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The Essence of Academic Entrepreneurship: Application to Chinhoyi University of Technology Thrust


Nicholas +i,engwa -a.a,a School o/ 0usiness Sciences 1 2ntre#reneurshi# 3hinhoyi 4ni,ersity o/ 5echnology) P. bag 7724) 3hinhoyi) +imbabwe 62-mail7 n8.a.a,a9gmail.com Abstract 5his #a#er see.s to analyse the essence o/ Academic entre#reneurshi# "A2$ as the 2ntre#reneurial :odel that can guide the thrust and de,elo#mental strategic rele,ance o/ a 4ni,ersity o/ 5echnology "45$ in +imbabwe) related uni,ersities in the region and world wide. It is noted that there has been a ra#id increase in technology based economic de,elo#ment initiati,es) /ocused mainly on stimulating technological entre#reneurshi# in uni,ersities ,ia #atenting) licensing) start-u# creation) and uni,ersity;industry #artnershi#s which is the essence o/ A2. 5he article begins with a bac.ground analysis o/ the mandate o/ 3hinhoyi 4ni,ersity o/ 5echnology "345$ as enshrined in the 345 Act "3ha#ter 2572 $ as an e<am#le o/ a 45. A thorough literature re,iew is done and a sur,ey was carried out o/ academic sta// and senior administrati,e sta// to chec. their .nowledge and su##orting acti,ities towards achie,ing the uni,ersity mandate. :a=or /indings were that while members o/ the institution could recall o// hand the mandate o/ the institution and sharing the same meaning o/ such .ey conce#ts as inno,ation) they did not share the same meaning o/ such .ey terms as technology and wealthy creation. It was also established that the di//erences in the inter#retation o/ .ey conce#ts lead to di//erent acti,ities on the ground. A #rocess a##roach to academic entre#reneurshi# was recommended. >urther research and testing o/ the model was also recommended based on the discussion. Keywords: Academic 2ntre#reneurshi#) 4ni,ersity o/ 5echnology) 5echnology) Research 1. . !ntroduction 5he 3hinhoyi 4ni,ersity o/ 5echnology "345$ Act "3ha#ter 2572 $ section 4 sub-section ! #aragra#h "b$? states that one o/ the ob=ecti,es o/ setting the uni,ersity is) @5he de,elo#ment and #ractice o/ design and technologyA and #aragra#h "c$? says @5he teaching and a##lication o/ sciences) art and designA while #aragra#h "/$ o/ the same section reads? @5he nurturing o/ entre#reneurshi#) inno,ation and creati,ity on the #art o/ all the members o/ the uni,ersity.A >ocusing on these ob=ecti,es the 4ni,ersity designed its motto as) B5echnology) Inno,ation and CealthyD. At the end o/ 2%!2) the institution celebrated its tenth anni,ersary and one may want to chec. how /ar the institution has achie,ed its mission. Academics /rom di//erent disci#lines may ha,e di//erent meanings attached to the three #illars o/ the #ur#ose o/ the institution) that is technology) inno,ation and wealthy. 5hese can be discussed one a/ter another according to di//erent sources. 1.1. Technology Rebentisch and >erretti "!&&5$ consider technology as any /orm) material or social) into which .nowledge has been embodied? to include hardware) so/tware) #roducts) rules) #rocedures) organisational structure) and .nowhow or technical e<#ertise. 0ush cited in :c'mber "!&&&$ held that 5echnology is a /orm o/ human cultural acti,ity that a##lies the #rinci#les o/ science and mechanics to the solution o/ #roblems. It includes the resources) tools) #rocesses) #ersonnel) and systems de,elo#ed to #er/orm tas.s and create immediate #articular) and #ersonal andEor com#etiti,e ad,antages in a gi,en ecological) economic) and social conte<t. :c'mber "!&&&$ delineate three meanings o/ technology assumed in #o#ular and academic discourse7 technology-asinstrumentality) technology-as-industriali8ation) and technology-as-no,elty. All meanings abo,e ma.e sense? a 45 should a##ly scienti/ic .nowledge in di//erent disci#lines li.e business) agriculture) biotechnology) /ood science) etc) to sol,e #ractical +imbabwean li/e #roblems which include industrial) commercial and domestic challenges. In addition) machinery and eFui#ment should be de,elo#ed to /acilitate #roduction and ma.e day to day li/e more con,enient. 1.2. Innovation According to Schum#eter "!&2 $ inno,ation is re/lected in no,el out#uts7 a new good or a new Fuality o/ a good? a new method o/ #roduction? a new mar.et? a new source o/ su##ly? or a new organi8ational structure) which can be summari8ed as Bdoing things di//erentlyD. Inno,ation is also ,iewed as7 #roduction or ado#tion) assimilation) and e<#loitation o/ a ,alue-added no,elty in economic and social s#heres? renewal and enlargement o/ #roducts) ser,ices) and mar.ets? de,elo#ment o/ new methods o/ #roduction? and establishment o/ new management systems. It is both a #rocess and an outcome. "3rossan and A#aydin 2%!%$ Chile creati,ity /ocuses on the generation o/ new ideas) inno,ation deals with the e<#loitation o/ those new ideas to sol,e #ractical human li/e #roblems. "Cills 2%!%$. 5hus scienti/ic .nowledge has to be e<#loited to sol,e social challenges by a 45. In the

