0 Up votes0 Down votes

11 views27 pagesNov 30, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

11 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Spatial technology
- urban transportation planning
- Lecture Notes 23 Oct
- Top Dimension Theory
- SRS Development of Web GIS Tool IEEE SA 830 SRS Format Final 27082013
- Analysis of Human Spatial Behavior in a GIS Environment
- IVth Semester
- project Management or enfineering or accounting or production or
- tduggan resume july2019
- Web-based Tourism Decision Support System (WBTDSS) Architecture And
- flyer for thorough site investigation service
- Poster GI Learner1 English
- Goodchild
- GIS enabled Hospital Services and Facilities Information System (G-HIS)
- Resume Jaisy
- Expanded Applications of GIS
- GIS Assigmnt 1
- CITY KNOWLEDGE
- EyeQ Fact Sheet
- A Business Case for SAP GIS Integration

You are on page 1of 27

Research Article Computing the fuzzy topological relations of spatial objects based on induced fuzzy topology

KIMFUNG LIU* and WENZHONG SHI

Advanced Research Centre for Spatial Information Technology, Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

(Received 3 May 2005; in final form 17 March 2006 ) For modeling the topological relations between spatial objects, the concepts of a bound on the intersection of the boundary and interior, and the boundary and exterior are defined in this paper based on the newly developed computational fuzzy topology. Furthermore, the qualitative measures for the intersections are specified based on the a-cut induced fuzzy topology, which are (AaqA)(x),12a and ((Ac)aqA)(x),12a. In other words, the intersection of the interior and boundary or boundary and exterior are always bounded by 12a, where a is a value of a level cutting. Specifically, the following areas are covered: (a) the homeomorphic invariants of the fuzzy topology; (b) a definition of the connectivity of the newly developed fuzzy topology; (c) a model of the fuzzy topological relations between simple fuzzy regions in GIS; and (d) the quantitative values of topological relations can be calculated. Keywords: Closure; Interior; Integration matrix; Homeomorphism; Supported connected; Topological relations

1.

Introduction

Topological relations between spatial objects are fundamental information used in GIS, along with positional and attribute information. Information on topological relations can be used for spatial queries, spatial analyses, data quality control (e.g. checking for topological consistency), and others. Topological relations can be crisp or fuzzy depending on the certainty or uncertainty of spatial objects and the nature of their relations. When the spatial objects concerned are uncertain, or their relations are not certain, the issue of uncertain topological relations emerges. There are many uncertain relations that need to be modeled among spatial objects in GIS. For example, the topological relation between two islands can be connected or separated depending on the level of the tides at the time. The two islands are connected when the tide is low, and are separated at high tide. The relations between the two islands are thus uncertain. In this type of spatial analysis, it is essential to understand the uncertain topological relations between spatial objects. Mathematically, fuzzy topology, which is a generalization of ordinary topology by introducing the concept of membership value, can be adapted to the modelling of spatial objects with uncertainties. Zadeh (1965) introduced the concept of the fuzzy set. Fuzzy theory has been developed since 1996, and the theory of fuzzy topology (Zadeh 1965, Wong 1974, Wu and Zheng 1991, Lin and Luo 1997) has been developed based

*Corresponding author. Email: lskimliu@polyu.edu.hk

International Journal of Geographical Information Science ISSN 1365-8816 print/ISSN 1362-3087 online # 2006 Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals DOI: 10.1080/13658810600711345

858

on the fuzzy set. Topological relations are one of the concerns in modelling spatial objects, besides their geometric and attribute aspects. Uncertain topological relations need to be modelled due to the existence of the indeterminate and uncertain boundaries between spatial objects in GIS. Fuzzy topology theory can potentially be applied to the modelling of fuzzy topological relations among spatial objects. Research on topological relations between spatial objects has attracted a great deal of attention in the past few decades. The major research outcomes on topological relations between regions have included, for example, 4-intersection models (Egenhofer and Franzosa 1991, Winter 2000) and 9-intersection models (Egenhofer and Franzosa 1991, Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Cohn and Gotts 1996, Smith 1996, Shi and Guo 1999, Tang and Kainz 2002). The models (Egenhofer 1993, Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Cohn and Gotts 1996, Smith 1996, Tang and Kainz 2002) were developed under the concepts of interior, boundary, and exterior which makes it potentially possible to model uncertainty relations between spatial objects conceptually. However, it is still difficult to implement these concepts (such as interior, boundary, and exterior) in a computer system, even with a membership function of a fuzzy set (or uncertain spatial object). Therefore, at this stage, while the conceptual framework on modeling topological relations between spatial objects is well developed (Egenhofer 1993, Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Cohn and Gotts 1996, Smith 1996, Tang and Kainz 2002), there is room to further enhance the mechanisms to implement these conceptual models. Furthermore, Tang et al. (2005) applied fuzzy setting method for reasoning land cover changes. In order to develop methods for computing the uncertain spatial relations defined by the conceptual spatial relation models, such as the 9-intersection model, we have initiated a two-stage research framework, as illustrated in figure 1.

N N

Stage One: to construct a computational fuzzy topology; and Stage Two: to develop methods for computing fuzzy topological relations.

Figure 1. A summary of the two-stage research initiatives on computational fuzzy topological relations.

859

It is the aim in Stage One of the research to construct a computational fuzzy topology, which is a theoretical basis for computational fuzzy topological relations. The focus here is to develop algorithms for computing the interior, boundary, and exterior of uncertain spatial objects. A fuzzy topology can be defined by each interior or each closure operator (Liu and Luo 1997). Along this direction, we can define a fuzzy topology for spatial objects, where the interior and closure operators are defined by suitable level cutting (Liu and Shi, submitted). The algorithm for calculating the interior, boundary, and closure can thus be developed, and form the basis for implementing the conceptual models on spatial relations. In Stage Two of the research, the aim is to develop methods for computing fuzzy topological relations based on the conceptual spatial relation models. This aim can be realized by: (a) defining the connectivity for the newly developed fuzzy topology; (b) modeling homeomorphic invariants (the topological relations that are unchanged under a homeomorphic mapping) of the new fuzzy topology; and (c) providing fuzzy topological relations between simple fuzzy regions. The research outcomes of Stage One of the development are given in detail in Liu and Shi (submitted). However, a brief summary of the major findings of Stage One of the research is given in section 2 of this paper, which covers several basic concepts of fuzzy topology and the newly defined computational fuzzy topology. Section 3 presents the preserving properties of the computational fuzzy topology. In section 4, we introduce the concept of connectivity of fuzzy topology in GIS. In section 5, we define a simple fuzzy region, a simple fuzzy line segment, and a fuzzy point. These form the basis for describing quantitative fuzzy topological relations between simple fuzzy elements, which is the focus of section 6. Finally, we compare this newly developed model with the existing ones. 2. A brief summary of computational fuzzy topology

