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Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.

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The Impact of Language Planning, Terminology Planning, and Arabicization, on Military Terminology Planning and Translation
(r.)ohammad *lsheha+ ,adara -ni.ersit/& 0nglish and 1ranslation (epartment ,ordan2193!4/ahoo.com Abstract 1he *ra+ militar/ armies ha.e +een su55ered 5rom the lac6 o5 accurate *ra+ic e7ui.alents 5or the a+undant new militar/ terminolog/. 1his is crucial +ecause modern *ra+ armies ha.e +een modeled in their structure& +ranches& weaponr/& and ran6ing according to modern 8estern and 0astern *rmies. 9onse7uentl/& the/ need a new re.i.al o5 older terms to meet the 5resh re7uirements o5 a modern arm/ along with 8estern design. 1his paper aims at in.estigating the impact o5 :anguage Planning (:P & terminolog/ planning& and *ra+ici;ation on the polic/ o5 militar/ terminolog/ and translation. It pro.ides guidelines 5or the applications o5 language planning on militar/ terminolog/ at the national le.el in ,ordan. 1his paper deals with the 5i.e t/pes o5 :P (puri5ication& re.i.al& re5ormation& standardi;ation& and moderni;ation as classi5ied +/ Nahir (1977 . Keywords< :anguage Planning& *ra+ici;ation& 1erminolog/ Planning& )ilitar/ 1erminolog/ 1ranslation Introduction Regarding the de.elopment o5 science and technolog/& there has +een an increasing demand 5or understanding 0nglish language in the de.eloping countries. 1here5ore& to 6eep a+reast with scienti5ic de.elopments& ,ordan as a de.eloping countr/ adopts 0nglish as a second language. Recentl/& Nida (19"3 indicates that new 0nglish words are used to e=press new concepts& techni7ues& and in.entions that come into e=istence. 1hese words ha.e de.eloped more rapidl/ during the last decades that cannot +e captured +/ the dictionaries. He adds that this de.elopment has +rought to *ra+ic serious linguistic pro+lems. 1hese pro+lems are represented +/ the e.ere=panding wa.e o5 newl/ 5ound concepts and techni7ues 5or which no e7ui.alents in *ra+ic e=ist. 1o 5ace a huge +ul6 o5 0nglish scienti5ic terminolog/& the processes o5 coinage& +orrowing& transliteration& and other means o5 trans5er are made. 1 !ac"ground :P is characteri;ed +/ a .ariet/ o5 .isions across decades +/ a .ariet/ o5 scholars. Some scholars such as (Haugen 19"9> (as ?upta 197#> and 8enistin 19!9 5ocus on :P as language 5orms and standardi;ation issued +/ language academies. $ther scholars li6e (Ru+in @ ,urnud 1971> Aaram 1973> and ,urnud @ (as ?upta 1971 descri+e :P as a change in the language code s/stem. 1he/ 5ocus on pro+lem sol.ing through the procedure o5 5ormulation and e.aluation. Similarl/& Bishman (1973 and 8enistin (19!' indicate that :P is outlined as pro+lem sol.ing within the conte=t o5 the national language. $n the other hand& 1auli (1973 maintains that :P is needed to impro.e languages and to create new ones at .arious le.els. Binall/& 9ooper (19!9 descri+es :P as a proposed e55ort to control +eha.ior o5 others without authori;ed agencies In sum& :P is a process dealing with impro.ing language and moderating new concepts and terminolog/ to meet the eraCs re7uirement o5 science and technolog/. Its 5unction is not onl/ in coining new terminolog/& +ut also in re.i.ing archaic terms and e=pressions to sa.e our culture and religion. Types of LP Nahir(1977 and 0astman (1991 .iew that :P is a decision-ma6ing that is geared towards puri5/ing& re.i.ing& re5orming& standardi;ing& or moderni;ing languages to enhance communication within and +etween nations& and to encourage the 5eelings o5 unit/ and solidarit/. Bor more details& a light ought to +e shed at the 5ollowing t/pes o5 :P< a. Language Purification In general& puri5/ing language is an attempt +/ :P agencies to set down Dcorrect usageE to de5end and preser.e the purit/ o5 the language (Bishman 1971 . Howe.er& puri5ication is speci5icall/ a plan that precedes moderni;ation. * regional and national polic/ 5or puri5/ing the *ra+ language ought to +e adopted +/ all the academies in the *ra+ world. Fecause *ra+ic is the mirror o5 the Islamic-*ra+ ci.ili;ation& the academiesC 5unction is to oppose changes in the orthograph/& grammar& and .oca+ular/ o5 the *ra+ic language. $n the contrar/& language puri5ication per se is +ecoming a t/pe o5 language planning that is +eing to ta6e a more moderate position with regard to the technological era and moderni;ation. b. Language Revival :anguage re.i.al is an attempt to +ring +ac6 a language that once was +ut no longer is Da normal means o5 con.ersation and communicationE among people (Nair 1977< 11' . "2

Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#

