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Network Models

12
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TEACHING SUGGESTIONS
Teaching Suggestion 12.1: The solution techniques for this chapter are easy and straightforward. Although they obtain an optimal solution, students should be told that other optimal solutions (alternate optimal solutions) may exist. Unlike linear programming, however, these techniques do not alert students to this possibility. (QM for Windows software, does, however.) Teaching Suggestion 12.2: Have students solve the same minimal-spanning tree problem using different starting nodes. This will show students that they will get optimal solutions regardless of the starting point. In most cases, there will be alternate optimal solutions. Ask how students would recognize alternate optimal solutions for the minimalspanning tree problem. Teaching Suggestion 12.3: The maximal-ow technique can be used to solve a number of interesting types of problems. Have students develop and solve maximal-ow problems different from the ones in the chapter and at the end of the chapter. Teaching Suggestion 12.4: The maximal-ow technique involves subtracting capacity along the path that is picked with some ow. This can be confusing to some students. The capacity is subtracted in the opposite direction of the ow to maintain correct network relationships. Teaching Suggestion 12.5: Students may wonder why we put the distance in a box by the node that is the closest to the origin. This is done to make it easier for us to nd the solution. The distance placed in the box represents the shortest path from the origin to that node in the network. For larger problems, this is useful to help us keep track of intermediate results. Teaching Suggestion 12.6: The shortest-route problem can be solved using several techniques, including dynamic programming. This can lead to a discussion about selecting the best technique to solve a management science problem.
5

5 2 2

6 3 6 3 2 6 3 4 5 6 4

We begin with node 1. Node 4 is the nearest node, and thus we connect node 1 to node 4. Given nodes 1 and 4, node 6 is the nearest, and we connect it to node 4. Now considering nodes 1, 4, and 6, we see that node 7 is the nearest to node 6 and we connect it. Node 5 is connected to node 7, and node 3 is connected to node 5 in the same way. Finally, node 2 is connected to node 1. Using the minimum spanning tree technique, we can see that the total distance required to connect all nodes is 18. The following gure shows the results.

2 5 6

6 2

5 2 7 3

6 3 2 6 3 4 5 6

ALTERNATIVE EXAMPLES
Alternative Example 12.1: Given the following network, perform the minimum spanning tree technique to determine the best way to connect nodes on the network, while minimizing total distance.

Alternative Example 12.2: Given the network in the gure on the next page, determine the maximum amount that can ow through the network.

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2 2 5 3 4 1 5 5 33 4 4 3 1

0 1 6 0

This process continues. We put a maximum of 2 units through nodes 1, 3, 5, and 6. The maximum amount that can ow through the network is 11. The gure below shows the nal results.
0 5 5 6 2

6 2 4
1 2 5

0 1 3 0 82 0 4 1 1 3 3 5 3 2 3 5 0

5 3 5

We begin this problem by putting the maximum ow of 4 through nodes 1, 2, and 6. This is shown in the following gure. The ows have been adjusted along this path.
6 2 0 1 5 5 1 3 4 6

1 0 3 4 3 1 4 1 5 5 1 3 2 5 0

## 4 units 1 unit 4 units 12 units 11

Alternative Example 12.3: Given the network in the following gure, determine the shortest route or path through the network.
200

1 26

4 units

Next, we will put the maximum ow of 1 through nodes 1, 4, 2, and 6. The adjusted ows are shown in the following gure.
6 2 4 0 1 5 4 2 4 4 4 3 1 5 5 3 1 unit 1 2 5 0 5 1 6 0

2 Start

50
100 50

20

0
6

10

0
3 100 5

10

End

1 1426

The nearest node to node 1 is node 2. The distance is 50. Thus we put 50 in a box by node 2. The results of this step are shown in the following gure.