We know that each interior operator corresponds to one fuzzy topology and that each closure operator also corresponds to one fuzzy topology (Liu and Luo 1997). In this section, we will review the coherent fuzzy topologies, which are induced by interior and closure operators. An I-fuzzy subset on X is a mapping (called the membership function of A) mA: XRI; i.e. the family of all the [0, 1]-fuzzy or I-fuzzy subsets on X is just IX consisting of all the mappings from X to I. Let A and B be fuzzy sets in X with membership functions mA(x) and mB(x), respectively. Then (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) A5B iff mA(x)5mB(x) for all x in X. A(B iff mA(x)(mB(x) for all x in X. C5A~B iff mC(x)5max[mA(x), mB(x)] for all x in X. D5AB iff mD(x)5min[mA(x), mB(x)] for all x in X. E5X\A iff mE(x)512mA(x) for all x in X.

Fuzzy topology is an extension topology of ordinary topology. Here we adopt the definition of Chang (1968), which is let X be a non-empty ordinary set and d,Ix. d is called a I-fuzzy topology on X, and (Ix, d) (or (X, IX, d) for detail; or Ix for short) is called an I-fuzzy topological space (I-fts) and Ix for short, if d satisfies the following conditions: (i) 0, 1gd;

860

(ii) If A, Bgd, then ABgd, (iii) Let {Ai:igJ},d, where J is an index set, then _ Ai [d.

i[J

For any fuzzy set A in Ix, the interior of A is defined as the join of all of the open subsets contained in A, denoted by Ao. The closure of A is the meet of all of the . The complement of A is defined as closed subsets containing A, denoted by A 12A(x) and denoted by Ac. The boundary of fuzzy set A is defined as LA~A ^ Ac . An operator a:IxRIx is a fuzzy closure operator if it satisfies the following conditions: (i) a(0)50; (ii) A(a(A); (iii) a(A~B)5a(A)~a(B); and (iv) a(a(A))5a(A), for all AgIx. Moreover, an operator a:IxRIx is a fuzzy interior operator if it satisfies the following conditions: (i) a(1)51; (ii) a(A)(A; (iii) a(AB)5a(A)a(B); and (iv) a(a(A))5a(A), for all AgIx. For any fixed ag[0, 1], two operators, interior and closure, are defined as: Ax if Ax > a 1 if Ax1{a 1{a and A x~ , Aa x~ 0 if Axa Ax if Ax; 1{a which can induce an I-fuzzy topology (X, ta, t12a) in X, where t12a5{A12a:AgIx} and ta5{Aa:AgIx} (Liu and Shi, submitted). The details of how these two operators induced an I-fuzzy topology are in Stage One of this research, and one may refer to Liu and Shi (submitted). The fuzzy topological relations that include Equal, Contained In, Covered By, Contain, Cover, Overlap, and Disjoint are elementary relations in the study of topological relations between spatial objects in GIS. Many researchers develop their models in this area based on these critical relations (Egenhofer and Franzosa 1991, Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Cohn and Gotts 1996, Smith 1996, Shi and Guo 1999, Tang and Kainz 2002). (i) Equal: A5B iff A(x)5B(x) for all xgX. (ii) Contained In: A,B iff A(x),B(x) for all xgX such that A(x).0. (iii) Covered By: A(B iff A(x)(B(x) for all xgX such that A(x).0 and there exist some x1gX such that A(x1)5B(x1).0. (iv) Contain: A.B iff A(x).B(x) for all xgX such that B(x).0. (v) Cover: A>B iff A(x)>B(x) for all xgX such that B(x).0 and there exist some x1gX such that A(x1)5B(x1).0. (vi) Overlap: AB?0 iff AB(x0).0, A(x1),B(x1) and B(x2),A(x2), for some x0, x1 and x2gX, (vii) Disjoint: A~B50 iff A~B(x)50 for all xgX. The properties of topological spaces that are preserved under homeomorphic mappings are called the topological invariants of the spaces. To study the topological relations, we first need to investigate the properties of a fuzzy mapping, especially homeomorphic mapping. The topological relations are invariants under homeomorphic mappings. With these, we can thus guarantee the properties that will remain unchanged in a GIS transformation, such as the maintenance of topological consistency when digitizing a map or transferring a map from a system to another system. Therefore, in the next section we start with a study of the preserving properties of new developed fuzzy topology. 3. Several properties of computational fuzzy topology

In the following two sections, we would like to develop the preserving properties of the computational fuzzy topology and the connectivity of this fuzzy topology in

861

GIS. The main objective of this section is to prove the open and closed sets that are preserved by fuzzy mapping and fuzzy reverse mapping (see proposition 3.6). Furthermore, the connectivity of a fuzzy topology is fundamental in any study of the topological relations between spatial objects in GIS. Therefore, the properties of connection in the new induced fuzzy topology will be studied in section 4. Definition 3.1 (Fuzzy mapping): Let IX, IY be ordinary mapping. Based on f:XRY, define fuzzy reverse mapping fr:IYRIX by ( _fAxg ? X Y ? f : I ?I , f Ay~ 0 I-fuzzy topological spaces, f:XRY an I-fuzzy mapping fR:IXRIY and its Iif x[f {1 y otherwise

, V A[IX , V y[Y,

f / : IY ?IX , f / Bx~Bf x, V B[IY , V x[X, where I5[0, 1]. Definition 3.2 (Injective, surjective and bijective): Let (Ix, d), (IY, m) be I-ftss and let fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) be an I-fuzzy mapping. Then, (i) fR is called an injective mapping if whenever fR(A)5fR(B), then A5B. (ii) fR is called a surjective mapping if all Bgm, then there exists Agd, such that B5fR(A). (iii) fR is called a bijective mapping if fR is both injective and surjective. Theorem 3.3: Let IX, IY be I-fuzzy spaces, f:XRY an ordinary mapping. Then fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) is bijective if and only if f:XRY is bijective. The proof was derived by Liu and Luo (1997). Definition 3.4 (Fuzzy continuous mapping): Let (IX, d), (IY, m) be I-ftss, fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) is called an I-fuzzy continuous mapping if fr maps every open subset in (IY, m) as an open subset in (IX, d), i.e. for all Ugm, fr(m)gd. Definition 3.5 (Fuzzy homeomorphism): Let (IX, d), (IY, m) be I-ftss, fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) is called an I-fuzzy homeomorphism, if it is bijective, continuous, and open. Proposition 3.6: Let AgIX, BgIY, let (IX, d), (IY, m) be I-ftss induced by the interior operator and closure operator, fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) and fr:(IY, m)R(IX, d). The following then holds: (i) (ii) (iii) (vi) Proof: (i) For all ygY, if {f21(y)}5w, the result is obvious as both sides are zero. Suppose {f21(y)}?w. If there exists xog{f21(y)} such that A(xo).a, then ? Ax > a and tf ? Asa y~ A x > a. f A a y ~ _ _ x[ff {1 yg x[ff {1 yg f ? A a ~tf ? A sa fR(A12a)5[fR(A)]12a f / Ba ~tf / Bsa fr(B12a)5[fr(B)]12a

862

?

