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Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.

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Study the Performance of the Combined Gas Turbine-Steam Cycle for Power Generation
'r. Sa(a )asso*( +hmed ,ni-ersity o. /a(ylon01ollege o. 2ngineering0'e artment o. Mechanical0Ira3-/a(ylon e-mail4sa(a5ya6yahoo.com Abstract In this research% a theoretical and analytical st*dy o. gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycle .or ower generation was carried o*t to im ro-e the er.ormance o. the thermal ower lant. + thermodynamic analysis o. the com(ined cycle thro*gh a ty ical attern was done. + ro riate ass*m tions were made .or two 7inds o. com(ined cycles% sim le gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine and reheat gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycles% s*ch that the res*lts o(tained wo*ld closely a ro8imate act*al data. Then the e3*ations o. the com(ined cycle calc*lations were deri-ed. 9o*r cases were st*died to choose the o tim*m gas t*r(ine and steam t*r(ine conditions .or the com(ined cycle. The reheat gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycle is (etter as com ared to the sim le gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycle% (eca*se the o*t *t er *nit mass o. air .low is signi.icantly im ro-ed (y $5-4&:% and the e..iciency is higher (y 4 : .or the com(ined cycle *tili;ing the reheat gas t*r(ine% which oints to otential cost sa-ing .or s*ch a cycle. It was .o*nd that the o tim*m conditions o. the gas t*r(ine cycle in the com(ined cycle mode occ*r at the ma8im*m net wor7 conditions. The e..iciency o. the waste heat (oiler .or high e8ha*st tem erat*re ranges (ma8im*m </= 8>:! is com ara(le to the e..iciency o. the con-entional (oilers. The waste heat (oiler has the added ad-antage o. sim licity% there.ore this ty e o. com(ined cycle *sing waste heat (oiler has great romise .or ower generation. Keywords4 Combined gas-steam cycle, gas turbine cycle List of Symbols: Latin Symbols Symbol 1? 1 . h ? m P C r T E Greek Symbols FD25 < Subscript &%2%$%4%5%G 2s%4s%Gs a +dd / 1 1om( eg g o s sg s*

Definition 1om(*stion ress*re ?oss S eci.ic heat at 1onstant ress*re (7@07g.A! 9*el to +ir Batio (7g.*el07gair! 2nthal y (7@07g! 1om(*stion and Badiation ?oss Mass .low rate (7g0sec! Press*re (Pa! Deat S* lied (A@0Ag! Press*re Batio Tem erat*re(A! Eor7 o*t *t (E! 1alori.ic #al*e at 25o1 2..iciency The state as shown in 9ig*res(&%2%$%4! Isentro ic case .or each state +ir +dded /oiler 1om ressor 1om(ined 28ha*st gas Has "-erall Steam Stac7 gases S* erheated

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Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

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T*r(ine

1. Introduction 2lectrical ower generation has *ndergone a re-ol*tion since 1990. The gas-steam com(ined ower lant has come o. age and there is the romise o. more ad-anced gas t*r(ine cycles (ased on aero-deri-ati-e machines. '*ring the 1990s, a s*ite o. com *ter codes were de-elo ed at 1am(ridge to analy;es ad-anced ower cycles at a more detailed le-el than *s*al. 9or s*ch calc*lations% it is most im ortant to handle the thermodynamics as rigoro*sly as ossi(le (Horlock, J.H., et.al., 1998, 2000). In recent ast the gas0steam com(ined cycle (ased ower lants ha-e (ecome o *lar as these o..er more e..ecti-e *tili;ation o. the .ossil .*el energy. These o..er higher thermal e..iciency as com ared to the gas t*r(ine (ased lant or the steam t*r(ine (ased lants in isolation the er.ormance o. the gas0steam com(ined cycle ower lant de ends * on the er.ormance o. to ing and (ottoming cycle. Has t*r(ine is seen to o..er high s eci.ic wor7 o*t *t i. the t*r(ine inlet tem erat*re ( ! ) co*ld (e increased. Th*s% with increased ! the er.ormance o. the heat reco-ery steam generator (H"#$) and consec*ti-ely the steam t*r(ine im ro-es there(y% o..ering im ro-ement in com(ined cycle er.ormance (%ada&, J.'., #ing(,)r *.,200+). The literat*re has o.ten s*ggested com(ining two or more thermal cycles within a single ower lant. In all cases the intention was to increase e..iciency o-er that o. single cycles. Thermal rocesses can (e com(ined in this way whether they o erate with the same or with di..ering wor7ing media. Dowe-er% a com(ination o. cycles with di..erent wor7ing media is more interesting (eca*se their ad-antage can com lement one another. Normally the cycles can (e classed as a ,to--ing, and a ,bottoming, cycle. The .irst cycle to which most o. the heat is s* lied is called the ,to--ing cycle,. The waste heat rod*ces is then *tili;ed in a second rocess which o erates at a lower tem erat*re le-el and is there.ore re.erred to as a ,bottoming cycle,. , to the resent time % only one com(ined cycle has .o*nd wide acce tance 4 the com(ination gas t*r(ine0steam t*r(ine ower lant (.e(l(o/er, "., 1990). +n alternati-e regenerator con.ig*ration has (een im ro-ed (y ()allenback,'.1.,2002) thro*gh im ro-ing the e..iciency o. gas t*r(ine cycle.("a&i .umer, et.al.,2002) has energy losses in di..erent gas t*r(ine cycle com onents. It is o(ser-ed that the irre-ersi(ility in e8ha*st gases is low which indicates e..ecti-e *tili;ation o. heat energy% (*t the s eci.ic wor7 o*t *t o. the t*r(ine decreases. Henerally with increase the t*r(ine inlet tem erat*re the s eci.ic wor7 o. gas t*r(ine increases. /*t increase in the t*r(ine inlet tem erat*re has strict metall*rgical limitations in terms o. ma8im*m tem erat*re that the t*r(ine stage co*ld with stand. ("a&i .umar, 3., #ita "ama, 1.4., 2002) analy;ed the e..ect o. inlet cooling on heat reco-ery steam generator (H"#$) er.ormance. It is .o*nd that the inlet cooling red*ces the wor7 in *t o. the com ressor and increases the mass .low rate o. air. Similarly the e..iciency o. steam cycle can (e im ro-ed (y increasing the tem erat*re o. steam entered into the steam t*r(ine. The ma8im*m tem erat*re o. steam that can (e *sed in steam t*r(ine is considered .rom metall*rgical oint o. -iew o. t*r(ine (lades. The mass .low rate o. steam and steam tem erat*re de ends on the amo*nt o. heat a-aila(le in the gas t*r(ine e8ha*st. ("a&i .umar, et.al., 200+) has done er.ormance sim*lation o. (H"#$) in com(ined cycle ower lant. They disc*ssed the e..ect o. -ario*s arameters li7e inch oint% a roach oint% steam ress*re% steam tem erat*re% gas .low rate on the er.ormance o. the (H"#$). ("a&i .umar, et.al., 2000) ha-e (een analy;ed di..erent heat reco-ery steam generator con.ig*rations o. single ress*re and d*al ress*re. The com(ined cycle e..iciency with di..erent heat reco-ery steam generator con.ig*rations ha-e (een analy;ed arametrically (y *sing .irst law I second law o. thermodynamics% it was o(ser-ed that in the d*al cycle high ress*re steam t*r(ine ress*re m*st (e high I low ress*re steam t*r(ine ress*re m*st (e low .or (etter heat reco-ery .rom heat reco-ery steam generator. (#rini&as, ., et.al., 2000) ha-e (een analy;ed the e..ect o. JnK .eed water heaters (.low! on er.ormance o. a steam ower cycle with a generali;ed mathematical .orm*lation. The er.ormance calc*lations were .orm*lated se arately to single /.5.( and e8tended to 6n7 /.5.(s .or arametric st*dy. The o tim*m (led steam tem erat*re ratio is .o*nd at 0.8 with single /.5.( at gi-en wor7ing conditions. Similarly the o tim*m ress*re in a steam reheated is o(tained at 209 22: o. the (oiler ress*re irres ecti-e o. the n*m(er o. heaters. The res*lts show that the ma8im*m gain in the e..iciency o. cycle is o(taining with the .irst /5( and the increment diminishes with the addition o. the n*m(er o. heaters. +lso% has (een e8amined the im ro-ements in e..iciency with increases in (oiler ress*re% t*r(ine inlet tem erat*re and .*rnace tem erat*re. 2- alculations of Gas !urbine ycle 2-1: alculations of Simple Gas !urbine ycle + schematic diagram% "i#ure $1%% re resents the sim le gas t*r(ine cycle and "i#ure $2% re resent the cycle on !-S diagram. +ir at atmos heric ress*re is com ressed .rom state 1 to state 2 (y the com ressor. 9*el is added

