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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.

22& 2'13

Teachers Directive Utterances in English Classes

Suparno Englis( Education )epart*ent& +eac(er +raining and Education ,acultSe.elas /aret 0ni1ersit-& Jl. Ir. Suta*i 323& 4entingan& Sura5arta& Indonesia& 57122 6E-*ail 7 drs.suparno8roc5et** Abstract +(is researc( ai*ed at finding out and (1 teac(ers9 use of t(e 1aria.ilit- of directi1e utterances in Englis( classes in :o1ern*ent Senior ;ig( Sc(ools of Sura5arta /unicipalit-& (2 t(e reasons *oti1ating t(e teac(ers9 using t(e 1arieties of directi1e utterances and (3 realisations of i*ple*entation of politeness principles in t(e use of directi1e utterances. +(e data of t(is researc( are teac(ers9 directi1e utterances produced in Englis( classes and state*ents s(owing t(eir 5nowledge& .eliefs and e<periences as Englis( teac(ers. +(e sources of data of t(is researc( are Englis( teac(ers of :o1ern*ent Senior ;ig( Sc(ools of Sura5arta /unicipalit-. +(e pri*ar*et(ods of data collection are o.ser1ation and inter1iew. +(e findings of t(is researc( are t(at t(e Englis( teac(ers (1 *a5e use of directi1e utterances 1ar-ing in linguistic for*s and illocutionar- forces& (2 use 1ar-ing directi1e utterances to respect t(e students& to facilitate t(e students9 learning& to assure =ualit- and to assure teac(ers9 aut(orit-& and (3 reali>e politeness principles in using directi1e utterances .- *eans of (a offers and re=uests to *a<i*i>e students9 .enefit& (. in1itation and re=uests to *ini*i>e teac(ers9 .enefit& (c co*pli*ents to *a<i*i>e students9 praises& (d praises students to *ini*i>e teac(ers9 praise& (e solidarite<pressions to *a<i*i>e student-teac(er agree*ent and (f friendl- addresses to *a<i*i>e students9 s-*pat(-. +(e researc( findings *a- function as indicators of t(e teac(ers9 professional& pedagogic& social and personal co*petencies. Keywords: directi1e utterances& et(nograp(ic researc(& Englis( classes 1. Introduction Indonesian go1ern*ent9s polic- insists t(at Indonesian language .e used as t(e pri*ar- language of instruction in all classes. ;owe1er& a foreign language *a- .e used as t(e language of instruction in specific classes to facilitate t(e learners9 learning a target foreign language. +(us& Englis( *a- .e used as t(e language of instruction in Englis( classes to facilitate t(e learners9 learning of Englis(. Englis( te<t.oo5s for Senior ;ig( Sc(ool students are written or do*inantl- written in Englis(. ?esides& t(e teac(ers of Englis( of Senior ;ig( Sc(ools are undergraduates (S1 of Englis( (Education )epart*ent& w(o (a1e .een prepared to .e co*petent Englis( teac(ers. +(ese *a- lead to an e<pectation t(at co**unication in Englis( classes run in Englis( or is do*inated .- t(e use of Englis(. In addition& t(ese sc(ools are in1aria.le e<ecutors of :o1ern*ent9s polic- in education& especiall- in curriculu* i*ple*entation& w(ic( go1erns t(e c(oice of language of instruction for Englis( classes. In (is pre-researc( o.ser1ation& t(e researc(er found t(at t(e students and teac(ers of t(e sc(ools a.o1e are acti1e spea5ers of Ja1anese and Indonesian languages. So& it can .e said t(at t(e- are .ilingual spea5ers spea5ing Ja1anese and Indonesian. #n t(e ot(er (and& t(e Englis( teac(ers& w(o are graduates of Englis( depart*ents& are assu*ed to .e *ultilingual spea5ers spea5ing Ja1anese& Indonesian and Englis(. @earning Englis( in t(e for*er le1el of education& t(e students *a- also .e fa*iliar wit( Englis( .esides spea5ing Ja1anese and Indonesian. 