If for all x g {f 2 1 (y)} such that A(x) ( a , then f R (A a )(y) 5 0 and Axa, i:e: tf ? Asa y~0. f Ay~ _ x[ff {1 yg Thus, we have f ? Aa y~tf ? Asa y for all ygY; hence, ? f Aa ~tf ? Asa . (ii) For all ygY, if {f21(y)}5w, the result is obvious as both sides are zero. Suppose {f21(y)}?w. If there exists xog{f21(y)} such that A(xo)>12a, then Ax > a and tf ? Asa y~ Ax > 1: f ? A a y ~ _ _ {1 x[ff yg x[ff {1 yg

(ii) If for all xg{f21(y)} such that A(x),12a, then A1{a x f ? A1{a y~ _ x[ff {1 yg ~ 8 <1 :

x[ff {1 yg x[ff {1 yg

Ax if _ Axv1{a

~ f ? Ay~

Ax

if _ Ax~1{a

x[ff {1 yg

Ax if _ Axv1{a

8 <1 :

x[ff {1 yg

Ax

if _ Ax~1{a : if _ Axv1{a

Hence, f A

1{a

y ~

8 <1 :

x[ff {1 yg

Ax

if _ Ax~1{a :

Bf x if Bf x > a (iii) f / Ba x~Ba f x~ . 0 if Bf xa ( / f Bx if f / Bx > a tf / Bsa x~ 0 if f / Bxa ( Bf x if Bf x > a ~ 0 if Bf xa 1 if Bf x1{a 1{a (iv) f B x ~ B f x ~ Bf x if Bf xv1{a ( 1 if f / Bxa 1{a / f B x~ / f Bx if f / Bxva ( 1 if Bf xa ~ Bf x if Bf xva

/

1{a

Q.E.D.

863

Remark 1: This proposition can be interpreted as both fR and fr presevering open and closed sets. This means that fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) is bi-continuous. Example 3.7: This example verifies that f ? Aa ~tf ? Asa by a simple mapping. Define f:X5{a1, a2, a3, a4}RY5{b1, b2, b3, b4} by f(a1)5b1, f(a2)5b1, f(a3)5b3, 1 1 f(a4)5b4. Suppose AgIX such that Aa1 ~ 3 4, Aa2 ~ 4, Aa3 ~ 2, A(a4)51. Let a50.7. R ? 1 By definition, f ? Ab1 ~Aa1 _ Aa2 ~ 3 4, f (A)(b2)50, f Ab3 ~ 2 and R ? ? ? 3 f (A)(b4)51. Hence, f A0:7 b1 ~ 4, tf As0:7 b2 ~0, tf As0:7 b3 ~0 and tf ? As0:7 b4 ~1. On the other hand, A0:7 a1 ~ 3 4, A0.7(a2)50, A0.7(a3)50, A0.7(a4)51. Hence, ? fR(A0.7)(b2)50, fR(A0.7)(b3)50 and f A0:7 b1 ~A0:7 a1 _ A0:7 a2 ~ 3 4, R f (A0.7)(b4)51. Thus, we have f ? Aa y~tf ? Asa y for all ygY; hence, f ? Aa ~tf ? Asa . Theorem 3.9: Let AgIX, BgIY, let (IX, d), (IY, m) be I-ftss induced by an interior operator and closure operator. Then, fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) is an I-fuzzy homeomorphism if and only if f:XRY is a bijective mapping. Remark 2: The following are several further explanations on the above section. Definitions 3.1 to 3.5 are the elementary properties of fuzzy topology and they are used in the later theory development, such as the property of supported connectivity in the later section. Therefore, we need to have a clear description as above. Proposition 3.6 tells us the persevering properties of the newly developed fuzzy topology, which means that both fR and fr preserve open and closed sets. That is to say that fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) is bi-continuous. Combining theorem 3.9 and proposition 3.6, we can see that fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) is an I-fuzzy homeomorphism if and only if f:XRY is a bijective mapping. That means we have to consider the mapping f:XRY rather than the mapping fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m). In general, the mapping fR:(IX, d)R(IY, m) is more complex than the mapping f:XRY. This provides an advantage in the calculation. 4. Connectivity of spatial objects in GIS based on fuzzy topology

Fuzzy topology can be applied to describe and analyze the structure of neighborhoods and leveling of spaces (Liu and Luo 1997). In other words, the general fuzzy topological space consists of two concepts of spaces, which are leveling space and neighborhood space. Connectivity is a preserving property of fuzzy topology. The usual definition of the connection of fuzzy subset, A, in fuzzy topology is that A cannot be separated by two non-zero open or closed fuzzy sets, called open connected and closed connected, respectively. As the natural character of fuzzy topology, this kind of connection also contains two types of structures neighborhood and leveling, respectively. In GIS, the connectivity of spatial objects depends on the neighbourhood structure of the objects themselves, rather than on the leveling structure. Thus, the ordinary definition of the connection of fuzzy topology is not suitable for describing relations between spatial objects in GIS. In IR, figure 2 shows two spatial fuzzy objects in GIS that are considered to be connected. Figure 3 shows two spatial fuzzy objects in GIS that are considered to be supported disconnected.

864

Figure 2.

Figure 3.

As a result, it is necessary to develop a new definition of connectivity due to the fact that the existing definition of connectivity in fuzzy topology is not applicable to GIS. In traditional GIS, we only consider neighborhood relations between spatial objects. The connectivity, based on fuzzy topology, involves both neighborhood relations and leveling relations. Therefore, in the application of fuzzy topology to GIS, we need only consider neighborhood relations. Based on this understanding, among the two fuzzy spatial objects in figure 2, one is fuzzy connected (figure 2(a)) while the other is not fuzzy connected (figure 2(b)). On the other hand, in GIS we often consider the connectivity based on its support sets. According to this, both examples of fuzzy spatial objects in figure 2 are considered as connected in GIS. Based on this fact, the concept of connectivity in GIS must be defined based on the background topological space. The background set X also has its topology, therefore, we may let b be a topology of X and (X, b) be this background topological space. Thus, we have two kinds of notations: (a) the fuzzy topological space (IX, d) or written as (X, IX, d); and (b) its background topological space (X, b). These two topologies may not be related. But under certain assumptions, there are many nice results about their relations (Martin 1980, Luo 1988, Liu and Luo 1997). We denoted this topology by (X, IX, d, b).