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Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

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in the com(*stion cham(er to increase the tem erat*re at a constant ress*re to state &. The hot gases are then e8 anded thro*gh the t*r(ine to state ' (atmos heric ress*re!.
fuel

. .
2 &

'

G.!.
Gen

1 (ir in

"i#ure $1%: Sc)ematic "lo* Dia#ram of Simple Gas !urbine ycle.

!
&

,add

2s

2 ' 's

+!

+ 1

S
"i#ure $2%: !-S Dia#ram of Simple Gas !urbine ycle. 2-1-1: (ssumption of Simple Gas !urbine ycle: + ro riate ass*m tions ha-e (een made .or sim le gas t*r(ine cycle s*ch that the res*lts o(tained will closely a ro8imate act*al data .rom 7nown gas t*r(ines. The ass*m tions are4 &- 1om ressor e..iciency =-./. 2- T*r(ine e..iciency=-0/. $- 1om(*stion ress*re loss=' /. 4- 1om(*stion and radiation loss=&/. 5- +ir lea7age=0../. 6- Inlet ress*re=101.&2. 1a. >- 28ha*st ress*re=102.0& 1a 8- Inlet air tem erat*re=1. o . L- 1alori.ic -al*e o. .*el (1D4!='..00 k23k#. &0- +t constant +09 ratio set the e8cess air to 2004&004 and '00/. &&- 9or constant ma8im*m tem erat*re% the e8cess air set to '00/.

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Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

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2-1-2: (nalysis of Simple Gas !urbine ycle:

12 = rp 5 11

;(1)

( a 1)
!2 s = !1 $ rp % a
The act*al tem erat*re o. air at the end o. com ression is gi-en (y4 ;(2)

!2 = !1 +
2 1

$ !2 s !1 %

;(<)

Dence wor7 re3*ired .or com ression is o(tained (y *sing4

= p air d!

;(8)

Ehere the s eci.ic heat o. air is gi-en (y (%ada&,J.H., #ing(, *.,200+)=

p air = $ 2-.11 + 0.1960. 10 2 ! + 0.'-02.10 . ! 2 + 1.966.10 9 ! & % 3 29.0


Similarly% the ress*re a.ter the com(*stion cham(er and the tem erat*re o. the com(*stion can (e calc*lated as .ollow4 1& = 12 $ 1 L % ;(2) Ehile the ma8im*m tem erat*re (tem erat*re o. com(*stion! can (e calc*lated .rom the energy (alance4

& aL % p #as $ !& 29- % + f $ 1 L %$ 1 m aL %7 2. = $ 1 + f %$ 1 + m $ 1 m aL % p air $ !2 29- % + f $ 1 m aL % p fuelir $ ! f 29- %


+nd a.ter e8 ansion the tem erat*re o. the e8ha*st gas can (e calc*lated as .ollow4
#as 1 #as

;(+)

!' s = ! & .$ 1 3 rp %

;(0)

In addition% the act*al tem erat*re4

!' = !& ! .$ !& !' s %


Then% the wor7 o*t *t .rom the gas t*r(ine is4

;(8)

+ ! = p #as d!
'

&

;(9)

Ehere 1

gas is

gi-en (y (%ada&,J.H., #ing(, *.,200+)4

p #as = 1.-0-& 2.&120.10 & ! + '.0'..10 6 ! 2 1.0&6&.10 9 ! &


Dence the net wor7 o*t *t is4

+ net = +! +
+nd the gas t*r(ine cycle e..iciency is4

;(10)

#ast turbine =

+net ,add
ly to the gas t*r(ine and can (e calc*lated as .ollows4

;(11)

Ehere Cadd is the heat s* "r e3*al to

& aL %7 ,add = f $ 1 L %$ 1 m

;(12) ;(1<)