50 2 Start 200 4

Next, we put the maximum ow of 4 units through nodes 1, 4, and 6. The adjusted network is shown below.
6 2 4 0 1 0 5 2 8 4 1 5 1 3 5 1 3 0 5 2 0 0 5 5 6 0

50
100 50

20

0
6

10

0
3 100 5

10

End

The next nearest node to node 1 is node 3. The distance is 100. Thus we put 100 in a box by node 3. The results of this step are shown in the following gure.

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50 2 Start
50

50 200 4
20 0

250 200 4

2 Start
50

20

0
300 6

1
10 0

100

50
0 10

100

50
10 0

End

10

0
3 100 100 5 200

End

3 100

100

We continue the process. The next-nearest node to node 1 is node 5. The distance between node 4 and 5 is 100 and the total distance between node 5 and node 1 is 200. Thus we put 200 in a box by node 5. The results of this step are shown in the following gure.
50 2 Start
50

## SOLUTIONS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS

12-1. The minimal-spanning technique is one that will nd the best way to connect all the nodes in a network together while minimizing the total distance between nodes or the total cost of connecting the nodes together. A number of management science problems can be solved using this technique: an example was given connecting water and power to a real estate development project. This technique can also be used to determine the best way to deliver cable TV to households, connect computers on a computer network, install an oil pipeline, develop a natural gas network, and more. 12-2. The rst step of the maximal-ow technique involves picking any path that has some capacity through the network. Then the ow along this path is increased to the maximum. Capacity ows must be adjusted along this path to indicate the new ow. This adjustment involves subtracting the new ow along the path in the direction of the ow, and adding the amount of the new ow along the path in the opposite direction. This process is repeated until there is no more ow through the network in the desired direction. 12-3. The maximal-ow technique can be used to determine the maximum number of cars that can ow through a road system, the number of gallons of chemicals that can ow through a chemical processing plant, the barrels of oil that can go through a pipeline network, the number of people that can use public transportation to get to work, the number of pieces of mail that can go through a mail service, and more. Any time that material or items ow through a network, the maximal-ow technique can be used. 12-4. The rst step of the shortest-route technique is to nd the nearest node to the origin. We put the distance in a box to help us keep track of intermediate solutions. Next, we nd the next nearest node to the origin, using any previous analysis. This process is continued until we get an optimal solution. 12-5. The shortest-route technique can be used to nd the best way to install a phone cable between two major cities. Any time items must be moved from one place to another or something, like a cable, must be used to connect two points, the shortest-route technique can be used. 12-6. Yes, it is possible to get alternative optimal solutions with all of the techniques discussed in this chapter. There are, however, no automatic approaches or procedures that will alert you to alternative optimal solutions as was the case in linear programming. In most cases, however, alternative optimal solutions can be found by inspection.

200

4
20 0

1
10 0

100

50
0 10

End

3 100

100

5 200

The next-nearest node to node 1 is node 4. Actually, there are two paths to node 4 with the same distance of 250. One path is nodes 1, 3, 5, and 4. The other path is nodes 1, 2, and 4. We put 250 in a box by node 4. The results of this step are shown in the following gure.
50 2 Start
50

250 200 4
20 0

1
10 0

100

50
0 10

End

3 100

100

5 200

The nal step is to consider node 6. We can get to node 6 through node 5 (distance of 200 to node 1) and node 4 (distance of 250 to node 1). Going through node 5 will minimize the total distance. We can see that the shortest route is 300 (200 from node 5 to node 1 and 100 from node 5 to node 6). The results are shown in the following gure.