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c. Language Reformation Nahir (1977 indicates that languages need to +e re5ormed and puri5ied. New policies should +e made +/ decision ma6ers to puri5/ a language o5 5oreign words that ha.e +een used and ac7uired during the period o5 a 5oreign power in a countr/. d.Language Standardization Nahir (1977< 11G states& D:anguage standardi;ation is de5ined as a process where+/ one language or dialect spo6en in a region (usuall/ a single political region +ecomes accepted as the maHor language o5 the region 5or general usage.E e.Language Modernization Nahir (1977< 117 points out Dplans to moderni;e a languageCs le=icon generall/ deal with e55orts to update .oca+ular/ and special terminologies.E Arabicization Planning *ra+ici;ation means onl/ transliterating a term into *ra+ic. 1he .er+ 5orm o5 this word is Ito ara+ici;eI which means to trans5er into *ra+ic. (i55erent linguists ha.e de5ined *ra+ici;ation #ta'reeb $%&'( di55erentl/. 0ach linguist has de5ined it 5rom his point o5 .iew& re5lecting the linguistic situation within which he is em+edded. Numan (19!1 .iews the concepts o5 *ra+ici;ation as a mean o5 li+eration and moderni;ation to achie.e the goal o5 national& cultural& and political independence o5 the *ra+s. Sa/di (19!2 5ocuses on two ideas o5 *ra+ici;ation> 5irstl/& is adopted +/ the 0ast *ra+ countries& it 5ocuses on le=ical e=pansion. 1his in.ol.es the rendering or coining o5 new words either 5rom e=isting roots or through translation o5 5oreign terms. In addition& e=isting words through +orrowings 5rom 5oreign languages are ta6en into consideration& 5ollowed +/ re.i.ing and re.itali;ing words o5 older usages in the same language. Secondl/& *ra+ici;ation em+raced +/ the North *5rican 9ountries which attempts to introduce *ra+ic as a replacement 5or the 5oreign languages +eing used in di55erent wal6s o5 li5e. 1he 5ocus is on ma6ing *ra+ic the onl/ language in administration and dail/ li5e. 1he/ reHect all those who are against *ra+ici;ation& the/ o+liged themsel.es on ma6ing *ra+ic the language o5 the heart and soul. )an/ *ra+ scholars and writers tend to use the term D*ra+ici;ationE or *ra+i;ation as a s/non/m 5or the term translation. Hence& it is necessar/ to distinguish +etween them. 1ranslation 5ocuses on the meaning and st/le o5 one language when trans5erring to another. *ra+i;ation& howe.er& concentrates on using *ra+ic letters to 5orm 5oreign terms that is called transliteration. Bor e=ample& the 0nglish term Computer in *ra+ic is kumputer &()*+,-. *nother e=ample, Shoulder-held Redeye, which means in *ra+ic E 456 7),8,9: ;: .%/ 01/23 <=>9:E. Here the militar/ term shoulder held is translated into *ra+ic D<=>9: 456 7),8,9:#& while the term IRedeyeI is transliterated in *ra+ic characters (ar+ici;ed . *s mentioned a+o.e& it could +e seen that *ra+ci;ation is a wa/ o5 e=pressing li+ert/ and moderni;ation> it leads to patriotism and national identit/. It is actuall/ a language planning mo.ement. Terminology Planning Sager (199' indicates that terminolog/ is the stud/ and the 5ield o5 acti.it/ related to collecting& descri+ing& processing& and producing terms regarding speciali;ed domains to use one or more languages. Sager adds that terminolog/ has a dou+le 5unction which is represented throughout le=icographers and dictionaries to ser.e language users. 1erminolog/ planning& generall/& is the decision ma6ing done +/ authori;ed +odies to carr/ out the intents& purposes& and goals o5 speciali;ed 5ields Faldau5 @ Aaplen (2''# de5ine terminolog/ planning as a process which re5ers to acti.ities and deli+erate e55orts to plan 5or< corpus& status& and ac7uisition o5 terms as 5ollows< a. Status Term Planning *l *+d *lha7 (199" indicates that status planning re5ers to the distri+ution o5 terms to gi.en 5unctions. Status planning is set up as a result o5 authoritati.e decisions to maintain and e=tend the range o5 5unctional terms in a particular setting. b. Acquisition Term Planning Faldau5 @ Aaplen (2''# indicate that ac7uisition term planning is mainl/ concerned with teaching& learning& and gaining o5 newl/ coined terms. *c7uisition terminolog/ is a process that deals with increasing the users or the uses o5 the speciali;ed terminologies. 8hen planning is directed towards a termCs use& it 5alls within the title o5 status term planning. Fut when it is directed towards increasing the num+er o5 users such as (spea6ers& listeners and readers & it 5alls within ac7uisition planning. c. Cor us Term Planning 9ooper (199! points that corpus term planning re5ers to purel/ linguistic issues such as coining new terms& and re5orming their spellings and adopting them. It re5ers& in short& to the creation o5 new 5orms +/ word coinage process& the modi5ication o5 old ones& and the selection 5rom alternati.e 5orm in a spo6en or a written code. *ccordingl/& term culti.ation& re5orm& standardi;ation& selection& codi5ication& ela+oration and moderni;ation represent instances o5 corpus term planning.

