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Network and Complex Systems ISSN 2224-610X ( aper! ISSN 222"-060# ($nline! %ol.#& No.

'& 201#

Remote Surveillance System for Mobile Application

Sonali (. )iware )ept. o* Comp+ter ,ngineering& (a-aras-tra ./ademy o* ,ngineering& .landi ()!& +ne ,-mail0 sonali.diware1gmail./om S-weta .. Iskande )ept. o* Comp+ter ,ngineering& (a-aras-tra ./ademy o* ,ngineering& .landi ()!& +ne ,-mail0 s-weta.iskande1gmail./om Abstract 2emote 3ideo s+r3eillan/e is t-e +se o* /ameras and ot-er s+r3eillan/e e4+ipment to monitor properties and assets *rom a separate lo/ation. It is o*ten +sed as a *or/e m+ltiplier or asset prote/tion de3i/e *or areas w-ere it is not possi5le& pra/ti/al& or a**orda5le to install a /a5le network. It is /ommonly deployed in /ity and /amp+s appli/ations& or any pla/e w-ere it is di**i/+lt to monitor t-e s+rro+ndings +sing /ommon means. 2emote s+r3eillan/e is a great opport+nity to +se wireless te/-nologies *or /onne/ti3ity d+e to t-e *lexi5ility t-ey pro3ide. . 3ideo s+r3eillan/e system is only as relia5le as t-e network it is /onne/ted to& so /are*+l planning o* t-e network te/-nologies and e4+ipment /-oi/es are /r+/ial. Keywords: /amera /ontrol& /-ange dete/tion& /omp+ter 3ision& image pro/essing& 3ideo s+r3eillan/e. 1.Introduction Se/+rity in residential /omplexes is restri/ted to limited geograp-i/al lo/ations. 2eason *or t-is is t-e traditional de3i/es and pro/ess +sed *or se/+ring any apartment or /omplexes. 6-e on demand 3ideo s+r3eillan/e and 3ideo /apt+ring are a//essed in a limited lo/ation *rom a /entral set+p *or s+r3eillan/e. 7sers /annot a**ord to 5+y expensi3e s+r3eillan/e de3i/es *or t-eir personal +se as t-ey are expensi3e and need -ig- set+p and /onne/tions. It is di**i/+lt to keep a wat/- on se/+rity *rom di**erent remote lo/ations. .s it need standard plat*orm to a//ess s+r3eillan/e de3i/es and se/+re /onne/tion proto/ol. 6-is pre3ents t-e +ser *or keeping a wat/- on se/+rity lo/ation *rom any remote pla/e 3ia a standard plat*orm o* a//essing remote s+r3eillan/e de3i/e. 6oday so*tware is t-e most expensi3e element o* 3irt+ally all /omp+ter-5ased systems. So*tware pro8e/t estimates /an 5e trans*ormed *rom a 5la/k art o* a series o* systemati/ steps t-at pro3ide estimate wit- a//epta5le risk. 9ines o* /ode and *+n/tion point data are +sed in two ways doing so*tware pro8e/t estimation. 1..s an estimation 3aria5le to si:e ea/- element o* t-e so*tware and& 2. .s 5ase line matri/es /olle/ted *rom past pro8e/ts and +sed in /on8+n/tion wit- estimation 3aria5le to de3elop /ost and e**ort estimation. 2. Problem efinition 6-e me/-anism *or a//essing s+r3eillan/e de3i/es s-o+ld 5e /apa5le o* a//essing de3i/es *rom any remote lo/ation. 6-is wo+ld allow +ser to keep a wat/- on se/+rity lo/ation *rom any remote lo/ation. 6-e /omm+ni/ation and t-e plat*orm needed to a//ess s+r3eillan/e de3i/es s-o+ld 5e standard /-annel and de3i/e. 6-e /omm+ni/ating and a//essing de3i/e s-o+ld 5e *+lly 5ased on so*tware. 6-is will make easy *or +ser to /ontrol and a//ess s+r3eillan/e de3i/es. .//o+nts *or all +sers s-o+ld 5e maintained. 6-is will make proper +tili:ation o* /omm+ni/ation 5andwidt- +sing standard so*tware 5ased plat*orm. 6-is allows +ser to a//ess s+r3eillan/e de3i/es *rom a standard +ser *riendly plat*orm like we5 portal or mo5ile de3i/es. !.Ma"or Performance #b"ective 3.1 Video Streaming with High Bandwidth ;andwidt- is a key per*orman/e meas+re o* remote /omm+ni/ation. It de*ines -ow many 5its /an 5e transmitted e3ery se/ond& w-i/- means t-e more 5andwidt- a3aila5le& t-e more data /an 5e sent in a gi3en period o* time.2emote S+r3eillan/e %ia (o5ile +ses I networks t-at -a3e t-e *lexi5ility to allo/ate 5andwidt- as needed and reser3e t-e +nallo/ated 5andwidt- *or ot-er data +sing 26S proto/ol. 3.2 . Accessing Surveillance Device functions from remote location (any o* t-e *+n/tion related to s+r3eillan/e de3i/e like /-anging position o* se/+rity /amera<s et/ /an 5e per*ormed 3ia remote pro/ed+re /alls +sing data streaming 5etween /lient and t-e ser3er. It -elps exe/+ting di**erent *+n/tions o* s+r3eillan/e de3i/es *rom remote lo/ation. 3.3. Compression of Capture mage 6o a/-ie3e -ig- /omm+ni/ation speed and delay o* *rames in mo5ile de3i/es& t-e image /apt+re 5y t-e s+r3eillan/e de3i/e is /ompressed to red+/e t-e si:e o* t-e image t-en it is send to mo5ile de3i/e 3ia internet. 6-is pre3ents o* *rame lagging and delay in /omm+ni/ation.