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12-7.
3 1 2 2 5 3 3 3 7 6 8 7 12 5 5 7 6 9 6 4 5 4 4 2 5 7 10 3 3 11 6 13 4 14

One optimal solution is shown. Connect 13, 14, 36, 67, 12, 45, 79, 89, 910, 1011, 1113, 1314, and 1214. Alternate solutions can be found by substituting 34 for 14 and substituting 912 for 1314. Total distance 45. 12-8.
7 4 0 5 4 1 0 2 2
Flow (Cars/Hour) 200 200 100 500

Path

2 2 0 3 4 8 2 1 3 3 2 4 2 4 6 0

3 0

0 1

## 12578 1368 148 Total

12-9.
270 100 150 2 100 50 1 50 3 40 Old Office 4 140 40 9 240 20 100 6 100 100 100 340 390 11 100 40 100 5 130 120 50 280 8 50 12 70 200 100 New Office 7 60 330 10 100 430 13

## The shortest route is 13571013. The distance is 430 miles.

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12-10. The minimal-spanning tree technique is needed to solve this problem. The minimum distance is 47 (4,700 feet). As you can see, the nal solution has changed. Figure for Problem 12-10
3 7 7

3 1 2 4 2 5 2 4 4 5

6 7

12 5

4 14 5

3 7 6 9

5 6

6 13 3

4 7 10 3 11

12-11. The maximal ow through the network is 7 (700 cars). This is higher by 200 cars from Problem 12-8. The solution is given below.

12-12. This is the only optimum solution to this problem (177 units of length).
4

Flow 12 13 14 25 36 48 57 68 78 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2

12-13. There are several possible solutions. One solution is presented below. One solution: 146 1256 1356 1456 40 55 45 127 167 widgets per day

## Total maximum ow: 7.

Alternative solutions: Substitute 1246 for 32 in lieu of 146 or 1456 (or for some portion of the 32).

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12-14. No, the changes do not have an impact on the nal solution. With the changes, the optimal solution still has a shortest distance of 430 miles. The nal network is given below. Note that we have increased the value for the paths 69 and 89 to a very high relative number (10,000) to ensure that these paths are forced out of the nal solution. Figure for Problem 12-14
2 100 100 1 50 40 Old Office 4 3 20 10,000 100 6 10,000 9 100 11 50 12 7 50 70 8 200 100 New Office 10 100 13

100 5

120 130 40

60

12-15. The solution to the minimal-spanning tree problem results in a minimum distance of 21 (2,100 yards). The nal network follows. Figure for Problem 12-15
4 4 2 3 1 2 3 3 7 5 4 6 5 4 2 8 5 3 4 8 1 9 3 7

12-16. If the distance between nodes 6 and 7 becomes 5, the minimum distance changes to 23 (2,300 yards). The nal network follows. Another optimal solution exists. Figure for Problem 12-16
4 4 2 3 1 2 3 3 7 5 4 6 5 4 5 8 5 3 4 8 1 9 3 7

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12-17. The maximum number of cars that can ow from the hotel complex to Disney World is 13 (1,300 cars per hour). Solution to Problem 12-17

12-19. Solving this maximal ow problem results in a situation where 3,000 gallons per hour (3) will be owing from the origin to the nal network node. The solution follows: Solution to Problem 12-19

Flow 12 13 14 26 37 48 69 1011 710 810 911 3 8 2 3 8 2 3 10 8 2 3 12 13 14 25 36 48 59 613 811 912 1113 1214 1314

Flow 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

## Total maximum ow: 3.

12-18. The impact of the construction project to increase the road capacity around the outside roads from International Drive to Disney World would increase the number of cars per hour to 1,700 per hour (17). The increase is 400 cars per hour as would be expected. The solution follows. Solution to Problem 12-18

12-20. The impact of the emergency repair is that nodes 6 and 7 cannot be used. All ow in and out of these nodes is 0. As a result, the ow from the origin to the nal network node has been reduced to 2,000 gallons per hour (2). The solution is shown in the following table. Note that ows leading to and from nodes 6 and 7 have been changed to 0. Solution to Problem 12-20

## Total maximum ow: 2.

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12-21. The shortest route from node 1 to node 16 is 74 kilometers. The solution along with the nal network is shown in the following table and in the gure below.

Value 13 37 711 1114 1416 Shortest path: 137111416 Total shortest distance: 74. 15 11 18 16 14

12-22. The impact of closing two nodes (nodes 7 and 8) is to increase the shortest route from 74 to 76 kilometers. Note that all paths into and from nodes 7 and 8 have their values changed to a very high relative number (10,000) to force these paths out of the nal solution. The solution along with the nal network is given below.