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Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#

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*t the regional le.el& *l-*+ed *l-Ha7 and Smadi (199" in.estigate the status o5 0nglish and *ra+ic in the Aingdom o5 Saudi *ra+ia. Historicall/& the/ descri+e the status o5 the 0nglish language 5rom 193'-199'& the/ in.estigate the 5actors and domains shaping the status o5 0nglish and *ra+ic in AS*. 1he 5indings o5 the stud/ re.eal that there are man/ 5actors that in5luence the status and 5unctions o5 0nglish in AS*. 1he most important is the rapid economic alteration& which leads to an increasing demand o5 0nglish. 1he/ 5ind that the e=ternal 5actors and 5orces do not impose this need. Help5ull/& religiousl/-committed people distinguish 0nglish as an instrument 5or religious and non- religious purposes. 1he/ do not .iew 0nglish as danger to the national identit/ and unit/ o5 AS* and the *ra+ world. Burthermore& the/ indicate that it is not a threat to the *ra+ic language in AS*. Suleiman (1999 e=amines the interaction +etween language and societ/ in the )iddle 0ast and North *5rica. He emphasi;es the lin6age +etween *ra+ic language and *ra+-Islamic identit/. 1hus& the linguistic and cultural identities should +e ta6en into consideration in language polic/ ma6ing. *nother stud/ +/ Suleiman (2''# that discusses the role o5 *ra+ic in the 5ormation o5 national identit/ in the *ra+ )iddle 0ast. 1he stud/ contri+utes to the understanding o5 nationalism as one dimension o5 the language. Burthermore& the stud/ 5ocuses on the importance o5 language lin6s with national identit/& as national language is a well-6nown nationalist practice. He adds that the well-6nown and the prestige o5 *ra+ic language in the 8orld are ascri+ed to its role as the language o5 Juran. *ccordingl/& he continues& it is an important 5actor to underline the 5act that Islam turns *ra+ic into the language o5 a larger culture that leads to the *ra+ici;ation in man/ communities. Hence& the position o5 *ra+ic is enhanced and the *ra+ nation will +e com+ined. *t the academic le.el& in ,ordan& *l-*+ed *l-Ha7 and *l-)asaeid (2''9 re5er :P in ,ordan to deli+erate e55orts that in5luence the +eha.ior o5 spea6ers with regard to the ac7uisition& structure& or 5unctional allocation o5 their language codes. 1he/ add that the need 5or ,ordanians to ha.e a language polic/ is emphasi;ed +/ :P. 1his polic/ could pro.ide the ,ordanians with a linguistic awareness. 1he/ conclude< D1he research in language polic/ and language planning& roughl/ 5rom the mid-19!'s to the present da/& is still in its 5ormati.e stage& and there5ore di55icult to characteri;e. Nonetheless& se.eral important themes and issues ha.e +een esta+lished in the literatureE(p.277 *l-*+ed *l-Ha7 and *l-$laimat (2''# e=amine the role o5 decision-ma6ers in :P. 1he ground o5 authorit/ was in.estigated +/ the ,ordanian *cadem/ o5 *ra+ic& uni.ersities& and decision-ma6ers 5or *ra+ici;ation o5 the speci5ied 0nglish terminolog/. 1he stud/ re.eals that *ra+ici;ation is .iewed as the means to re.i.e the *ra+ identit/ and heritage in science& literature& and art. *lthough 5oreign language use in technolog/& +usiness& industr/& trade& and tourism& +ut it is not shown as a signal o5 progress. 9onse7uentl/& Standard *ra+ic is not .iewed as an o+stacle 5or technolog/ communication and progress. Some e55orts ha.e +een carried out to cope with the scienti5ic progress +/ *ra+ :anguage *cademies in general& and the ,ordanian *cademies in particular& e.g.& the ,ordanian *cadem/ o5 )ilitar/ (,*) . 1heir attempts are made to 5ind out the e=act *ra+ic e7ui.alents 5or the 5oreign scienti5ic and militar/ terms as 7uic6l/ as possi+le. 1he academ/ deals with )ilitar/ :anguage Planning regarding militar/ terminolog/ 5or all militar/ +ranches. Its signi5icant role is to 5ind the suita+le e7ui.alence in *ra+ic 5or the 0nglish 5oreign terms and e=pressions& or in resorting to other t/pes o5 e7ui.alences when the/ do not 5ind the suita+le *ra+ic terminolog/. 1he/ can +orrow the 0nglish terms and *ra+ici;e them to +e used +/ the militar/ personnel. 9onse7uentl/& these terms +ecome a part o5 *ra+ic language that could +e dealt with. 1hese procedures are sited within the polic/ o5 :P. *t the academic le.el& *l Sheha+ (2''9 carries out a stud/ that aims at in.estigating translation pro+lems +/ e=amining the a+ilit/ o5 militar/ personnel in.ol.ed in translation wor6 in the ,ordanian )ilitar/ *cadem/. 1he/ were as6ed to translate terms and e=pressions within the conte=t o5 militar/ te=ts 5rom 0nglish into *ra+ic. *n 0nglish te=t containing #' militar/ terms and e=pressions was presented to a sample o5 1'' militar/ personnel. It was 5ound that despite ha.ing 5ollowed a 5ew courses in translation& a 5air le.el o5 translation competence was o+ser.ed 5or the militar/ personnel. 1he +ul6 o5 their pro+lems when translating 5rom 0nglish to *ra+ic was le=ical in nature. Similarl/& *l-Smad/ (199! conducts a stud/ that aimed at in.estigating two sets o5 G' militar/ terms. 1he 5irst was accomplished and ara+ici;ed +/ the *cadem/ o5 *ra+ic :anguage in ,ordan& and the other was proposed +/ the users in the ,ordanian *rmed Borces. 