Network and Complex Systems ISSN 2224-610X ( aper! ISSN 222"-060# ($nline! %ol.#& No.'& 201#

3.!. Advanced "eatures 6-ro+g- 2emote s+r3eillan/e we intend to spread se/+rity wat/- set+ps in a wider lo/ation. 6-is will also make +se o* so*tware 5ased wat/- instead o* +sing -ardware. 6-is will make +ser more /om*orta5le to intera/t witt-e system. 6-e so*tware pro3ides a 5ridge o* /omm+ni/ation 5etween remote de3i/es like mo5ile and we5 portal wit- t-e s+r3eillan/e de3i/es. 6-e so*tware will not per*orm /omm+ni/ation 5etween two remote de3i/es or two desktop appli/ations. 6-e mo5ile appli/ation so*tware will per*orm t-e task o* /onne/ting t-e wireless de3i/e wit- t-e ser3er to get li3e 3ideo *eeds. 6-is will -elp +ser to keep a wat/- on se/+rity *rom remote pla/e. 6-e desktop appli/ation will per*orm inter*a/ing wit- t-e s+r3eillan/e de3i/es and per*orm t-e task o* transmitting 3ideo *eeds to t-e we5 ser3er. 6-is will -elp +ser to get a//ess to t-e s+r3eillan/e de3i/e +sing so*tware. 7ser )ata5ase will per*orm t-e task o* a+t-enti/ation o* +ser a//o+nts. 6-is will -elp t-e system to marinating 5andwidt- o* di**erent +sers. $. %iterature Survey S+r3eillan/e is t-e monitoring o* t-e 5e-a3ior& a/ti3ities& or ot-er /-anging in*ormation& +s+ally o* people and o*ten in a s+rreptitio+s manner. It most +s+ally re*ers to o5ser3ation o* indi3id+als or gro+ps 5y go3ernment organi:ation& 5+t disease s+r3eillan/e *or example& is monitoring t-e progress in a disease in a /omm+nity. 6-e word surveillance /omes *rom t-e =ren/- word *or >wat/-ing o3er>. 6-e word surveillance may 5e applied to o5ser3ation *rom a distan/e 5y means o* ele/troni/ e4+ipment (s+/- as CC6% /ameras!& or inter/eption o* ele/troni/ally transmitted in*ormation (s+/- as Internet tra**i/ or p-one /alls!. It may also re*er to simple& relati3ely no- or low-te/-nology met-ods s+/- as -+man intelligen/e agents and postal inter/eption. S+r3eillan/e is 3ery +se*+l to go3ernments and law en*or/ement to maintain so/ial /ontrol& re/ogni:e and monitor t-reats& and pre3ent?in3estigate /riminal a/ti3ity. @it- t-e ad3ent o* programs s+/- as t-e 6otal In*ormation .wareness program and .)%IS,& te/-nologies s+/- as -ig- speed s+r3eillan/e /omp+ters and 5iometri/ so*tware& and laws s+/- as t-e Comm+ni/ations .ssistan/e =or 9aw ,n*or/ement ./t& go3ernments now possess an +npre/edented a5ility to monitor t-e a/ti3ities o* t-eir s+58e/ts. Aowe3er& many /i3il rig-ts and pri3a/y gro+ps s+/- as t-e ele/troni/ *rontier *o+ndation and .C97 -a3e expressed /on/ern t-at 5y allowing /ontin+al in/reases in go3ernment s+r3eillan/e o* /iti:ens t-at we will end +p in a mass s+r3eillan/e so/iety& wit- extremely limited& or non-existent politi/al and?or personal *reedoms. =ears s+/- as t-is -a3e led to n+mero+s laws+its s+/- as .6B6. !.1. #$isting S%stem 4.1.1. &i'ife Digital Video Surveillance S%stem0 It is a wireless se/+rity system in a se/+rity lo/ation. 