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The Relationship between Christianity, Education, Culture and Religion in Kenya since Political Independence in 1963
)heuri *.*.& ++.& Ph+ bstract )he ,i,le in the ,oo- o. /e0iticus tells that a nation should and ought to .ind its place in e0er1 .i.t1 1ears& the 2u,ilee3or the 1ear o. the /ord4s .a0our. )his article is an anal1sis o. the role pla1ed ,1 education& religion and culture in molding the people o. 5en1a since her political independence in 19"#. It will e0aluate and assess the contri,ution made in li,erating the people o. 5en1a .rom colonialism or 6uropean domination. )he article shows how .ormal education in 5en1a has contri,uted to political li,eration and cultural disad0antages. )he themes within this article are treated in .our sections7 (1 the place o. 8.rican culture and religion in 5en1a (2 the in.luence o. 9hristianit1 on the 5en1an people: (# the place o. education and national integration o. a people: (; )he li,erated 5en1an and the ,e1ond. )he dialectic ,etween the li,erating and the imitati0e conse<uences o. education in 5en1a is one o. the central themes which dri0e the 8.rican people to claim their identit1 in the contemporar1 world o. democratic principles and practices. )he author traces the in.luence o. missionar1 education and secular colonial training on the assimilated class. 8lso the characteristics o. the 8.rican cultures are anal1=ed in light o. religion and de0elopment. Hence this article pro0ides an insight into the state o. educational de0elopment in 5en1a and the role o. 9hristianit1& religion and culture in narrowing the -nowledge di0ide. It documents the progress made in educational de0elopment& while re0ealing the challenges .aced. )he article .urther pro0ides an o0er0iew o. the historical and economic conte>t& social .actors& and the organi=ation and state o. education. 9riticall1 discussed are the interpla1 aspects that e>ist ,etween 9hristianit1& 6ducation& 9ulture and Religion in 5en1a since Independence in 19"#. ?hile the conte>t is 5en1an& the strategies discussed are applica,le to other 8.rican countries with similar challenges. Keywords! 9hristianit1& 6ducation .or de0elopment& Religion and 9ulture. 8@)H$R7 )heuri *.*.& is a trained theologian cum philosopher and holds S)A (@r,aniana @ni0ersit1& Rome & *8 and Ph+ (+u<uesne @ni0ersit1& Pitts,urgh& Penns1l0ania respecti0el1. Bor o0er eighteen 1ears )heuri was a pro.essor o. philosoph1 and education ps1cholog1 at 6gerton @ni0ersit1. He lectures in philosoph1& leadership and strategic management at +edan 5imathi @ni0ersit1 o. )echnolog1. He also holds an honorar1 +octor o. +i0init1 .rom the 6cumenical 9atholic 9hurch ?orld ?ide (+etroit& *ichigan . 1"1 # CK$R%&'( I')%R* TI%' )he modern idea o. de0eloping 8.rica essentiall1 dates to the 1ears a.ter most states had ,een coloni=ed ,1 some 6uropean nations in the nineteenth centur1. Brom the start& ideas a,out de0elopment generall1 o0erloo-ed the role o. religion& or assumed that religion would ,e relegated to a matter o. pri0ate ,elie. in 8.rica as secular states gained strength and con.idence& or e0en saw religion as an o,stacle to de0elopment. Cet it is now apparent that religion is a growing .orce in pu,lic li.e in 8.rica& as in man1 other parts o. the world: it has had great in.luence on the entire human race. Hence spiritualit1 and de0elopment are intertwined and the1 ,oth contri,ute to all le0els o. human de0elopment. )he gods whether .rom a 9hristian perspecti0e or .rom other religions& are part and parcel o. human e>istence without which de0elopment in an1 part o. the glo,e would ha0e ,een a metaph1sical term. )he spiritual world cannot ,e concei0ed independentl1 o. the material world. )hose o. us who are well trained in s1stematic theolog1 can attest to the .act that the 0ertical dimension o. an1 religion would ,e 0oid i. the hori=ontal le0el is not ,rought into pla1. Hence one cannot di0orce religion .rom all le0els o. human de0elopment. ?ith the largest world4s population pro.essing religious ,elie.s in 8.rica& holding such ,elie. must ,e considered as a common human characteristic that in.luences and a..ects most o. the human acti0ities. *oreo0er& religious ,elie. is rele0ant to ,oth social and pri0ate realms and has had great impact on human de0elopment since time immemorial. Religious ,elie. s1stems pro0ide a meaning .or human e>istence through which adherents interpret their own circumstances and ma-e decisions on how to act and interact in wider societ1. )he 0alues and attitudes associated with religious ,elie.s within di..erent nations o. the world& there.ore& a..ect ,oth pu,lic polic1 settings as well as social ,eha0iors. )hese 0alues and attitudes ma-e de0elopment to ha0e realistic and modern meaning otherwise religion would ha0e ,een meaningless or as 5arl *ar> the .ather o. communism put it Dan opiate o. the massesE or e0en Dhope .or the hopelessE and Dheart o. the heartlessE ( See 5arl *ar> *ani.esto . )hroughout its earl1 1ears o. independence& 8.rica4s concept o. de0elopment was largel1 concei0ed o. in economic terms primaril1& in other words as economic de0elopment. It is onl1 recentl1 that the concept has come into its real meaning thus incorporating and emphasi=ing all aspects o. peopleFs li0es that go ,e1ond the