3n Englis( class& t(en& *a- constitute a *ultilingual co**unit- 5nowing t(e t(ree languages. It is assu*ed t(at& in so*e circu*stances& t(e teac(er and (is students use t(e t(ree languages as a *eans of co**unication in t(e classroo*. In t(e classroo*& t(e teac(er nor*all- pla-s a central& *anagerial role and (as t(e aut(orit- to direct students9 classroo* acti1ities. +(is aut(orit- is pri*aril- *anifested in t(e teac(er9s use of directi1e utterances. 3s t(e class (as to do acti1ities of 1ar-ing t-pes and co*ple<ities& it is assu*ed t(at t(e teac(er uses directi1e utterances (a1ing 1ar-ing linguistic for*s and illocutionar- forces including as5ing& ordering& re=uesting& in1iting& suggesting and per*itting. +eac(ing and learning acti1ities in t(e classroo* nor*all- re=uire teac(er-students9 interaction or co**unication& t(at is de1eloped t(roug( t(e use of language. +(e classroo* interaction is an e<c(ange of ideas& rat(er t(an e<pressions .etween t(e teac(er and (is students. +(e e<c(ange of ideas is nor*all- go1erned .- t(e conte<ts in w(ic( t(e interaction is ta5ing place. Sura5arta /unicipalit- is part of Aentral Ja1a Pro1ince& Indonesia. Popularl- called Solo& Sura5arta is clai*ed to .e t(e center of Ja1anese culture (.eside Bog-a5arta & and is located in t(e sout(-eastern part of Aentral Ja1a Pro1ince. It is a s*all town occup-ing an area of %%&''' s=uare 5ilo*etres. It (as !2C sc(ools& 52 of w(ic( are Senior ;ig( Sc(ools (Se5ola( /enenga( 3tasDS/3 . #f t(ese 52 S/3s& eig(t are :o1ern*ent S/3s and t(e ot(er %! are pri1ate S/3s. +(is researc( was conducted in si< out of t(e eig(t go1ern*ent S/3s& t(at is& S/3 13%

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

1& S/3 3& S/3 %& S/3 2& S/3 7 and S/3 ! Sura5arta. +(e researc(er c(ose go1ern*ent sc(ools due to t(eir .eing in1aria.le e<ecutors of :o1ern*ent polic- in education& especiall- t(at dealing wit( t(e use of Englis( as t(e language of instruction in Englis( classes. . !esearch "ethodology +(is researc( was conducted in si< go1ern*ent Senior ;ig( Sc(ools (S/3 Negeri of Sura5arta /unicipalit-& a s*all town in t(e sout(-eastern part of Aentral Ja1a Pro1ince& fro* Jul-& 2'12 up to 3pril& 2'13. +(is s*all town is located a.out 2'' 5ilo*etres awa- fro* Ja5arta& a.out 2' 5ilo*etres awa- fro* Bog-a5arta and 1'' 5ilo*etres awa- fro* Se*arang& t(e capital of Aentral Ja1a. +(is researc( concentrates on t(e teac(ers9 production of directi1e utterances in classroo* interactions in Englis( classes. So& t(is researc( concerns wit( Prag*atics (Searle& 1C72E ;uang& 2''7E +(o*as& 1CC5E Aoul*as& 2''5E $ersc(ueren& 1CCC +(is researc( also a culture (:oet>& 1C!%& Spradle-& 1C7C F 1C!'& Spindler& 1C!2& 3t5inson F ;a**ersle-& 2''7 & t(at is& e1er-t(ing dealing wit( practices and .eliefs of a group of people.. +(is researc( is t(en an et(nograp(ic researc( t(e Englis( teac(ers9 .eliefs& 5nowledge and classroo* practices in t(e use of directi1e utterances. It concentrates on p(eno*ena co**onl- 5nown as language use& language .e(a1iour and speec( acts de*onstrated .- so*e Englis( teac(ers in t(eir classroo* interactions. +(e utterances under stud- are located in c(un5s of discourse tied toget(er .