6-e main ad3antage o* wireless system is t-e -ardware *or /onne/tion is a5sent. 6-e *eeds *rom t-e se/+rity de3i/es or /ameras are /apt+re at t-e /entral lo/ation. 6-e s+r3eillan/e de3i/es are wireless and make +se o* radio transmitter. 2adio transmitter are limited in s/ope and t-ey /annot 5e extend to wider lo/ations !.1.2. 2( CC)V Video Surveillance S%stem0 6-is is a traditional s+r3eillan/e system w-ere CC-6% is /onne/ted wit- t-e /entral monitoring de3i/e t-ro+g/a5les. 6-e /apt+red imaged is examined 5y t-e /entral monitoring de3i/e. !.1.3.#$treme Surveillance S%stem* 6-is system +ses smart /-ip 5ased s+r3eillan/e de3i/es w-i/- are /apa5le o* inter*a/ing dire/tly wit- t-e /omp+ter t-ro+g- 2S-2#2 /a5le. 6-ese systems -a3e so*tware C7I w-i/- /ontrols t-e s+r3eillan/e de3i/e. &.'ype of surveillance +.1. Computer surveillance 6-e 3ast ma8ority o* /omp+ter s+r3eillan/e in3ol3es t-e monitoring o* data and tra**i/ on t-e Internet. In t-e +nited states *or example +nder t-e /omm+ni/ation .ssistan/e =or 9aw ,n*or/ement ./t& all p-one /alls and 5road5and Internet tra**i/ (emails& we5 tra**i/& instant messaging& et/! are re4+ired to 5e a3aila5le *or +nimpeded real-time monitoring 5y =ederal law en*or/ement agen/ies. 6-ere is *ar too m+/- data on t-e Internet *or -+man in3estigators to man+ally sear/- t-ro+g- all o* it. So a+tomated Internet s+r3eillan/e /omp+ters si*t t-ro+g- t-e 3ast amo+nt o* inter/epted Internet tra**i/ and identi*y and report to -+man in3estigators tra**i/ /onsidered interesting 5y +sing /ertain >trigger> words or p-rases& 3isiting /ertain types o* we5 sites& or /omm+ni/ating 3ia email or /-at wit- s+spi/io+s indi3id+als or gro+ps. ;illions o* dollars per year are spent& 5y agen/ies s+/- as t-e In*ormation .wareness $**i/e& NS.& and t-e =;I& to de3elop& p+r/-ase& implement& and operate systems s+/as Carni3ore& Nar+sInsig-t and ,CA,9$N to inter/ept and analy:e all o* t-is data& and extra/t only t-e in*ormation w-i/- is +se*+l to law en*or/ement and intelligen/e agen/ies. Comp+ters are also a s+r3eillan/e target 5e/a+se o* t-e personal data stored on t-em. I* someone is a5le to install so*tware (eit-er p-ysi/ally or remotely!& s+/- as t-e =;IDs >(agi/ 9antern> and CI .%& on a /omp+ter system& t-ey /an easily gain


Network and Complex Systems ISSN 2224-610X ( aper! ISSN 222"-060# ($nline! %ol.#& No.'& 201#

