Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.

22& 2'13

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The Importance of Differentiation in Supporting Diverse Learners
Iranda)a*ra+i ,anguage -enter Sout. East European /ni0ersit1 P# )o2 Ilindens3a n.335 12'' 4eto0o& 5acedonia E-+ail6 i.7a*ra+i8seeu.edu.+3 Abstract ,i0ing in t.is c.anging world t.at re9uires fre9uent adaptations .as affected +ost classroo+s& w.ic. consist of students wit. different 7ac3grounds& preferences& learning st1les and different language proficiencies. Su7se9uentl1& teac.ers are faced wit. a c.allenge of +eeting e0er1 indi0idual student:s needs and 7eing a7le to acco+plis. t.at tas3 re9uires +ore t.an *ust deli0ering a lecture. 4.e solution to answering learners: needs is appl1ing differentiation in +i2ed-a7ilit1 classes w.ere t.e teac.er would 7e conscious of t.e di0ersit1 of learners and c.oose carefull1 t.e t1pes of acti0ities and +aterials t.at would 7e +ost engaging for t.e+. ;s 4o+lison (2''1 cited in <all& Strang+an& = 5e1er& 2''3 states& differentiated instruction (>I is a teac.ing t.eor1 7ased on t.e pre+ise t.at instructional approac.es s.ould 0ar1 and 7e adapted in relation to indi0idual and di0erse learners in classroo+s. ;lt.oug. appl1ing >I is crucial for e0er1 su7*ect& t.e focus of t.is paper is on appl1ing >I in Englis. as a ?oreign ,anguage (E?, classes. 4.e 3e1 findings fro+ t.e literature re0iew t.at +a3e t.e application of differentiation essential in E?, classes will 7e pro0ided. 4.e findings will 7e targeting t.e reasons for appl1ing >I& its .uge i+portance for eit.er +ore proficient or less proficient students& strategies used for >I& suita7le acti0ities t.at can 7e used in +i2ed a7ilit1 classes and t.e +ain features of a differentiated lesson. E0entuall1& t.e ai+ of t.is paper is to pro0ide researc. 7ased responses to t.e issue of .a0ing di0erse learners in t.e sa+e class. 4.erefore& it is ine0ita7le t.at lecturers appl1 differentiation& w.ic. regardless of its usefulness& is still considered an un3nown field a+ong local lecturers and researc.ers. Keywords: >ifferentiated instruction& 5i2ed-a7ilit1& E?, classes& >i0erse learners 1. Introduction 4eac.ing in +odern classroo+s consisting of great di0ersit1 of students entails teac.ers not onl1 using +ore ad0anced +et.ods of teac.ing and tec.nologies to adapt to t.e re9uire+ents of a new era& 7ut also ad*usting to t.e di0ersit1 of students t.at are an ine0ita7le part of toda1:s classroo+s. >ifferentiation puts t.e focus on learners and it is a learner centered approac. t.at is ai+ed to .elp students succeed regardless of t.e differences. In order to reac. e0er1 student in t.e classroo+& t.e teac.er s.ould alwa1s .a0e students: di0ersit1 in +ind& starting fro+ t.e planning stage to designing acti0ities to 7e used in t.e classroo+ and t.e teac.ing process and t.eir assess+ent. ;ccording to 4o+linson et al.& 2''3 (cited in Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11& p.! & @students will engage +ore full1 wit. learning and will learn +ore ro7ustl1 w.en teac.ers proacti0el1 plan wit. t.eir differences A as well as t.eir si+ilaritiesB. 4.erefore& t.e @one siCe fits allB approac. is not applica7le in toda1:s classroo+s consisting of a +i2ture of students& w.ose needs cannot 7e satisfied wit. a few co++onl1 used resources. In order to understand +ore clearl1 t.e +ain ai+ of differentiation& it is of 0ital i+portance to understand w.at it reall1 +eans to differentiate instructions. 4.us& t.e full definition of >I is t.at @a teac.er proacti0el1 plans 0aried approac.es to w.at students need to learn& .ow t.e1 will learn it andDor .ow t.e1 can e2press w.at t.e1 .a0e learnedB (4o+linson& 2'1'& p. 155 . In t.is paper t.e focus will 7e on t.e Englis. as a ?oreign ,anguage (E?, classes and t.e application of >ifferentiated Instruction (>I in suc. classes. 