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economic dimension& such as health& en0ironment and education (6la& 19!9 . )hough a .oreign concept to the people o. 8.rica& 9hristianit1 has had great in.luence on the people4s ,elie. s1stem& education and culture. )ogether with other religions& 9hristianit1 has there.ore molded the wa1 the 8.rican people thin- and reason. )his has ,een as a result o. the impact these religions ha0e had on education& li.est1le as well as in areas o. human de0elopment. In this article& human de0elopment should ,e understood as including the spiritual dimension o. li.e that co0ers the entire human person. Cet in man1 plans human de0elopment remains essentiall1 an ad2unct to the central aim o. generating economic growth and the distri,ution o. wealth. In short& polic1 ma-ers& religious leaders as well as de0elopment wor-ers need to ma-e the idea o. human de0elopment a realit1: it is a holistic and ,asic realit1 and without it there cannot ,e an1 peace among the people o. 8.rica and 5en1a in particular7 peace is a prere<uisite to the de0elopment o. an1 nation. Burther the article aims at pro0iding a ,rie. anal1sis o. the role o. religion in 5en1a4s de0elopment. It warns o. the di..iculties in attempting to add religion to a list o. instruments that can ,e used in de0elopment polic1: se0eral .actors lead to the conclusion that some .undamentall1 new approaches are necessar1 on the part o. donors themsel0es. 8dditionall1& the article mentions sectors in which religion ma1 pla1 a positi0e role in de0elopment in 5en1a such as measures to stimulate economic growth& management o. natural resources& con.lict pre0ention and peace ,uilding& health and education& and accounta,le go0ernance. How would these elements translate into speci.ic polic1 ideas at di..erent le0els o. go0ernmentG ?ould the1 ,e achie0ed through the introduction o. the countr14s %ision 2'#'G 1"+ C&,T&RE '( RE,I$I%' Religion and more speci.icall1 9hristianit1 ha0e ,een growing .aster than one would ha0e e>pected in its .i.t1 1ears o. political independence. )his growth challenges 5en1ans to wor- hard to access the deeper understanding o. earl1 missionaries4 .aith& courage& tenacit1& and remar-a,le intellectual strength. )his is ,ecause: each religion including the glo,al 9hristian .aith has ,een .ormed out o. a speci.ic histor1 and cultural 0alues and not out o. ,are theoretical ideas li-e the earl1 missionaries would ha0e li-ed 5en1ans to ,elie0e. Bor it to ha0e an1 e..ect on the people o. 5en1a and their urge .or an accounta,le and transparent de0elopment .ree .rom all .orms o. corruption& religion must im,ued itsel. on the peoples4 wa1 o. li.e (culture and their ,elie. o. the supernatural order (religious ,elie. s1stem . )his is in spite o. the earl1 missionaries percei0ed mista-es ,ased on un.ounded anthropological ,elie0e that 8.ricans were ,ac-wards and without an1 -nowledge o. religious ,elie.s (See 6la a,o0e . It should ,e noted that the earl1 missionaries generall1 ,rainwashed the 8.rican persons to an e>tent o. ma-ing them creatures o. in.erior or less gods. )his trend was ,asicall1 common during the colonial time which started with the commencement o. the Aerlin 9on.erence o. 1!9(. Some missionaries and 8ra, traders went to the e>tent o. engaging themsel0es in trading o. the 8.rican people as sla0es: a ,itter histor1 that the people o. 5en1a still har,or in their mind. 6nsla0ing 8.ricans and .orce.ull1 occup1ing their land& led to the *au *au re0olt without which the countr1 would ha0e continued to su..er under the hands o. the 6uropeans .ar much longer. 8s this was happening in 5en1a the *a2i *a2i and the Hehe re,ellions were also ta-ing place in the then )angan1i-a and toda14s )an=ania. $ne can easil1 o,ser0e that& the .i.t1 1ears o. independence are there.ore a product o. great struggle ,1 the people o. 5en1a whose .reedom was a result o. ,loodshed and should ,e cele,rated with 2o1. )he .i.t1 1ears are there.ore a .orm o. co memori=ation o. the ,itter histor1 that the people o. 5en1a e>perienced. 8n1 element o. neocolonialism should there.ore ,e resisted ,1 all means the 5en1an people can appl1. )he ,i,le in the ,oo- o. /e0iticus tells that a nation should and ought to .ind its place in e0er1 .i.t1 1ears& the 2u,ilee3or the 1ear o. /ord4s .a0our7 And you shall consecrate the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land and to all its inhabitants; it shall be a jubilee year for you; it shall be the holy year from which men and women will sow and it is from what they have worked for (/e0iticus 2(7 1-(; .. )his is a religious call which 5en1ans should em,race as the1 cele,rate the .i.t1 1ears o. independence. 5en1a has had its independence since 19"#& a remar-a,le .i.t1 1ears o. progress and political maturit1. Aut as 5en1ans cele,rate the 1ear o. 2u,ilee& what can one sa1 a,out the progress ,eing made on the peopleG Ha0e these 1ears ,een 1ears o. growth and ha0e the1 ,een 1ears o. nation al integration or ,arel1 1ears o. ,igotr1 and ethnic hatredG Has de0elopment ,een reali=ed in all parts o. 5en1a and at what le0el can one ascertain trans.ormational change among the people o. 5en1aG )his article shall there.ore e0aluate and assess the in.luence o. religion& culture and 9hristianit1 and the role o. education on the 5en1an people. )he purpose is to show that there e>ist some religious .undamental .actors in.luencing de0elopment among the people o. 5en1a. )he o,2ecti0e is to e0aluate the impact and e..ects o. religion on human de0elopment in all dimensions. )he positi0e de0elopment that has resulted on the 5en1an people and their inclination to 9hristian .aith and practice or an1 other religious creeds will there.ore ,e