- conte<ts (Autting& 2''2 . +(e data of t(is researc( are teac(ers9 directi1e utterances (*ade in classroo* interactions in Englis( classes and state*ents s(owing t(eir .eliefs& 5nowledge and e<periences as Englis( teac(ers. +(e sources of data are ele1en Englis( teac(ers of t(e si< Senior ;ig( Sc(ools w(o function as t(e researc( infor*ants. Eig(t of t(ese teac(ers function as .ot( infor*ants and teac(er-*odels& as t(e- pro1ide .ot( 5inds of data. +(e ot(er t(ree infor*ants are senior teac(ers w(o pro1ide infor*ation a.out t(eir .eliefs& 5nowledge and e<periences as Englis( teac(ers. +(e researc(er used o.ser1ation and inter1iew as (is pri*ar- *et(ods of collecting data (3t5ison F ;a**erle-& 2''7E Spradle-& 1C7C F 1C!'E Spindler& 1C!2 . #.ser1ation was used to collect data a.out t(e teac(er9s Englis( classroo* directi1e utterances& w(ile inter1iew was used to collect data a.out t(e teac(er9s .eliefs& 5nowledge and e<periences as Englis( teac(ers. +(e researc(er used participant o.ser1ation& in w(ic( (e was seated in t(e .ac5 of t(e class to record t(e teac(er9s utterances and t(e students9 responses. ;owe1er& (e used passi1e participation as (e did not get in1ol1ed in t(e classroo* acti1it-. +(e inter1iew is done after t(e o.ser1ation to identif- t(e teac(ers9 5nowledge& .eliefs and e<periences as Englis( teac(ers. In .ot( t(e o.ser1ation and inter1iew& t(e researc(er used note-ta5ing tec(ni=ue. +(e researc(er used purposi1e sa*pling in c(oosing (is sources of data. (Sugi-ono& 2'1'E Suwardi Endraswara& 2'12E Spindler& 1C!2E Spradle-& 1C7C F 1C!' . ;e in1ol1ed a nu*.er of infor*ants w(o *et t(e criteria (e deter*ined .efore& co1ering (1 fi1e -ears (*ini*al wor5ing e<perience as Englis( teac(ers at t(e sc(ools& (2 *ulti-lingual co*petence in Ja1anese& Indonesian and Englis( and (3 willingness to get in1ol1ed in t(e researc( as infor*ants& so*e as *odel teac(ers to .e o.ser1ed. +(e classes in1ol1ed in t(is researc( were t(ose c(osen .- t(e appointed infor*ants& t(at is& t(e classes t(e infor*ants were sc(eduled to teac( Englis(. +(e nu*.er of infor*ants and classes t(e researc(er in1ol1ed was deter*ined .- t(e e<tent to w(ic( t(e data collected (ad de*onstrated consistent patterns and regularit- in (1 t(e infor*ants9 use of directi1e utterances in Englis( classes and (2 t(eir state*ents in t(e inter1iews. +(e researc(er decided to end (is data collection after (e (ad o.ser1ed teac(ing-learning interaction in t(e fifteent( class& conducted .- t(e eig(t( infor*ant-teac(er *odel and inter1iewed t(e ele1ent( infor*ant& w(en (e (ad o.tained consistent data. So& t(e researc(er (ad in1ol1ed ele1en teac(er-infor*ants and fifteen classes& using purposi1e sa*pling tec(ni=ue. +(e data of t(is researc( consisted of infor*ants9 directi1e utterances in Englis( classes collected .- using o.ser1ation and infor*ants9 state*ents *ade in t(e inter1iews. +(e researc(er used t(eoretical Gudge*ent& prolonged o.ser1ation& *e*.er c(ec5 and triangulation as data 1alidation tec(ni=ues (Sugi-ono& 2'1' . +(e use of inter1iew and o.ser1ation s(ows triangulation of data collection *et(odsE t(e recruit*ent of se1enteen infor*ants (ele1en teac(ers& si< students s(ows triangulation of data sources and t(e in1ol1e*ent of fifteen Englis( classes in si< different sc(ools s(ows triangulation of situations. +(e regularit- and consistenc- of t(e collected data of directi1e utterances were o.tained .- o.ser1ing t(e directi1e utterances of t(e eig(t infor*antteac(er *odels. #n t(e ot(er (and& regularit- and consistenc- of inter1iewees9 state*ents were o.tained .inter1iewing t(e ele1en infor*ants& including t(e infor*ant-teac(er *odels. Heference to t(eories and for*er researc( findings 1alidates identification and classification of directi1e utterances +(e researc(er adopted a *odel of researc( procedure proposed .- Spradle- (1C7C F 1C!' e<cept t(at so*e of t(e original steps were deleted. +(e procedure t(e researc(er too5 consisted of onl- nine out of t(e original twel1e steps. +(ese steps co1ered (1 selecting infor*ants and social situations& (2 doing o.ser1ations& (3 doing inter1iews& (% anal->ing infor*ant9s utterances and state*ents& (5 *a5ing et(nograp(ic records& (2 doing