& aL % p #as!& $ 1 m & aL % pair !2 ,add = $ 1 + f %$ 1 m

2-2: alculations of t)e 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle: The T-S diagram% "i#ure $&%% re resents the reheat gas t*r(ine cycle. +ir at atmos heric ress*re is com ressed (y the com ressor .rom state 1 to state 2 as in the re-io*s sim le gas t*r(ine where the .*el is added in the .irst com(*stion cham(er to increase the tem erat*re at a constant ress*re to state &. the hot gases 2$

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

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are then e8 anded to state '% where again .*el is added in the second com(*stion cham(er to heat the gases to state . (.*ll reheat!. Then% the hot gases are e8 anded thro*gh the second gas t*r(ine to state 6 (atmos heric ress*re!. + schematic diagram o. the reheat gas t*r(ine re resented in "i#ure $'%% where the n*m(ers on the schematic corres ond with the n*m(ers o. the !-S diagram. The .*el added to the .irst com(*stion cham(er is f1 and .or the second com(*stion cham(er f2. !

&

' 2s 2 's 6s 6

S
"i#ure $&%: !-S Dia#ram of 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle.
f2 f1

. . . .
2 & ' .

G.!.

G.!.

Gas Generator
1

1o*er !urbine

"i#ure $'%: Sc)ematic Dia#ram of 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle. 2-2-1: (ssumption of 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle: In reheat gas t*r(ine cycle% the same ass*m tions were made .or the sim le gas t*r(ine cycle% in addition to4 &- The second com(*stion ress*re loss=&/. 2- The isentro ic e..iciency o. the second gas t*r(ine also was e3*al to =-0/. $- The e8cess air .or the .irst gas t*r(ine was set to '00 / and &00 / in the second gas t*r(ine .or e8 ansions. 2-2-2: (nalysis of 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle: The ro erties o. oints 142% and & are the same as in the sim le cycle. 9otes: the oints corres ond with the oints o. "i#ure $&%. The act*al tem erat*re o. oint ' is calc*lation .rom e:uation $1'% (elow4

+ = +! 1 & aL %$ 1 + f 1 % p #a $ !& !' % pair $ !2 !1 % = $ 1 m


The isentro ic tem erat*re at oint 44

;(18)

!' s =

(!& !' )
!

;(12)

The ress*re at oint '

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Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

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!' s = ! & .$ 1 3 rp %
#as

#as 1 #as

;(1+)

1& !& #as 1 = 1' !'


Then the ress*re at oint 5 can (e calc*lated as shown (elow4

1. = 1' $ 1 L2 %

;(10)

Ehere L2-Second com(*stion ress*re loss ercentage Since 16 is 7nown .rom the ass*m tion o. the sim le gas t*r(ine cycle .or 1' then we m*st .ind the ratio o. $1.316% in order to .ind the tem erat*re at oint G as .ollow4

!. = $ 1. 3 16 % !6 s

#as 1 #as

;(18)

Then% the act*al tem erat*re at oint 64

!6 = !. ! .$ !. !6 s %
Dence the net wor7 o*t *t

;(19) ;(20)

& aL %$ 1 + f 1 + f 2 % p #as $ !. !6 % + net = +! 1 = $ 1 m


& aL % p #as !& $ 1 m & aL % p air !2 + , add = $ 1 + f 1 %$ 1 m & aL %$ 1 + f 1 + f 2 % p #as !. $ 1 m & aL %$ 1 + f 1 % p #a !' $$ 1 m

+nd the heat s* lied is calc*lated as .ollow according to mass and energy .low diagram "i#ure $.b% .or the second com(*stion cham(er4

;(21)

ma h2 m . 1.#.

1om(*stion 1ham(er

( ma M m. ! h$

(maM m.&! h4 m .2 1.#.

1om(*stion 1ham(er

(( ma M m.& ! Mm .2 !h5

(a! ((! "i#ure $.%: ;ass and <ner#y "lo* Dia#ram for t)e "irst and Second ombustion )amber. 2-&: alculations and (nalysis of t)e combined cycle: + schematic diagram o. the com(ined cycle is ill*strated in "i#ure $6%. The heat a-aila(le in the e8ha*st o. the gas t*r(ine is ill*strated to generate steam (y the (oiler and the steam dose wor7 thro*gh the e8 ansion in the steam t*r(ine. The steam t*r(ine is mechanically connected to the generator where the cycle is a regenerati-e with three .orward .low .eed water heaters as shown in the T-S diagram $"i#ure$0%%. The condensate steam is *m ed (y the .eed water *m s and is heated (y .eed water heaters which ta7e the (leed steam .rom the t*r(ine at de.ined ress*re. Then heat addition ta7es lace in the economi;er% e-a orator and s* erheater. The s* erheated steam e8 ands thro*gh the t*r(ine to generate wor7 and then the cycle is com leted.

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!o Stack

<conomi=er S.!. <?aporator Super)eater >oiler 7ot Gases "rom Simple Gas !urbine or 8<)eat Gas !urbine 1 1 ".+.7. 1
Gen

II

III ondenser

"i#ure $6%: Sc)ematic "lo* Dia#ram of Steam ycle.

!
1

I 16 10 9 1' . m II 12 0 . m III ' 6 . 11 1& III IIs 1. II . mI Is

IIIs

2 & 2s

"i#ure $0%: !-S Dia#ram of t)e Steam ycle.