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conte<t o/ multi-stage #rocess model o/ A2 that identi/ies the .ey actors) acti,ities) and success dri,ers associated with each stage o/ the inno,ation commerciali8ation #rocess. Inno,ation is de/ined as BBany in,ention) new technology) idea) #roduct) or #rocess that has been disco,ered through uni,ersity research that has the #otential to be #ut to commercial useDD Cood "2%%&$. According to "Cood 2%!!$ the basis o/ such a de/inition is the central idea that uni,ersity research leads to new inno,ations) and some o/ those inno,ations may ha,e commercial a##lications that lead to entre#reneurial acti,ity. 1.3. Wealth Cealth is de/ined as total assets "de#osits) li/e insurance) su#erannuation) trust /unds) eFuity) housing) collectibles) businesses and ,ehicles$ less total liabilities. "Goiron and Huttmann 2%%&$ 5he institution should create its own ,aluable #ossessions or money through its acti,ities? in short it has to o#erate on commercial basis and not sim#ly on ser,ice #ro,ision. 5he wealth creation thrust in the case o/ 345 is denoted by the em#hasis o/ the institution on entre#reneurshi#. In other words as an academic institution) the #rocess o/ training candidates should ha,e the issue o/ technology) inno,ation and wealth creation imbedded in it. 3andidates should be seen creating wealth through technological inno,ation during and a/ter their training. 5his gi,es room /or academic entre#reneurshi# to be ado#ted as an a##roach to the thrust o/ a 45. Iee and Cong "2%%4$ concluded that the security anchor negati,ely im#acted on entre#reneurial intentions o/ research scientists and engineers) while the managerial anchor had a #ositi,e im#act and on the other hand mi<ed results were /ound /or the technical and creati,ity anchors) while no im#act was /ound /or the autonomy anchor. #. . $eview of %iterature. It is #rudent at this #oint to re,iew literature o/ A2 and related conce#ts. 2.1. Academic Entrepreneurship Cood "2%!!$ describes academic entre#reneurshi# as the e//orts and acti,ities that uni,ersities and their industry #artners underta.e in ho#es o/ commerciali8ing the outcomes o/ /aculty research. Right away the de/inition touches all the three as#ects7 technology) inno,ation and wealth. Cithout commerciali8ation) technological inno,ation alone may not create wealth. In recent years) there has been a ra#id increase in technology based economic de,elo#ment initiati,es) /ocused mainly on stimulating technological entre#reneurshi# in uni,ersities ,ia #atenting) licensing) start-u# creation) and uni,ersity;industry #artnershi#s and such acti,ity is @academic entre#reneurshi#)A since the ob=ecti,e o/ such e//orts is commerciali8ation o/ inno,ations de,elo#ed by academic scientists "Hrimaldi et al 2%!!$. Rothaermel et al "2%%7$ ,iew the academic entre#reneurial acti,ities as 4ni,ersity 2ntre#reneurshi# and #ut it in sub areas to include entre#reneurial research uni,ersity? #roducti,ity o/ technology trans/er o//ices? new /irm creation) and en,ironmental conte<t including networ.s o/ inno,ation. Phan and Siegel "2%%*$ ,iew uni,ersity technology trans/er as mechanisms which include licensing agreements between the uni,ersity and #ri,ate /irms) science #ar.s) incubators) and uni,ersity-based startu#s. Assertions are /urther made that im#lementation o/ such mechanisms leads uni,ersities who choose to stress) based on their technology trans/er @strategy.A >or e<am#le) institutions that em#hasi8e the entre#reneurial dimension o/ technology trans/er must address s.ill de/iciencies in technology trans/er o//ices) reward systems that are inconsistent with enhanced entre#reneurial acti,ity and the lac. o/ training /or /aculty members) #ost-docs) and graduate students in starting new ,entures or interacting with entre#reneurs "Phan and Siegal 2%%*$. Powers and :cGougall "2%%4$ indicate that uni,ersities ha,e been ra#idly escalating their in,ol,ement in technology trans/er) that is) the #rocess o/ trans/orming uni,ersity research into mar.etable #roducts) stimulated by changed e<ternal e<#ectations /or economic de,elo#ment and internal #ressures to generate new sources o/ income.In recent years) uni,ersities ha,e shown a growing enthusiasm /or the more ris.y /orms o/ entre#reneurial acti,ity) namely) /orming start-u# com#anies around a uni,ersity-de,elo#ed technology or licensing to small #ri,ate /irms rather than through the traditional commerciali8ation route with large #ublic com#anies. "Powers and :cGougall 2%%4$ According to Cood "2%!!$ in the 4nited States) the growth o/ academic entre#reneurshi# can be traced bac. to the /ederal go,ernmentDs #assage o/ the 0ayh-Gole Act in !&J% which #ro,ided a mechanism by which the intellectual #ro#erty generated under /ederal research grants could become the #ro#erty o/ the uni,ersity) rather than the /unding agency s#onsoring the research and the argument being that by allowing uni,ersities to secure intellectual #ro#erty #rotection "e.g.) #atents$) outside #artners would be enticed to #ursue research out#uts because their in,estments would be #rotected /rom imitation. -enney and Patton "2%!!$ disco,ered some suggesti,e e,idence that in,entor ownershi# uni,ersities can be more e//icient in generating s#in-o//s on both #er /aculty and #er R1G dollar e<#ended #ers#ecti,e) hence suggest that go,ernments see.ing to encourage uni,ersity in,ention commerciali8ation and entre#reneurshi# should e<#eriment with an in,entor ownershi# system. Kaeussler and 3oly,as "2%!!$ assert that characteristics re/lecting #ro/essional security) ad,antage and #roducti,ity are strong #redictors /or a greater breadth o/ #artici#ation in academic entre#reneurshi# and /or such academics) science and commerce go hand in hand) as they are best #oised to straddle the boundary between industry and academy. Kindle and Lenc.en "2%%4$ hold