865

Definition 4.1 (support of A): Support(A) or Supp(A) is equal to the set {xgX:A(x).0}. The closure of Supp(A) in background topology is denoted by SuppA. Definition 4.2 (supported connected fuzzy set): Let (X, IX, d) be an I-fts and (X, b) be its background topological space, A, BgIX. A and B are called supported separated, if SuppA\SuppB~SuppA\SuppB~w: A is called supported connected in (X, IX, d, b), if there does not exist supported separated C, DgIX\{0} such that A5C~D and Supp(A)5Supp(C)<Supp(D). Definition 4.3 (Supported connected component): Let (X, IX, d) be an I-fts and (X, b) be its background topological space, AgIX. A is called a supported connected component of (X, IX, d, b), if A is a maximal supported connected subset in (X, IX, d, b); i.e. if BgIX is a supported connected component and B>A, then B5A. Proposition 4.4: Let (X, IX, d) be an I-fts and (X, b) be its background topological space, AgIX. Every fuzzy point in A belongs to one and only one supported component of A. Proposition 4.5: Let (X, IX, d) be an I-fts and (X, b) be its background topological space. Then, different supported components of (X, IX, d, b) are separated. Theorem 4.6: Let (X, IX, d, b) and (Y, IY, m, c) be two I-fuzzy spaces, f:XRY an ordinary continuous mapping. If AgIX is a supported connected fuzzy set, then fR(A) is also a supported connected fuzzy set. Proof: Suppose AgIX is a supported connected fuzzy set. Since f:XRY is continuous, f(Supp(A)) is connected. The next step is to prove that f(Supp(A))5Supp(fR(A)). If this is true, we can conclude that fR(A) is a supported connected fuzzy set. But by definition, f(Supp(A))5{f(x):A(x).0} and _ fAxg if x[f {1 y ? f A y ~ . 0 otherwise R Thus, Supp(f (A))5{y5f(x):~A(x).0}5{y5f(x):A(x).0}. Q.E.D. Remark 3: From Theorem 4.6, we can see that the supported connectivity of a fuzzy topological space (X, IX, d, b) does not depend on the topological space (X, IX, d), but only on its background topological space (X, b). This makes it easy to model fuzzy topological relations in spatial querying and analysis. Moreover, the concept of connectivity in this paper is used for defining simple fuzzy region, line and line segment. 5. Modeling simple fuzzy objects in GIS

Within the framework of crisp object modeling in GIS, we first need to model simple objects before we can model the topological relations between the objects. The basic simple objects in GIS may include simple points, simple line segments,

866

Figure 4.

Fuzzy point.

and simple regions. Simple points, lines, and regions have been discussed widely (Egenhofer and Franzosa 1991, Clementini and Di Felice 1996). Similarly, within the framework of fuzzy object modeling in GIS, we first need to model fuzzy simple objects before we can model the fuzzy topological relations between the objects. Many researchers have been working on modeling fuzzy topological relations in GIS, for example, Tang and Kainz (2002) defines a simple fuzzy region based on fuzzy topology. In order to give a generic framework on the number of topological relations between these simple spatial objects, simple fuzzy points, simple fuzzy line segments and simple fuzzy regions are defined as follows.

X Definition 5.1 (fuzzy point): An I-fuzzy point on X is an I-fuzzy subset xagI , a if y~x defined as: xa y~ (see figure 4). 0 otherwise

Definition 5.2 (Non-fuzzy line segment in X): Let P and Q be two points in X. The line segment joining PQ is defined as the image of a map a:[0, 1]RX by a(t)5P + t(Q2P), where [0, 1] is a closed interval in R. Definition 5.3 (Non-fuzzy line in X): The line in X (or R2) can be described as an embedding of a connected interval from R to X (or R2), which does not have an intersection, i.e.: a : 0, 1?<2 or X, where [0, 1] is a closed interval in R and a(t1)?a(t2) for all t1?t2, t1, t2g[0, 1]. Definition 5.4 (Simple fuzzy line segment): The simple fuzzy line segment (L) is a fuzzy subset in X with (i) for any ag(0, 1), the fuzzy line La (the interior of fuzzy line segment L) is a supported connected line segment (i.e. a non-fuzzy line segment in the background topological space) in the background topological space and (ii) qL(5LaL12a) has at most two supported connected components. Definition 5.5 (Simple fuzzy line): A fuzzy subset in X is called a simple fuzzy line (L) if L is a supported connected line in the background topological space (i.e. a nonfuzzy line in the background topological space).

867

Figure 5.

Figure 6.

Remark 4: Geometrically, GIS features can be classified as points, lines, and polygons. Actually, a simple fuzzy line segment is the basic element of a fuzzy line. Indeed, any fuzzy line can be represented by a composition of simple fuzzy line segments in GIS. Moreover, simple fuzzy points, simple fuzzy line segments, and simple fuzzy regions are defined and serve to model topological relations between spatial objects. Figure 5(a) shows a simple fuzzy line segment, s. Indeed for any 0,a,1, the interior set la is a supported connected line segment and qs has at most two supported connected components (figure 5(b)). Figure 6(a) shows a non-simple fuzzy line segment, L. Indeed, there exists a such that the interior set La is NOT a supported connected line segment, it has two supported connected components (Figure 6(b)). Definition 5.6 (Fuzzy region in X): A fuzzy set A in X is called a fuzzy region if supp(A) has a non-empty interior in the background topology. Definition 5.7 (Simple fuzzy region): A simple fuzzy region is a fuzzy region in X with (i) for any ag(0, 1), the fuzzy sets Aa and qA(5AaA12a) are two supported connected regular bounded open sets in the background topological space. (ii) in the background topological space, any outward ray from Supp(Aa) must meet Supp(qA) and have only one component.

868

Figure 7.

Figure 8.