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e0aluated in light o. the Cear o. Hu,ilee. It is important to note that the Ai,lical meaning o. the Hu,ilee has e0er1thing to do with human 0enture and de0elopment. )hese are 1ears o. prosperit1& peace& restoration and Iod4s .a0our on the land: the1 are 1ears o. .reedom that is go0erned ,1 the spirit o. accounta,ilit1& responsi,ilit1 and transparent e>istence among the people. Since 5en1a gained its independence .rom the Aritish religion and more speci.icall1 9hristianit1 has had its share in people de0elopment. *an1 schools& hospitals and other institutions that e>ist are as a result o. 9hristianit14s and other religion4s in.luence. 8n increasing num,er o. organi=ations and programs are grappling with pro,lems at the intersection o. religion and de0elopment. Cet religion4s pu,lic role can no longer ,e ignored as a. most people engage in some .orm o. religious practice .rom time to time& and man1 pro.ess mem,ership o. some .ormal religious organi=ation& traditional& *uslim& 9hristian or otherwise. 1"+"1 (e-elop.ent! Contro-ersial and .biguous 'otion )he concept Dde0elopmentE is rather contro0ersial and di..erent scholars use it to mean di..erent things. Bor instance one can tal- o. economic or spiritual-moral de0elopment. $ne can also tal- o. political& ps1chological and e0olutionar1 de0elopment. Hence the term is at times am,iguous and can mean man1 .orms o. de0elopment at the same time thus lac-ing a consensus meaning across the ,oard. )he concept is 0ariedl1 used in almost e0er1 .ield and disciplines7 =oolog1& ,otan1& economics& sociolog1& and anthropolog1& religion as well as in philosoph1 and in a technological world. Hence with all these di..erent meaning o. the term Dde0elopmentE one needs the et1mological meaning o. the same particularl1 in discussing religion in relation to education and culture in 5en1a. )he term Dde0elopmentE is deri0ed .rom the 6nglish term Dde0elopE ,ut its et1mological meaning can ,e understood well .rom its opposite and linguisticall1 aligned term Dto en0elopE. )o Den0elopE owes its original meaning .rom the old medie0al Brench stem Dto wrapE to co0er something or someone o. some,od1 with a garment (in .lames & in clouds or e0en in m1ster1. Su,se<uentl1 the 0er, Dde0elopE originall1 meant the opposite7 Dthe process o. unco0ering& un.olding and re0ealingE or a process o. ta-ing awa1 the persona or the co0ering 0eil there,1 re0ealing that which had ,een hidden or concealed. Speci.icall1 the term seems to mean and point to a process or mo0ement .rom a latent or hidden state to a state more 0isi,le& more e>plicit and more ela,orate. It is interesting to note that a term which has a negati0e pre.i> DdeE is thought o. in a positi0e manner that is& a mo0ement towards a positi0e direction Jactuali=ation o. what is hidden& a re0ealing o. that which appeared concealed and m1sterious. )hus the term has de0elopment meaning to di..erent people and occasions. Bor the purpose o. this article& the author deals with ,oth the economic& cultural and spiritual meaning o. the term de0elopment. )he old e0olutionar1 schools regarded and connected economic and cultural de0elopments to material and ph1sical de0elopment. I. .act the words Dci0ili=ationE Dci0il and Dcit1E not onl1 ha0e a common root ,ut the1 also ha0e the some connection in term o. what was percei0ed to ,e Dde0elopedE or D ci0ili=edE ,1 some westerners. )he cit1 people were considered to ,e ci0ili=ed& de0eloped and more complicated than the rural .ol-s who were percei0ed to ,e coarse& uneducated and limited in -nowledge. 8ll o. this is nothing else ,ut the material meaning o. the term de0elopment. +e0elopment& howe0er& is a 0er1 human concept ,ecause human ,eings de0elop ph1sicall1& academicall1& sociall1& culturall1& economicall1 and in other 0aried wa1s. Hence this article4s consideration o. de0elopment in relation to religion in 5en1a can onl1 ,e limited to economic or material de0elopment. 1"+"+ The Relationship between Religion and (e-elop.ent Religion is a human phenomenon and the <uest .or meaning at the dimension o. a higher power& is a human need e0en .or those whose religious inclination is almost =ero: what the1 turn to in their limitedness as human ,eings is an indication o. their religious sense and desire. Bor instance& religious ideas o. 0arious pro0enance indigenous religions as well as world religions - pla1 an important role in legitimi=ing or discouraging 0iolence in societ1. $ne does not need to ,elie. in Iod to discourage ill doing in societ1 or e0en to enhance the positi0e le0els o. human de0elopment. )his is ,ecause: de0elopment is not onl1 an economic term rather it is the inner <uest in human ,eings to un0eil what is en0eloped& latent J a process towards progress. Human ,eings in di..erent spheres and dimensions o. li.e ascri,e to it. Hence the two terms namel1 religion and de0elopment con0erge as human as human concepts and also as part o. cultural endea0ors. )heuri (2''171!9 concludes that in an1 de0elopment human ,eings are not wholl1 earth-,ound: the1 need to loo- outside and ,e1ond their ordinar1 dail1 e>istence. )he transcendent is re<uired .or li.e to ,e meaning.ul and .or de0elopment to ,e properl1 assessed. *ugam,i (199"7(-" adds to this element o. transcendence ,1 o,ser0ing that religion as an aspect o. human li.e is indispensa,le as a pointer to indi0idual and communal sel. understanding and sel. orientations which include de0elopment. Sel. understanding and sel. orientations are important aspects o. ,eing human and o. ,eing de0eloped. Hence religion and de0elopment are connected and possess interpla1 o. a -ind in human li.e.