1he results indicated that the items proposed +/ the users were more accepta+le than the items ara+ici;ed +/ the *cadem/ o5 *ra+ic :anguage in ,ordan. $n the other hand& ,ala+neh (1991 deals with stud/ing the maHor issues and pro+lems o5 translation according to the .arious models (grammatical& s/ntactical& cultural& and le=ical utili;ed in militar/ translation. In total& )ilitar/ 1ranslation ()1 is considered a t/pe o5 technical translation as it has its own uni.ersal terms in +oth the Source :anguage (S: and 1arget :anguage (1: . It deals with denotati.e meanings as the militar/ terms within the te=t lac6s aesthetic .alues& and 5ocus on their limited e7ui.alents in the 1:. :anguage Planning pla/ed and still pla/s a signi5icant role in coping with all 5ields o5 terminolog/. :P pro.ides success5ul insights 5or militar/ terminolog/ planning. Planning o5 militar/ terms can satis5/ the needs o5 militar/ personnel in dealing with militar/ li5e. It could +e seen that plans are made to utili;e militar/ terms to e=press new scienti5ic

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Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#

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and technological ideas +/ using new technical terms. *s *ra+ic e7ui.alents are not alwa/s a.aila+le& coining new terms or *ra+ici;ing ta6es place at the institutional le.el to 5ind the e=act e7ui.alents 5or these terms. !.! T"e Problem of t"e Stud# In ,ordan& o55ering translation courses in .arious languages at the )ilitar/ *cadem/ occupied the optimal goal o5 its plans. In spite o5 its annual translation courses during the last two decades& there is a lac6 in empirical and anal/tical militar/ research& particularl/ in the 5ield o5 scienti5ic and technical militar/ translation. Research within :P has +een neglected +/ researchers and other scholars. 1he/ do not ha.e a +ac6ground and the access to search within this 5ield. *s a pro5essional in militar/ terminolog/& the researcher 5ound the need 5or shedding the light upon this rare su+Hect& which is ignored +/ most researchers at the national le.el. $nl/ a 5ew num+er o5 related studies were conducted in this realm& such as the stud/ o5 (,ala+neh 1991> *l-Smad/ 199!> and *l Sheha+Ks (2''9 . In spite o5 the o+stacles in dealing with this su+Hect& it is hoped that this research can ma6e a 5ew contri+ution to militar/ 6nowledge. !.$ %b&ectives of t"e Stud# 1he 5oremost purpose o5 this stud/ is to shed light on the t/pes o5 :P& *ra+ici;ation and 1erminolog/ planning on )ilitar/ 1erminolog/ Planning ()1P . It also aims at anal/;ing the translation o5 militar/ e=pressions 5rom 0nglish into *ra+ic within the pre.ious processes. !.' (uestions of t"e Stud# 1o +e more speci5ic& the stud/ see6s to answer the 5ollowing 7uestion< How do :anguage Planning (:P & *ra+ici;ation& and 1erminolog/ Planning in5luence )ilitar/ 1erminolog/ Planning and 1ranslationL !.) T"e Significance of t"e Stud# 1his stud/ is the 5irst attempt to in.estigate the impact o5 :P on )1P at the national le.el. It highlights the role o5 :P t/pes in encouraging )1P and their e7ui.alents in *ra+ic. 1his stud/ is .er/ important 5or militar/ and academic scholars& educators& and decision ma6ers. 1his research is e=pected to gi.e a signi5icant +ac6ground a+out )1P in translating 0nglish militar/ terms and e=pressions into *ra+ic. It will +ene5it postgraduate students and scholars in carr/ing out similar research and studies. It is hoped that the anal/sis o5 this stud/ ma/ pro.ide those who are with the 5uture .ision 5or militar/ teaching and learning. !.* T"e Limitations of t"e Stud# 1he stud/ is an initial step in in.estigating )1P and translation 5or militar/ e=pressions within the pre.ious processes. 1he list is limited to 3' 0nglish militar/ e=pressions and terms to +e translated into *ra+ic and their anal/sis. ? Methodology 1his paper deasl with :P and its t/pes. 1hese t/pes could ma6e a contri+ution on militar/ terminolog/ towards enhancing the communication process in the militar/ 5ield. )ilitar/ terminolog/ was anal/;ed and in.estigated within the t/pes o5 :P. 1he procedures were 5ollowed as< +ada Collection In order to enrich the discussion with militar/ e=amples& a list o5 7' militar/ terms and e=pressions were chosen 5rom the dictionar/ o5 M)ilitar/ 1erminolog/C. 1wo militar/ pro5essionals were as6ed to choose the suita+le terms and e=pressions 5rom the list. 1he/ were as6ed to translate the chosen militar/ e=pressions into *ra+ic. 1he e=pressions with similar translation were chosen& while others were ignored. 9onse7uentl/& the 5inal .alidated .ersion includes 3' militar/ terms and e=pressions as in *ppendi= *. +ata Anal#sis Jualitati.el/> the anal/sis o5 militar/ terminolog/ was used within :P t/pes& *ra+ici;ation& and 1erminolog/ Planning. 0ach t/pe was in.estigated& and the suita+le 0nglish militar/ e=amples and their *ra+ic translation were posed @ Aesults and Biscussions Bor answering the stud/Cs 7uestion< How do Language Planning (LP), ra!i"i#ation, and $erminology Planning in%luen"e &ilitary $erminology Planning and $ranslation' 1he militar/ terminolog/ are in.estigated with regard to the 5i.e t/pes o5 :P& and the three t/pes o5 terminolog/ planning& as 5ollows< a. Language Purification Recentl/& regarding the militar/ terminolog/& the academies are dealing with the new concepts o5 puri5ication as there are a lot o5 militar/ terms had +een eliminated as a result o5 canceling the old weapons 5rom the ser.ice& 5or e=ample& Ialmanganee7I FC*DED,9:F& it is an ancient rtillery (un that used stones as +om+s& 1he militar/ e=pression $iger Cat &issiles that was ara+ici;ed as IG2- &E%2( H%/:)3F. It is an old t/pe o5 nti-air Cra%t. It was