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

do*ain anal-sis& (7 doing co*ponential anal-sis& (! disco1ering cultural t(e*es& and (C writing t(e et(nograp(-. #. !esearch !esults and Discussion 3t t(e a1erage& a go1ern*ent senior (ig( sc(ool in Sura5arta /unicipalit- (as t(irt- classes& consisting of ten classes of eac( grade ("& "I and "II . Eac( class consists of 2% up to 32 students& so t(at eac( sc(ool (as 7'' up to !'' students. Eac( classroo* of t(e sc(ools is a1eragel- 7<7 *etres wide& pro1ided wit( one door and fi1e windows. Situated in a tropical region& eac( classroo* is pro1ided wit( electric fans and so*e are pro1ided wit( air conditioners to co*pl- wit( tec(nological de1elop*ents toda- in all sectors& *ost of t(e classroo*s are also pro1ided wit( electric appliances including +$& @A)& @A) screen and co*puter. +(e students9 seats are arranged in an II9 for*ation t(e teac(er regularl- ta5ing t(e central point facing (is class& and onl- in certain situations (e *o1es around t(e classroo*. 3n a1erage class is *ade up of a.out t(irt- students spea5ing Ja1anese and Indonesian and (a1e so*e 5nowledge of Englis(. Alassroo* interaction consists of teac(er initiation& students9 responses and teac(er e1aluation. +eac(er tal5 do*inates classroo* interaction& as t(e teac(er regularl- initiates t(e interaction using e<pressions and e1aluates students9 responses also using e<pressions. +(e use of directi1e utterances of 1ar-ing t-pes do*inates teac(er tal5s& w(ic( indicates t(at t(e teac(er (as appropriatel- pla-ed (is role as class *anager. 3s a professional w(o are re=uired to ac=uire rele1ant co*petencies& t(e teac(er organi>es (is use of directi1e utterances for *an- different purposes. +(e teac(ers .elie1e t(at t(e .est language of instruction for Englis( Alasses is Englis(. In classroo* interactions& (owe1er& t(e teac(er9s use of Englis( co1ers 2' J !'K& Indonesian 2' J %' K and Ja1anese around 1'K& t(e percentage depending on a1erage student9s Englis( co*petence& le1el of difficult- of teac(ing *aterial and class situation. )irecti1e utterances do*inate teac(er9s tal5s in eit(er Englis( or Indonesian (a.out !5K . #n t(e ot(er (and& Ja1anese utterances are used onl- in li*ited fre=uenc-& *ainl- to refres( classroo* situation. In t(e classroo* interaction& t(e teac(er uses 1arious t-pes of directi1e utterances and adGusts t(e language of instruction for certain& ideali>ed purposes. ;is use of friendl- directi1e utterances also indicates t(at (e i*ple*ents politeness principles in (is classroo* interaction. 3.1 Teacher Use of Varying Directive Utterances +(e *aGorit- of utterances t(e teac(er produces during teac(er-students interaction in Englis( classes are of directi1e t-pes (a.out !5K . ?esides representing (is *anagerial role in t(e class& t(e teac(er9s e<tensi1e use of directi1e utterances in Englis( classes partl- de*onstrates (is professionalDacade*ic co*petence (as an Englis( teac(er and social co*petence (as a *e*.er of speec( co**unit- . +(e teac(er (as clearl- learnt t(at (1 directi1e utterances are for*ulated in 1arious linguistic constructions and (2 1ar-ing directi1e utterances con1e1ar-ing illocutionar- forces or notions. 