4.e i+portance of appl1ing >I is un9uestiona7le for all ot.er su7*ects& 7ut in E?, classes not onl1 can students 7e found wit. different 3inds of needs& 7ut t.e 0ariance 7eco+es e0en 7igger 7ecause of t.eir different Englis. proficiencies. ;lt.oug. it is e2pected t.at language students w.o are grouped in t.e sa+e classroo+ s.ould .a0e t.e sa+e le0el of Englis. proficienc1& it is a co++on issue t.at ulti+atel1 t.ose classroo+s are again consisting of E.eterogeneous: groups rat.er t.an t.e E.o+ogeneous: groups teac.ers .a0e planned t.eir lessons for. 4.erefore& students are addressed as a group and not as t.e uni9ue indi0iduals t.e1 genuinel1 are. 4.e paper will co0er aspects of t.e literature re0iew fro+ a researc.-7ased perspecti0e and w.at respecti0e sc.olars .a0e disco0ered a7out t.e i+portance of >I and its application in t.e E?, classroo+s. ;lt.oug. >I is a well researc.ed topic a+ong +an1 sc.olars worldwide& it is still not well 3nown for local sc.olars and lecturersF t.us t.is paper will stri0e to pro0ide essential infor+ation a7out t.e i+portance of >I and its application in t.e classroo+& as well as offer useful conclusions and reco++endations for teac.ers and researc.ers. . The Aim of paper 2.1. Description of a problem with diversity Percei0ing differentiation as a 0er1 useful and ine0ita7le approac. in e0er1 da1 teac.ing& t.is paper ai+s to 1%(

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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pro0ide necessar1 infor+ation a7out its i+portance& usefulness and application in t.e E?, classroo+. ,anguage classes usuall1 consist of +i2ed le0el and +i2ed- a7ilit1 students t.at are grouped in one classroo+ despite t.eir differences. >I tries to pro0ide a solution to t.is issue wit.out +a3ing it e0en +ore difficult for teac.ers& .elping t.e+ teac. @differentl1& s+arter& Anot .arderB (Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11& p.3 . Since in t.is c.anging world it see+s 0er1 difficult to .a0e .o+ogeneous groups in one classroo+& a need .as arisen to sol0e t.e issue t.roug. differentiation. In order to reac. e0er1 single student in t.e class and +eet t.e di0erse needs of t.ose students& 0arious learning opportunities s.ould 7e offered. 2.2. Solutions to the problem 4.is paper will offer solutions to t.e uncertaint1 t.at e2ists a+ong teac.ers in dealing wit. di0erse students. 4.is will 7e done in a wa1 t.at does not re9uire re-sc.eduling students& 7ut 3eeping +i2ed-le0el students in t.e sa+e class w.ile .elping 7ot. wea3er and stronger students. 5oreo0er& t.e teac.er can aid t.ose students w.o are 7e.ind 7ecause t.e1 do not .a0e sufficient 7ac3ground infor+ation. 4.e teac.er can encourage t.ose students to @+o0e 7ot. 7ac3ward and forward wit. essential contentB& w.ereas wit. +ore proficient students w.o alread1 .a0e ade9uate 3nowledge a7out t.e topic& t.e teac.er can .elp t.e+ @+o0e 7e1ond current learning e2pectations so t.at growt. will continueB (Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11& p.! . ;s a result& >I pro0ides solutions for all t.e sides in0ol0ed in t.e learning A teac.ing process in order to ac.ie0e success and it puts a focus on di0iding t.e duties a+ong t.e learner and teac.er 7ecause @t.e 7rain t.at does t.e wor3 is t.e 7rain t.at learnsB (Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11& p.3 . !. "easons for App#ying DI and its Importance ;lt.oug. >I is 0er1 useful and supporting di0erse learners in t.e classroo+ is essential& an ulti+ate solution to di0ersit1 can ne0er 7e found 7ecause it is 7eco+ing +ore and +ore present& and as Griffin t.e 4eac.er of t.e Hear in t.e /nited States (1((5& cited in Iic.ardson& 5organ& ?leener& 2'12 & sa1s @4.ere will ne0er 7e a single solution t.at will 7e a perfect fit for our di0erse societ1. >on:t wis. for a unilateral answer to our educational dile++as. Instead& we s.ould wor3 toward partners.ip of fa+ilies& co++unities& and educators w.o will en*o1 t.e process of pro7le+ sol0ingB (p.317 . 3.1. Learners’ Diverse Needs 5oreo0er& it is unnecessar1 to loo3 for +ore reasons t.at di0ersit1 e2ists and t.at its application is a re9uire+ent 7ecause e0er1 lecturer is faced wit. di0ersit1 on a dail1 7asis. <all:s (2''( co+parison of a classroo+ wit. a 7us station is a 0er1 accurate association 7ecause in t.e classroo+ @student passengers arri0e fro+ a +ontage of 7ac3grounds wit. 0er1 different needsB (p. 1 and as a guide t.e teac.er is t.e one w.o s.ould direct t.e+ according to learners: indi0idual needs. 