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Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#

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canceled 5rom the militar/ ser.ice& so it was lost 5rom the militar/ pamphlets and dictionaries. 9onse7uentl/& new militar/ terms are created to +e used in the militar/ 5ield. 1hese militar/ terminologies could 5ace the de.elopment in the militar/ 5ield. Bor e=ample& the 0nglish e=pression& Hea)y &a"hine (uns FI5*JK9: I*'L.,9:F instead o5 Imanganee7I& 1he 0nglish e=pression& nti ir Cra%t Sam& or Shell"a &issiles I 2>5*O 1: ,M2N H%/:)3 G:&P2Q59 RS2T,9:F instead o5 the 0nglish e=pression& $iger Cat &issiles. $n the other side& the 0nglish militar/ term Sam, Shell"a M2N, 2>5*O are ara+ici;ed and used as loan words in *ra+ic. 1hus& the militar/ terms should +e e.aluated to 5ollow the suita+le progress with the new technological de.ices. 9onse7uentl/& the moderni;ation is needed 5or a lot o5 new militar/ terms& not a puri5ication o5 the old terminolog/. b. Language Revival No re.i.al procedures were ta6en e=cept uni5/ing some o5 the militar/ terms within *ra+ countries. Re.i.al procedures were in use in the *ra+ academies. 1he/ uni5ied the militar/ terms to all militar/ personnel in the *ra+ world& as *ra+ possess .arious dialects. In the 5ield o5 militar/ terminolog/& (*lsheha+ 2''9 indicates that the *ra+ )ilitar/ *cademies including institutes and pri.ate organi;ations ha.e issued pamphlets and compiled dictionaries 5or militar/ terms-the uni%ying military di"tionary issued !y *r +!raheem ,ayumy in 197'& the Se"urity (eneral o% ra!i" Language "ademy in Cairo - that are used in e.er/ arm/ across the *ra+ countries. Bor e=ample& the e=pression "om!at team has di55erent e7ui.alences in *ra+ic& in ,ordan& the *ra+ic e7ui.alence is DI-&',9: C%&LU. In Ira7& it means #72=J9: I6),EV #. In the uni5ied *ra+ic& its rendering is D72=J9: R&VWE. *nother e=ample& the 0nglish term *rone has man/ renderings in *ra+ic. In ,ordan& its rendering is D/2*X Y1.Z R&P2XU& in Ira7 DR&*[V R&P2XU 1he uni5ied rendering is D.'Z \6 1] 2*9^ I_`)V I+-&VE. *lsheha+ adds that +ecause o5 the signi5icance o5 militar/ terminolog/& e55orts were ta6en +/ militar/ e=perts to in.estigate& and when necessar/& to puri5/ the militar/ terms that are issued +/ militar/ e=perts at the *ra+ )ilitar/ $rgani;ations.. c. Language Reformation Regarding the militar/ terms& there is no need 5or this process as ,ordan depends on the 8est 5or +uilding its arm/. 1hus& the/ 5ocus on 0nglish e=pressions to deal with the names o5 these weapons. 1his re5ormation ta6es place in two stages& opposite to its original concept& as new militar/ terms are added +/ translating them into *ra+ic. 1he other stage 5allsl under the control o5 *ra+ici;ation. Bor e=ample& nti tanks $ow &issile # 01/23 G2Z2Z.59 S2T,9: 12=9:E. 1his 0nglish e=pression is added to the militar/ 5ield as a +orrowed word transliterated regarding morphological and phonological *ra+ic characters. 1he term -$ow which is a name o5 weapon is *ra+ici;ed& while the term &issile is translated into *ra+ic as #01/23U (saruukh) or Ia%bc (.athi%ah).1his weapon is 6nown as anti-tanks. d. Language Standardization * higher committee in the *cadem/ o5 ,ordan and others in the *ra+ countries organi;ed dictionaries such as Dthe -ni5/ing )ilitar/ (ictionar/E issued in 197' +/ Dthe &ilitary Committee %or /ni%ying the &ilitary $erminology, and 0the *i"tionary o% &ilitary $erminologyE written +/ &ohammad 1athi meen. 1hese dictionaries are implementing man/ militar/ terms and words collected 5rom all militar/ 5ields in the *ra+ countries. 1he militar/ terms and e=pressions e.entuall/ need to +e the same in meaning all o.er the *ra+ countries (standardi;ed & e.g.& &ission Report that means in *ra+ic II,_,9:&%&J(E& &ilitary &ission DI%&>[6 I,_VU, *e%ense Plan DII*62LS IQdU& and 1ire Plan that means #eV&9: IQdU. 1he uni5/ing meaning could ena+le personnel in the *ra+ *rmies to communicate easil/ and con5identl/& without rel/ing on loan words. e. Language Modernization Regarding militar/ terms& le=ical moderni;ation in the )ilitar/ *cadem/ in ,ordan could +e created +/ codi5/ing& where man/ new militar/ words in the academ/ are de.ised to +e re.i.ed and re5ormed to 5it new scienti5ic and technological aspects& e.g.& nti ir Cra%t Sam &issiles DG:&P2Q59 RS2T,9: M2N H%/:)3U, $iger Cat &issiles that means in *ra+ic DG2- &E%2( H%/:)3U :anguage moderni;ation in the )ilitar/ *cadem/ starts with re.i.ing& re5orming& and uni5/ing the e=isting militar/ terminolog/. Plans were setup to utili;e these terms to e=press new scienti5ic and technological militar/ terms such as $e"hnology, 2le"trote"hni"s, Radio that mean in *ra+ic I*DJ(, I*P2Z&_>9: I*DJ=9:, e>5Nf respecti.el/. 1hese militar/ terms will +e utili;ed in communication through militar/ messages. (ecision-ma6ers and e=perts in the )ilitar/ *cadem/ are in5ormed to o+ser.e and e.aluate the usage o5 new militar/ terms. 1he moderni;ation here 5or militar/ terminolog/ goes along with *ra+ici;ation as indicated +elow. Arabicization Planning Regarding the militar/ terms& the topic o5 *ra+ici;ation planning is .er/ important to +e mentioned here. Its importance deri.es when discussing language planning and terminolog/ planning in the *ra+ic culture. 8hen 5oreign militar/ terms are planned +/ decision ma6ers and speciali;ed academies to 5ind the e=act e7ui.alent in *ra+ic& the/ translate these 5oreign militar/ terms into *ra+ic. 1he/ add these e7ui.alents to the speci5ied dictionaries and pamphlets to +e used +/ militar/ personnel in all *ra+ armies. It is not eas/ to 5ind an *ra+ic e7ui.alent 5or e.er/ 5oreign term> there5ore& decision ma6ers resort to di55erent 6inds o5 coinage& or *ra+ici;ing. Bor e=ample& the pre.ious e=pression Shoulder-held Redeye ,F<=>9: 456 7),8,9: ;:.%/ 01/23F Redeye is