2-&-1: (ssumptions of t)e !*o ombined ycle: Two com(ined cycles were st*died. The .irst was the sim le gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycle and the second was the reheat gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycle. The conditions and ass*m tions o. the two com(ined cycles are gi-en in ta(le (elow4 !able $1%: !)e onditions and (ssumptions of t)e Steam ycle. The conditions and ass*m tions #al*e *sed in the com(ined cycle with Sim le gas t*r(ine Beheat gas t*r(ine &- .eed water tem %o1 &2& &2& 2-initial steam ress*re A a 42$8 5LG& $-initial tem %o1 440.5 482.2 4-1ondenser ress*re% atm 0.05 0.05 5-Steam t*r(ine e8 ansion e..iciency : 80 80 G- ress*re loss in e8traction i ing : 5 5 >-Terminal di..erence .or each .eed water heater o1 2.>8 2.>8 2-&-2: alculations of t)e ombined ycles: The a lica(le e3*ations *sed in com(ined cycle calc*lations are the heat (alance (etween the e8ha*st o. the gas t*r(ine and the (oiler (7olman4 2.1.42002%4

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)e# )s# mass of steam = mass of air )sup ) f*)


.eed heater% in which

;(22)

To determine the mass o. the (leed steam .or e8am le% consider the adia(atic mi8ing rocess at the .irst

&I m

7g o. steam o. enthal y hI% mi8 with

&s m & I ) 7g o. water o. enthal (m

y h8% to gi-e

& S 7g o. water o. enthal y h&04 m & I $ )I )- % = m & s $ )10 )- % m


Be eated .or the second and third .eed water heater to .ind the steam wor7 o*t *t4

;(2<)

& s $ )1 )I % + (m &s m & I )$ )I )II % + (m &s m &I m & II ) +S = m &s m &I m & II m & III )$ )III )c % $ )II )III % + (m
+S 5 100/ ,S

;(28)

The steam e..iciency4

S =

;(22)

, S = )1 )"+7 , S per k# of air = , S 5 k# of steam k# of air


;(2+)

> =

, S per k# of air )e# )s# o at 1..0& + S per k# of air )e# )s# o at 1..0&
;(28) ;(20)

o =

o = S 5
+ comb = + S + + net
apacity 8atio = + net +D

;(29) ;(<0)

;(<1)

,add for ombined ycle @ ,add for Gas !urbine ycle

comb =

+ comb 5 100/ , add

;(<2)

2-&-&: Steam Generation by +aste )eat boiler: The rocess o. steam generation is gi-en schematically in "i#ure $-%. Eater enters the economi;er at 121o on the le.t side and is heated to the sat*ration tem erat*re. Then% the water is (oiled at a constant tem erat*re to 100 / 3*ality in the e-a orator where a.ter the sat*rated steam s* erheated to a certain redetermined tem erat*re. The gas t*r(ine e8ha*st gi-es * its heat to steam0water *ntil the N inch ointN is reached (with s*ch (oilers the inch oint is generally 10 to 2-o .or economical designs!$8ice4 I. .4 19-0%. The inch oint then determines the stac7 or (oiler e8it tem erat*re.

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22o was chosen as a inch oint o. the com(ined cycles calc*lations% (*t .or the last two cases o. 1'00A and 1.--A in reheat gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycle% i. the inch oint at the e-a orator is 7e t the same as .or the other cases% the di..erence (etween the stac7 tem erat*re and the .eed water tem erat*re (the inch oint at the economi;er! (ecomes -ery small in the range o. 0 to - o . This wo*ld o(-io*sly lead to a -ery large economi;er% which wo*ld (e *neconomical and there.ore not desira(le. In order to a-oid this% the inch oint at the economi;er was made as 22 o and .or this case the inch oint at e-a orator comes to (e &'o and .2o (etween the water0 steam circ*it and the gas circ*it in the waste heat (oiler.
!emp. <B)aust !emp. Initial Steam !emp. Stack !emp.

1inc) 1oint

".+.!.
<conomi=er <?aporator Super)eater

Steam <nt)alpy

"i#ure $-%: <nt)alpy-!emperature Dia#ram S)o*in# t)e 1rocess of Steam Generation. 2-&-': (nlysis t)e Cptimum ondition of t)e Simple and 8e)eat Gas !urbine-Steam !urbine ombined ycle: To choose the o tim*m steam conditions and gas t*r(ine conditions o. the com(ined cycle% .o*r cases are st*died. The cases are &-Has t*r(ine conditions at the ma8im*m net wor7 and a certain steam conditions (as in !able $1%! with ass*m tion that4 2nthal y increase in economi;er=enthal y increase in .eed water heaters 2-The same conditions as in case $1% e8ce t the .inal .eed water tem erat*re=121o . $-The same conditions as in case $2% e8ce t initial steam tem erat*re=&01o . 4-Has t*r(ine conditions at the ma8im*m cycle e..iciency and the same steam conditions as in case $2%. 9rom these .o*r cases% case $2% seems (etter than the other cases and s*ita(le% (eca*se it gi-es more net wor7 and more e..iciency% so all the com(ined cycle calc*lations were done (ased on the case $2%. The same (asis o. calc*lations o. the a(o-e was .ollowed in the calc*lations o. the reheat gas t*r(inesteam t*r(ine com(ined cycle. &-8esults and Discussion: &-1: 8esults of Simple Gas !urbine ycle: To gi-e a clear ict*re o. the sim le gas t*r(ine cycle% two sets o. calc*lations ha-e (een made .or constant +09 ratios and .or constant ma8im*m tem erat*res res ecti-ely. &-1-1: onstant (3" 8atio: In this set o. calc*lations three di..erent theoretical air ercentage were chosen 200/4 &00/4 and '00/. "i#ure $9% shows a lot o. the theoretical air ercentage -ers*s the ma8im*m tem erat*re $!&% and the e8ha*st tem erat*re $!'% .or -ario*s ress*re ratios. It is clear that .or a constant theoretical air ercentage the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases when ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se the o*tlet com ressor tem erat*re increases. The ma8im*m tem erat*re decreases with the increase o. the theoretical air ercentage at a constant ress*re ratio% (eca*se the amo*nt o. the (*rnt .*el er *nit mass o. air (ecomes less and there.ore the enthal y o. the rod*cts (ecomes less% so that the ma8im*m tem erat*re decreases.