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1"+"3 Religion and (e-elop.ent the Cultural Pillars Since culture is a wa1 o. li.e which incorporates a societ14s <uest .or meaning in its s1m,ols& 0alues and in .act their whole wa1 o. li.e& it is not surprising that Dreligion and de0elopmentE are important components or pillars o. an1 culture in 5en1a and ,e1ond. 8s indicated earlier theses two concepts are important pillars o. culture alongside others li-e politics& ethics& aesthetics& and -inship and ethnic a..iliations. In ,oth the traditional and contemporar1 5en1a there e>ist an insepara,le connecti0it1 ,etween religion and human de0elopment. In traditional 8.rica& religion permeated e0er1 aspect o. an indi0idual4s li.e: it ga0e a sense o. meaning to all and each and e0er1thing in e>istence. Bor the 8.rican& religion was and is reall1 a s1stem o. thought and action shared ,1 the communit1 ,ut which also caters .or the indi0idual ,1 gi0ing out a .rame o. orientation and an o,2ect o. de0otion. 8s much as it pro0ided .or the meaning o. li.e& that is& .rame o. orientation& e0en an atheist has to contend with this human need and cannot there.ore do without it. $ne could o,2ecti.1 wealth& pleasure and .ame as the -e1 idols o. religion ,ut cannot ,e 0oid o. a religious dimension in de0elopment. Positi0el1 religion as a pillar o. culture ma-es societies producti0e in terms o. tr1ing to restrain its adherents .rom destructi0e tendencies and actions. 60en traditional 8.rican religion pla1ed this same role: one would easil1 -eep awa1 .rom an1 negati0e tendencies and was a,le to engage onesel. in positi0e de0elopment oriented spirit .or the sa-e o. societ1 (*,iti& 19"9 . +e0elopment is also a pillar o. culture li-e religion: it is normall1 listed among the pillars o. culture and portra1s itsel. as an economic aspect that is in0iting to e0er1 indi0idual regardless o. their religious or spiritual ,ac-ground. 6ach culture has its wa1s in which it thri0es in terms o. means o. sustenance: it also has its own indicators o. material progress and de0elopment ,oth in the indi0idual and the societ1 at large. )heuri (I,id concludes that there is a need .or religion to ,ring some sort o. legitimi=ation in the world and to gi0e some e>planation .or the 0er1 small and those enclosed in po0ert1 thus lac-ing ,asic need o. .ood& shelter and clothing. )his assertion leads one to conclude that religion has ,een and continues to ,e an agent o. de0elopment to the e>tent o. pro0ision o. ,asic human needs: it has ena,led man1 5en1ans to ac<uire s-ills and means in which the1 are a,le to actuali=e themsel0es thus ,ecoming sel.-sustaining and su..icient human ,eings. In 5en1a religious groups& organi=ations and institutions ha0e ,ecome partners with the go0ernment to pro0ided education& health& shelter& .ood and almost e0er1thing that has the possi,ilit1 o. impro0ing human li.e. In the .ollowing sections& the article dwells on the 0alue o. 9hristianit1 in the de0elopment o. the people o. 5en1a since independence while the last section will deal with the impact that religion has had on the 5en1an societ1 as it stri0es to shed o.. the chains associated with colonial and neo-colonialism7 the decoloni=ed and the li,erated 5en1a. 1"3 C/RI0TI 'IT1 '( (E,2E,%P*E'T 1"3"1 Conceptuali3ation o4 the %ld Testa.ent 60en as 8.rican countries struggle to attain the *illennium +e0elopment Ioals (*+Is & religion and its institutions will ha0e to pla1 its pi0otal role ,ecause o. its place and man1 adherents in the continent. )hese goals included7 po0ert1 eradication& alle0iation o. hunger and illiterac1& promotion o. gender e<ualit1 and women empowerment& alle0iate child-mortalit1 rate& impro0e maternal health& com,at HI% and 8I+S& malaria& and other diseases ensure en0ironmental protection& and ensure a glo,al partnership in de0elopment. )here is no religious denomination and especiall1 in the mainstream religions that are not concerned with the issues a..ecting the 8.rican person among them the *illennium +e0elopment Ioals. $-umu-Aigam,o (2''"72"7-2"! o,ser0ed that since the 9hurch in 8.rica is the amphitheatre o. challenges& 9hristians li-e an1 other citi=ens should ,e concerned in wa1s and means that the *+Is are achie0a,le. 5en1a is part and parcel o. this large continent and her religious institutions should ,e among the .irst to de0elop the nation. )his re<uirement is e0en more appealing now that 5en1a is cele,rating .i.t1 1ears o. independence. In actual .act& it is appropriatel1 demanding and tied to the countr14 %ision 2'#'. *ost 9hristians ,elie0e that it was Iod4s will that human ,eings were created thus humanit1 represent Iod4s image and li-eness (Ien7 172" . It is .rom this con0iction that 9hristians ,elie0e that the1 ha0e the di0ine mandate to de0elop& steward& prosper and con<uer the world. 8ccordingl1 and going ,1 the Ai,lical teaching& it was Iod who ga0e 8dam (*an and 60e (woman the mandate to su,due the earth and .ill it with seeds o. prosperit1 (Ien7 172! . In Ien7 #719 which is immediatel1 a.ter the .all o. 8dam and 60e& Iod in.orms them that i. the1 were to li0e ,etter li.e: the1 had to sweat in order to get their ,asic needs and that o. their .amil1. It is there.ore mandator1 that the human person ought to ,e in-charge o. the earth and speci.icall1 so through de0eloping it. Hence human ,eings are co-wor-ers and co-creators with Iod: the1 are partners in de0elopment. 60en a.ter the ,i,lical .loods& the same mandate is repeated and e>panded in Ien7 971-#& where human ,eings are gi0en e0er1thing in order to de0elop it. Prosperit1& ,oth at the indi0idual and communal le0els& ,elongs to