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ara+ci;ed as F;:.%/#. 1he 0nglish e=pression *ragon &edium ntitank &issileFG2Z2Z.59 S2T,9: Y)`:/S 01/23 D& the term *ragun could not +e translated& so it is *ra+ci;ed as *ragon Y)`:/S. $n other hand& the technological terms are transliterated& e.g.& Rotary a3is that means in *ra+ic /:1.9: /)8,9: 3is is pronounced as g[-: in +oth *ra+ic and 0nglish. *lso& the 0nglish terms 1ilter hO&V is pronounced in *ra+ic as &=5L 1he 0nglish e=pressions& $e"hnology is *ra+ici;ed as I*DJ(, 2le"trote"hni"s is *ra+ici;ed as I*P2Z&_>9: I*DJ=9:& similar to their pronunciation in 0nglish. )oreo.er& the 0nglish e=pressionn Chaparral &issile is ar+ici;ed as 7:&Z2O 01/23 Saruukh S"a ral. Terminology Planning *s indicated a+o.e& militar/ terms are treated as similar as other technical terms when the/ are planned. 1erms that are planned are altered in some wa/ (puri5ied& re5ormed& standardi;ed& re.i.ed& moderni;ed to enhance communication within and +etween *ra+ armies. )oreo.er& the planned militar/ terminolog/ in.ol.es term choice& term polic/ 5ormulation& term polic/ codi5ication& term polic/ ela+oration& term polic/ implementation& and term polic/ e.aluation. Such a code o5 militar/ terms& 5or e=ample was issued through militar/ pamphlets and uni5ied *ra+ dictionaries. *s an e=ample& old and recent terms are compiled into *ra+ic-0nglish& *ra+icBrench& and *ra+icNRussian dictionaries to accommodate the de.elopment o5 militar/ in.entions& e7uipment& and weaponr/ within this 5ield. 1erminolog/ planning within militar/ 5ield is in.estigated regarding the classi5ication o5 Faldau5 @ Aaplen (2''# as 5ollows< a.Status Term Planning Regarding militar/ terms& deli+erati.e e55orts are encouraged to in5luence the distri+ution o5 5unctional terminologies among militar/ communities. 1here5ore& coining o5 speciali;ed terms in di55erent 5unctions is an initial target 5or status planning in the militar/ 5ield. 9onse7uentl/& )ilitar/ *cadem/ in ,ordan issued speci5ied pamphlets and +oo6lets 5or militar/ terms. )ilitar/ terms are classi5ied into ta"ti"al I*>*=>=9: & legal ei)i2c & administrati)e, "ommuni"ati)e& and maintenan"e that are translated into *ra+ic as Ii2*j9:1 kI*53:)=9:1 kI%/:Sl: respecti.el/. b. Acquisition Term Planning In order to understand militar/ terms& militar/ courses are gi.en to militar/ personnel at all le.els in the militar/ academies and in their militar/ units. 1he/ are taught regarding their speci5ied +ranches at the militar/ 5ield. Bor e=ample< rtillery DI*'L.VF, ir %or"e #)E9: mnNU, +n%antry DR2oVU, rmor D p1/SU c. Cor us Term lanning 1he processes o5 corpus terminolog/ are dealt with militar/ terminolog/. 1hese processes 5ocus on coining& re5orming&Oand coding new militar/ terms. )ilitar/ terms and e=pressions 5or militar/ speci5ic purposes were ela+orated in militar/ pamphlets 5or each militar/ +ranch or 5ield. Bor e=ample< a *rtiller/ DI*'L.VE< 2le"tron gun G2i1&=>9q I'L.V, 4ui"k- %iring gun G2J5Q9: r%&N rL.V, rtillery 1iring sbc rL:.,92Z , ntiair"ra%t rtillery G:&P2Q59 RS2T,9: I*'L.,9: +. *ir 5orce #)E9: mnNU < irdrop Gnt,92Z ;)` 7:uiq , nti 5 air"ra%t G:&P2Q59 S2TV , &anned and guided air"ra%t 2*9^ I_`),9: 1 2%&oZ I_`),9: G:&P2Q9:& ir"ra%t ordnan"e G:&P2Q59 I*Z&89: G:.',9:, $a"ti"al air"ra%t R&P2X I%)+'( c. In5antr/ DR2oVU < Strategi" 6eapon eE*(:&=N: mnN& ,ear rms mn[9: v,w, Light rms Ia*ad I85N:, 6hite rm x*Zf: mn[9:. d. *rmor Fp1/S# < Hea)y $anks I5*Jy G2Z2ZS, $ank (un IZ2ZS rL.V e. 1echnolog/D2*`)9)D>(E< Radar $ransmitter G:&P2Q9: I+c:&,9 ei1&=>9: W2_` , Rotary a3is /:1.9: /)8,9:, 1ilter hO&V , $e"hnology I*DJ(, 2le"trote"hni"s I*P2Z&_>9: I*DJ=9:, Radio te"hnology e>5Nn9: I*`)9)D>( z Aecommendations and suggestions In the light o5 the discussed a+o.e& the researcher recommends the 5ollowing recommendations to +uild up students characters 5or their national lo/alt/< 1. Installing samples o5 militar/ te=ts at 0nglish te=t+oo6s 5or students at all educational stages in ,ordan. 2. ?i.ing students +asic militar/ courses to enhance their militar/ 6nowledge at the ,ordanian uni.ersities. #. *dopting an 0nglish te=t+oo6 in )ilitar/ 1ranslation 5or 0nglish language students at the ,ordanian uni.ersities. 3. *n interdisciplinar/ approach 5or militar/ translation should +e adopted within the ,ordanian 0nglish curricula. Selecting and integrating a set o5 units including di55erent t/pes o5 militar/ translation could accomplish this approach. G. 1he )ilitar/ *cadem/ in ,ordan should increase e55orts to get +etter pamphlets +/ updating militar/ terms& e=pressions& loan words and their e7ui.alents. ". 0ncouraging the cooperation +etween the ,ordanian )ilitar/ *cadem/ and ,ordanian uni.ersities. So& translation processes within the militar/ 5ield will +e impro.ed.