+na+t-ori:ed a//ess to t-is data. .not-er *orm o* /omp+ter s+r3eillan/e& known as 6,( ,S6& in3ol3es reading ele/tromagneti/ emanations *rom /omp+ting de3i/es in order to extra/t data *rom t-em at distan/es o* -+ndreds o* meters. 6-e NS. also r+ns a data5ase known as > inwale>& w-i/- stores and indexes large n+m5ers o* emails o* 5ot- .meri/an /iti:ens and *oreigners. +.2. )elephones and mo,ile telephones 6-e o**i/ial and +no**i/ial tapping o* telep-one lines is widespread. In t-e 7nited States *or instan/e& t-e Comm+ni/ations .ssistan/e *or 9aw ,n*or/ement ./t (C.9,.! re4+ires t-at all telep-one and %oI /omm+ni/ations 5e a3aila5le *or real-time wiretapping 5y =ederal law en*or/ement and intelligen/e agen/ies. 6wo ma8or tele/omm+ni/ations /ompanies in t-e 7.S. -- .6B6 and %eri:onE-a3e /ontra/ts wit- t-e =;I& re4+iring t-em to keep t-eir p-one /all re/ords easily sear/-a5le and a//essi5le *or =ederal agen/ies& in ret+rn *or F1.' million dollars per year. ;etween 200# and 200"& t-e =;I sent o+t more t-an 140&000 >National Se/+rity 9etters> ordering p-one /ompanies to -and o3er in*ormation a5o+t t-eir /+stomersD /alling and Internet -istories. .5o+t -al* o* t-ese letters re4+ested in*ormation on 7.S. /iti:ens. A+man agents are not re4+ired to monitor most /alls. Spee/--to-text so*tware /reates ma/-ine- reada5le text *rom inter/epted a+dio& w-i/- is t-en pro/essed 5y a+tomated /all-analysis programs& s+/- as t-ose de3eloped 5y agen/ies s+/- as t-e In*ormation .wareness $**i/e& or /ompanies s+/- as %erint & and Nar+s & w-i/- sear/- *or /ertain words or p-rases& to de/ide w-et-er to dedi/ate a -+man agent to t-e /all. 9aw en*or/ement and intelligen/e ser3i/es in t-e 7.G. and t-e 7nited States possess te/-nology to remotely a/ti3ate t-e mi/rop-ones in /ell p-ones& 5y a//essing t-e p-oneDs diagnosti/?maintenan/e *eat+res& in order to listen to /on3ersations t-at take pla/e near5y t-e person w-o -olds t-e p-one. (o5ile p-ones are also /ommonly +sed to /olle/t lo/ation data. 6-e geograp-i/al lo/ation o* a mo5ile p-one (and t-+s t-e person /arrying it! /an 5e determined easily (w-et-er it is 5eing +sed or not!& +sing a te/-ni4+e known m+ltilateration to /al/+late t-e di**eren/es in time *or a signal to tra3el *rom t-e /ell p-one to ea/- o* se3eral /ell towers near t-e owner o* t-e p-one. . /ontro3ersy -as emerged in t-e 7nited States o3er t-e legality o* s+/- te/-ni4+es& and parti/+larly w-et-er a /o+rt warrant is re4+ired. 2e/ords *or one /arrier alone (Sprint!& s-owed t-at in a gi3en year *ederal law en*or/ement agen/ies re4+ested /+stomer lo/ation data ' million times. +.3 . Surveillance cameras S+r3eillan/e /ameras are 3ideo /ameras +sed *or t-e p+rpose o* o5ser3ing an area. 6-ey are o*ten /onne/ted to a re/ording de3i/e& I network& and?or wat/-ed 5y a se/+rity g+ard?law en*or/ement o**i/er. Cameras and re/ording e4+ipment +sed to 5e relati3ely expensi3e and re4+ired -+man personnel to monitor /amera *ootage. Now wit- /-eaper prod+/tion te/-ni4+es& it is simple and inexpensi3e eno+g- to 5e +sed in -ome se/+rity systems& and *or e3eryday s+r3eillan/e. .nalysis o* *ootage is made easier 5y a+tomated so*tware t-at organi:es digital 3ideo *ootage into a sear/-a5le data5ase& and 5y a+tomated 3ideo analysis so*tware<s. 6-e amo+nt o* *ootage is also drasti/ally red+/ed 5y motion sensors w-i/- only re/ord w-en motion is dete/ted.

=ig+re 1. CC6% Camera. S+r3eillan/e /ameras s+/- as t-ese are installed 5y t-e millions in many /o+ntries& and are nowadays monitored 5y a+tomated /omp+ter programs instead o* -+mans. 6-e +se o* s+r3eillan/e /ameras 5y go3ernments and 5+sinesses -as dramati/ally in/reased o3er t-e last 10 years. In t-e 7.G.& *or example& t-ere are a5o+t 4.2 million s+r3eillan/e /amerasE1 /amera *or e3ery 14 people. In t-e 7nited States& t-e )epartment o* Aomeland Se/+rity gi3es 5illions o* dollars per year in Aomeland Se/+rity grants *or lo/al& state& and *ederal agen/ies to install modern 3ideo s+r3eillan/e e4+ipment. =or example& t-e /ity o* C-i/ago& I9 re/ently +sed a F".1 million Aomeland Se/+rity grant to install an additional 2"0 s+r3eillan/e /ameras& and /onne/t t-em to a /entrali:ed monitoring /enter& along wit- its preexisting network o* o3er 2000 /ameras in a program known as $peration %irt+al S-ield. C-i/ago (ayor 2i/-ard )aley stated t-at C-i/ago will -a3e a s+r3eillan/e /amera on e3ery street /orner 5y t-e year 2016. 16