4.e lecturer:s failure in recogniCing and dealing effecti0el1 wit. learners: di0ersit1 will result in t.e learners: failure& w.ic. will not onl1 .inder t.e+ to succeed 7ut e0en force t.e+ to go 7ac3wards. 3.2. DI and Students’ Learnin ?urt.er+ore& >I is i+portant and crucial 7ecause it is directl1 lin3ed to students: learning. ;ccording to 7rain researc.& if t.e tas3s are too difficult for t.e learner t.an t.e @7rain Edowns.ifts: to t.e li+7ic area t.at does not t.in3B w.ereas if t.e learners are pro0ided wit. tas3s t.at are eas1 for t.e+ t.an t.e1 @do not s.ow t.oug.tful 7rain acti0it1B (4o+linson&2''1& p.15J . -onse9uentl1& w.at is suggested 71 sc.olars is t.at @onl1 w.en tas3s are +oderatel1 c.allenging for an indi0idual does t.e 7rain Et.in3: in a wa1 t.at pro+pts learningB (4o+linson& 2''1& p.15J . 4.erefore& teac.ers wit. t.e .elp of >I can support di0erse students: learning 71 adapting t.e teac.ing +aterials to t.e students: le0el of t.in3ing and understanding. 4eac.ers s.ould wor3 initiall1 on understanding t.e distincti0eness of e0er1 student and plan t.e lessons accordingl1. $. Key %eatures of DI In order to differentiate effecti0el1& t.e teac.er s.ould differentiate instructions according to t.e +odel 71 4o+linson t.at focuses on four classroo+ ele+ents. ;ccording to t.e E5odel of >ifferentiation: 71 4o+linson (1(((& 2''1& 2''3 cited in Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11 t.e teac.er can +odif1 @content (w.at students will learn or .ow t.e1 will gain access to w.at t.e1 are as3ed to learn & process (acti0ities t.roug. w.ic. students +a3e sense of or Eco+e to ownF essential content & product (.ow students de+onstrate w.at t.e1 3now& understand& and can do after e2tended period of learning & and affect (attention to students: feelings and e+otional needs B (pp. 12-13 . >ifferentiation of t.ese four ele+ents in t.e classroo+ s.ould 7e done in line wit. t.e students: @readiness& interest and learning profileB (Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11& p.13 in order to +a2i+iCe t.e learners: success and

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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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ac.ie0e+ent. 4.e notion of Ereadiness: +eans t.at t.e @difficult1 of s3ills taug.t s.ould 7e slig.tl1 in ad0ance of t.e c.ildKs current le0el of +aster1B (<all& Strang+an& 5a1er& 2''3 . 4.is t.eor1 is 7ased on t.e wor3 of ,e0 $1gots31 (1(7! & and t.e Cone of pro2i+al de0elop+ent (LP> . Student Einterest: +eans ta3ing into consideration w.at topics are of interest for eac. indi0idual student and Elearning profile: .as to do wit. students: st1le of learning. If all t.e 3e1 features of >I are applied carefull1& t.e1 can ensure t.at t.e learning will ta3e place in a di0erse classroo+. Introduction and application of >I in t.e classroo+ supports di0erse learners and en.ances t.eir learning in a wa1 t.at it +odifies all t.e stages of a lesson according to students: needs and t.eir indi0idual preferences. 4a3ing into consideration t.e uni9ueness of eac. student will 7e e0en +ore sti+ulating and +oti0ating for t.e+. <owe0er& teac.ers s.ould not fall into t.e trap of t.e co++onl1 .eld +isconception t.at 7eing a7le to +eet students: di0erse needs and learning st1les re9uires preparing specific +odes for teac.ing e0er1 single notion. -onse9uentl1& @differentiation can 7e acco+plis.ed in s+all and su7tle wa1s using student interests& cultural 7ac3grounds& fle2i7le grouping& 0isual and tactile e2periences& and peer discussion t.at fit naturall1 into a lessonB ( Melle1 = -lausen-Grace& 2''( cited in Iic.ardson& 5organ& ?leener& 2'12& p.3%2 . &. DI Lesson '#an and Differentiated Tas(s In different su7*ects t.ere are different reasons for differentiation according to t.e nature of di0ersit1 and students: needs and t.e teac.er is t.e one w.o is responsi7le for recogniCing t.e e2isting di0ersit1 and planning t.e lesson accordingl1. 