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1he researcher suggested the 5ollowing research< 1. 9onducting more research papers in the militar/ 5ield& dealing with translating militar/ te=ts& and the language issues that 5aced translators. 2. 9arr/ing out more research to e=amine studentsC a+ilit/ in translation 5or militar/ terms and e=pressions. #. (e.eloping militar/ tools 5or collecting data& e.g.& 7uestionnaires& content anal/sis& and tests. { |onclusion *s mentioned a+o.e& the militar/ terms are planned and ara+ci;ed through .arious stages. 1he/ are utili;ed precisel/ and con5identl/ to e=press new scienti5ic and technological ideas related to the militar/ su+Hects. In addition& using new technical terms at .arious militar/ 5ields ma6es a 5air openness to cope with di55erent +ranches in the ,ordanian *rm/. *lthough this article has not managed to deal with all scienti5ic and militar/ terms& the discussions done within the militar/ 5ield ha.e +een indicati.e and suggesti.e. 8hile there still remain /et man/ militar/ 5ields that need 5urther e=planation& I hope that this article has made at least a small contri+ution to the .ast 5ield o5 militar/ terminolog/. Aeference *l *+d *l Ha7& B. (199" . 1oward a 1heoritical Bramewor6 5or the Stud/ o5 Planning *ra+ici;ation. Paper presented to the 78th "on%eren"e on Linguisti"s, Literature $ranslation< Parmou6 -ni.ersit/. Ir+id. ,ordan. *l *+d *l Ha7& B. (19!9 . Implication o5 :anguage Planning In to *ra+ici;ation in ,ordanE. +nternational 9ournal o% +slami" and ra!i" Studies& %ol."& No.2. *l-*+ed *l-Ha7& B and *l-)asaeid& *. (2''9 .Islam and language planning in the *ra+ world<* case stud/ in ,ordan& +ranian 9ournal o% Language Studies (+9LS), :ol. 8(# & (pp. 2"7-#'2 *+ed *l-Ha7& B.& @ *l-$laimat& *. (2''# . :anguage Politics in ,ordan. In Samuel ?a/si $+eng and Fe.erl/ Hart5ord. (0ds . Politi"al +ndependen"e with Linguisti" Ser)itude; $he Politi"s a!out Language the *e)eloping 6orld& New Por6< No.a Science Pu+lishers. *l-*+ed *l-Ha7& B.& @Smadi& $. (199" . 1he Status o5 0nglish in the Aingdom o5 Saudi *ra+ia (AS* 5rom 193'-199'. In ,oshua Bishman& (0d . Post +mperial 2nglish; 7<=>-7<<> Status Change in 1ormer; ,ritish Language Planning and meri"an Colonies and Spheres o% +n%luen"e. *lsheha+& ). (2''9 . +ssues in $ranslating &ilitary $erms and $e3ts ,etween 2nglish and ra!i". -npu+lished Ph( thesis. -ni.ersit/ o5 science and technolog/& Penang& )ala/sia. Faldau5& R. F. ,.& Aaplan& R. F. (2''# . :anguage Polic/ (ecisions and Power< 8ho are the actorsL In R/an& P. ). and 1er+org& R. (eds. Language; +ssues o% +ne.uality pp.19-#7. )e=ico 9it/<-ni.ersidad Nacional *utonama de )e=ico. Fell& R. (2''" . Fallistic )issile 1hreats< N*1$ N Russia Strategi" Challenge in ?rasnaya @)e#da. A $B on 5line Li!rary Q2R& 2!- 2''". Fentahila& *. (19!# . Language ttitudes among ra! 51ren"h ,ilingualism in &oro""o. Cle)edon& 0ngland< )ultilingual )atters. 9ampell& R.& 0l-0;a+/ P.& @Harrison& 8. (1972 . 2nglish Language $ea"hing in 9ordan; Preliminary Study. 9airo< Bord Boundation 9ooper& R. (19!9 . Language Planning and So"ial Change. 9am+ridge 9am+ridge -ni.ersit/ Press. 0astman& 9. (19!# . Language Planning an +ntrodu"tion. San 1ran"is"o< 9handlerand Sharp Pu+lishers& Inc. Bishman& ,& 0d.& (1973a . *d.ances in :anguage Planning .1he Hauge< )outon.Briel& P.et.al. (1973 . *orlands illustrated medi"al di"tionary. :ondon< Saunders 9ompan/. Harrison&8.& Prator& 9.& @1u6er ?. R.(197G . 