Value 12 26 69 913 1316 Shortest path: 12691316 Total shortest distance: 76. 20 10 12 16 18

## Figure for Problem 12-21

5 16 9 16 17 10 12 18 3 11 7 22 4 12 8 20 18 11 25 15 12 15 15 1 15 18 4 10,000 8 10,000 12 15 3 16 13 10 14 18 14 16 20 2 10 10 6 10,000 10,000 10,000 7 10,000 11 25 15 15 10 16 5 16 9 16 17 13 10 14 18 14 16 8 12

10 2 20 1 15 18 10

## Figure for Problem 12-22

8 12 6

10,000

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12-23. a. Given the problem data, Grey can use the minimal spanning tree model to determine the least-cost approach to connect all houses to cable TV. As seen below, Grey should use branches 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, and 11.

12-23. b. Grey can make the necessary calculations using the minimal-spanning tree model. The results are below.

Results Beginning Data Start Node Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Results Start Node Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Total Solution steps Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 11 8 4 1 2 6 9 Starting Node 8 5 1 1 1 3 6 Ending Node 9 8 5 2 3 7 7 Cost 2 4 5 5 6 5 1 Cumulative Cost 2 6 11 16 22 27 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 End Node 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 7 9 9 Cost 5 6 6 5 7 5 7 4 1 6 2 Include Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Cost 5 6 6 5 5 4 1 2 34 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 End Node 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 7 9 9 Cost 5 6 6 5 7 5 7 4 1 6 2 Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Total Solution steps Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 11 8 4 2 3 1 6 Starting Node 8 5 1 1 1 1 3 Ending Node 9 8 5 3 4 2 7 Cost 2 4 1 1 1 5 5 Cumulative Cost 2 6 7 8 9 14 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Start Node 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 End Node 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 7 9 9 Cost 5 1 1 1 7 5 7 4 1 6 2 Include Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Cost 5 1 1 1 5 4 1 2 20

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12-24. a. Using the shortest-route technique, George can determine the best way to go from Quincy to Old Bainbridge. The data and results are below. As can be seen, the shortest route is to take branches 2, 4, 7, 8 and 9 with a minimum distance of 1,200 miles.

12-24. b. George can use the shortest-route model to determine the impact of the changes. The results are below. As you can see, the new shortest route is 1,000 miles (called 10 in the printout since units are in 100s).

Start Node Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 7

End Node 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 8

Distance 3 2 3 3 1 4 2 2 3 6 Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Start Node 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 7

End Node 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 8

Distance 3 2 3 1 1 4 2 2 3 6

Shortest Path Total distance 12 Start Node Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 2 4 7 8 9 1 3 5 7 6 End Node 3 5 7 6 8 Distance 2 3 2 2 3 Cumulative Distance 2 5 7 9 12

Shortest Path Total distance 10 Start Node Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 2 4 7 8 9 1 3 5 7 6 End Node 3 5 7 6 8 Distance 2 1 2 2 3 Cumulative Distance 2 3 5 7 10

Minimum distance matrix Node 1 Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 3 2 6 5 9 7 12 Node 5 Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 4 3 1 0 4 2 7 Node 2 3 0 5 3 4 7 6 10 Node 6 9 7 7 4 4 0 2 3 Node 3 2 5 0 4 3 7 5 10 Node 7 7 6 5 3 2 2 0 5 Node 4 6 3 4 0 1 4 3 7 Node 8 12 10 10 7 7 3 5 0

Minimum distance matrix Node 1 Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 3 2 4 3 7 5 10 Node 5 Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 4 1 1 0 4 2 7 Node 2 3 0 5 3 4 7 6 10 Node 6 7 7 5 4 4 0 2 3 Node 3 2 5 0 2 1 5 3 8 Node 7 5 6 3 3 2 2 0 5 Node 4 4 3 2 0 1 4 3 7 Node 8 10 10 8 7 7 3 5 0

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12-25. a. South Side Oil and Gas can use the maximal-ow technique to determine the maximum ow through the network. As seen in the tables below, two paths are used with a total ow rate of 1,500 gallons.