5oreo0er& @t.e intent of differentiating instruction is to +a2i+iCe eac. studentKs growt. and indi0idual success 71 +eeting eac. student w.ere .e or s.e is and assisting in t.e learning process.B (<all& Strang+an& 5a1er& 2''3 . #nl1 if t.e teac.er .as a clear idea a7out students: needs can a solution 7e found. Si+ilarl1& if a doctor diagnoses a patient carefull1 an appropriate cure and treat+ent can 7e gi0enF ot.erwise& if t.e ail+ent is not diagnosed accuratel1& w.ate0er is done is wort.less since not.ing will .a0e an effect. In language classroo+s +an1 issues .a0e an influence on student learning. ;part fro+ differentiating instructions in +an1 fields and areas suc. as @differentiating learning st1le& language proficienc1& 7ac3ground 3nowledge& readiness to learnB (Nilloug.71& 2''5 & in a language classroo+ all four language s3ills can 7e differentiated in order to ensure t.at students: needs will 7e satisfactoril1 +et. 5urra1 (1(!5 cited in Spandel& 2''1 indicates t.e i+portance of differentiating writing s3ills 71 stating @we don:t teac. writing effecti0el1 if we tr1 to +a3e all students and all writing t.e sa+eB (p. 271 . Students are all different and e0en indi0idual students c.ange t.eir own preferences and interests wit. ti+e. 5oreo0er& 5urra1 adds t.at @we +ust see3& nurture& de0elop and reward differenceB (p.271 . #t.er sc.olars indicate +eeting students: di0erse needs in reading s3ills (Iic.ardson& 5organ& ?leener& 2'12 . ;lso& it is of a crucial i+portance t.at teac.ers in Englis. language classes learn a7out students: language and cultural differences& so t.e1 can @pro0ide instruction t.at encourages acceptance of nati0e languages and cultures w.ile facilitating t.e learning of Englis.B (;u& 2''1F 5o.r& 2''% cited in Iic.ardson& 5organ& ?leener& 2'12& p.333 . !.1. Lesson "lan N.en all t.e prere9uisites are +et and w.en t.e teac.er is aware of t.e co+position of t.e students in a particular classroo+& t.en t.e ne2t step is designing a differentiated lesson plan& w.ic. is a 0ital ele+ent in di0erse classroo+s. 4.e +odel presented 7elow of a differentiated lesson plan for a language classroo+ ta3es into account specific student profiles and differentiates for different learner needs. In a >I lesson plan t.e content is t.e sa+e for all learners& 7ut *ust t.e wa1 it is presented for students is different. @>I does not c.ange w.at is taug.tF it c.anges .ow it is taug.tB (<all& 2''(& p. 1 . >ifferentiated lesson plan incorporates 3e1 ele+ents of >I t.at are content (N.at is taug.tO & process (<ow is it taug.tO and product (e0aluation . In a >I lesson plan it is re9uired t.at t.e di0ersit1 in assign+ents and products allow students to wor3 at t.eir own le0el of c.allenge and ac.ie0e t.eir own le0els of success. >ifferentiation is not a7out creating indi0idualiCed lesson plans for eac. indi0idual student& rat.er it .elps support di0ersit1 wit.in a single plan. In order to .elp students learn at t.eir own pace& students can 7e di0ided in groups according to t.eir le0el of Englis. proficienc1 suc. as ad0anced& inter+ediate and 7asic group. )1 following t.e steps of a >I lesson plan and t.e principles of >I& at t.e end of a lesson all t.e students will arri0e at t.e concept t.at t.e teac.er wants to teac. 71 following t.eir own wa1s of learning. Effecti0e learning and teac.ing will 7e possi7le& 71 .a0ing t.e student in t.e center. @4.roug. differentiation co+7ined wit. curriculu+ la1ering& teac.ers can create a student-centered classroo+ t.at is supporti0e to eac. student 71 pro0iding c.oice and i++ediate feed7ac3 in a wide 0ariet1 of acti0ities and assess+entsB ()eac.& 2'1' . Students can 7e aided in t.e learning process if t.e focus is on t.eir le0el of 3nowledge& rat.er t.an on t.e teac.er:s insistence on teac.ing t.e+ according to t.e e2pected le0el. )1 offering different opportunities to students& e0er1one can find t.eir own pat. and will not 7e lost in an un3nown en0iron+ent t.at does not suit t.eir needs& le0el of 3nowledge or interests.