3.2 Making use of Varying Linguistic Forms of Directive Utterances +(e teac(ers (a1e learnt t(at getting t(ings done& t(e core point of directi1e utterances is for*ulated in 1arious for*s or linguistic constructions. +o get t(eir students do t(ings to de1elop students9 classroo* acti1ities& t(e*a5e c(oices a*ong 1arious t-pes of directi1e utterances. Heferring to t(e actual utterances t(e- produce in t(e classroo*& t(e teac(ers *a5e directi1e utterances in sentence for* (consisting of a su.Gect and predicate and in non-sentence for* (ellipsis& consisting of onl- so*e part of a co*plete sentence . +(is indicates t(e teac(ers9 cultural 5nowledge and practices. L(en producing sentence-for* directi1e utterances& t(e- produce& eit(er positi1e or negati1e& declarati1es& interrogati1es or i*perati1es. L(en t(e- use interrogati1es& t(e- arrange BesDNo =uestions& alternati1e =uestions& or =uestion-word =uestions. L(en t(e- produce non-sentence directi1e utterances& t(e- arrange ellipsis& w(ic( consist of single words& p(rases or inco*pleteDunfinis(ed sentences. ,ollowing are so*e e<a*ples. Aonte<t 7 )iscussing a reading te<t (a.out I/a5ing In1itation9 .. 0tterance 7 - When was hita !orn" (BesDNo Muestion # Does usy acce$t or refuse the invitation" (BesDNo Muestion # %ow you fin& the wor& stating the acce$tance.()eclarati1e # Does hinta on'y invite usy herse'f" (BesDNo Muestion # Fin& the wor&s su$$orting your answer. (I*perati1e # What a!out hinta(s re'atives" (Ellipsis Aonte<t 7 3cting out. (perfor*ing dialogues .efore t(e class 0tterance 7 # )nung an& *etty+ come !efore the c'ass. (I*perati1e # ,ou act as Ma'in -un&ang+ an& you as the mother.()eclarati1e # What &o you say to your mother+ )nung"(Interrogati1e # Wi'' you curse or e.cuse your son+ *etty" (3lternati1e Muestion # Do you want to change your attitu&e+ )nung" (BesDNo Muestion


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

# )ny more to say" (Ellipsis Aonte<t 7 +al5ing a.out (o..ies. 0tterance 7 # Does everyone have a ho!!y" (BesDNo Muestion # Who has no ho!!y"(Su.Gecti1e Muestion # Do you 'ike singing or &ancing" (3lternati1e Muestion # ,ou te'' your frien&s a!out your ho!!ies. ()eclarati1e # Te'' me what you 'ike to &o on un&ays.(I*perati1e # /'aying or watching music" (Ellipsis 3.3 Making use of Varying 0''ocutionary Forces of Directive Utterances +(e teac(ers (a1e also i*plicitl- learnt t(e concept of Ispeec( acts9& t(at is& t(at .- producing a language e<pression (locutionar- act one does so*et(ing (illocutionar- act and e<pects t(e (earer to do so*et(ing (perlocutionar- act . In ot(er words& t(e- learn t(at .e(ind w(at one sa-s (for* is w(at (e *eans (illocutionarforce or notion and w(at t(e (earer is e<pected to do. 3 single for* *a- con1e- 1ar-ing illocutionar- forces or notionsE and a single notion can .e e<pressed in 1ar-ing linguistic for*s t(at *a- -et affect t(e (earer in 1ar-ing wa-s. In getting t(ings done in Englis( classes& t(erefore& teac(ers *a5e c(oices a*ong t(e 1arious t-pes of notions t(at directi1e utterances potentiall- con1e-. +(e- t(en produce actual& appropriate directi1e utterances wit( different illocutionar- forces or notions& including as5ing& ordering& re=uesting& in1iting& suggesting and per*itting and offering. +(is de*onstrates t(eir cultural 5nowledge and practices as Englis( teac(ers. ,ollowing are so*e e<a*ples. Aonte<t 7 Introducing a te<t t-pe (descripti1e te<t& people .. 0tterance 7 - Do you have an unc'e" (3s5ing # What is he 'ike" (3s5ing # %ow+ you &escri!e your father. (#rdering # 1r &escri!e your !rother. (#rdering # Let me give you$'es (#ffering . # /'ease use a&2ectives. (He=uesting # Let(s &iscuss the sam$'e te.t. (In1iting # 0t(s !etter you say 3he has( or 3he is(. (Suggesting # ,ou can &iscuss it with your $artner. (Per*itting Aonte<t 7 )iscussing a reading te<t (a.out Ifalling in lo1e9 . 