Network and Complex Systems ISSN 2224-610X ( aper! ISSN 222"-060# ($nline! %ol.#& No.'& 201#

.s part o* C-inaDs Colden S-ield ro8e/t& se3eral 7.S. /orporations s+/- as I;(& Ceneral ,le/tri/& and Aoneywell -a3e 5een working /losely wit- t-e C-inese go3ernment to install millions o* s+r3eillan/e /ameras t-ro+g-o+t C-ina& along wit- ad3an/ed 3ideo analyti/s and *a/ial re/ognition so*tware& w-i/- will identi*y and tra/k indi3id+als e3eryw-ere t-ey go. 6-ey will 5e /onne/ted to a /entrali:ed data5ase and monitoring station& w-i/- will& +pon /ompletion o* t-e pro8e/t& /ontain a pi/t+re o* t-e *a/e o* e3ery person in C-ina0 o3er 1.# 5illion people. 9in Iiang A+ai& t-e -ead o* C-inaDs >In*ormation Se/+rity 6e/-nology> o**i/e (w-i/- is in /-arge o* t-e pro8e/t!& /redits t-e s+r3eillan/e systems in t-e 7nited States and t-e 7.G. as t-e inspiration *or w-at -e is doing wit- t-e Colden S-ield pro8e/t. 6-e )e*ense .d3an/ed 2esear/- ro8e/ts .gen/y ().2 .! is *+nding a resear/- pro8e/t /alled Com5at Jones 6-at See t-at will link +p /ameras a/ross a /ity to a /entrali:ed monitoring station& identi*y and tra/k indi3id+als and 3e-i/les as t-ey mo3e t-ro+g- t-e /ity& and report >s+spi/io+s> a/ti3ity (s+/- as wa3ing arms& looking sideto-side& standing in a gro+p& et/!.K##L .t S+per ;owl XXX% in Ian+ary 2001& poli/e in 6ampa ;ay& =lorida& +sed Identix<s *a/ial re/ognition so*tware& =a/eIt& to s/an t-e /rowd *or potential /riminals and terrorists in attendan/e at t-e e3ent.K#4L (it *o+nd 1M people wit- pending arrest warrants!K#"L Co3ernments o*ten initially /laim t-at /ameras are meant to 5e +sed *or tra**i/ /ontrol& 5+t many o* t-em end +p +sing t-em *or general s+r3eillan/e. =or example& @as-ington& ).C. -ad "000 >tra**i/> /ameras installed +nder t-is premise& and t-en a*ter t-ey were all in pla/e& networked t-em all toget-er and t-en granted a//ess to t-e (etropolitan oli/e )epartment& so t-at t-ey /o+ld per*orm >day-to-day monitoring>.K#6L 6-e de3elopment o* /entrali:ed networks o* CC6% /ameras wat/-ing p+5li/ areasElinked to /omp+ter data5ases o* peopleDs pi/t+res and identity (5iometri/ data!& a5le to tra/k peoplesD mo3ements t-ro+g-o+t t-e /ity& and identi*y w-o t-ey -a3e 5een wit-E-as 5een arg+ed 5y some to present a risk to /i3il li5erties.K#HL +.!. Biometric surveillance ;iometri/ s+r3eillan/e re*ers to te/-nologies t-at meas+re and analy:e -+man p-ysi/al and?or 5e-a3ioral /-ara/teristi/s *or a+t-enti/ation& identi*i/ation& or s/reening p+rposes. ,xamples o* p-ysi/al /-ara/teristi/s in/l+de *ingerprints& )N.& and *a/ial patterns. ,xamples o* mostly 5e-a3ioral /-ara/teristi/s in/l+de gait (a personDs manner o* walking! or 3oi/e. =a/ial re/ognition is t-e +se o* t-e +ni4+e /on*ig+ration o* a personDs *a/ial *eat+res to a//+rately identi*y t-em& +s+ally *rom s+r3eillan/e 3ideo. ;ot- t-e )epartment o* Aomeland Se/+rity and ).2 . are -ea3ily *+nding resear/- into *a/ial re/ognition systems. 