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that the accumulated tacit .nowledge and culture o/ the entre#reneur are the resources essential to create wealth /rom research commercialisation leading to technological inno,ation and the creation o/ New 5echnology 0ased >irms "N50>s$. Rasmussen and 0orch "2%!%$ #ro#osed a set o/ three uni,ersity ca#abilities that /acilitate the ,enture-/ormation #rocess and each ca#ability is #articularly im#ortant /or s#eciMc #hases in the ,enturing #rocess) these include7 creating new #aths o/ action) balancing both academic and commercial interests) and lastly integrating new resources. 2t8.owit8 et al "2%%%$ argue that uni,ersities around the world are increasingly shi/ting /rom their traditional #rimary role as educational #ro,iders and scientiMc .nowledge creators to a more com#le< BBentre#reneurialDD uni,ersity model that incor#orates the additional role o/ the commerciali8ation o/ .nowledge and acti,e contribution to the de,elo#ment o/ #ri,ate enter#rises in the local and regional economy. Cong et al "2%%7$ indicate that increasing #rominence has been gi,en to the role o/ Singa#oreDs uni,ersities in stimulating economic growth through industrially rele,ant research) technology commerciali8ation) high-tech s#in-os) attracting /oreign talent) and inculcating entre#reneurial mindsets. According to :ar.man et al "2%%5$ 4ni,ersity technology trans/er o//ices "455's$ /unction as BBtechnology intermediariesDD as they /acilitate the success o/ business incubators and technology #ar.s in uni,ersity settings which is o/ten determined by how well technology is trans/erred /rom the labs to their start-u# /irms. &. . The 'urvey 5he sur,ey aimed at ascertaining the situation on the ground at 345. 5he in/ormation sought related to whether the 4ni,ersity sta//7 .new the mandate o/ the institution? shared the same meaning o/ the mandate? agreed on the acti,ities sta// and students should engage to /ul/il the mandate? and lastly establish the ga# and recommend a model /or the 4ni,ersity. 3.1. Methodology 5he researcher ado#ted a sur,ey a##roach and carried out #ersonal inter,iews with !J academic sta// who were mostly deans and de#artment chair#ersons and 5 senior administrators who constituted a con,enience sam#le. Nualitati,e data was gathered and the /indings were as /ollows. 3.2. Findings 5he sur,ey re,ealed that 5%O o/ the sta// could restate the 4ni,ersity mandate word /or word) while the rest could #artially state or sim#ly outline their o#inion which may howe,er be related to the uni,ersity mandate. Sta// had di//erent meanings attached to the .ey terms guiding the uni,ersity mandate) that is) technology) inno,ation and wealth. 5he term #osing challenges was technology? no two #eo#le could share the same meaning o/ the term? across de#artments and schools. :ost sta// members were not sure as to the actual acti,ities to be concentrated on in order to /ul/il the uni,ersity mandate. 5he ma=ority /eel technology) inno,ation and wealth should be taught to students and it ends there. 5he ma=ority /elt that uni,ersity acti,ities should end at generating new .nowledge and the issue o/ commercialisation should be le/t to industry so as not to o,erburden uni,ersities. :embers o/ sta// /eel that they ha,e much su##ort /rom go,ernment but not enough su##ort /rom industry and commerce. In/rastructure was cited as the ma=or drawbac. /or the institution to achie,e its mandate since its ince#tion? that is the lac. o/ eFui##ed wor.sho#s) laboratories and internet ser,ices. Academic sta// wanted to /ocus on areas which contribute to their #romotion) that is teaching) research and community ser,ice and students were said to /ocus on acti,ities that contribute to their #assing. Chile members /eel that 5echnology 5rans/er '//ices are needed at the institution) the ma=ority were not sure as to how these o#erate with the current uni,ersity structure. 3.3. Discussion Cith the abo,e /indings) it is #ertinent that a discussion be done in light o/ the .nowledge gathered /rom the re,iewed o/ literature. >ailure by members o/ a uni,ersity o/ technology to show an accurate understanding o/ the term technology can be inter#reted as a #oint o/ concern. I/ someone does not understand a conce#t it means that they can not a##ly it e//ecti,ely. 5his may be attributed to the /act that /or the #ast decade) there has not been signi/icant initiati,es o/ technological de,elo#ments. 5his cuts across the uni,ersity schools) since according to Rebentisch and >erretti "!&&5$ technology co,er hardware) so/tware) #roducts) rules) #rocedures) organisational structure) and .nowhow or technical e<#ertise. 5he old-age saying holds that a #roblem well de/ined is hal/ sol,ed) it seem #rudent that members o/ the sta// should agree as to what is meant by technology) so that they can ha,e a coordinated and synchronised e//ort. 5here could be awareness o/ the guiding conce#t but lac.ing actual understanding as to what really has to be done. >rom the sur,ey members are not in agreement as what really has to be done so that we can say the uni,ersity is now /ocussing on technology) inno,ation and wealth. 5he ma=ority are content with research) teaching and uni,ersity ser,ice which end a/ter a##raisal and #romotion. At a 45) research has to be