28

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

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The e8ha*st tem erat*re decreases when the ress*re ratio increases at a constant theoretical air ercentage% (eca*se o. greater e8 ansion% th*s the e8ha*st tem erat*re (eha-es o osite to the ma8im*m tem erat*re with the ress*re ratio. 9or a gi-en ress*re ratio% the e8ha*st tem erat*re decreases as the theoretical air ercentage increases. This (eha-ior is the same as the ma8im*m tem erat*re.
1200
!' !&

1-00 1600 1'00

1000

-00
! $A% &
' '

&0

600
&0

1000 -00 600

'00

200 '00
1.0 200 2.0 &00 &.0 '00 '.0

1ercenta#e of <Bcess (ir $/%

"i#ure$9%: ;aBimum !emperature and <B)aust !emperature Dersus !)eoretical (ir 1ercenta#e. "i#ure $10% re resents the relationshi (etween the net wor7 and the cycle e..iciency as a .*nction o. ress*re ratio .or -ario*s theoretical air ercentages. It can (e shown that at a constant ress*re ratio the cycle e..iciency and the net wor7 increases when the theoretical air ercentage decreases% d*e to high ma8im*m tem erat*re which is reached when more .*el is (*rnt. 9or a constant theoretical air ercentage% cycle e..iciency and net wor7 increase with the increase o. ress*re ratio. These increases (ecomes less and less at high- ress*re ratios% (eca*se more com ressor wor7 is needed.
'. '0
ycle <fficiency $/%

&.
12

&0 226 2' 22 20 116 1'

&0
6

10

'00 /

&00

20 1. 0

200
+net $A23A#%

20 0/

2.

'

'00

600

"i#ure $10%: ycle <fficiency Dersus 9et +ork. "i#ure $11% shows a lot o. the e8ha*st tem erat*re and the o*tlet com ressor tem erat*re $!2% -ers*s ress*re ratio. The o*tlet com ressor tem erat*re increases with the increase o. ress*re ratio% d*e to more com ressor wor7 .or high ress*re ratio and that wor7 ma7es the o*tlet com ressor tem erat*re increase. It is clear also that the com ressor o*tlet tem erat*re is inde endent o. the theoretical air ercentage. The .ig*re also shows that .or a gi-en ress*re ratio% the e8ha*st tem erat*re increases with the decrease o. the theoretical air ercentage% (eca*se the ma8im*m tem erat*re is more d*e to more (*rnt .*el. 9or a gi-en ercentage o. the theoretical air% the e8ha*st tem erat*re decreases with the increase o. the ress*re ratio% (eca*se o. greater e8 ansion.

2L

! $A% '

1200

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$
1200 900
<Bit (ir ompressor !emperature $A%

www.iiste.org

-.0
<B)aust Gas !emperature $A%

-00 10.0 0.0


200/

000 6.0 600

900

&00/

..0 .00

0.0
'00/

'.0 600 ' 6 10 12 1' 16 120 22 2' 26 2&0


1ressure 8atio

'00

"i#ure $11%: <B)aust !emperature and ompressor Cutlet !emperature ?ersus 18. "i#ure $12% re resents the relation (etween the wor7 ratio and the ress*re ratio .or -ario*s e8cess air ercentage. 9or a gi-en theoretical air ercentage% the wor7 ratio decreases as ress*re ratio increases% d*e to more wor7 is needed .or the com ressor. +t a constant ress*re ratio% the wor7 ratio increases as the theoretical air ercentage decreases% (eca*se more wor7 is rod*ced% d*e to high ma8im*m cycle tem erat*re.
0.000
<Bcess (ir@200/ <Bcess (ir@&00/

0.600

<Bcess (ir@'00/

+ork 8atio

0..00

0.'00

0.&00

0.200 ' 6 10 12 1' 16 120 22 2' 26 2&0

1ressure 8atio

"i#ure $12%: +ork 8atio ?ersus 18. &-1-2: onstant ;aBimum !emperature: /eca*se the ma8im*m tem erat*re (.iring tem erat*re! is -ery im ortant in the gas t*r(ine cycle% so another set o. calc*lation has (een made .or the constant ma8im*m tem erat*re. + ro riate ma8im*m tem erat*re *sed in todayOs and .*t*re t*r(ines were selected to 7now the er.ormance o. the cycle at these tem erat*res% which are 11''4 12..4 1&664 1'004 and 1.-- A. in ractice% the ma8im*m tem erat*re is not e8ceeded 12.. A in todayOs t*r(ine. !able $2% gi-es the o tim*m ress*re ratios at which the net wor7 and the cycle e..iciency are ma8im*m. !able $2%: Cptimum 1ressure 8atios for ;aBimum ycle <fficiency and ;aBimum 9et +ork. Ma8. Tem . " tim*m Press*re Batios .or ma8im*m A 1ycle 2..iciency Net Eor7 11'' 1' 12.. 110 1&66 22 12 1'00 2' 1' 1.-&0 16

$0

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

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"i#ure $1&% shows the relation (etween the cycle e..iciency and the net wor7 as a .*nction o. the ress*re ratio .or -ario*s ma8im*m tem erat*res. It is clear .rom the lot that .or a gi-en ma8im*m cycle e..iciency is higher than the o tim*m ress*re ratio .or ma8im*m net wor7% (eca*se at high ress*re ratio the heat added (ecomes less which ma7es the e..iciency increase *ntil a certain ress*re ratio% then it (ecomes decreases% (eca*se the net wor7 (ecomes -ery small. +t a constant ress*re ratio the cycle e..iciency and the net wor7 increases as the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases% (eca*se greater e8 ansion is ossi(le.
'0
&0 2- 26 2' 22 20 116 1' 12

<fficiency ycle$/%

&0
6

10 -

6A

12 .. A

'A

1& 6

1' 00

-1.

20

10

0 0 100 200 &00 '00

+net $A23A#%

"i#ure$1&%: ycle <fficiency ?ersus 9et +ork. "i#ure $1'% shows the relation (etween the e8ha*st tem erat*re and the ress*re ratio .or -ario*s ma8im*m tem erat*re. The e8ha*st tem erat*re is an im ortant arameter when dealing with any ty e o. heat reco-ery cycle. It is clear that at a constant ress*re ratio% the e8ha*st tem erat*re increases with the increase o. the ma8im*m tem erat*re. +t a gi-en ma8im*m tem erat*re% the e8ha*st tem erat*re decreases as the ress*re ratio increases (eca*se o. greater e8 ansion.
1200
<B)aust !emperature $A%
!@11'' A !@12.. A !@1&66 A !@1'00 A !@1.-- A

1000

-00

600

'00 2 ' 6 10 12 1' 16 1- 20 22 2' 26 2- &0


1ressure 8atio

"i#ure $1'%:<B)aust !emperature ?ersus 18 "i#ure $1.% shows a lot o. the wor7 ratio -ers*s the ress*re ratio .or -ario*s ma8im*m tem erat*res. It is clear that the wor7 ratio increases as the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases at a constant ress*re ratio% (eca*se more net wor7 is rod*ced at high ma8im*m tem erat*res. +t a constant ma8im*m tem erat*re% the wor7 ratio decreases as the ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se more wor7 is needed .or the com ressor.