6-e In*ormation ro/essing 6e/-nology $**i/e ran a program known as A+man Identi*i/ation at a )istan/e w-i/- de3eloped te/-nologies t-at are /apa5le o* identi*ying a person at +p to "00 *t 5y t-eir *a/ial *eat+res. .not-er *orm o* 5e-a3ioral 5iometri/s& 5ased on a**e/ti3e /omp+ting& in3ol3es /omp+ters re/ogni:ing a personDs emotional state 5ased on an analysis o* t-eir *a/ial expressions& -ow *ast t-ey are talking& t-e tone and pit/- o* t-eir 3oi/e& t-eir post+re& and ot-er 5e-a3ioral traits. 6-is mig-t 5e +sed *or instan/e to see i* a person is a/ting >s+spi/io+s> (looking aro+nd *+rti3ely& >tense> or >angry> *a/ial expressions& wa3ing arms& et/.! . more re/ent de3elopment is )N. *ingerprinting& w-i/- looks at some o* t-e ma8or markers in t-e 5odyDs )N. to prod+/e a mat/-. 6-e =;I is /+rrently spending F1 5illion to 5+ild a new 5iometri/ data5ase& w-i/- will store )N.& *a/ial re/ognition data& iris?retina (eye! data& *ingerprints& palm prints& and ot-er 5iometri/ data o* people li3ing in t-e 7nited States. 6-e /omp+ters r+nning t-e data5ase will 5e /ontained in an +ndergro+nd *a/ility is a5o+t t-e si:e o* a *oot5all *ield. 6-e 9os .ngeles oli/e )epartment is /+rrently installing a+tomated *a/ial re/ognition and li/ense plate re/ognition de3i/es in its s4+ad /ars& and pro3iding -and-eld *a/e s/anners& w-i/o**i/ers will +se to identi*y people w-ile on patrol. =a/ial t-ermograp-s are /+rrently in de3elopment& w-i/- allow ma/-ines to identi*y /ertain emotions in people s+/- as *ear or stress& 5y meas+ring t-e temperat+re generated 5y 5lood *low to di**erent parts o* t-eir *a/e. 9aw en*or/ement o**i/ers 5elie3e t-at t-is -as potential *or t-em to identi*y w-en a s+spe/t is ner3o+s& w-i/- mig-t indi/ate t-at t-ey are -iding somet-ing& lying& or worried a5o+t somet-ing. +.+. Aerial surveillance .erial s+r3eillan/e is t-e gat-ering o* s+r3eillan/e& +s+ally 3is+al imagery or 3ideo& *rom an air5orne 3e-i/leE s+/- as a +nmanned aerial 3e-i/le& -eli/opter& or spy plane. )igital imaging te/-nology& miniat+ri:ed /omp+ters& and n+mero+s ot-er te/-nologi/al ad3an/es o3er t-e past de/ade -a3e /ontri5+ted to rapid ad3an/es in aerial s+r3eillan/e -ardware s+/- as mi/ro-aerial 3e-i/les& *orward-looking in*rared& and -ig--resol+tion imagery /apa5le o* identi*ying o58e/ts at extremely long distan/es. =or instan/e& t-e (N-M 2eaper& a 7.S. drone plane /+rrently +sed *or domesti/ operations 5y t-e )epartment o* Aomeland Se/+rity& /arries /ameras t-at are /apa5le o* identi*ying an o58e/t t-e si:e o* a milk /arton *rom altit+des o* 60&000 *eet& and -as *orward-looking in*rared de3i/es t-at /an dete/t t-e -eat *rom a -+man 5ody at distan/es o* +p to 60 kilometers.