Remark 5: Figure 7(a) shows a simple fuzzy region, since for any ag(0, 1), the fuzzy sets Aa and qA(5AaA12a) are two supported connected, regular bounded open sets in the background topological space. Any outward ray from Supp(Aa) must meet Supp(qA) and have only one component (see figure 7(b)). Figure 8(a) shows a non-simple fuzzy region, since for some a0g(0, 1), the fuzzy set Aa is not a supported connected set (which has two components) (see figure 8(b)). Proposition 5.8: A simple fuzzy set (region or line) is supported by a connected fuzzy set. Proof: If not, Supp(A) has two supported connected components. Let x1gSupp(A1) and x2gSupp(A2) be these two supported connected components. Take ao ~ 1 2 minfAx1 , Ax2 g; then, SuppAao has two supported connected components. Q.E.D. Proposition 5.9: Let (X, IX, d, b) and (Y, IY, m, c) be two I-fuzzy spaces, f:XRY an ordinary continuous mapping. If AgIX is a simple fuzzy set, then fR(A) is also a simple fuzzy set. 6. Quantitative fuzzy topological relations between simple fuzzy regions

Based on the definitions of simple fuzzy regions in section 5, and a further definition of quantitative method in this study, we now provide a method for determining fuzzy topological relations between spatial objects. The framework is based on the

869

9-intersection model; however, the method for computing the quantitative fuzzy topological relations between spatial objects has been newly developed in this study. The framework of the fuzzy topological relations between two objects A and B is defined as follows: 0 1 c X Aa ^ Ba dV X LA ^ Ba dV X A a ^Ba dV B C c @ X Aa ^ LB dV X LA ^ LB dV X A a ^LB dV A: c c c c X Aa ^ B a dV X LA ^ B a dV X A a ^B a dV First, we should explain the meaning of the notations X Aa ^ Ba dV and X LA ^ LB dV, etc., which define the quantitative relations between spatial objects.

Definition 6.1: For any two fuzzy spatial objects (fuzzy sets) A, BgIX, defined A^Bx dx X A ^ B dV ~ . X A_Bx dx X The geometric meaning of X A ^ B dV, illustrated in figure 9, is the ratio of the area (or volume) of the meet of two fuzzy spatial objects to the join of two fuzzy spatial objects. Here, join of two fuzzy objects means union of two fuzzy objects. In previously studying the topological relations between spatial objects, researchers (Egenhofer and Franzosa 1991, Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Cohn and Gotts 1996, Smith 1996, Shi and Guo 1999, Tang and Kainz 2002) used the intersection of sets to give quantitative relations. Meet of two fuzzy objects means intersection of two fuzzy objects. Here, we use volume ratio (the volume of the intersection to the volume of the meet of two fuzzy spatial objects, see figure 9) to describe the quantitative value of two fuzzy spatial objects. Obviously, the former models can only give a local quantitative value (or Boolean value) at different points, while the model in this paper can give a global quantitative value to each spatial object. Since for any spatial object AgIX, the three components, interior (Aa), boundary (qA), and exterior ((Ac)a) are not disjoint (see figure 9), there is double counting of

Figure 9.

870

Figure 10. In (a) smaller a larger AaqA and (Ac)aqA; in (b) larger b smaller AbqA and (Ac)bqA.

the integration. For example, X Aa ^ Ba dV and X LA ^ LB dV will be double counted on the part qABa and qBAa. But we have the bound of the overlapping part; that is, for any a, (AaqA)(x),12a and ((Ac)aqA)(x),12a; and fora 1 2, Aa(Ac)a5w, respectively (Liu and Shi, submitted). This means that we can control the size of the overlapping between the interior to the boundary and the exterior to the boundary by choosing a large value for a. We can see that if the value of a is very close to zero, the uncertainty is very large, while if the value of a is very close to one, the uncertainty is very small. Figure 10 shows how the sizes of Supp(AaqA) and Supp((Ac)aqA) change. That is, when a smaller a is chosen, larger values of AaqA and (Ac)aqA are obtained; when a larger b is chosen, smaller values of AbqA and (Ac)bqA are obtained. Moreover, if the topology is discrete, for a suitable a, the uncertainty of spatial objects can be controlled to zero. Indeed, an a is chosen such that AaqA50 and (Ac)aqA50. Therefore, in modeling topological relations between simple spatial regions, we may neglect the effect of AaqA and (Ac)aqA. 6.1 Identification by a 363 integration matrix

By directly using the value of zero and non-zero, which are topological invariants, the 363 integration matrix 0 1 c X Aa ^ Ba dV X LA ^ Ba dV X A a ^Ba dV B C c @ X Aa ^ LB dV X LA ^ LB dV X A a ^LB dV A c c c c X Aa ^ B a dV X LA ^ B a dV X A a ^B a dV gives a total of 295512 different cases of topological relations between two simple fuzzy regions. However, for a simple fuzzy region in R2, it is not possible for all of these topological relations to occur.

871

(i) Let A and B be two simple fuzzy regions in R2. The 363 integration matrix will then satisfy the following conditions. Due to the fact that simple fuzzy regions are bounded, X Ac a ^Bc a dV is non-zero for all cases. (ii) Each part of A (Aa, qA and (Ac)a) must intersect with at least one part of B (Ba , qB and (Bc)a), andvice versa. (iii) If X Aa ^ Ba dV and X Aa ^ Bc a dV are non-zero, then X Aa ^ LB dV must be non-zero, and vice versa. (iv) If X LA ^ LB dV is zero, then either X Ac a ^LB dV or X LA ^ Bc a dV is non-zero. (v) If both X Aa ^ LB dV and X LA ^ Ba dV are non-zero, then X LA ^ LB dV must be non-zero. (vi) If X Aa ^ Bc a dV is non-zero, then X LA ^ Bc a dV must be non-zero, and vice versa. (vii) If X Aa ^ Ba dV is zero and X LA ^ Ba dV is non-zero, then X LA ^ LB dV must be non-zero, and vice versa. (viii) If A ^ B dV and A ^ L B dV are non-zero, then a a a X X X LA ^ Ba dV and and vice versa. XL A ^ LB dV are non-zero, (ix) If A ^ B dV and A ^ LB dV are zero, then X Aa ^ Bc a dV and a a a X X c and vice versa. XL A ^ B a dV are non-zero, (x) If X LA ^ Ba dV and X LA ^ Bc a dV are non-zero, then X LA ^ LB dV must be non-zero, andvice versa. (xi) If X Aa ^ Ba dV and X LA ^ Ba dV are non-zero, then X Ac a ^Ba dV is non-zero, and vice versa. Based on the above conditions, 44 relations between simple fuzzy regions in R2 were identified by using the 363 integration matrix. This result is similar to the two results from previous studies (Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Tang and Kainz 2002). However, the method used here is totally different. In fact, the method proposed in this study is a generalization of the previous models. This will be discussed in detail in the next section. The 44 relations between two simple fuzzy regions are listed in Appendix 1, which includes the value of the matrix, the support view, and membership value of the fuzzy topological relations between two simple fuzzy regions. The topological relations among simple fuzzy regions with simple line segments, simple fuzzy regions to fuzzy points, simple fuzzy line segments to simple fuzzy line segments and simple fuzzy line segments to fuzzy points will be investigated and reported in a separate paper, because of limitations on the length of this paper. 7. A comparison with the existing models

