatfor largelettering The SteelBrush is an interesting of itsextrawidth,and you can usethinnedposterpainton it as well as ink. because to Steel Brushesrange from 1/4 inch to 3/4 inch wide.They make it possible 7 to 8 incheshigh. fashionletters your hand The SteelBrushis a fine tool for sign or posterwork' Try supporting than a provides more control tip flexible The mahlstick. with a sign painter's at a time. more colors pen or two into the try dipping results, Forinteresting brush.

55

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OF EXAMPLES LETTERING IN USED ADVERTISING

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with the to share my life-longobsession It has been my pleasure to the letterform with you. I hope you don't restrictyour lettering broad pen. Try the fine point flexible nibs and the steel brush. quill.These Experiment with a show card brushand a sign painter's I have demonskills. will all contributeto your total calligraphic strated many alphabetsand styles;they are here for the taking. Remember, every minute you spend exploringthis excitingart is yours to keep.Don't be afraidto be creative!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
and understanding. To RossSarracino-forhis kindness help and editing. To SydneySprague-for her professional and patience. To my wife,Emma-for her encouragement

for Instruction rious Artists Serious


'll'h:>nhat the Artist's Library Seriesis all will help you lrr-'il The booksin this series technical ,us:n.J overcome r-ourcreativity, and explorenew media.Each 64-page nrr:r;-;ies. on the materialsand methfocuses p"*rerhack qrrs ,trr a specificmedium and providesstep-byhelpful tips,and plenty of w':: demonstrations,
i:tlr.Iragement.

is in this series Thequalityof instruction Eachbookis writtenandillustratu;ns-irpassed. in the artistwhospecializes r; :r a professional to pr:ir"-ular mediumandis uniquelyqualified expertise. level of new to a s;;e thereader
AL13

Perspective
by Wm. F. Poweil AL14
i*-. -'

Cartooning
by Hal Tollison AL15

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R.. Lighr
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D:.:. & Lenenr.: Calligraphy


by Arthur Nerhall AL16

ETi t:3nks

'q l. l:::lordJohnson

Wih lfi.r1l;;; Watercolor R.Light byDuane


ALl7

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1..i HowToUseIt)
: Pcrsell

Materials Oil Painting


by Wm. F. Powell AL18

,"'ur :: llll Pen& Ink


. r- l.ssfod

Materiak & Acrylic Watercolor


by Wm. F. Powell AL19

- ; r:': ?ncils
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TheArt Of Framing
by Charlene Brom AL2O

,lf i", -s':c l.Dellille

FeltPen&Watercolor R.Light byDuane


AL21

Sculpturing
Mazzone by Domenico AL22 Painting EggTempera by Kirk Miller AL23 Knife Painting by Wm.F.Powell AL24 Marker Rendering by ToddMurrison

& Uses) ,;ir-;{.', ,Techniques


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provides Publishing WalterFoster products for all ages art instruction For moreinformaandskill levels. tion,sendfor a free catalog.
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