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#ur#ose dri,en) out#uts should end u# with some hardware) so/tware) #roducts) rules) #rocedures) organisational structure) and .now-how or technical e<#ertise. 5his leads to #ur#ose dri,en teaching) which end u# ha,ing candidates who can de,elo# some hardware) so/tware) #roducts) rules) #rocedures) organisational structure) and .now-how or technical e<#ertise. 5he /act that sta// are not in agreement as to what has to be done by a uni,ersity o/ technology which has an entre#reneurial thrust may #oint to some de/iciencies in the uni,ersity structures. According to Phan and Siegel "2%%*$ institutions that em#hasi8e the entre#reneurial dimension o/ technology trans/er must address s.ill de/iciencies in technology trans/er o//ices) reward systems that are inconsistent with enhanced entre#reneurial acti,ity and the lac. o/ training /or /aculty members) #ost-docs) and graduate students in starting new ,entures or interacting with entre#reneurs. >urthermore) it is held that uni,ersities around the world are increasingly shi/ting /rom their traditional #rimary role as educational #ro,iders and scienti/ic .nowledge creators to a more com#le< BBentre#reneurialDD uni,ersity model that incor#orates the additional role o/ the commerciali8ation o/ .nowledge and acti,e contribution to the de,elo#ment o/ #ri,ate enter#rises in the local and regional economy. "2t8.owit8 et al 2%%%$. 5his leads us to not only /ocus o/ addressing de/iciencies in sta// members but also to direct sta// bene/its) reward systems and #romotional criteria towards not only research and educational Fuali/ications but such achie,ements as #atenting) licensing) start-u# creation) and uni,ersity;industry #artnershi#s. 5his is also su##orted by Kaeussler and 3oly,as "2%!!$ who hold that characteristics re/lecting #ro/essional security) ad,antage and #roducti,ity are strong #redictors /or a greater breadth o/ #artici#ation in academic entre#reneurshi# and /or such academics) science and commerce go hand in hand) as they are best #oised to straddle the boundary between industry and academy. 5hus misunderstandings between uni,ersities and industry should be settled as well as inter-school misunderstandings) es#ecially commerce and engineering so as to ha,e collaborati,e e//orts to sol,e economic challenges. Researches and #ublications could be assessed against their rele,ance to sol,ing current industrial and economic needs as well as the degree o/ commerciali8ation /easibility. As indicated by Cong et al "2%%7$ who stress that increasing #rominence has been gi,en to the role o/ Singa#oreDs uni,ersities in stimulating economic growth through industrially rele,ant research) technology commerciali8ation) high-tech s#in-os) attracting /oreign talent) and inculcating entre#reneurial mindsets. Cithin the structures o/ uni,ersities o/ technology are 5echnology 5rans/er '//ices "55's$ or 5echno-#ar.s which could be obser,ed as lac.ing within 345 structures. :ar.man et al "2%%5$ asserts that 4ni,ersity technology trans/er o//ices "455's$ /unction as BBtechnology intermediariesDD as they /acilitate the success o/ business incubators and technology #ar.s in uni,ersity settings which is o/ten determined by how well technology is trans/erred /rom the labs to their start-u# /irms. 5o this end) technology is useless i/ it is not trans/erred to industry and commerce. (. . )roposed *odel 5he motto o/ 345 is 5echnology) Inno,ation and Cealth) im#lemented through Research) 5eaching and 4ni,ersity Ser,ice. 5he #a#er holds that the thrust o/ the institution can best be /ollowed by ado#ting academic entre#reneurshi# as the guiding #rinci#le. 5he basic de/inition %/ academic entre#reneurshi# being according to Cood "2%!!$ the e//orts and acti,ities that uni,ersities and their industry #artners underta.e in ho#es o/ commerciali8ing the outcomes o/ /aculty research. Put in /urther terms Hrimaldi et al "2%!!$ e<#ress it as technology based economic de,elo#ment initiati,es) /ocused mainly on stimulating technological entre#reneurshi# in uni,ersities ,ia #atenting) licensing) start-u# creation) and uni,ersity;industry #artnershi#s. Cood "2%!!$ suggests an academic entre#reneurshi# multi-stage #rocess model that identi/ies the .ey actors acti,ities and success dri,ers associated with each stage o/ the inno,ation commerciali8ation #rocess. It consist o/ /our stages7 "!$ Inno,ation disclosure and intellectual #ro#erty #rotection stage? "2$ Awareness and securing industry #artnershi# stage? " $ 3ommercialisation mechanism selection stage? "4$ 3ommercialisation stage. 5he model may not be ,ery rele,ant to a /airly new uni,ersity in a de,elo#ing country in some economic crisis. Ce there/ore suggest a #rocess model that may a##ly to a de,elo#ing country and new uni,ersity. Phase !7 Pro#osal de,elo#ment? Phase 27 Pro#osal e,aluation and a##ro,al? Phase 7 Research #ro=ects? Phase 47 Inno,ation? Phase 57 Patenting) licensing) start-u# creation) 4ni,ersity-Industry #artnershi#s? Phase *7 3ommercialisation? Phase 77 3ontinuous im#ro,ement Giagrammatical the model can be dis#layed as +igure 1.