In dealing with fuzzy spatial objects, Cohn and Gotts (1996) proposed the egg-yolk model and suggested using two concentric sub-regions, indicating the degree of membership in a vague/fuzzy region, where yolk represents the precise part and egg represents the vague/fuzzy part of the region. Based on Region Connection Calculus (RCC) theory (Randell et al. 1992), eight basic relations can be defined. They are: DC (Disconnected), EC (Externally Connected), PO (Partially Overlapping), TPP (Tangential Proper Part), NTPP (Non-tangential Proper Part), EQ (Equal), PPI (Proper Part Inverse), and TPPI (Tangential Proper Part Inverse), respectively (see table 1). The egg-yolk model is an extension of the RCC theory into the vague/fuzzy region. A total of 46 relations can be identified (Cohn and Gotts 1996).

872

Table 1.

RCC relations between two regions.

In dealing with spatial objects with indeterminate boundaries, based on 0 o 1 A \Bo LA\Bo Ac \Bo o c Egenhofers nine-intersection model @ A \LB LA\LB A \LB A, Clementini Ao \Bc LA\Bc Ac \Bc and Di Felice (1996) defined a region with a broad boundary, by using two simple regions. This broad boundary is denoted by DA. More precisely, the broad boundary is a simple connected subset of R2 with a hole. The shaded region in figure 11 is region A with a broad boundary. Based on the empty and non-empty invariance, Clementini and Di Felices Algebraic model, 0 o 1 A \Bo DA\Bo Ac \Bo @ Ao \DB DA\DB Ac \DB A, gave a total of 44 relations between two spatial Ao \Bc DA\Bc Ac \Bc regions with a broad boundary. To investigate the topological relations between fuzzy regions, Tang and Kainz (2002) decomposed a fuzzy set A into several topological parts, as follows: (i) the core, A+ , which is the subset of the closure fuzzy set A with (A2Ac2)(x)50, for all xgX;

873

(ii) the fringe, ,A, which is the subset of the closure fuzzy set A with (A2Ac2)(x).0, for all xgX; (iii) the outer, A5, the complement of the support of the closure of fuzzy set A. 0 + 1 A ^ B+ A+ ^ B A+ ^ B~ By using the nine-intersection matrix, @ A ^ B+ A ^ B A ^ B~ A, there A~ ^ B+ A ^ B A~ ^ B~ are a total of 44 relations between two simply fuzzy regions. Different from the general topology, when decomposing a fuzzy set into interior, boundary, and exterior, the intersection of two (interior and boundary or boundary and exterior or interior and exterior) may not be empty (Liu and Shi, submitted). Actually, Tang (2004) considered this by introducing more topological invariants. Here, we created a computational fuzzy topology and calculated the intersecting values and obtained bounds which are (AaqA)(x),12a and ((Ac)aqA)(x),12a. The existing models did not take this fact into consideration, which may lead to unexpected effects in modeling topological relations between spatial objects. In our research, we not only considered this factor, but also gave a significant bound on the overlapping parts that actually can be controlled by varying the level cutting. Furthermore, the relations between objects have been quantified based on the ratio between integrations, which varies between 0 and 1. The advantage of this method not only provides the existence of the intersection between two parts, but also provides a quantitative value for this intersection. This is a step beyond the existing methods, which can only provide topological relations by giving a value of 1 (with intersection) or 0 (without intersection). With a different method and based on the 363 integration matrix, there are 44 relations between the simple fuzzy regions in R2. This result agrees with two previous results (Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Tang and Kainz 2002). Other new findings are on the number of topological relations, there are 16 relations between simple fuzzy region and simple fuzzy line segment in R2; 46 topological relations between two simple fuzzy line segments; three relations between simple fuzzy region and fuzzy point in R2 and three relations between simple fuzzy line segment and fuzzy point in R2. Table 2 is a summary of the number of relations identified based on the existing models and our newly developed models in this study. From this table, we can see that the number of topological relations between simple fuzzy regions from this study is similar to the results from previous studies (Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Tang and Kainz 2002). However, the method used

Table 2. A comparison of number of relations based on several models. Authors Our model Tang and Kainzs model Cohn and Gottss model Clementini and Di Felice model RegionRegion 44 44 46 44 RegionLine 16 30 Nil Nil RegionPoint 3 3 Nil Nil LineLine 46 97 Nil Nil LinePoint 3 3 Nil Nil

874

in this study is different from earlier studies. Furthermore, the findings on regions to line and line to line relations are different from Tangs model. This is due to the different definition of fuzzy line. 8. Conclusion and discussion

Fuzzy topological relations are elementary relations in studying the topological relations between spatial objects in GIS, especially for uncertain spatial objects in GIS. In this paper, we presented a study on developing methods for computing the fuzzy topological relations of spatial objects, based on the recently developed computational fuzzy topology. Our contributions include the following: (a) proposing the homeomorphic invariants of the fuzzy topology; (b) defining the connectivity based on the newly developed fuzzy topology; (c) modeling the fuzzy topological relations between simple fuzzy regions in GIS; (d) introducing the concepts of the intersection of the boundary and interior, the boundary and the exterior; and (e) obtaining an upper bound of these two intersections. The preserving properties and the connectivity of the newly developed fuzzy topology, based on which the topological relations are invariants under homeomorphic mappings, were studied. With such a development, we can guarantee the unchanged properties in a GIS transformation, such as the maintenance of topological consistency in transferring a map from one system to another. Since the intersection of the interior and boundary or boundary and exterior or interior and exterior may not be empty, there is double counting of the integration. In this paper, we have carefully studied the relations among the interior, boundary and exterior and hence have achieved an approximation of these overlapping parts. That is, for any a the values of the intersection of the interior and boundary or boundary and exterior are always bounded by 12a, where a is the value of the level cutting. Based on a previous finding that the intersection of interior and exterior is empty when the value of the level cutting is greater than 0.5 (Liu and Shi, submitted), we can control the uncertainty (the size of the overlap) between the interior and exterior to the boundary by controlling the value of a. This is a new finding which has never been mentioned in any previous studies on topological relations. Moreover, the value of a provides an accurate control of the modeling of topological relations between spatial objects in GIS. For computing the topological relations between spatial objects, the intersection concepts and the integration method are applied, and a computational 9-intersection model is thus developed. The computational topological relations between spatial objects are defined based on the ratio of the area/volume of the meet to the join of two fuzzy spatial objects. This is a step ahead of the existing topological relation models: from the conceptual definition of topological relations to the computable definition of topological relations. As a result, the quantitative value of topological relations can be calculated. With a different method and based on the 363 integration matrix, there are 44 relations between the simple fuzzy regions in R2. This result agrees with two previous results (Clementini and Di Felice 1996, Tang and Kainz 2002). Besides the above theoretical developments, there were a number of new findings on spatial relations in this study, namely: (a) there is no intersection between interior and exterior; (b) the upper bound of the intersections between interior and boundary, boundary and exterior is 12a; and (c) there are a total of 44 topological relations between simple fuzzy regions.