$&

11'

'

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$
00 60 .0
+ork 8atio $/%

www.iiste.org

'0 &0 20 10 0 2 ' 6 10 12 1' 16 1- 20 22 2' 26 2- &0


1ressure 8atio
!@11'' A !@12.. A !@1&66 A !@1'00 A !@1.-- A

"i#ure $1.%:+ork 8atio ?ersus 18. &-2: 8esults of 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle: Two sets o. calc*lations ha-e (een made .or the reheat gas t*r(ine cycle. &-2-1: onstant (3" 8atio: In this set o. calc*lations only the '00/ o. theoretical air was chosen. "i#ure$16% shows a lot o. the net wor7 -ers*s the ress*re ratio. It can (e shown that the net wor7 increases when the ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se the ma8im*m tem erat*re is increased d*e to increase o. the o*tlet com ressor tem erat*re% the increases (ecome less and less as the ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se more wor7 is needed .or com ressor. +lso it can (e shown on the same "i#ure$16% that the cycle e..iciency increases as the ress*re ratio increase% (eca*se more net wor7 is rod*ced% (*t these increases (ecome less and less% (eca*se the net wor7 (ecomes less and less as more wor7 is needed .or the com ressor. The wor7 ratio decreases as the ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se more wor7 is needed .or the com ressor as shown in "i#ure $16%. The ma8im*m tem erat*re increases as the ress*re ratio increases d*e to increase o. the o*tlet com ressor tem erat*re.
;aBimum !emperature $A%

&.0 &00 2.0


+net $A23A#%
+ork 8atio
0.'6

'0
+net
. mp !e B. ;a

1&.0

(%)

&0

Thermal Cycle Efficiency ( !

% $A

1200

200
0.''

20

1.0
0.'2

10.0

100 .0 0 0

0.'0

+ork

8atio

10

0.&-

0.&6

0 16
1ressure 8atio

900

2'

&2

"i#ure $16%: ycle <fficiency4 9et +ork4 *ork 8atio and ;aBimum !emperature ?ersus 18. Ehile the "i#ure $10% shows that the e8it tem erat*re .rom the .irst gas t*r(ine decreases as the ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se greater e8 ansion occ*rs and the e8ha*st tem erat*re .rom the second gas t*r(ine increases as the ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se the ma8im*m tem erat*re o. the second gas t*r(ine increases as the ress*re ratio increases which leads to increase in the e8ha*st tem erat*re. "n the same 9ig*re% it can (e shown that the ower t*r(ine e8 ansion ratio $1.316% increases as the ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases which is the most arameter a..ecting the ower t*r(ine e8 ansion ratio.

$2

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

www.iiste.org

<B)aust !emperature ! $A% 6


10.0 -&6 '

-&'

!6

&

9.0

!'

-&2

900

-.0

-&0 0 16 2' &2

1ressure 8atio

"i#ure $10%:!'4!64 and 1.316 ?ersus 18. &-2-2: onstant ;aBimum !emperature: In the same o. the sim le gas t*r(ine cycle% the set o. calc*lations .rom 11'' to 1.-- A were *sed as the ma8im*m tem erat*re. !able $&% gi-es the o tim*m ress*re ratios at which the net wor7 and the cycle e..iciency are ma8im*m. !able $&%: Cptimum 1ressure 8atios for ;aBimum ycle <fficiency and ;aBimum 9et +ork. Ma8. Tem . " tim*m Press*re Batios .or ma8im*m A 1ycle 2..iciency Net Eor7 11'' 12 12 12.. 16 16 1&66 20 20 1'00 2' 2' 1.-&0 &0 "i#ure $1-% shows the relationshi (etween the net wor7 and the ress*re ratio .or -ario*s ma8im*m tem erat*res. +t a constant ma8im*m tem erat*re% the net wor7 increases when the ress*re ratio increases *ntil a certain -al*e o. ress*re ratio and then it (egins to decreases with the increase o. the ress*re ratio% (eca*se more wor7 is needed .or the com ressor. +t a constant ress*re ratio% the net wor7 increase with the increase o. the ma8im*m tem erat*re d*e to greater e8 ansion.
0.0

600
!@1.-- A

+net $A23A#%

!@1'00 A

'.0
!@1&66 A

&00

!@12.. A

!@11'' A

1.0

0 0 16 2' &2 '0

1ressure 8atio

"i#ure $1-%: 9et +ork ?ersus 18 for 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle.

$$

1ressure 8atio $1 31 % . 6

1000

<B)aust !emperature ! $A% '

% 316 $1.

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

www.iiste.org

"i#ure $19% shows the relation (etween the cycle e..iciency and the ress*re ratios .or -ario*s ma8im*m tem erat*res. +t a constant ma8im*m tem erat*re% the cycle e..iciency increases when the ress*re ratio increases *ntil a certain -al*e o. ress*re ratio and then it (egins to decreases with the increase o. the ress*re ratio% (eca*se the net wor7 (ecomes less. +t a constant ress*re ratio% the cycle e..iciency increases with the increase o. the ma8im*m tem erat*re% (eca*se net wor7 (ecomes more d*e to greater e8 ansion.
'0
!@1.-- A !@1'00 A !@1&66 A
!@12.. A

&2

ycle <fficiency $/%

2'

!@1

1'' A

16

0 0 16 2' &2 '0

1ressure 8atio

"i#ure $19%: ycle <fficiency ?ersus 18 for 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle. "i#ure $20% shows the relation (etween the e8it tem erat*re .rom the .irst gas t*r(ine and the ress*re ratio .or di..erent ma8im*m tem erat*res. 9or a constant ress*re ratio% the e8it tem erat*re increases as the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases. +t a constant ma8im*m tem erat*re% the e8it tem erat*re decreases when the ress*re ratio increases% (eca*se greater e8 ansion occ*rs in the .irst gas t*r(ine as more wor7 is needed .or the com ressor.
1'00

1200
!@1.-A

! $A% '

1000

!@1'0 0A
!@1&66 A

-00

!@12 .

