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26

Michael Good Nov 2, 2004

10.7 A single particle moves in space under a conservative potential. Set up the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in ellipsoidal coordinates u, v , dened in terms of the usual cylindrical coordinates r, z , by the equations. r = a sinh v sin u z = a cosh v cos u

For what forms of V (u, v, ) is the equation separable. Use the results above to reduce to quadratures the problem of point particle of mass m moving in the gravitational eld of two unequal mass points xed on the z axis a distance 2a apart. Answer: Lets obtain the Hamilton Jacobi equation. This will be used to reduce the problem to quadratures. This is an old usage of the word quadratures, and means to just get the problem into a form where the only thing left to do is take an integral. Here T = 1 2 1 1 2 mr + mz 2 + mr2 2 2 2 r = a sinh v sin u r = a cosh v sin uv + a sinh v cos uu z = a cosh v cos u z = a sinh v cos uv a cosh v sin uu Here r 2 +z 2 = a2 (cosh2 v sin2 u +sinh2 v cos2 u)(v 2 +u 2 ) = a2 (sin2 u +sinh2 v )(v 2 +u 2) 1

L = ma2 (sin2 u + sinh2 v )u u because the potential does not depend on v or u . The cyclic coordinate yields a constant Ill call = p = mr2 So our Hamiltonian is H=

2 p2 p2 v + pu + +V 2 2 2 2 2ma (sin u + sinh v ) 2ma sinh2 v sin2 u

To nd our Hamilton Jacobi expression, the principle function applies S = Wu + Wv + Et So our Hamilton Jacobi equation is 1 Wu 2 Wv 2 1 W 2 [( ) +( ) ]+ ( ) +V (u, v, ) = E 2 2 2 2 v u + sinh v ) u 2ma sinh v sin u

Wu 2 Wv 2 1 1 1 1 [( ) +( ) ]+ ( + )2 +(sin2 u+sinh2 v )V (u, v, ) = (sin2 u+sinh2 v )E 2ma2 u v 2ma2 sinh2 v sin2 u A little bit more work is necessary. Once we solve for V (u, v, ) we can then separate this equation into u, v and parts, at which point we will have only integrals to take. I suggest drawing a picture, with two point masses on the z axis, with the origin being between them, so they are each a distance a from the origin. The potential is then formed from two pieces V = GmM1 GmM2 |r az | |r + az |

To solve for the denominators use the Pythagorean theorem, remembering we are in cylindrical coordinates, |r az |2 = (z a)2 + r2 Using the results from part (a) for r and z , |r az |2 = a2 (cosh v cos u 1)2 + a2 sinh2 v sin2 u 2

|r az |2 = a2 (cosh2 v cos2 u 2 cosh v cos u + 1 + sinh2 v sin2 u) Lets rearrange this to make it easy to see the next step, |r az |2 = a2 (sinh2 v sin2 u + cosh2 v cos2 u + 1 2 cosh v cos u) Now convert the sin2 u = 1 cos2 u and convert the cosh2 v = 1 + sinh2 v |r az |2 = a2 (sinh2 v + cos2 u + 1 2 cosh v cos u) Add the 1 and cosh2 v |r az |2 = a2 (cosh2 v + cos2 u 2 cosh v cos u) |r az |2 = (a(cosh v cos u))2 So our potential is now V = V = GmM2 GmM1 a(cosh v cos u) a(cosh v + cos u)

Note the very helpful substitution cosh2 v cos2 u = sin2 u + sinh2 v Allowing us to write V V = 1 GmM1 (cosh v + cos u) + GmM2 (cosh v cos u) a sin2 u + sinh2 v

Plug this into our Hamilton Jacobi equation, and go ahead and separate out u and v terms, introducing another constant, A:

2 1 1 Wu 2 1 Gm(M1 M2 ) cos u E sin2 u = A ( ) + 2ma2 u 2ma2 sin2 u a

10.17 Solve the problem of the motion of a point projectile in a vertical plane, using the Hamilton-Jacobi method. Find both the equation of the trajectory and the dependence of the coordinates on time, assuming the projectile is red o at time t = 0 from the origin with the velocity v0 , making an angle with the horizontal. Answer: Im going to assume the angle is because there are too many s in the problem to begin with. First we nd the Hamiltonian, p2 p2 y x + + mgy 2m 2m Following the examples in section 10.2, we set up the Hamiltonian-Jacobi equation by setting p = S/q and we get H= 1 S 2 1 S 2 S ( ) + ( ) + mgy + =0 2m x 2m y t The principle function is S (x, x , y, , t) = Wx (x, x ) + Wy (y, ) t Because x is not in the Hamiltonian, it is cyclic, and a cyclic coordinate has the characteristic component Wqi = qi i . S (x, x , y, , t) = xx + Wy (y, ) t Expressed in terms of the characteristic function, we get for our HamiltonianJacobi equation

2 1 Wy 2 x + ( ) + mgy = 2m 2m y

2 2m2 gy 2m x

Thus our principle function is S (x, x , y, , t) = xx + Solving for the coordinates, 1 2 (2m x 2m2 gy )3/2 t 3m2 g

= x =

Solving for both x(t) and y (t) in terms of the constants , x , and x

2 g x y (t) = (t + )2 + 2 mg 2m2 g

x ( + t) m We can solve for our constants in terms of our initial velocity, and angle through initial conditions, x(t) = x + x(0) = 0 x = x m

2 x g =0 y (0) = 0 2 + 2 mg 2m2 g

x m y (0) = v0 sin = g x (0) = v0 cos = Thus we have for our constants = x = = v0 sin g

2 v0 cos sin g

2 g v0 sin 2 v0 v 2 cos2 y (t) = (t + ) + 0 2 g g 2g 2 2 2 g v0 sin2 v0 v0 cos2 g y (t) = t2 + v0 sin t + 2 2 g2 g 2g

2 v0 v0 sin cos sin + v0 cos + v0 cos t g g

x(t) = v0 cos t Together we have g y (t) = t2 + v0 sin t 2 x(t) = v0 cos t 10.26 Set up the problem of the heavy symmetrical top, with one point xed, in the Hamilton-Jacobi mehtod, and obtain the formal solution to the motion as given by Eq. (5.63). Answer: This is the form we are looking for.

u(t)

t=

u(0)

du (1 u2 )( u) (b au)2

Expressing the Hamiltonian in terms of momenta like we did in the previous problem, we get H= p2 p2 (p p cos )2 + M gh cos + + 2I3 2I1 2I1 sin2

Setting up the principle function, noting the cyclic coordinates, we see S (, E, , , , , t) = W (, E ) + + Et Using S =p q we have for our Hamilton-Jacobi equation, solved for the partial S s

2 1 W 2 ( cos )2 + ( ) + + M gh cos = E 2I3 2I1 2I1 sin2

W (, E ) = When integrated,

2I1 E

2I 1

I3

W =

(2I1 E

2 I 1 I3

( cos )2 sin2

2 2E I1 I1 I3 I1 2M gl = I1 2 I3

2 I3 ) 2 (ba cos ) I 2M gh cos )1/2 I1 1 sin2

2

d (

(ba cos )2 sin2

cos )1/2

(t)

t=

(0)

d (

(ba cos )2 sin2

cos )1/2

The integrand is the exact expression as Goldsteins (5.62). Making the substitution u = cos we arrive home

u(t)

t=

u(0)

du (1 u2 )( u) (b au)2

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