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Differentiated Lesson '#an %ormat 4itle of 4itle t.at indicated t.e topicDsu7*ectDconte2t of t.e lesson ,esson )1 Student Profile ,earning profile -lass Profile 4arget ,anguage 4arget -ontent #7*ecti0es Hour na+e& cit1& countr1 Hour student:s age& grade& proficienc1 le0el ,earning st1le6 0isual& auditor1& tactile& 3inest.etic -lass siCe and duration ,ist t.e target language structures (i.e. target gra++ar& structures and 0oca7ular1

,ist t.e su7*ect area or cultural content t.at students will learn t.roug. Englis.& and indicate w.ic. language s3ills t.is lesson will focus on 7uilding6 listening& spea3ing& reading& or writing. ,ist t.e o7*ecti0es t.at students s.ould +eet 71 t.e end of t.e lesson. Start wit. @)1 t.e end of t.e lesson& students willDs.ould 7e a7le toP.B -onsider process as well as content goals and o7*ecti0es. Process6 @Participate in situational role pla1sB @-ontri7ute orall1 to classroo+ and group discussionsB& @4o listen effecti0el1 in .ig.-content situations.B -ontent6 Iefer to )loo+:s 4a2ono+1 5aterials ,ist e0er1t.ing t.e teac.er needs to i+ple+ent t.e lesson. Source Nrite down t.e source of t.e te2t or +aterials 7eing used. Procedures >escri7e t.e 0arious stepsDtas3s in t.e acti0it1. Ne2t to eac. step or tas3& please indicate t.e appro2i+ate lengt. of ti+e for t.at acti0it1 . Nar+-up >escription of pre-listening or pre-reading acti0ities t.at prepare students for t.e listening or reading input. Presentation >escription of .ow t.e teac.er will gi0e listening or reading input& c.ec3 co+pre.ension of input& 7uild listening or reading s3ills& @teac.: target language structures. In t.is part& t.e teac.er s.ould present t.e target language structures wit.in a +eaningfulDco++unicati0e conte2t. Practice >escription of post-listening or post-reading acti0ities w.ic. can 7e eit.er spea3ing or writing acti0ities. 4.ese acti0ities s.ould 7e focused on practicing t.e target language structures in conte2t. E0aluation >escription of .ow t.e teac.er will assess if students .a0e +et t.e stated o7*ecti0es for t.e lesson. It could 7e anot.er acti0it1& or it could 7e a description of .ow t.e teac.er s.ould assess if t.e o7*ecti0es are +et during t.e presentation and practice steps. ?ollow-up >escription of follow-up acti0it1& suc. as .o+ewor3. It s.ould practice t.e target language structures in t.is lesson andDor connect to t.e ne2t lesson in t.e unit. 4.is section s.ould .a0e so+e e2planation of t.e connection of t.is lesson to t.e ne2t lesson. )ote 1: A## activities fo##ow best practices in T*S+L )ote : 'lease indicate t.e appro2i+ate lengt. of ti+e for eac. acti0it1 in 1our lesson. ,omments-"ef#ection (;dapted fro+6 $alais = <addawa1& 2'1' - >ifferentiated ,esson Plan ?or+at .andoutF 5et.ods -ourse I6 Sur0e1 of )est Practices in 4ES#, !.2. #as$s In an atte+pt to get t.e 7est out of students& t.e >I lesson plan is acco+panied wit. differentiated tas3s. So+e tas3s t.at are used in a differentiated curriculu+ are t.e ones suggested 71 )owler = Par+inter (2''2 and are called Etiered tas3s: and E7ias tas3s:. ;s stated 71 t.e+& if t.ere is a @long& co+ple2 te2t Qt.enR a si+ple tas3 +a3es t.e listening or reading ac.ie0a7le for wea3er students. Nit. a s.orter& si+pler te2t& t.e tas3 can 7e +ore de+andingB ()owler = Par+inter& 2''2& p.5( . ;ccording to t.is principle& t.e tas3s in t.e course 7oo3s s.ould 7e adapted and +odified to 7e suita7le for +i2ed-le0el students in t.e