.A

!@11 '' A

600

16

2'

&2

'0

1ressure 8atio

"i#ure $20%: !' ?ersus 18 for 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle. "i#ure $21% shows the relation (etween the e8ha*st tem erat*re and the ress*re ratio .or di..erent ma8im*m tem erat*res. +t a constant ress*re ratio% the e8ha*st tem erat*re increases as the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases. +t a constant ma8im*m tem erat*re% the e8ha*st tem erat*re decreases with the increase o. the ress*re ratio at the (eginning (low ress*re ratio! and then a.ter a certain -al*e o. ress*re ratio% the e8ha*st tem erat*re (egins to increase% (eca*se at high ress*re ratio the com ressor needs more wor7% th*s the e8 ansion in the .irst gas t*r(ine (ecomes more and more and conse3*ently the heat addition in the second com(*stion cham(er (ecomes more and more which leads to that state. Dowe-er% the increases in the e8ha*st tem erat*re are -ery small a.ter the ress*re ratio o. 2'.

$4

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$

www.iiste.org

1'00
!@ 1
!@1

.--

1200

! $A% 6

A !@1& 66 A !@12 .. A

'00

1000

!@11 '

'A

-00

600

16

2'

&2

'0

1ressure 8atio

"i#ure $21%: !6 ?ersus 18 for 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle. "i#ure $22% shows the relation (etween the ower t*r(ine e8 ansion ratio and the ress*re ratio .or di..erent ma8im*m tem erat*res. +t a constant ress*re ratio% the ower t*r(ine e8 ansion ratio increases as the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases% (eca*se the e8it enthal y .rom the .irst gas t*r(ine increases% so that the e8it relati-e ress*re increases which ca*ses the increase in the ress*re o. state .. +t a constant ma8im*m tem erat*re% the ower t*r(ine e8 ansion ratio increases when the ress*re ratio increases *ntil a certain -al*e o. ress*re ratio% the ower t*r(ine e8 ansion ratio (egins to decreases% (eca*se the greater e8 ansion occ*rs in the .irst gas t*r(ine d*e to more com ressor wor7 ma7es the e8it enthal y (ecomes less% so that the e8it relati-e ress*re (ecomes less which leads to the decrease in the ress*re o. state ..
6.0 ..0 '.0
!@1.-- A

!@1'00 A

$1 3 1 % . 6

&.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0 16 2'

!@1&66 A

!@12 .

.A

!@11 '' A

&2

'0

1ressure 8atio

"i#ure$22%: 1.316 ?ersus 18 for 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle. "i#ure $2&% shows the relation (etween the wor7 ratio and the ress*re ratio .or -ario*s ma8im*m tem erat*res. It is the same as in the sim le gas t*r(ine cycle.

$5

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$
0.0

www.iiste.org

0.6

+ork 8atio

0..

!@1.-- A

!@1'00

0.'

!@1& 66 A

!@1 2

.. A

0.&
!@1 1'' A

0.2 0 16 2' &2 '0

1ressure 8atio

"i#ure$2&%: +ork 8atio ?ersus 18 for 8e)eat Gas !urbine ycle. &-&: 8esults of t)e ombined ycle: The res*lts o. the sim le gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine and the reheat-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycles are gi-en in the same lots to ma7e a com arison (etween them. The res*lts are ill*strated in "i#ures $2'% to $29%. "i#ure $2'% shows the relation (etween the e8ha*st tem erat*re and the ma8im*m tem erat*re .or (oth sim le and reheat gas t*r(ine cycle. The e8ha*st tem erat*re increases as the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases and it is clear that the e8ha*st tem erat*re .or the reheat gas t*r(ine is greater than the e8ha*st tem erat*re .or the sim le gas t*r(ine% which means that the heat energy a-aila(le in the e8ha*st gases is more in the reheat gas t*r(ine cycle.
1200
Simple 8e)eat

<B)aust !emperature $A%

1000

-00

600

'00 '00 600 -00 1000 1200 1'00 1600 1-00


;aBimum !emperature $A%

"i#ure $2'%:<B)aust !emperature ?ersus ;aB. !emperature. "i#ure $2.% shows a lot o. the stac7 tem erat*re -ers*s the ma8im*m tem erat*re .or (oth com(ined cycles. It is clear that the stac7 tem erat*re decreases as the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases .or (oth com(ined cycles and the stac7 tem erat*re o. the com(ined cycle with the reheat gas t*r(ine is less than the stac7 tem erat*re o. the com(ined cycle with the sim le gas t*r(ine at a gi-en ma8im*m tem erat*re% which means that the heat a-aila(le is *tili;ed with greater e..iciency when it was more.

$G

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$
.00

www.iiste.org

Stack !emperature $A%

'.0

'00
Simple 8e)eat

&.0 600 -00 1000 1200 1'00 1600 1-00


;aBimum !emperature $A%

"i#ure $2.%: Stack !emperature ?ersus ;aB. !emperature. "i#ure $26% shows a lot o. the (oiler e..iciency -ers*s the ma8im*m tem erat*re. Ehen the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases the (oiler e..iciency increases in the (oth com(ined cycles. The (oiler e..iciency o. the com(ined cycle *sing the reheat gas t*r(ine is greater than the (oiler e..iciency o. the com(ined cycle *sing the sim le gas t*r(ine (y $10-10% /% (eca*se o. the lower stac7 tem erat*re in the com(ined cycle *sing reheat gas t*r(ine.
90

-0
>oiler <fficiency $/%

00

60

.0

Simple 8e)eat

'0 600 -00 1000 1200 1'00 1600 1-00


;aBimum !emperature $A%

"i#ure $26%: >oiler <fficiency ?ersus ;aB. !emperature. "i#ure $20% shows a lot o. the o-erall steam cycle e..iciency -ers*s the ma8im*m tem erat*re. The o-erall steam cycle e..iciency increases when the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases. The o-erall steam cycle e..iciency o. the com(ined cycle with the reheat gas t*r(ine is greater than the o-erall steam cycle e..iciency o. the com(ined cycle with the sim le gas t*r(ine (y $.-10%/4 (eca*se o. the high (oiler and steam cycles e..iciencies.