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Iod4s ,lessing. )he Psalmist did emphasi=e on prosperit1 and that the earth is .ull o. Iod4s ,lessing and goodness .rom which human ,eings should thri0e .rom. Prophet Isaiah points out to the .act that de0elopment is part and parcel o. Iod4s plan and which would ,e reali=ed and witnessed during the messianic era (Isaiah 2(7"-7 . )he post e>ilic prophets& priests and ,uilders li-e Nehemiah& Haggai and others urged the people to de0elop their countr1 which had ,een de0astated in their a,sence. Hence the $ld )estament encourages human prosperit1 and de0elopment which in itsel. is a .orm o. Iod4s ,lessing. )his is not .ar .rom what is re<uired in the 5en1an situation: 5en1ans should de0elop their countr1 in order to reign in Iod4s .a0our. 1"3"+ The 'ew Testa.ent and (e-elop.ent Since 9hristianit1 attempts to imitate the li.e o. Hesus 9hrist& it must there.ore ,e read1 to li0e ,1 that 0er1 teaching. It is .rom the New )estament that 9hrist4s .ollowers are taught that he came so that the1 ma1 ha0e li.e and ha0e it to the .ullest (Hn7 #71" . 8s a son o. a carpenter& Hesus met his ,asic needs ,1 la,ouring and e0entuall1 showing ,1 e>amples that& men and women ought to wor-: he healed the sic-& .ed the hungr1& and com.orted those who were agoni=ing. Burther and as noted in his teaching& eternal li.e is onl1 achie0a,le when the material li.e has ,een con<uered. /u-e7 ;717-19 has ,een ta-en ,1 most 9hristians to ,e D9hrist mission statementE on de0elopment agenda. Samita (2''#7119 noted that& this 0erse should ,e reali=ed as person centered and totall1 li,erating thus calling all ,elie0ers to commit themsel0es to change with social structures that are li.e-threatening& dehumani=ing and oppressi0e to the people o. Iod. Hence 9hristian churches in 5en1a should not onl1 enhance the prophetic call on de0elopment ,ut the1 are also dut1-,ound to .ul.ill the mandate o. Hesus 9hrist: their spiritualit1 should ,e glued to the le0el o. de0elopment the1 ha0e .or the people o. 5en1a. /ongle1 and 5iggins (197;71; o,ser0ed that an1 teaching promising the .uturistic hea0enl1 pie without in0ol0ing itsel. with the current de0elopment agenda o. an1 nation is there.ore .alse and should ,e ignored. ?h1 would the poor 9hristians ,e loo-ing .or a hea0enl1 ,an<uet i. the1 ha0e nowhere to la1 their heads in this worldG Should 9hristians in 5en1a engage in all le0els o. human de0elopment the1 would e0entuall1 ,e .ar .rom 6mperor Napoleon sarcasms that it was religion which led the poor man to accept death .rom star0ation while the ta,les o. the rich were laden with .ood (I,id. 1; . Scriptures there.ore& portra1 religion as a de0elopment oriented realit1 that human li.e should ,e engul.ed in: it is the li.e which ,elongs to the age to come& a .oretaste in the present world o. the new hea0ens and new earth in which righteousness dwells ( 2Peter #71# . )hrough the 9hurch& the -ingdom or the rule o. Iod is reali=ed as his .ollowers ,ecome the salt o. the earth and the light o. the world (*att7 #71#-1" & a realit1 that is 1et to ,e reali=ed in 5en1a a.ter .i.t1 1ears o. her independence. Cet in 9hristianit1 it is ,elie0ed that <ualit1 li.e in this world and the e..ort to stri0e .or it can ,e percei0ed as a preparation .or the ideal li.e with Iod. 9hristians ha0e the no,le dut1 o. impro0ing not onl1 their <ualit1 o. li.e ,ut also that o. other people through enterprises and engagement in all .orms o. human de0elopment in 5en1a. /angle1 and 5iggins .urther o,ser0ed that a human ,eing is made o. ,od1 and soul and hence 9hristianit1 should enhance and per.ect the entire and wholistic person. )he 9hristian gospel is concern with the whole person: it ,rings good news .or the sal0ation o. ,od1 and soul. 9onse<uentl1& 9hristianit1 must aim at trans.orming ,oth the character and the en0ironment or circumstances o. each and e0er1 indi0idual regardless o. their anthropological ,ac-ground. It must ,e noted that 5en1ans are still struggling with the daunting issue o. po0ert1 1et 9hristianit1 has ,een practiced in this countr1 well ,e1ond the .i.t1 1ears o. independence. Integral de0elopment is not a mere accumulation o. material wealth or riches as some western capitalistic model o. de0elopment seem to emphasi=e. Rather de0elopment is o. the whole person in all wa1s. It is the outloo- o. human indi0idual as a ph1sical& spiritual and ps1cho-emotional ,eing: it comprises o. cultural socio-economic& en0ironmental and political realities (Samita7 12' . I. 9hristianit1 is to ,e o. an1 0alue in 5en1a 9hristians must de0elop and impro0e on their li0es as those o. others in a holistic wa1. Hesus proclaimed the gospel o. truth and demanded a new li.e in each and e0er1 person: he challenged his .ollowers that the1 will not onl1 ,e 2udged ,ecause o. their .ailure to adhere to his teaching ,ut also on the wa1 the1 had treated their .ellow 9hristians (*att7 2(7 #(&;'. . )he proclamation o. the good news o. Hesus 9hrist em,raced ,oth the change o. heart (metanoia or character and also puts a demand that 9hristians must ma-e the world a new earth: change o. the en0ironment and circumstances people li0e in and .or <ualit1 li.e. )his is the challenge 5en1an are .aced with as the1 cele,rate the .i.t1 1ears o. independence. 9hristianit1 in 5en1a ought to adhere to its master4s teaching. 8s people wait .or the new hea0en and the new earth& the1 can onl1 appreciate this dwelling ,1 impro0ing the world the1 alread1 ha0e: the1 should alwa1s aim at promoting the wel.are o. other 5en1ans and more so going ,e1ond the ,orders o. discrimination and ethnic ,ias. )his is what Hesus did to the people: he impro0ed their li0es and 1et did not ha0e paternalistic attitudes towards them. /i-e A1rne (197;712 o,ser0es Hesus dedicated his li.e .or e0er1,od1 and ga0e all what he had including his own li.e to e0er1one. )hose 9hristians and those who pro.ess the li.e o. 9hrist in 5en1a should ,e read1 to do li-e their master do: to show his deep .aith ,1 leading in the