classroo+. ;dditionall1& Sousa = 4o+linson (2'11 & +ention ot.er tas3s for differentiation suc. as Elearning contracts:& w.ic. are t.e strategies t.at incorporate learner readiness. @-ontracts are .elpful to t.e teac.er 7ecause t.e1 allow practice targeted at student:s needsB (p.1'1 . Si+ilar to )owler = Par+inter:s tas3s& Sousa = 4o+linson suggest Etiering: tas3s w.ic. allow @all students to wor3 wit. t.e sa+e content 7ut at a degree of difficult1 t.at pro0ides an appropriate le0el of c.allengeB (p.1'2 . ?urt.er+ore& t.e1 also +ention acti0ities for @differentiating content& process& and product 7ased on student interestB (p.13% . So+e acti0ities of differentiation for eac. categor1 include6 >ifferentiating -ontent )ased on Interest 152

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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- /se conte+porar1 +edia as resources for teac.ing. - Pro0ide free reading +aterial on a wide range of topics. >ifferentiating Process )ased on Interest - /se interest centers designed around topics wit.in a unit t.at are of special interest to students. - /se si+ulations t.at are rele0ant to t.e essential content and allow students to pla1 roles and address pro7le+s or issues t.at are of particular interest to t.e+. >ifferentiating Product )ased on Interest - Ena7le students to use conte+porar1 +edia as tools to de+onstrate 3nowledge& understanding& and s3ills. (Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11& pp.13%-135 In addition& Sousa = 4o+linson (2'11 pro0ide differentiation wit. @s1nt.esis groups and t.in3ing capsB& strategies w.ose o7*ecti0e is @to focus students on +eaning& understanding and pro7le+ sol0ingB (pp.15J -157 . S1nt.esis groups acti0ities let students @focus on t.e 7ig picture or +a*or conceptual sc.e+e t.at is e+erging rat.er t.an on factual details and isolated dataB (Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11& p.157 . #n t.e ot.er .and& in t.in3ing caps acti0ities @students consider a pro7le+ or issue t.at is open endedB (p. 15! . ;s a result& w.en planning a lesson a teac.er s.ould .a0e in +ind all t.ree aspects t.at +a3e a successful lesson including readiness& interest and learning profile and insist on incorporating at least two of t.e ele+ents if not all in a single lesson (Sousa = 4o+linson& 2'11 . ;lso& according to t.e ai+s of t.e lesson& t.e decision a7out t.e t1pes of t.e acti0ities used can 7e +ade& w.ic. s.ould 7e 0arious in order to +eet t.e needs of t.e di0ersit1 e2isting in t.e classroo+. .. ,onc#usions and Suggestions Since al+ost all classroo+s consist of di0erse students& it is a necessit1 for teac.ers to support t.at di0ersit1 in order for t.e learning to ta3e place. 4.e first step in .elping t.ose students learn is to educate teac.ers a7out differentiation as an approac. w.ic. is @a teac.ing t.eor1 7ased on t.e pre+ise t.at instructional approac.es s.ould 0ar1 and 7e adapted in relation to indi0idual and di0erse students in classroo+sB (4o+linson& 2''1 cited in <all& Strang+an = 5e1er& 2''3 . 