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Pro#osal Ge,elo#ment

3ontinuous im#ro,ement

Pro#osal e,aluation 1 A##ro,al

Patenting) Iiscensing) (enture creation) 4ni,ersity-Industry Partnershi#s

3ommercialisati on

Research Pro=ect

Inno,ation

Figure 1: An Academic Entrepreneurship Model (Adapted by the Author) +igure 1#resents the se,en #hase academic entre#reneurshi# model with em#hasis on the /i/th #hase which is #laced at the centre as the core o/ the #rocess. It is stressed that what e,er acti,ity is done) the result should be #atenting) ,enture creation) licensing andEor uni,ersity industry #artnershi#s. .1. !hase 1" !roposal development In this model) #ro#osals /all into two main categories) research #ro=ect #ro#osals and de,elo#mental #ro=ect #ro#osals. 5heir structure and contents mainly de#end on the organi8ation /unding the #ro=ect. Kowe,er) /or the #ur#ose o/ this model which e,er ty#e o/ #ro#osal it has to be lin.ed to the other ty#e. In other words) a de,elo#mental #ro=ect has some in/ormation ga#s which are /illed by a research #ro=ect? and on the other hand a research #ro=ect should ha,e some #ractical industrial or commercial #roblem to sol,e and should be im#lemented. 5his is the essence o/ research and de,elo#ment "R1G$) the #ro#osals do,e tail one another. Pro#osals are originated by either academics or industrialists or collaborati,ely by both in a #artnershi# in order to sol,e s#eci/ic #ertinent challenges. 5he Fuestion that remains is) @which #roblem do you want to sol,eP And is it #ertinent or o/ #riority gi,en the current situationPA **