0tterances 7 - 4ave you ever fa''en in 'ove" (3s5ing # 4ow &o you fee' when you fa'' in 'ove" (3s5ing # %ow+ $'ease rea& the te.t !y heart. (He=uesting # ,ou try to answer the 5uestions. (#rdering # ,ou may &iscuss it with your $artner. (Per*itting #. %ow+ 'et(s &iscuss your answers. (In1iting # What a!out num!er one+ 4ery" (3s5ing # 0s it true or fa'se+ Mira" (3s5ing - Wou'& you answer 5uestion two+ MasN (He=uesting 3.6 The 7easons for which Teachers Use Directive Utterances +(e teac(ers9 use of 1arious directi1e utterances in Englis( classes turns out to .e *oti1ated .- certain reasons. +(e t-pes of directi1e utterances t(e teac(ers use are in fact consciousl- c(osen& w(ic( s(ows t(at t(e teac(ers (a1e ideali>ed reasons for t(e c(oices of t(e directi1e utterances t(e- (a1e *ade. +(e ideali>ed reasons .e(ind t(e teac(ers9 production of directi1e utterances clearl- indicate t(eir cultural .eliefs t(at go1ern t(e c(oices and use. ,our reasons *oti1ating teac(ers9 use of 1ar-ing directi1e utterances in Englis( classes are identified as follows. To 7es$ect /eo$'e8 tu&ents In t(e classroo*& t(e teac(er and t(e students constitute a speec( co**unit-& alt(oug( t(e teac(er do*inates t(e classroo* interaction. In t(is co**unit-& it is t(e teac(er& rat(er t(an t(e students& w(o intrinsicall- (as power& as (e is sociall- a.o1e t(e students. +(e students do not (a1e power& as t(e- are sociall- .elow t(eir teac(er. ;owe1er& t(e teac(er is not alwa-s (app- wit( t(is situation. Lit( (is power& t(e teac(er could get (is students to do w(ate1er (e wants t(e* to do using politeness-free directi1e utterances li5e orders or co**ands w(ic( clearl- s(ow (is and (is students9 different positions. Instead& t(e teac(er reduces t(e use of orders or co**ands and replaces t(e* wit( politeness-.ound directi1e utterances li5e re=uests& suggestions& in1itations and per*issions to s(ow t(at (e respects (is students. +(e result is t(at t(e teac(er9s use of ordersDco**ands and re=uests (a1e si*ilar fre=uenc- of use. +(e teac(er9s respect to (is students is reali>ed in t(e following practices.


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

6 Heducing t(e use of e<pressions i*pl-ing students9 low position (orders & 6 Heplacing e<pressions of Iordering or co**anding9 wit( Iin1iting9& 6 /a<i*i>ing t(e use of Ipolite9 e<pressions& 6 0sing friendl- addresses To Faci'itate tu&ents( Learning ,or t(e teac(er& t(e pri*ar- focus of (is professional acti1ities is (is students9 learning ac(ie1e*ent& *aster- of learning *aterials. Students9 learning ac(ie1e*ent co*plies wit( t(e teac(er9s teac(ing o.Gecti1e& t(at is& t(e students9 *aster- of teac(ing *aterials. L(ate1er (e does& t(en& is done to *eet (is students9 learning o.Gecti1e& t(at is& to gain good learning ac(ie1e*ent. +(is is *anifested in t(e teac(er9s use of directi1e utterances wit( t(e following strategies. 6 3dGusting t(e use of Englis( as language of instruction 6 0sing Indonesian 0tterances for appropriate purposes. 6 0sing Englis( and Indonesian utterances si*ultaneousl6 0sing Indonesian to certain indi1iduals or groups of students 6 0sing si*plified (Englis( utterances. 6 0sing e<plicit (direct utterances. 6 0sing tension-reducing e<pressions 6 +olerating Students9 conditions To )ssure 9ua'ity In t(e teac(er9s .elief& t(e pri*ar- goal of (is teac(ing is students9 ac=uisition of Englis(& co1ering t(e four s5ills of listening& spea5ing& reading and writing. In classroo* interaction& (is use of Englis( pro1ides (is students wit( input& w(ic( functions as a *odel of Englis( for t(e*. +(e- will *a5e use of t(e input w(en t(e- tr- to produce Englis( utterances& as t(eir output& t(e product of t(eir learning& to con1e- t(eir own ideas. +(e teac(er9s effort to assure =ualit- of (is teac(ing is *anifested in t(e use of directi1e utterances wit( t(e following strategies. $ Positing (i*self as a *odel in using Englis(. 