4.en awareness raising of t.e i+portance and 3e1 features of differentiation will .opefull1 result in its application in E?, and ot.er classroo+s wit. di0erse students. If teac.ers are +ade conscious t.at students will not learn if t.e tas3s used are eit.er too difficult or too eas1 for t.e+& t.e1 will tr1 .arder to create and adapt acti0ities t.at will suit t.eir le0el of language proficienc1& as well as t.eir preferences& needs and learning st1les. 4.e Eteac.ing to t.e +iddle: approac. is no longer applica7le in +odern classroo+s wit. a 0ariet1 of students. Instead& designing a differentiated lesson plan will .elp reac. e0er1 single student in t.e classroo+. ?ocusing on t.e 3e1 features of differentiation& w.ic. are content& process and product will .elp teac.ers find wa1s to plan e0er1 stage of t.e lesson 71 .a0ing in +ind w.at to learn& .ow to learn and t.e e0aluation of w.at .as 7een learned 71 using different le0els of c.allenge for eac. categor1 of students. $arious differentiated tas3s and acti0ities& w.ic. are pro0ided 71 +an1 sc.olars also pla1 a 7ig role in t.e planning process of a differentiated lesson and in t.e teac.ing process itself w.en t.ose tas3s are applied according to t.e ai+s of t.e lesson& t.e students: le0el of understanding and t.eir interests. ;lt.oug. researc. conducted on differentiation is a+ple& it is still not sufficient and is e0en considered an un3nown field a+ong local researc.ers and teac.ers& t.us it is suggested t.at +ore focus is put on t.is approac.. 4.e urgenc1 to get fa+iliar wit. >I and appl1 it in t.e classroo+ 7eco+es e0en +ore i++ediate 7ecause in +an1 classroo+s di0ersit1 is o70ious& and 7ecause of t.e uncertaint1 of .ow to deal wit. it& it is neglected. ,ac3 of 3nowledge a7out differentiation is not a *ustification for not appl1ing it 7ecause students: di0erse needs are e0ident and t.e1 s.ould 7e +et& so t.ere is not an1 ot.er solution t.an to +odif1 t.e curricula& adapt t.e te2t7oo3s& and create an en0iron+ent w.ic. will +a2i+iCe students: acade+ic success and prepare t.e+ for t.e future. "eferences )eac.& 4.;. (2'1' . -o+7ining 5et.odologies in >ifferentiated Instruction in t.e <eterogeneous -lassroo+. S%&S' (ournal)1*. Ietrie0ed ;pril 2'13 fro+ .ttp6DDwww.sc+sa.orgDfilesDJournalD2''(2'1'D)eac.S0olS20ii.pdf )owler& ;. = Par+inter& S. (2''2 . 5i2ed-le0el teac.ing6 4iered tas3s and 7ias tas3s. In J. -. Iic.ards = N. ;. Ienand1 (Eds. & &ethodolo y in lan ua e teachin + 'n anthropolo y of current practice (pp. 5(-J3 . New Hor3& NH6 -a+7ridge /ni0ersit1 Press. <all& ). (2''( . Differentiated instruction+ reachin all students. Ietrie0ed ;pril& 2'13 fro+6 .ttp6DDassets.pearsonsc.ool.co+DassetS+grDcurrentD2'1'(D>ifferentiatedSInstruction.pdf<all& 4.& Strang+an& N.& = 5e1er& ;. (2''3 . Differentiated instruction and implications for ,DL implementation. Na3efield& 5;6 National -enter on ;ccessing t.e General -urriculu+. Ietrie0ed Januar1& 2'12 fro+ .ttp6DDai+.cast.orgDlearnD.istor1arc.i0eD7ac3groundpapersDdifferentiatedSinstructionSu dl Iic.ardson& J.

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S.& 5organ& I. ?. = ?leener& -. (2'12& !t. ed . Ieading to learn in t.e -ontent areas. )el+ont& -;6 Nadswort.DI4P. Sousa& >.& 4o+linson& -.;. (2'11 . Differentiation and the -rain. )loo+ington& IN6 Solution 4ree Press. Spandel& $. (2''1& 3rd ed . -reating writers6 t.roug. J-trait writing assess+ent and instruction. ;ddison Nesle1 ,ong+an& /S;. 4o+linson& -. ;.(2'1'& (t. ed .>ifferentiating Instruction for ;cade+ic >i0ersit1. In -ooper. J.5. (Ed . %lassroom #eachin S$ills. (p.15J . )el+ont& /S;6 -engage ,earning $alais& 4.& = <addawa1& -. (2'1' . >ifferentiated ,esson Plan Instructions. &ethods %ourse I+ Survey of -est "ractices+ E-4eac.er Sc.olars.ip Progra+ Nilloug.71& J. (2''5 . Su7*ect - Specific Iesources. Ietrie0ed ;pril& 2'13 fro+ .ttp6DDwww.glencoe.co+DsecDteac.ingtoda1Dsu7*ectDdiS+eeting.p.t+l

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