$>

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$
.0
Simple 8e)eat

www.iiste.org

C?erall <fficiency $/%

'0

&0

20

10 600 -00 1000 1200 1'00 1600 1-00


;aBimum !emperature $A%

"i#ure $20%: C?erall Steam ycle <fficiency ?ersus ;aB. !emperature. "i#ure $2-% shows a lot o. the ca acity ratio -ers*s the ma8im*m tem erat*re. It is clear that the ca acity ratio increases as the ma8im*m tem erat*re increases% (eca*se the gas t*r(ine net wor7 is large d*e to high ma8im*m tem erat*re. +t a gi-en ma8im*m tem erat*re the ca acity ratio o. the com(ined cycle *sing the reheat gas t*r(ine is less than the ca acity ratio o. the com(ined cycle *sing the sim le gas t*r(ine% (eca*se o. the wor7 done (y the steam t*r(ine o. the com(ined cycle *sing the reheat gas t*r(ine is more d*e to more heat energy is *tili;ed% which leads to generate more steam and hence more wor7 o. steam t*r(ine.
2.10

apacity 8atio

1.-0

1..0

Simple

1.20

8e)eat

600

-00

1000

1200

1'00

1600

1-00

;aBimum !emperature $A%

"i#ure $2-%: apacity 8atio ?ersus ;aB. !emperature. "i#ure $29% shows a lot o. the com(ined cycleOs e..iciencies -ers*s the ma8im*m tem erat*re. The e..iciency o. the com(ined cycle *sing the reheat gas t*r(ine is greater than the e..iciency o. the com(ined cycle *sing the sim le gas t*r(ine (y $'%/ d*e to the (etter *tili;ation o. the waste heat in the (oiler in the com(ined cycle with the reheat gas t*r(ine. It was .o*nd .rom the heat (alance .or all com(ined cycles calc*lations that the ercentages o. errors were a(o*t 0.91-&.2/4 so that the ass*m tions o. the com(ined cycles seem s*ita(le and reasona(le.

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Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Pa er! ISSN 2225-0522 ("nline! #ol.$% No.&2% 20&$
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ombined <fficiency $/%

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;aBimum !emperature $A%

"i#ure $29%: ombined ycle <fficiency ?ersus ;aB. !emperature. "-Conclusions &- The reheat gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycle is (etter as com ared to the sim le gas t*r(ine-steam t*r(ine com(ined cycle% (eca*se the o*t *t er *nit mass o. air .low is signi.icantly im ro-ed (y $&.-'1% / % and the e..iciency is greater (y 4: .or the com(ined cycle *tili;ing the reheat gas t*r(ine% which oints to otential cost sa-ing .or s*ch a cycle. 2- It is .o*nd .rom the resent in-estigations that the o tim*m conditions o. the gas t*r(ine cycle in the com(ined cycle mode occ*r at the ma8im*m net wor7 conditions. $- It is .o*nd that the e..iciency o. the waste heat (oiler .or high e8ha*st tem erat*re ranges $maBimum E>@-0/% is 3*ite com ara(le to the e..iciency o. the con-entional (oilers. The waste heat (oiler has the added ad-antage o. sim licityP there.ore% this ty e o. com(ined cycle *sing waste heat (oiler has great romise .or ower generation. #-$eferences -'allen(ac7% P.+.%2002% ,!m-ro&ed $as urbine >//iciency (roug( 1lternati&e "egenerator Con/iguration,, Transaction +SM2% @o*rnal o. 2ngineering .or Has T*r(ine and Power% -ol.&24% .44&-44G. -Dolman% @.P.% 2002,Heat rans/er,%Lth edition% McHraw Dill series in mechanical 2ngineering% .5&&-55G. -Dorloc7% @. D.% )o*ng% @./.% Man.irda% H.% 2000% ,>?ergy 1nalysis o/ @odern Aossil-Auel 'o5er 'lants,, +SM2 @. 2ng. 9or Has T*r(ine and Power &28% -&->. -Dorloc7% @. D.% )o*ng% @./.% Man.irda% H.% &LL8% , (e "ational >//iciency o/ Aossil-Auel 'o5er 'lants,, +SM2 Sym osi*m on thermodynamics Int. Mech. 2ng.% No-.% 1ali.ornia. -Aehlho.er% B.% &LL>% ,Combined-Cycle $as and #team 'o5er 'lant,, PennEell P*(lishing 1om any% T*lsa"7lahoma. -Ba-i A*mar% N.% et.al.% 2005% ,>?ergy analysis o/ $as urbine 'o5er 'lant 5it( 1lternati&e Con/iguration o/ "egenerator,, Proceeding on 1'% 2nd International 28ergy 2nergy 2n-ironmental Sym osi*m (I222S2!% Aos% Hreece% #I-&$. -Ba-i A*mar% N.% et.al.% 200G% ,'er/ormance #imulation o/ Heat "eco&ery #team $enerator in Combined Cycle 'o5er 'lant,, Proceeding &8th National and &>th ISDMT-+SM2 Deat and Mass Trans.er 1on.erence% India% .&>8&-&>8>. -Ba-i A*mar% N.% et.al.% 200>% , (ermodynamic 1nalysis o/ Heat "eco&ery #team $enerator in Combined Cycle 'o5er 'lant,, Thermal Science% #ol.&&% No.4% .&4$-&5G. -Ba-i A*mar% N.% Sita Bama BaQ*% +.#.% 2005% , (e #tudy o/ t(e >//ects o/ $as urbine !nlet Cooling on 'lant and H"#$ 'er/ormance,, Proceedings% National 1on.erence on +d-ances in Mechanical 2ngineering% India% .55-G0. -Bice% I.H.% &L80% , (e Combined "e(eat $as urbine #team urbine Cycle,, +SM2% #ol.&02% @an*ary% . $54L. -Srini-as% T.% H* ta% +.#.S.S.A.S.% Beddy% /.#.%200>% ,$eneraliBed (ermodynamic 1nalysis o/ #team 'o5er Cycles 5it( CnC 3umber o/ Aeed5ater Heaters,, Int. @. o. Thermodynamics% 'ecem(er%#ol.&0 (No.4!% . &>>&85% -)ada-% @.P.% Singh% ".% 200G% , (ermodynamic 1nalysis o/ 1ir Cooled #im-le $as and #team Combined Cycle 'lant,, @o*rnal o. Instit*tion o. 2ngineers (India!-Mechanical 2ngineering% #ol.8G% .222.

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