6 0sing fa*iliar classroo* Englis( $ 0sing directi1e utterances of as5ing 6 +raining t(e students to produce aut(entic te<ts. $ 3llocating t(e use of Englis( in Englis( classes. 6 Aontrolling students9 concentration To )ssure )uthority +(e +eac(er is aware of (is position as class *anager& t(at t(us is (ig(er t(an (is students9. ?esides& (e .elie1es t(at a classroo* interaction w(ic( (e de1elops runs in a for*al setting. 3wareness of (is position as a teac(er& as classroo* *anager and t(e for*alit- of classroo* setting *oti1ates t(e teac(er to c(oose and use se1eral appropriate t-pes of directi1e utterances w(ic( are intrinsicall- politeness-free. ,ollowing are so*e strategies t(e teac(er ta5es to assure (is aut(orit-. 6 0sing directi1e utterances of orderingDco**anding 6 0sing utterances referring to standard Englis( 1ariet-. 6 0sing utterances s(owing for*al relation .etween students and teac(er. 6 0sing directi1e utterances creating conduci1e classroo* situation 3.: 7ea'i;ing the im$'ementation of $o'iteness $rinci$'es +(e teac(er9s use of directi1e utterances t(at con1e- politeness *a- de*onstrate (is personal co*petence. ?eside indicating (is cultural practices in t(e production of directi1e utterances& t(e teac(er9s c(oices of t(e utterances are go1erned .- certain ideali>ed reasons& w(ic( s(ow .ot( (is cultural 5nowledge and cultural .eliefs in t(e use of directi1e utterances. In addition& t(e fact t(at t(e teac(er consciousl- considers cultural aspects and personal relation wit( (is students in classroo* interaction clearl- indicates (is willingness to i*ple*ent t(e principles of politeness. ,ollowing are t(e reali>ation of politeness principles as proposed .@eec( (1C!3 w(ic( *a- also s(ow (e teac(er9s cultural .eliefs. 1. 0sing offer and re=uest to *a<i*i>e t(e .enefit of ot(er (students %Let me answer 5uestion 18Wou'& you answer 5uestion 1N for Muestion 1+ you 2. 0sing in1itation and re=uest to *ini*i>e t(e .enefit of self (teac(er (Let(s 'isten.8/'ease 'isten for ,ou 'isten< 3. 0sing co*pli*ents to *a<i*i>e praises to ot(er (students %That(s a goo& answer+ )n&y& for 0s that your answer+ )n&y"< %. Praising ot(er (students to *ini*i>e praises to self (teac(er ()n&y(s answer is !etter than mine for My answer is !etter than yours< 5. 0sing solidarit- e<pressions to *a<i*i>e agree*ent


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

(,ou choose o$tion !. 0t means you &isagree with )nton(s answer " That(s goo&.< 2. 0sing friendl- addresses to *a<i*i>e s-*pat(-. (Mas )n&y+ wi'' you come forwar&" ,or )n&y+ come forwar&+ you.< 3.= Discussion +o run classroo* acti1ities& Englis( teac(er *a5es use of directi1e utterances 1ar-ing in linguistic for*s& including co*plete sentences (co1ering declarati1es& i*perati1es and interrogati1es and ellipsis. +(is s(ows t(e teac(er9s professionalDacade*ic co*petenc- t(at an Englis( teac(er is re=uired to ac=uire. +(e teac(er (as learnt t(at getting so*et(ing done& in an- language including Englis(& can .e reali>ed in 1ar-ing linguistic for*s& ranging fro* co*pete sentences to ellipsis. 