12-26. Given the problem data, the network module in QM for Windows gives the following minimal spanning tree results. The branches 13, 23, 35, 45 and 56 are used to connect the nodes, and the total distance is 40.

Total Flow 15 Start End Reverse Node Node Capacity Capacity Flow Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 10 8 12 6 8 10 10 5 10 10 4 2 1 6 1 2 10 5 1 1 10 5 10 0 5 10 0 5 10 5

Start node 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5

End node 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6

Cost 12 8 7 10 9 8 8 11 9

Include Y Y

Cost 8 7

Y Y Y

8 8 9 40

## Iterations Iteration 1 2 Path 1l 2l 4l 6l 8 1l 3l 5l 7l 8 Flow Cumulative Flow 10 5 10 15

12-27. Using the maximal ow technique in the network module of QM for Windows we have a maximum ow of 190 as shown in the table.

Maximal Network Flow 190 Start End Reverse Node Node Capacity Capacity Flow

12-25. b. The results for South Side Oil and Gas are below. As you can see, the changes did not have any impact on the maximal ow, which remains at 15 or 1,500 gallons. The calculations are summarized below.

Total Flow 15 Start End Reverse Node Node Capacity Capacity Flow Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 10 8 12 0 8 10 10 5 10 10 4 2 1 0 1 2 10 5 1 1 10 5 10 0 5 10 0 5 10 5

Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 7

2 3 4 3 5 4 5 6 7 6 8 7 8 8

80 50 60 30 60 40 70 60 80 20 90 30 70 50

0 0 0 30 0 40 0 0 0 20 0 30 0 0

80 50 60 20 60 10 10 50 70 20 80 20 60 50

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5

Path 1l 2l 5l 8 1l 3l 6l 8 1l 4l 7l 8 1l 2l 3l 4l 7l 6l 5l 8 1l 4l 3l 5l 6l 8

## Iterations Iteration 1 2 Path 1l 2l 4l 6l 8 1l 3l 5l 7l 8 Flow Cumulative Flow 10 5 10 15

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12-28. QM for Windows indicates that total capacity is not affected. Other streets can be used to still accommodate 190 cars.
Cumulative Flow 60 110 140 160 180 190

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 6 1l 1l 1l 1l 1l 1l 2l 4l 3l 2l 3l 4l

Path 5l 8 7l 8 4l 7l 6l 8 3l 5l 6l 8 5l 8 3l 5l 8

Flow 60 50 30 20 20 10

b. Eliminating the paths 611, 712, and 1720 has changed the shortest route to 5,500 feet (55). This is higher than the solution in part a, as you would expect. The solution (below) along with the nal network (on the next page) are given. When using the software, the distance for paths 611, 712, and 1720 should be increased to a very high relative value (10,000) to force the paths out of the solution.

## Value 14 48 813 1316 1620 2023 2325 10 10 8 6 6 7 8

12-29. Using the shortest route technique in QM for Windows, we nd the minimum total distance to be 16 as shown in the table.

## Start Node Branch 2 Branch 7 Branch 12 1 3 6

End Node 3 6 7

Distance 6 3 7

Cumulative Distance 6 9 16

## Shortest path: 1481316202325 Total shortest distance: 55.

12-30. a. The solution is 4,900 feet. This is almost 1 mile. The solution along with the nal network is given below and on the next page.