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.2. !hase 2" !roposal evaluation and approval Chile this #hase begins with the last Fuestions #osed on #hase one) it goes /urther to the research board o/ the /unding organi8ation which will begin by as.ing the same Fuestions. 5he board also has to go /urther to #robe into research) de,elo#ment and commerciali8ation /easibility and a#art /rom relying on a written #ro#osal) rigorous ,i,as may be hel#/ul at this stage. 'b=ecti,ity is im#ortant so that #ro#osals with the highest degree o/ commerciali8ation are allowed through. I/ there will be nothing to commercialise its #ointless to s#onsor such a #ro=ect since it is a misdirection o/ resources ; thus it is not #art o/ academic entre#reneurshi#. 0oard members could be e<#erts in di//erent areas who may ha,e some achie,ements in research as well as the commerciali8ation o/ research out#uts. .3. !hase 3" #esearch pro$ects 5his stage re#resents the actual gathering o/ any in/ormation ga#s and generation o/ new .nowledge. It is at this #hase where researchers disseminate the new .nowledge through #ublications) wor.sho#s) con/erences or any other /orum. . . !hase " Innovation 5he stage re#resents the actual de,elo#ment o/ an inno,ation in the /orm o/ a #roduct) #rocedure etc. .%. !hase %" !atenting& licensing& 'enture creation& (niversity)industry partnerships Chat e,er is de,elo#ed reFuires some legal #rotection so that the de,elo#ers can rea# their bene/its. .*. !hase *" +ommercialisation 5his in,ol,es the actual o#eration in industry and commerce at a large scale. 5he choice is between ha,ing a wholly uni,ersity owned o#eration - s#in-o// or licensing a se#arate organi8ation. .,. !hase ," +ontinuous improvement Chether it is a licensed o#eration or a s#in-o// there is need to continuously im#ro,e e<isting #roducts and o#erations) which is a /ertile ground /or /urther #ro#osals. ,. . Conclusion 5he #a#er has analysed the situation on the ground at 345 as a case study o/ a 45? related what is on the ground to literature o/ academic entre#reneurshi# and designed a recommended model /or a 45 li.e 345 and other institutions in de,elo#ing economies. It howe,er) has to be noted that the model has not been tested in #ractice. It is recommended the testing o/ the model be ta.en as need /or /urther research. $eferences: 3rossan :. :. and A#aydin :. "2%!%$ A :ulti-Gimensional >ramewor. o/ 'rgani8ational Inno,ation7 A Systematic Re,iew o/ the Iiterature -ournal o. Management /tudies 477* Se#tember 2%!% doi7 !%.!!!!E=.!4*7*4J*.2%%&.%%JJ%.< Goiron G. and Huttmann R. "2%%&$ Cealth Gistributions o/ :igrant and Australian-born Kouseholds The Economic #ecord) (ol. J5) No. 2*J) :arch) 2%%&) 2;45 2t8.owit8) Cebster) Hebhart)and 5erra "2%%%$ 5he /uture o/ the uni,ersity and the uni,ersity o/ the /uture7 e,olution o/ i,ory tower to entre#reneurial #aradigm #esearch !olicy 2& ! ; % Hrimaldi R.) -enney :. Gonald Siegel G. S. and Cright :. "2%!!