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area o. de0elopment o. the entire person. )he communities o. 9hristian or the 9hurch o. 9hrist ha0e ,een and must continue ,eing in0ol0ed in the integral de0elopment o. the people o. 5en1a. Iudor. (19!1 o,ser0ed that 9hristianit1 appropriates a li,eral orthodo>1 which ensures that e0er1 human person has a right to wor-& to a chance to de0elop their <ualities and personalities in e>ercise o. their pro.ession. Hence religion in 5en1a has had great in.luence in li,erating the citi=ens. It is religious leaders who in one wa1 or other in.luence most o. the 8.rican people in areas o. education& agriculture& heath as well as 2oining politics o. prosperit1 that has ,rought a,out creati0it1 and total in0ol0ement o. the people o. 5en1a e0en in writing their own constitution. 1.; E(&C TI%' '( ' TI%' , I'TE$R TI%' %) PE%P,E 1"5"1 Education 4or Integration *,iti (19"9 stated that 8.ricans are Knotoriousl1 religious4 and man1 are the times that one cannot di..erentiate ,etween the religious world as well as the ph1sical world. 9onse<uentl1& man1 5en1ans 0oluntaril1 associate themsel0es with religious networ-s& which the1 use .or a 0ariet1 o. purposes - social& economic and e0en political - that go ,e1ond the strictl1 religious aspect. In all parts o. 5en1a& mos<ues& churches and other religious sites are multipl1ing& and religious rituals are o.ten to ,e seen in pu,lic space. 8s recent as 2'1# 9hristian crusades and e0angelicals rallies ha0e ,een witnessed thus drawing mammoth crowds at national stadia. Some o. these rallies occasionall1 .eatured some political leaders attending and ma-ing reconciliator1 remar-s. *an1 are the times that man1 great thin-ers and scientists who contri,ute to de0elopment are .ormed and educated ,1 the missionaries or through other religious organi=ations or churches. Religion whether Islam& 9hristianit1& or 8.rican )radition religion& continues to pla1 pi0otal role among the people o. 5en1a. )he 1ear o. Hu,ilee should there.ore ,e percei0ed as a time o. re.lection on what religion& education and culture ha0e done on the people o. this countr1. ?hat does FreligionF mean in the conte>t o. 5en1aG )he e0idence suggests that most o. the countr14s people are religious inasmuch as the1 ,elie0e in the e>istence o. an in0isi,le world& distinct ,ut not separate .rom the 0isi,le world& that is inha,ited ,1 spiritual ,eings or .orces with which the1 can communicate and which the1 percei0e to ha0e an in.luence on their dail1 li0es. Religious ideas t1picall1 go0ern relationships o. people with a percei0ed spirit world. In e..ect& this idiom can go0ern relations ,oth o. one person to another& or o. one person to a communit1& ,ut also o. people to the land the1 culti0ate. Religion there.ore has a greater role to pla1 among the people o. 5en1a& their politics& economics and de0elopment. 8s noted in the preceding sections& religion there.ore& pla1s great role in people4s wel.are: it helps or assists in eliminating dehumani=ing human situation: popularl1 re.erred to as the sin.ul social structures. )he role o. the 9hurch and in this case religion is to teach social principles that would ,ring a,out trans.ormational change in societ1. )his is ,ecause while industriali=ation increased economic de0elopment& it also ,rought with it class struggle which would easil1 treat the poor as machines o. production in societ1. Since de0elopment aims at eliminating po0ert1& ignorance and disease (5en1a 0ession Paper no"16 o4 1967 African Socialism and Application to Planning in Kenya no. !, the aim o. this section is to assess how 0arious religions ha0e ,een in0ol0ed in struggle against an1 element deterring de0elopment in 5en1a. )he .irst concentration will ,e on education and training. 1"5"+"1 Education and Training 6ducation and training .eature prominentl1 in de0elopment acti0ities o. a nation. ?ithout proper education and training the people in their agenda& religious institutions ,ecome li-e an1 other social order o. a people. *ost religious institutions charge less school tuition than go0ernment and pri0ate training institutes in 5en1a: the1 also pro0ide students with re<uired scholarships which would ha0e ta-en 1ears in the .ormer institutions. 8 num,er o. 5en1ans ha0e ,een the ,ene.iciaries o. this .orm o. education and training which has also contri,uted greatl1 to the de0elopment o. the people o. this nation. In other instances& religious institutions ha0e enhanced their education curriculum with moral and social issues which ha0e had great impact on the character .ormation o. man1 5en1ans since independence. )he -e1 that guide an1 education or training tools is .or the purpose o. capacit1 ,uilding and .or a ,etter t1pe o. leadership in an1 gi0en nation. 6ducation and proper training ena,le the citi=ens to participate in go0ernment4s and ci0il societ14s acti0ities. A1 the 0er1 nature o. their wor- most religions concentrate on education and training o. the local people in 0arious s-ills. *a2orit1 o. religion start ,1 teaching new con0erts their scriptures or religious manuals which are the ,asis o. their doctrines and practices. )his is what led Islam .or e>ample to introduce the madrasa schools along the 6ast 9oast o. 8.rica .rom where 1oung .ollowers would ,e taught the .aith which included the learning o. ,asic 8ra,ic to ena,le them understand the Luran. Ara1 et al (19!"779 ha0e o,ser0ed that Islam has had a long histor1 in 8.rica and its education s1stem has operated much longer that the ?estern 9hristianit1. $ne e>ample is the esta,lishment o. 8l-8=har @ni0ersit1 in 9airo .ounded in 8+ 99". )oda1 5en1a is the home o. thousands o. *uslims whose role in de0elopment is ,asicall1 in education& culture and social integration.