Network and Complex Systems ISSN 2224-610X ( aper! ISSN 222"-060# ($nline! %ol.#& No.'& 201#

=ig+re 2. A.26 program /on/ept drawing *rom o**i/ial I 6$ ().2 .! o**i/ial we5site. 6-e 7nited States )epartment o* Aomeland Se/+rity is in t-e pro/ess o* testing 7.%s to patrol t-e skies o3er t-e 7nited States *or t-e p+rposes o* /riti/al in*rastr+/t+re prote/tion& 5order patrol& >transit monitoring>& and general s+r3eillan/e o* t-e 7.S. pop+lation (iami-)ade poli/e department ran tests wit- a 3erti/al take-o** and landing 7.% *rom Aoneywell& w-i/- is planned to 5e +sed in S@.6 operations Ao+stonDs poli/e department -as 5een testing *ixed-wing 7.%s *or +se in >tra**i/ /ontrol> 6-e 7.G.& as well& is /+rrently working on plans to 5+ild +p a *leet o* s+r3eillan/e 7.%s ranging *rom mi/roaerial 3e-i/les to *+ll-si:e drones& to 5e +sed 5y poli/e *or/es t-ro+g-o+t t-e 7.G. In addition to t-eir s+r3eillan/e /apa5ilities& (.%s are /apa5le o* /arrying tasers *or >/rowd /ontrol>& or weapons *or killing enemy /om5atants. rograms s+/- as t-e Aeterogeno+s .erial 2e/onnaissan/e 6eam program de3eloped 5y ).2 . -a3e a+tomated m+/- o* t-e aerial s+r3eillan/e pro/ess. 6-ey -a3e de3eloped systems /onsisting o* large teams drone planes t-at pilot t-emsel3es a+tomati/ally de/ide w-o is >s+spi/io+s> and -ow to go a5o+t monitoring t-em& /oordinate t-eir a/ti3ities wit- ot-er drones near5y& and noti*y -+man operators i* somet-ing s+spi/io+s is o//+rring. 6-is greatly in/reases t-e amo+nt o* area t-at /an 5e /ontin+o+sly monitored& w-ile red+/ing t-e n+m5er o* -+man operators re4+ired. 6-+s a swarm o* a+tomated& sel*-dire/ting drones /an a+tomati/ally patrol a /ity and tra/k s+spi/io+s indi3id+als& reporting t-eir a/ti3ities 5a/k to a /entrali:ed monitoring station. (.Proposed System Arc)itecture 6-e ar/-ite/t+re 5eing +sed *or t-is so*tware is t-e 6wo 6ier .r/-ite/t+re. In 6wo 6ier .r/-ite/t+re& t-e /lient ma/-ine a/ts as a *ront end /omm+ni/ates wit- an appli/ation ser3er. 6-e appli/ation ser3er in t+rn manip+lates data wit- -elp o* admin to a//ess data. 6-e 5+siness logi/ o* t-e appli/ation& w-i/- says w-at a/tions to /arry o+t +nder w-at /ondition& is em5edded in t-e appli/ation ser3er& instead o* 5eing distri5+ted a/ross m+ltiple /lients. 6wo tier appli/ations are appropriate *or large as well as small appli/ation& and *or appli/ation t-at r+n on t-e @orld @ide @e5.

"igure 3.-roposed s%stem architecture. ..1. /utdoor and (o,ile Video Surveillance ..1.1.)ata Storage0 .s today<s se/+rity iss+es grow more /omplex& s+r3eillan/e /on/erns o*ten extend 5eyond /losed doors and well into p+5li/ spa/es. 6o /om5at s+/- e3ol3ing t-reats& o+tdoor and mo5ile s+r3eillan/e -as 5e/ome a key element o* /ompre-ensi3e se/+rity sol+tions. @-ile mo5ile s+r3eillan/e is rapidly gaining prominen/e as an e**e/ti3e s+r3eillan/e tool among spe/ialist ind+stries& s+/- as law en*or/ement and t-e military& o+tdoor s+r3eillan/e -as 5e/ome in/reasingly important in sa*eg+arding p+5li/ and organi:ational interests. 6-ese di3erse 3ideo s+r3eillan/e en3ironments -ig-lig-t t-e growing importan/e o* A))s& w-i/- ena5le 3ast 4+antities o* /riti/al 3ideo data to 5e stored e**i/iently& relia5ly and se/+rely. ..1.2. Advantages of HDD )echnolog% In S+r3eillan/e A))s are a s+perior repository *or 3ideo data /ompared to traditional media& s+/- as 3ideotapes& w-i/- are o*ten plag+ed 5y -ardware-5ased iss+es& s+/- as generation loss and in/ompati5ility wit- newer /amera models. In addition& A))-5ased 3ideo s+r3eillan/e systems ena5le a 5road range o* *+n/tionalities not a3aila5le wit- analog media. 1'

Network and Complex Systems ISSN 2224-610X ( aper! ISSN 222"-060# ($nline! %ol.#& No.'& 201#