875

Further research based on this work will focus on investigating the quantitative topological relations among simple fuzzy regions and simple line segments, simple fuzzy regions and fuzzy points, simple fuzzy line segments and simple fuzzy line segments, and simple fuzzy line segments and fuzzy points. Acknowledgments The work described in this paper was supported by grants from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (G-9051, PolyU 5071/01E), and NSFC, China (Project No.: 40571127). References

CHANG, C.L., 1968, Fuzzy topological spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 24, pp. 182190. CLEMENTINI, E. and DI FELICE, D.P., 1996, An algebraic model for spatial objects with indeterminate boundaries. In Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries, P.A. Burrough and A.U. Frank (Eds), pp. 155169 (London: Taylor & Francis). COHN, A.G. and GOTTS, N.M., 1996, The egg-yolk representation of regions with indeterminate boundaries. In Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries, P.A. Burrough and A.U. Frank (Eds), pp. 171187 (London: Taylor & Francis). EGENHOFER, M. and FRANZOSA, R., 1991, Point-set topological spatial relations. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 5(2), pp. 161174. LIU, K.F. and SHI, W.Z., submitted, A fuzzy topology for computing the interior, boundary, and exterior of spatial objects quantitatively in GIS. LIU, Y.M. and LUO, M.K., 1997, Fuzzy Topology (Singapore: World Scientific). LUO, MAO-KANG, 1988, Paracompactness in fuzzy topological spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 130(1), pp. 5577. MARTIN, H.W., 1980, Weakly induced fuzzy topological spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 78, pp. 634639. PASCALI, E. and AJMAL, N., 1997, Fuzzy topologies and a type of their decomposition. Rendiconti di Matematica, Serie VII, Vol. 17, Roma, pp. 305328. RANDELL, D.A., CUI, Z. and COHN, A.G., 1992, A spatial logic based on regions and connection. In Proceedings 3rd International Conference on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, 2529 October 1992, San Mate, M. Kaufmann, California, pp. 165176. SHI, W.Z. and GUO, W., 1999, Topological relations between uncertainty spatial objects in three-dimensional space. In Proceedings of International Symposium on Spatial Data Quality, 1820 July 1999, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, pp. 487495. TANG, X.M. and KAINZ, W., 2002, Analysis of topological relations between fuzzy regions in general fuzzy topological space. In The SDH conference 02, 912 July 2002, Ottawa Congress Centers, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 114123. TANG, X.M., 2004, Modeling fuzzy spatial objects in fuzzy topological spaces with application to land cover changes. PhD Dissertation, ITC publications, The Netherlands. TANG, X.M., KAINZ, W. and FANG, Y., 2005, Reasoning about changes of land covers with fuzzy settings. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(14), pp. 30253046. WINTER, S., 2000, Uncertain topological relations between imprecise regions. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 14(5), pp. 411430. WONG, C.K., 1974, Fuzzy points and local properties of fuzzy topology. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 46, pp. 316328. WU, G. and ZHENG, C., 1991, Fuzzy boundary and characteristic properties of orderhomomorphisms. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 39, pp. 329337. ZADEH, L.A., 1965, Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 9, pp. 338353.

876 Appendix 1

Table 3.

Table 3. (Continued)

877

Table 3. (Continued)

Table 3. (Continued)

879

Table 3. (Continued)

Table 3. (Continued)

881

882

Appendix 2: The proof on being an induced fuzzy topology Both interior and closure operators can actually define a fuzzy topology respectively (Liu and Luo 1997). Furthermore, we can prove these two fuzzy topological spaces are actually coherent with each other. That is to say, they define the same fuzzy topological space. The following is the proof. Definition 1 (Interior and closure operators): Let A be a fuzzy set in [0, 1]x5Ix. For any fixed ag[0, 1], define the interior and closure operators on [0, 1]x5Ix as A DCCA Aa [Ix

a

and

A DCCA Aa [Ix respectively, where the fuzzy sets Aa and Aa in X are defined by: ( Ax if Ax > a and A a x ~ 0 if Axa ( 1 if Axa : A a x ~ Ax if Axva Proposition 2: Let A, B, and Ai (igL) be fuzzy sets of Ix. Then the following holds for all ag[0, 1]; 0a5050a and 1a5151a; Aa(A(Aa; A(B)Aa(Ba and Aa(Ba; (Aa)a5Aa and (Aa)a5Aa; (Aa)c5(Ac)12a and (Aa)c5(Ac)12a; a(b)Ab(Aa and (Aa)b5Ab; a(b)Ab(Aa and (Ab)a5Ab; a a (viii) If L is finite, then _ Ai ~ _ Ai and ^ Ai ~ ^ Ai a ; i[^ i[^ i[^ i[^ a a a (ix) ^ Ai ~ ^ Ai and _ Ai ~ _ Aia ; (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

i[^ i[^ i[^

(x) Aa(A(A12a.

i[^

Proposition 3: The mappings a and a are the interior and closure operators, respectively. Remark A: By this proposition, for any fuzzy set AgIx, AgIx is closed if and only if a (A)5A. That is, the fuzzy topology induced by a is the collection of ta5{Aa:AgIX}. On the other hand, AgIx is open if and only if aA~A. That is, the fuzzy topology induced by a is the collection of ta5{Aa:AgIX}. According to Liu and Luo (1997), the family of all the fuzzy topologies on X is one-one corresponding with the family of all interior and closure operators, respectively. However, these two operators only define two fuzzy topologies separately, and they may not define a coherent topological space.

883

Remark B: The results in proposition 2 allow us to define a new fuzzy topological space. Indeed, a fuzzy topological space (Ix, d) on X satisfies the conditions (a) 0, 1gd; (b) if A, Bgd, then ABgd, (c) let {Ai:igJ},d, where J is an index set, then _ Ai [d. The elements in d are called open elements and the elements in the

i[J

complement of T are called closed elements. The result in proposition 2(i) allows (a) to be defined, proposition 2(viii) allows (b) to be defined, and proposition 2(ix) allows (c) to be defined. Moreover, 2(v) makes the interior and closure operators coherent with each other.