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9hristianit1 has had a great role in education and training o. the people o. 5en1a. Bor e>ample& .ormal education in 5en1a was introduced ,1 9hristian missionaries with the esta,lishment o. sla0e settlement along the 6ast 9oast and similar mission stations in the hinterland. )raining was a,out s-ills in trade& agriculture& healthcare& in.ormation technolog1& mar-eting& coo-er1& language& woodwor- and tailoring. Aesides the general instructions in the new methods o. culti0ation& ,ric- ma-ing and tailoring& there was also some ,oo- learning .rom which the people were taught how to read and write either in their mother tongue& 5iswahili& 6nglish and Brench. )he 9hristian 9hurch continued to ,e in0ol0ed in esta,lishing the so called ,ush schools& catechetical centers and teacher training colleges which ended up producing producti0e mangers: cooperation .irst with the colonial and the su,se<uent go0ernments& 9hristian 9hurches ha0e gone ahead to esta,lish ad0anced schools and uni0ersities which again ,oost capacit1 ,uilding and human resources .or the ad0ancement o. 5en1a. It is the missionaries4 =eal .or education that toda1 5en1a can claim to ha0e the ,est educational institutions within and ,e1ond 6ast and 9entral 8.rica regions. *an1 s-ills training centers ha0e also ,een started to train school lea0ers in mason& carpentr1 and 2oiner1& painting as well as tailoring and design (Aarret et al& 197#7 2"(. See also /angle1 and 5iggins& 119 . *an1 o. the political leaders were also educated and molded in missionar1 oriented schools such as *angu& 5am,aa& 8lliance& N1eri& N1ahururu& *aseno& Precious Alood& 8lliance& Aishop Iatimu and 5agumo High Schools to mention ,ut a .ew missionar1 oriented school. Starting with the .irst President and now the .ourth leader o. 5en1a& one would easil1 o,ser0e that the1 all had 9hristianit1 in.luencing either their education or the st1le o. leadership that the1 .ollowed. Bor instance President Homo 5en1atta himsel. had termed 9hristianit1 and its teaching as the Kconscience4 o. societ1 while +aniel *oi went as .ar as creating what one would call state 9hristianit1 to ena,le him rule 5en1a. Indeed& 9hristianit1 has reall1 changed the li.e o. the 8.rican person. Ireat *uslim leaders such as 8li *a=rui are products o. religion which .orms the ,asis o. .orm education in 5en1a. 1"5"+"+ griculture /i-e in man1 other 8.rican countries& 5en1an agriculture o0er-emphasi=ed capital mar-et o0er the actual .oodoriented product. Bor the last .i.t1 1ears the emphasis has ,een on cash crop such co..ee& tea and p1rethrum as opposed to .ood-oriented .arming. )he <uestion o. .ood must ,e at the center o. dail1 li.e& starting with what 6la (19!9792 calls the Dministr1 o. granar1E and in relation again to the ,i,lical teaching (9..Ien.;271-2& ;#71-2: *att.2(7#(-;2 . 9hristianit1 as a religion has continued to pla1 an important role in promoting agriculture in 5en1a. 60en among the .reed sla0es in the earl1 1ears o. sla0er1 and colonialism& it was mandator1 that e0er1 adult couple had their own .arm despite the .act that the1 had to wor- .or their masters (/angle1 and 5iggins& (2 . 60en toda1 missionaries and the local clerg1 continue to own ,ig .arms as a wa1 o. sustaining their e0angeli=ation process among the people o. 5en1a. )he 8rchdioceses o. Nairo,i& N1eri and 5isumu o. the 9atholic 9hurch .or e>ample& own trac-s o. land meant .or agriculture. )he 8nglican as well as the Pres,1terian churches o. 8.rica possess large pieces o. land .rom where either their educational or agricultural acti0ities are carried out. *ost o. the cash crops such as tea and co..ee which were introduced ,1 the missionaries ha0e continued to ,ring de0elopment to the people o. 5en1a and ,e1ond. *an1 agricultural training institutes were also as a result o. the 9hurch4s acti0ities (Aarret& 197# . It is paramount that as 5en1a cele,rate .i.t1 1ears o. independence: other religious institutions should come on ,oard particularl1 in areas o. agriculture and .ood programmes that would ,e appropriate in .eeding and sustaining the people. Boreign ,orrowing especiall1 on .ood should ,e discouraged through the introduction o. new .arming techni<ues. 1"5"1"3 /ealth Ienerall1 spea-ing& health and education constitute a .ield in which the role o. religious institutions has ,een reali=ed and more so in the de0elopment o. a people. )his is in line with the teaching o. Hesus who came to redeem human ,eings .rom all .orms o. oppression& diseases& po0ert1 and all t1pes o. ailments that a..ect and demean human ,eings in their struggle to impro0e themsel0es as well as the entire world (*att7 !71"-17& *-7 17#2-#;: 1"71(-1!. 9.. Isaiah (#7; . Hence those practicing 9hristian ministr1 in 5en1a are dut1 ,ound to do so intensi0el1 as its coming .rom their master Hesus 9hrist. )his intensit1 e>tends ,e1ond spiritual healing and trans.orms the ph1sical li0es o. the ,elie0ers. )his then is the .oundation o. the healing ministr1 o. the 9hurch in 5en1a and goes ,e1ond the .i.t1 1ears o. independence. It has ,een noted that most o. the good hospitals in 5en1a are ,asicall1 missionar1-oriented. In their urge to de0elop the entire human person& these missionaries appl1 the holistic approach J ph1sical. Spiritual and e0en ps1chological approach in order to o..er ,etter medical ser0ices 2ust as the1 were the pioneers o. ,etter education in 5en1a (/angle1 and 5iggins7 1;(: c.. 8drien 8tman71;1-1;; and Aarret7 2"(-2!7 . $ther religious organi=ations ha0e also contri,uted immensel1 to the impro0ement o. human health. Hinduism and Islam ha0e had great impact on human medicine in 5en1a (9.. %isa $shwal 6ducation and Relie.