..1.3. Client0server architecture 7sers /an iss+e a 3ariety o* remote demands& permitting more t-an one /lient to 3iew and /ontrol /ameras sim+ltaneo+sly and more t-an one pro/ess to a//ess data *or more t-an one p+rpose& s+/- as a+tomati/ remote ar/-i3ing& sear/-ing and?or exporting data. ..1.!. Data archiving )ata storage /an 5e a+tomated and distri5+ted& ena5ling 5ot- p+5li/ and pri3ate enterprises to +tili:e /entrali:ed data elements *or se/+rity& /ontrol and /on3enien/e. ..1.+. #as% integration N+ality digital 3ideo images streamed *rom -ig--de*inition /ameras are easy to integrate wit- post-pro/essing appli/ations& s+/- as *a/ial re/ognition and o58e/t tra/king. ..1... "le$i,le controls for secure user1level access .dministrators /an esta5lis- *lexi5le /ontrols *or se/+re +ser-le3el a//ess t-ro+g-o+t an organi:ation. ..1.2. mage e$porting A))-5ased s+r3eillan/e systems /an easily and se/+rely trans*er segments o* 3ideo data *or e3identiary p+rposes& training programs& or post-e3al+ation and reporting. ..1.3. Higher image 4ualit% =+ll-*rame& -ig--resol+tion images deli3ered 5y modern -ig--end /ameras are seamlessly ar/-i3ed on A))s& ena5ling easy image 3iewing and a+t-enti/ation. ..1.5. -lug and pla% on an% networ6 .ll networked 3ideo ser3ers /an a/-ie3e pl+g-and-play stat+s on any network +sing 6C ?I addressesO m+ltiple /ameras simply 5e/ome addressa5le de3i/es on an I n+m5er. ..1.17. 8emote diagnostics and access A))-5ased 3ideo ser3ers ena5le network assets to 5e remotely managed wit- network management so*tware. ..1.11. Smart search A))-e4+ipped s+r3eillan/e systems *a/ilitate pixel-5ased sear/-ing o* digital 3ideo& ena5ling an operator to -ig-lig-t an area o* interest wit- a /amera 3iew and sear/- *or pixel 3ariationsO s+/- sear/-es are /ompleted in mere se/onds. %ideo images are time- and date-stamped and /an 5e a//essed& replayed or /opied wit- no detail loss. 6-e m+ltit+de o* additional *+n/tionalities ena5led 5y A))-5ased 3ideo s+r3eillan/e systems translates into signi*i/ant 5ene*its& s+/- as en-an/ed ease o* +se& greater *lexi5ility and ro5+st data se/+rity pre3io+sly +na3aila5le in t-e 3ideo s+r3eillan/e ind+stry. In addition& t-e /om5ination o* sop-isti/ated -ig--de*inition /ameras and A)) storage ena5les /risp& /lear images t-at are 3al+a5le in 3ario+s appli/ations ranging *rom /o+rt e3iden/e to *orensi/s detailing. *.Application 2.1. Securit% Applications .ppli/ation se/+rity en/ompasses meas+res taken t-ro+g-o+t t-e appli/ationDs li*e-/y/le to pre3ent ex/eptions in t-e se/+rity poli/y o* an appli/ation or t-e +nderlying system (3+lnera5ilities! t-ro+g- *laws in t-e design& de3elopment& deployment& +pgrade& or maintenan/e o* t-e appli/ation. .ppli/ations only /ontrol t-e +se o* reso+r/es granted to t-em& and not which reso+r/es are granted to t-em. 6-ey& in t+rn& determine t-e +se o* t-ese reso+r/es 5y +sers o* t-e appli/ation t-ro+g- appli/ation se/+rity. 2.2. i-hone surveillance s%stem CC6% Camera ros sells i -one s+r3eillan/e system and i -one /ompati5le se/+rity /ameras. .ll o* t-e systems and se/+rity /ameras are /ompati5le wit- t-e .pple i -one *or remote /amera 3iewing. 2.3. Audio in video surveillance s%stem @-ile t-e +se o* a+dio in 3ideo s+r3eillan/e systems is still not widespread& -a3ing a+dio /an en-an/e a system<s a5ility to dete/t and interpret e3ents& as well as ena5le a+dio /omm+ni/ation o3er an I network. References . 2. @ol* and ;. .. )ewitt& #lements of -hotogrammetr% with Applications in 9 S& #rd ed. New Pork0 (/Craw Aill& 2000. . ;+rt& . .nandan& C. 3an der @al& and 2. ;assman& Q. *ront-end 3ision pro/essor *or 3e-i/le na3igation&R in -roc. nt. Conf. ntelligent Autonomous S%stems& 1MM#. . ;+rt and ,. .delson& Q6-e 9apla/ian pyramid as a /ompa/t image /ode&R ### )rans. Commun.& 3ol. C$(#1& pp. "#2S"40& .pr. 1M'#. @. =reeman and ,. .delson& Q6-e design and +se o* steera5le *ilters&R ### )rans. -attern Anal. (ach. ntell.& 3ol. 1#& pp. 'M1SM06& Sept. 1MM1.


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