Remark C: Poscali and Ajmal (1997) also defined two similar operators, interior and closure operators. In their definitions, these two operators may not further define a coherent fuzzy topology, and they give a necessary and sufficient condition for these two operators to be coherent with each other. These are the necessary and sufficient conditions for these two operators to define an identical fuzzy topology. Definition 4: For 1>a.0, define ta5{Aa:AgIx} and ta5{Aa:AgIx}. Proposition 5: The triple (X, ta, t12a) is an I-fts, where ta is the open sets and t12a is the closed sets that satisfy (Aa)c5(Ac)12a, i.e. the complement of the elements in the ta closed set.

12 a Proof: 050a and 112a5151a show that 0 and 1 are elements of ta and t12a. 0 5 That ^ Ai ~ ^ Ai a , where L is finite, shows that the finite intersection of d is i[^ i[ ^ a also in d. Finally, _ Ai ~ _ Ai a shows that the union of d is also in d. i[^ i[^ a Q.E.D.

- Spatial technologyUploaded byEnrique Mb
- urban transportation planningUploaded byGbolahan Salam
- Lecture Notes 23 OctUploaded byGiovanni Di Fratta
- Top Dimension TheoryUploaded byWenceslao Lbs
- SRS Development of Web GIS Tool IEEE SA 830 SRS Format Final 27082013Uploaded byAmitosh Anand
- Analysis of Human Spatial Behavior in a GIS EnvironmentUploaded byL'Hassani
- IVth SemesterUploaded byManish Tiwari
- project Management or enfineering or accounting or production orUploaded byapi-78467577
- tduggan resume july2019Uploaded byapi-464143098
- Web-based Tourism Decision Support System (WBTDSS) Architecture AndUploaded byDavid D'bayu
- flyer for thorough site investigation serviceUploaded byapi-271148291
- Poster GI Learner1 EnglishUploaded byGeoBlogs
- GoodchildUploaded byLuciano Marciano Goncalves
- GIS enabled Hospital Services and Facilities Information System (G-HIS)Uploaded bySarath Babu M G
- Resume JaisyUploaded byJobin Jose
- Expanded Applications of GISUploaded byCarl Mills III
- GIS Assigmnt 1Uploaded byRozita Abdullah Sani
- CITY KNOWLEDGEUploaded byahmadvand58
- EyeQ Fact SheetUploaded bymap_c
- A Business Case for SAP GIS IntegrationUploaded byCharles Ashman
- Blending Terragen 2 With Real Canadian GIS DataUploaded bysnoopyflyingace6695
- lizahoos resumeUploaded byapi-226830136
- Chapter 1-Introduction to GISUploaded byDani Ftwi
- Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling for route.pdfUploaded byRakih Wicaksono
- GIS_Coastal-Brazil.pdfUploaded byYogeesh Jayaramu
- BIR Recent Tax DevelopmentUploaded byRyan Nemroe
- It Master Plan for ZooUploaded byRio Aulia Marsiano
- UntitledUploaded byapi-61200414
- Portable GISUploaded byJis Romal
- 2001_Assessment of biomass potential for power productio.pdfUploaded byVictor Cameron

- mit18086_navierstokesUploaded byhlkatk
- Clewley, D. Et Al. a Python-based Open Source for Geographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) Utilizing Raster Atribute TablesUploaded byJorge Marques
- Remotesensing 09 00358 v2Uploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- RSOBIA DocumentationUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- TSE Using Matrices Rev2Uploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- هو ذا الأنسان فريدريش نيتشهUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- RSOBIA - A New OBIA Toolbar and Toolbox in ArcMapUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- 04_KVRpub_EarselUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- M. STAVROPOULOU Coupled Wellbore Erosion and Stability AnalysisUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- Brivois2007 Soil Erosion in the Boundary Layer Flow Along a SlopeUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- Information Content of High Res Satellite IMageryUploaded bybadarhussnain
- n030-spatial-accuracy-assessment.xlsUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- IAHR 2013b - Paper - Revised article completUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- Rheology of Hyperconcentrated FlowsUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- Navier–Stokes EquationsUploaded byBouhadjar Meguenni
- BCP97Uploaded byPamela Aimée Sanchez
- Octave tutorialUploaded byPablo Peñas

- Mineral SandsUploaded bySarah Don
- Seminar ReportUploaded byKritika Nimesh
- Extract; Prehistoric Cultures of the Horn of Africa - ClarkUploaded bylolololoolololol999
- patternsofcrustalactivity_lessonplanUploaded byjdanf001
- Clay County Evacuation zonesUploaded byFirstCoastNews
- Engineering Geology Maps Landslides and Geographical Information SystemsUploaded byAlbertto Guardado
- Lecture 1 Introduction Aagc HandoutsUploaded byMaria Edenfe Llena Lecciones
- Analysis of Kubla KhanUploaded byTANBIR RAHAMAN
- Mendocino National Forest Order No. 08-19-01 - Mendocino Complex areaUploaded byLakeCoNews
- CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for Geography 2014-2015Uploaded bycbsesamplepaper
- 1709 Ls8 Product Band CombinUploaded byJuvencio do Rosario
- Wetland Fish and Wildlife Habitat Assessment Report Final 5.8.17Uploaded byNikita Puerto
- Igneous Petrology Andri's Lecture NoteUploaded bysuryadi
- PV-Lecture1Uploaded bycdp_34
- DARLING, J. Asylum AccomodationsUploaded bythiagobogossian
- 2nd OrdinanceUploaded byJennifer de Guzman
- Unesco Global GeoparksUploaded bynitim
- the Dialects of North GreeceUploaded bytcsoden
- CookiesUploaded byRasya Messi
- North Kensington Gate Panels f WEB[1]Uploaded byscribdstorage
- Manual of OccultismUploaded byglasgowcare
- Regional PlanningUploaded byNarmatha Balachandar
- Bacolod SEProfile 2012Uploaded bywinmarcella
- The Phantom of the Poles (William Reed)Uploaded byGeoffroy Coutellier
- The English Patient ProjectUploaded byRobert Adam
- Origins of Greek Civilization 1100-650 BC (Starr 1961)Uploaded bytayl5720
- Appendix B1 - Geotechnical Report~1Uploaded byDaramola Ayotope
- Urban Renewal of Kajang CityUploaded byMathivanan Muthusamy
- LA County Land W Permits & PlansUploaded byerespinoza
- Shipping Companies Navi Mumbai.xlsxUploaded bySKN

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.