## Shortest path: 1371216202325 Total shortest distance: 49.

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## Figure for Problem 12-30a

5 15 2 10 9 1 10 4 10 8 15 9 3 7 6 7 6 8 8 12 8 13 17 17 6 5 16 20 10 21 10 24 6 20 20 8 10 5 14 11 5 15 5 6 18 19 6 22 7 7 23 15 8 25

## Figure for Problem 12-30b

5 15 2 10 9 1 10 4 10 15 3 7 6 8 10 5 5 6 6 18 19 20 20 10,000 10 21 10 24 6 22 7 7 23 15 8 25

14 10,000 6 11 5 15 10,000 7 12 5 16 6 8 8 13 17 9 17

c. In addition to eliminating paths 611, 712, and 1720 from the network, the paths used in the solution presented in part b are also eliminated. Thus we eliminate the path 1481316202325. Again, this is done in the software by increasing the distances along these paths to a very high relative value (10,000) to force them out of the solution. The new shortest path is 6,400 feet (64). The solution along with the nal network follows. Figure for Problem 12-30c

## Shortest path: 1251014182225

5 15 2 7 6 8 10 5

5 6

## 18 14 10,000 22 5 11 15 6 19 10 7 15 9 3 6 10,000 23 7 1 25 10,000 12 5 20 10,000 10,000 16 10,000 20 10,000 4 8 13 10,000 10,000 15 24 17 17 10 10 9 21

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## SOLUTIONS TO INTERNET HOMEWORK PROBLEMS

12-31. The shortest distance from farm 1 to farm 6 is found using QM for Windows. The results are: Total distance 17

12-34. Using QM for Windows, the maximal ow is 7 hundred. The paths are
Iteration Path 1l 3l 4l 6 1l 2l 6 1l 3l 5l 6 Flow Cumulative Flow 3 2 2 3 5 7

## Start Node Branch 2 Branch 7 Branch 12 1 3 5

End Node 3 5 6

Cost 10 2 5

Cumulative Distance 10 12 17

1 2 3

12-35. The increased capacity from node 1 to node 3 does not increase the maximal ow. It is still 7 hundred. There is already sufcient capacity from node 1.

12-32. Using the minimal spanning tree in QM for Windows, the minimum amount of cable is 22 miles.

## SOLUTION TO BINDERS BEVERAGE CASE

This is a shortest-route problem. With the data given in the problem, the shortest-route model can be used to determine the minimum time in minutes required to go from the plant to the warehouse in east Denver. The results are on the next page. As you can see, the best route is to take North Street to I-70. At Exit 137, South Street is taken to the warehouse. This route takes one hour (60 minutes).

## Start Node Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch 1 3 7 8 10 1 2 3 4 5

End Node 2 3 5 5 6

Cost 8 4 2 3 5

Cumulative Cost 8 12 14 17 22

12-33. Using the minimal spanning tree in QM for Windows, the minimum amount of cable is 27 miles.

Start Node Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 4 5 6

End Node 2 3 3 4 5 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 7

Cost 8 10 4 9 5 6 2 3 6 5 8 9 5

Include Y Y

Cost 8 4

Y Y Y

2 3 5

5 27

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Data Start Node End Node Distance North Street I 70A I 70B High StreetA High StreetB Columbine Street West StreetA West StreetB West StreetC 6 AveA 6 AveB 6 AveC Rose StreetA Rose StreetB South AveA South AveB Shortest Path Total distance 60 Start End Cumulative Node Node Distance Distance North Street I 70A I 70B South AveA South AveB 1 2 4 8 9 2 4 8 9 10 20 5 10 10 15 20 25 35 45 60 1 2 4 1 3 1 3 5 7 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 2 4 8 3 4 5 5 7 9 5 6 10 7 8 9 10 20 5 10 20 20 30 15 20 15 15 25 40 20 20 10 15

Minimum distance matrix Node 1 Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 20 20 25 30 55 50 35 45 60 Node 6 Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 55 45 40 40 25 0 20 40 35 40 Node 2 20 0 25 5 20 45 35 15 25 40 Node 7 50 35 35 30 20 20 0 20 15 30 Node 3 20 25 0 20 15 40 35 30 40 55 Node 8 35 15 30 10 25 40 20 0 10 25 Node 4 25 5 20 0 15 40 30 10 20 35 Node 9 45 25 40 20 35 35 15 10 0 15 Node 5 30 20 15 15 0 25 20 25 35 50 Node 10 60 40 55 35 50 40 30 25 15 0