3.ilit- to produce appropriate directi1e utterances of 1ar-ing linguistic for*s also indicates t(e teac(er9s good 5nowledge of Englis( gra**ar. +(e teac(er *a5es use of (is 5nowledge of Englis( gra**ar to produce directi1e utterances to run (is professional Go. as classroo* *anager& responsi.le for pro1iding conduci1e learning condition for (is students. In (is professional Go. as classroo* *anager& t(e teac(er produces 1arious for*s of directi1e utterances e<pressing 1ar-ing *eanings. L(at t(e teac(er sa-s in t(e Englis( classroo* indicates (is 5nowledge of language (Englis( for*s and functions. In ot(er words& to run (is professional Go. as a teac(er in t(e classroo*& t(e teac(er *a5es use of (is language (Englis( 5nowledge of for*s and functions. In (is professional Go. in t(e classroo*& t(e teac(er does w(ate1er (e does to facilitate (is students9 learning and to cope wit( w(ate1er learning pro.le*s (is students (a1e. ;is use of Isi*plified9 Englis( utterances& Indonesian utterances& Englis( and Indonesian si*ultaneousl- and appropriate t-pes of directi1e utterances s(ows t(e teac(er9s pedagogic co*petenc-. In (is *anagerial practices& t(e teac(er e<(i.its (is .elief t(at students s(ould not .e treated as low-class indi1iduals. ;e is indeed alwa-s aware of (is sociall- (ig(er position in t(e classroo*& -et (e is alwa-s aware& too& t(at t(e students s(ould not .e treated t(e wa- low-class la.ours are treated. ;is use of (ig( fre=uencre=uests and 1arious polite e<pressions indicates t(e teac(er9s respect to (is students. +(is is also an indication t(at t(e teac(er (as de*onstrated good social co*petenc-. In (is classroo* interaction wit( (is students& t(e teac(er *a5es use of utterances t(at assure (is aut(orit- as a teac(er& w(ile *aintaining (is .e(a1ing (i*self as an indi1idual. ;e is aware of (is effort to *aintain (is aut(orit-& .ut is continuousl- adGusting t(e wa- (e interacts wit( (is students wit( e*erging situations. +(at so*eti*es (e treats (is students as (is Ipartners9& so*eti*es as (is Isu.ordinates9& so*eti*es as (is Ilo1ers9& so*eti*es as (is Ipatients9& all s(ows (is personal co*petenc-. ?eing polite is a trait t(at t(e classroo* teac(er custo*aril- de*onstrates. ;e is alwa-s tr-ing to tal5 in friendl-& rat(er t(an rude& tone. In (is use of utterances& (e *a<i*i>es (is students9 .enefits .- *eans of (1 re=uests and offers& (2 co*pli*ents and (3 friendl- addresses. ;e *a<i*i>es agree*ent wit( (is students .- *eans of solidarit- e<pressions and *ini*i>es (is indi1idual .enefit .- *eans of (1 in1itations and re=uests and (2 praising (is students. &. Conclusions ,ollowing are conclusions drawn on t(e .asis of t(e current researc( findings presented a.o1e. 1. +eac(er9s tal5 in Englis( classes is do*inated .- t(e use of directi1e utterances& pri*aril- in Englis( and secondaril- in Indonesian. 2. +(e teac(er9s utterances 1ar- in linguistic for*s and illocutionar- forces. 3. +(e teac(er *a5es use of t(e 1ar-ing linguistic for*s of utterances (declarati1e& interrogati1e& i*perati1e and ellipsis to con1e- se1en illocutionar- functions of as5ing& ordering& re=uesting& in1iting& suggesting& per*itting and offering. %. 3 single linguistic for* of utterance can .e used to con1e- se1eral illocutionar- forces& and a single illocutionar- force can .e con1e-ed in so*e linguistic for*s. 5. +(e teac(er (as ideali>ed& appropriate reasons for (is use of 1arious t-pes of directi1e utterances. 2. +(e directi1e utterances t(e teac(er (as c(osen to use s(ow t(at (e (as tried to i*ple*ent *a<i*s of politeness. +(e use of 1aria.le directi1e utterances in Englis( classes indicates t(e Englis( teac(er9s professionalDacade*ic& pedagogic& social and personal co*petencies. !e'erences 3t5inson& P.& F ;a**ersle-& /. (2''7 . >thnogra$hy+ $rinci$'es in $ractice. @ondon and New Bor5 7 Houtledge. 3ppel& H&. F /u-s5en& P. (1C!7 . Language contact an& !i'ingua'ism. @ondon7 Edward 3rnold. 3ustin& J.@. (1C27 . 4ow to &o things with wor&s. New Bor57 #<ford 0ni1ersit-. ?rown& ;. ). (2''' . /rinci$'es of 'anguage 'earning an& teaching. New Bor57 Eddison Lesle- @ong*an Inc.


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