2nglish Language Poli"y; Sur)ey o% 9ordan; a Case Study in Language Planning. *rlington< 9enter 5or *pplied :inguistics. Haugen& 0. (19"9 . Language Planning, $heory and Pra"ti"e. :ondon< :ongman. ,ala+neh& ). (1991 . study in the +ssues o% &ilitary translation& *mman& (ar-*l AhawaHah. ,urnudd& F. @ (as ?upta& ,. (1971 . D1owards a 1heor/ o5 :anguage PlanningE& in ,oan Ru+in and FHorn ,urnudd& 0ds. 9an :anguage Fe PlannedL So"iolinguisti" $heory and Pra"ti"e %or *e)eloping Aations. Honolulu< 1he -ni.ersit/ Press o5 Hawaii. Aaram& B.S. (1973 . 1owards a (e5inition o5 :anguage Planning. +n d)an"es o% Language Planning& ,.*. Bishman (0d. & 1'#-123. 1he Hague< )outon Ahulousi& S. (19!2 . 1an al-$arCamma. Faghdad< (ar *l shuun al 1ha7aa5i//a al amah. Nahir& ). (19!3 . D:anguage Planning ?oals< * 9lassi5icationE. Language Pro!lems and Language Planning. !& #<293-#27. Numan& *. (19!1 . ra!i"i#ation; $heory and Pra"ti"e in ra!i"& *lgeria< 1he national compan/ 5or pu+lication

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and distri+ution. Ru+in& ,. and ,urnudd& F. 0ds.& (1971 . Can Language ,e Planned' So"iolinguisti"s $heory and Pra"ti"e %or *e)eloping Aations. Honolulu< 1he -ni.ersit/ Press o5 Hawaii. Sagr& , .9. (199' . Pra"ti"al Course in $erminology Pro"essing. *mestrdamT Philadelphia< ,ohn FenHamin. Sa/adi& ). (19!2 . D ra!i"i#ation in the ra! 6orld in *ra+ici;ation and its Role in Supporting the *ra+ 0=istence and -nit/& in *ra+ic. Feirut< 9enter o5 *ra+ -nit/ Studies. Sirles& 9. (19!G . *n 0.aluation Procedure 5or :anguage Planning< 1he 9ase o5 )orocow. /npu!lished Ph* *issertation. Norh 8estern -ni.ersit/& 0.anston- Illinois. Suleiman& P. (2''# . the ra!i" Language and Aational +dentity; a Study in +deology. 0din+urgh< 0din+urgh -ni.ersit/ Press. 1huli& %. (1973 . $he $heory o% Language Planning, in 9oshua 1ishman. 0d *d.ances in :anguage Planning. *ppendi= * No 1 2 # 3 G " 7 ! 9 1' 11 12 1# 13 1G 1" 17 1! 19 2' 21 22 2# 23 2G 2" 27 2! 29 #' #1 #2 ## #3 #G #" #7 #! #9 3' *ra+ic *irdrop ~Gnt,92Z } ;)` 7:uiq *nti - aircra5t G:&P2Q59 S2TV )anned and guided aircra5t 2*9^ I_`),9: 1 2%&oZ I_`),9: G:&P2Q9: *ircra5t ordnance G:&P2Q59 I*Z&89: G:.',9: 1actical aircra5t I%)+'( R&P2X 1an6 ?un IZ2ZS rL.V 0lectron gun G2i1&=>9q I'L.V ?un rL.V Fear *rms mn[9: v,w Hea./ 1an6s I5*Jy G2Z2ZS :ight *rms Ia*ad I85N: Rotar/ wing aircra5t /:1.9: m2DE9: R&P2X 8hite *rm x*Zf: mn[9: 1echnolog/ I*DJ( 0lectrotechnics I*P2Z&_>9: I*DJ=9: Radio technolog/ e>5Nf 2*`)9)D>( )ission I,_V )ission *ccomplished I,_,9: GuEi] )ission *nal/sis I,_,9: v*58( )ission Report I,_,9: &%&J( )ilitar/ )ission I%&>[6 I,_V (rone .'Z \6 1] 2*9^ I_`)V I+-&V (e5ense plan I*62LS IQd Rotar/ a=is /:1.9: /)8,9: Radar 1ransmitter ;/:S:/ )>[5( Radar I6&[9:1 G:&P2Q9: I+c:&,9 ei1&=>9: W2_` Bilter hO&V Rotar/ disc /:1S &c *rtiller/ Biring rL:.,92Z sbc *ntiaircra5t *rtiller/ G:&P2Q59 RS2T,9: I*'L.,9: *nti-*ir 9ra5t Shellca )issiles G:&P2Q59 RS2T,9: 2>5*O H%/:)3 *nti-*ir 9ra5t Sam )issiles G:&P2Q59 RS2T,9: M2N H%/:)3 1iger 9at )issiles G2- &E%2( H%/:)3 Shoulder-held Rede/e <=>9: 456 7),8V 01/23 9om+at team 72=J9: C%&L *rtiller/ I*'L.V *rmor p1/S *ir 5orce )E9: mnN In5antr/ R2oV (ragon )edium *ntitan6 )issile G2Z2Z.59 S2T,9: Y)`:/S 01/23 )ilitar/ 0=pressions +etween 0nglish-*ra+ic 0nglish

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Appendi A nglish and Arabic letters 0nglish *ra+ic a U V + W t X 1h Y H Z H [ 6h \ d ] th ^ r _ ; ` s a sh b S c dh d 1 e f g aK h gh i 5 j 7 k 6 l l m m n n o h p w q / r s tu t-h uvw xeyz{| uv} ~

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