## SOLUTION TO SOUTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY TRAFFIC PROBLEMS

This is a maximum ow problem. Using QM for Windows we have the following results:

being increased by 2. These changes will increase the total capacity to 33. To increase the capacity to 35, the capacity from node 5 to node 8 should be increased by an additional 2 units (for a total of 20). Also, the capacity from node 2 to node 5 should be increased by 2.

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5

Path 1l 2l 5l 8 1l 3l 6l 8 1l 4l 6l 7l 8 1l 3l 5l 8 1l 4l 7l 6l 8

## Flow Cumulative Flow 12 6 5 4 1 12 18 23 27 28

1. The capacity without any expansion is 28 (thousand) cars per hour. This would indicate that a serious problem will exist if there are 33,000 cars per hour leaving the stadium. The problem is not leaving node 1 or going into node 8. At node 2, only the outow is only 12 whereas the capacity from 1 to 2 is 15. Also, the capacity from 1 to 3 is only 12, but the capacity leaving 3 is 14. A similar problem exists at node 4. The total capacity from nodes 2, 3, and 4 is only 31. Thus, the problem is a mismatch of the capacity going into the nodes with the capacity leaving these nodes. 2. To get the capacity to 33, we must add an additional 5 units. You could add 3 units of capacity from node 1 to node 4. This matches the inow to the outow at node 4. Also, expanding the capacity from node 5 to node 8 by 2 will result in the total capacity

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## SOLUTIONS TO INTERNET CASE SOLUTION TO RANCH DEVELOPMENT PROJECT CASE

1. The minimum distance that will connect all houses to the water and sewer lines is 10,000 feet (100). The solution along with the nal network follows:

2. Moving footprint number 16 to accommodate the expansion of the pond area has increased the minimum total distance to 10,100 feet (101). A decision now has to be made about whether the increased distance and cost for the water and sewer system is worth the additional expected property prices. The solution along with the nal network follows.
Start Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 End Node 2 5 3 10 4 8 8 6 10 7 11 12 9 13 11 15 12 16 17 14 18 15 20 22 23 19 20 24 21 22 25 23 25 26 27 27 27

Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Start Node 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 25 26

End Node 2 5 3 10 4 8 8 6 10 7 11 12 9 13 11 15 12 16 17 14 18 15 20 22 23 19 20 24 21 22 25 23 25 26 27 27 27

Branch Cost 3 2 1 6 1 5 5 2 5 2 4 4 2 7 8 11 2 8 9 4 6 4 7 8 8 2 2 5 4 1 4 6 5 7 11 3 10 Include Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Cost 3 2 1 1 5 2 5 2 4 2 7 Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Branch Total 100

Cost 3 2 1 6 1 5 5 2 5 2 4 4 2 7 8 11 2 9 9 4 6 4 7 12 8 2 2 5 4 1 4 6 5 7 11 3 10

Include Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Cost 3 2 1 1 5 2 5 2 4 2 7

Y Y Y Y Y

2 8 4 6 4

Y Y Y Y Y

2 9 4 6 4

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

8 2 2 5 4 1 4 6 7 3

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

8 2 2 5 4 1 4 6 7 3 101

REVISED
M12_REND6289_10_IM_C12.QXD 5/12/08 12:04 PM Page 188

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CHAPTER 12

NETWORK MODELS

## Figure for RDPA Case

9 4 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 5 2 6 2 7 11 4 2 12 4 5 5 8 2

13 4

6 18

14

4 15 7

2 5 19 2 20 4 4 3 24 11

Strea m
11

6 10 5 8
St

25

27

Pond

21 1 22
re am 6

5 10

8 8 16 8 9 17

26

23