$ % years a/ter 0ayh;Gole7 Reassessing academic entre#reneurshi# #esearch policy) Elsevier #esearch !olicy 4%7 !%45; !%57 Kaeussler 3 and 3oly,as Q. A "2%!!$ 0rea.ing the I,ory 5ower7 Academic 2ntre#reneurshi# in the Ii/e Sciences in 4- and Hermany #esearch !olicy 4%74!;54 Kindle - and Lenc.en Q. "2%%4$ Public research commercialisation) entre#reneurshi# and new technology based /irms7 an integrated model Technovation 247 7& ;J% -enney : and Patton G "2%!!$ Goes in,entor ownershi# encourage uni,ersity research-deri,ed entre#reneurshi#P A si< uni,ersity com#arison #esearch !olicy 4%7 !!%%; !!!2 :ar.man H. G.) Phan P. K.) 0al.in G. 0. and Hianiodis P. 5. "2%%5$ 2ntre#reneurshi# and uni,ersity-based technology trans/er -ournal o. 0usiness 'enturing 2%7 24!;2* :c'mber Q. 0. "!&&&$ 5echnological Autonomy and 5hree Ge/initions o/ 5echnology -ournal o. +ommunication -ournal o. +ommunication Phan P. and Siegel G. S. "2%%*$ 5he 2//ecti,eness o/ 4ni,ersity 5echnology 5rans/er Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship) (ol. 2) No. 2) Powers Q. 0. and :cGougall P. P. "2%%4$ 4ni,ersity start-u# /ormation and technology licensing with /irms that go #ublic7 a resource-based ,iew o/ academic entre#reneurshi# -ournal o. 0usiness 'enturing 2%7 2&!; !! Rasmussen 2 and 0orch '. Q. "2%!%$ 4ni,ersity ca#abilities in /acilitating entre#reneurshi#7 A longitudinal study o/ s#in-o// ,entures at mid-range uni,ersities #esearch !olicy & *%2;*!2 Rebentisch 2. S. and >erretti :. "!&&5$ A .nowledge asset-based ,iew o/ technology trans/er in international =oint ,entures -ournal o. Engineering And Technology Management !27 !-25

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Public Policy and Administration Research ISSN 2224-57 !"Pa#er$ ISSN 2225-%&72"'nline$ (ol. ) No.!%) 2%!

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Rothaermel > 5) Agung S G and Qiang I "2%%7$ 4ni,ersity entre#reneurshi#7 a ta<onomy o/ the literature Industrial and +orporate +hange) (olume !*) Number 4) ##. *&!;7&! Soo Koon Iee and Poh -am Cong "2%%4$ An e<#loratory study o/ techno#reneurial intentions7 a career anchor #ers#ecti,e -ournal o. 0usiness 'enturing !& #age 7;2J Cong P.) Ko L. and Singh A. "2%%7$ 5owards an BB2ntre#reneurial 4ni,ersityDD :odel to Su##ort -nowledge0ased 2conomic Ge,elo#ment7 5he 3ase o/ the National 4ni,ersity o/ Singa#ore World Development (ol. 5) No. *) ##. &4!;&5J Cood : S "2%!!$. A #rocess model o/ academic entre#reneurshi# 0usiness 1ori2on !5!-!5 Cood :. S. "2%%&$ Goes 'ne Si8e >it AllP 5he :ulti#le 'rgani8ational >orms Ieading to Success/ul Academic 2ntre#reneurshi# Entrepreneurship Theory and !ractice !%42-25J7

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