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.oundation and optical healing among the people . Hence ,esides the 9hurch other religions ha0e in0ol0ed themsel0es in the healing ministr1 thus eliminating diseases and an1 other illness that might ha0e appeared as enemies o. de0elopment. )he role o. religious institutions in wel.are pro0ision could ,e considera,l1 e>panded& howe0er& nota,l1 in 0iew o. the rapid e>pansion o. the acti0it1 o. Islamic non-go0ernmental organi=ations (NI$s throughout 8.rica and the occasionall1 progressi0e role pla1ed ,1 Imams& such as in *om,asa and elsewhere in 5en1a& where e0en conser0ati0e clerics ha0e ,een prominent in the .ight against HI% and 8I+S. It must ,e said that the rise o. Islamic NI$s o.ten causes ner0ousness among man1 go0ernments due to the suspicion that an1 .orm o. *uslim prosel1ti=ation ma1 ,e tainted ,1 association with terrorism. +e0elopment o..icials need to discriminate clearl1 ,etween Islamic NI$s or other organi=ations that can pla1 a constructi0e role in de0elopment and the small num,er that are inclined towards 0iolence. 8 good wa1 o. doing this is ,1 wor-ing with Islamic NI$s whene0er this is possi,le& learning what the1 do& and gaining an a,ilit1 to distinguish ,etween those that are use.ul .or de0elopment purposes .rom those that are not. )he closeness o. 5en1a to Somalia has had negati0e impact on the role o. Islam as a religion or a terrorist organi=ation. )he deplo1ment o. the 5en1a +e.ense Borces into Somalia has also ,een percei0ed a war on terrorism rather than on Islamic religion which has contri,uted immensel1 to 0arious de0elopment pro2ects in 5en1a since independence. 6la (I,id. "7 o,ser0ed that& an1 steps ta-en in the area o. health care alwa1s ser0e a social and economic s1stem that remains their point o. re.erence. He went .urther to state that& ,e.ore the independence mo0ement in 8.rica& medical care was insepara,le .rom the colonial polic1 o. the 6uropean powers. Bollowing this line o. thought and ha0ing reached the Hu,ilee Cear& 5en1a needs to re.lect on the num,er o. hospitals& clinics& h1giene and 0accination programmes initiated ,1 religious institutions .or the people o. 5en1a. @nli-e in the colonial period where the pro0ision o. health ser0ices was .or the sa-e o. -eeping 8.rican strong .or the controlled la,our (I,id.& "! & toda1& and though citi=ens continue wallowing in po0ert1 and lac- o. health .acilities& religious institution encourage their adherents to stic- to health li0ing .or the de0elopment o. the people o. 5en1a. 1"5"1"5 Religion and Politics Since the coloni=ers handed o0er power to the 8.rican leaders& religion has ,een pla1ing a great role in molding& nurturing and de0eloping the political mind o. the people o. 5en1a: religion has created political awareness on its adherents all o0er the countr1. )his has occurred as ,oth 9hristian churches and other religious institutions ha0e continued stressing on people4s rights and their need to engage in politics. 8s in earlier 1ears where the issue o. land& human rights& .airness in the la,our mar-et& cultural 0alues dominated the nation& 5en1ans and particularl1 now a.ter the proclamation o. their 2'1' 9onstitution continued to pla1 their role in nation ,uilding (?amue and )heuri 2''#7 9(-112 . )his is line with what the mainstream churches and their Islamic counterpart did prior to 19"#. Religion has ,een a .orce to rec-on with in 5en1a4s politics. +uring the time o. the .ight .or the multipart1 politics& religious leaders in almost all religious denominations including *uslims& Hindus and others& pla1ed an important role in the <uest .or implementation o. political li,eralism& the second li,eration and democrac1 in the countr1. )he role pla1ed ,1 the clerg1 (9.. the @.ungumano and Aomas initiati0es and man1 other religious leaders& was a common .eature in the initiati0e to come up with the current 9onstitution (?amue and )heuri a,o0e7 12(-1#! . 8part .rom participating and encouraging political acti0ism& the institutions that implement polic1 in mainstream churches ha0e engaged in organi=ing studies and acti0ities .or 2ustice and peace in 5en1a (9.. the N995 and the 569 . )he ecumenical mo0ers were especiall1 during the political instigated land and tri,al crashes o. 1ester-1ears. 9urrentl1 there are church leaders elected as legislatures while others ha0e ,een appointed in political positions thus shaping and molding the politics o. this countr1. Hence the role o. religion in the de0elopment o. the 5en1an nation has ,een has ,een 0ital. )his role is ,ased on 9hrist4s demand that his .ollowers should ,e carriers o. peace (9.. *att7 (79 J peace is ,oth a political and religious process without which de0elopment cannot ,e accomplished. In Islam the name o. religion itsel. denotes peace while in Hinduism DahimsaE is a call .or peace thus .or the 9hurch and other religious institutions& peace is paramount element in the reali=ation o. de0elopment. )hese religious institutions ha0e acti0el1 participated in electoral process since 19"# and ha0e gi0en credit where it deser0es. Islam on the other hand has ,een see-ing 2ustice especiall1 where their .ollowers ha0e ,een discriminated against ,ecause o. their .aith which has nothing to do with terrorism in the contemporar1 world. In terms o. de0elopment& religion has had great impact on the people o. 5en1a. )he go0ernment o. 5en1a cannot there.ore ignore this important institution particularl1 in education& agriculture& health and politics. )his is ,ecause .aith touches on the totalit1 o. human e>istence and all its challenges. )hus& when .aith see-s to understand itsel.& to 0eri.1 itsel. and to account .or itsel. in 5en1a& it must ,ring with it the people4s struggle to escape .rom the hellish circle in which the1 ris- ,eing permanentl1 imprisoned. )his religion must ta-e care on all the socio-economic and political pro,lems a..ecting the people o. 5en1a since independence.

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1"7 T/E 8&#I,EE 1E R" )he .i.t1 1ears o. 5en1a4s independence has had ,oth achie0ement and .ailures in areas o. de0elopment. )here.ore the1 ha0e ,een 1ears o. .ear& political intimidation& complicit1& and timidit1. 8t times& 9hristianit1 and other religions ,ac-ed awa1 .rom the .orces o. oppression& 1et the1 were .ar much ,etter placed to cr1 out against un.airness and in2ustice and corrupt leadership in 5en1a. In some cases& 5en1ans ha0e <uestioned the authenticit1 o. religion in the midst o. all -inds o. a,uses and oppression o. the citi=ens particularl1 in the hands o. the police& militar1 as well as the illegal sects that used to terrori=e people during and a.ter the one part1 state. )he unsatis.actor1 condition o. the 5en1an people still e>ists despite the presence o. religion and 9hristianit1 at large. Cet Hollen,ec- (199; one time o,ser0ed that in emphasi=ing the congruit1 o. 9hristian perspecti0es on 2ustice with what can ,e e>pected .rom all people& as e>pected ,1 natural law& the 9hurch has methodicall1 minimi=ed con.licts and marginali=ation in societ1. )he 1ear o. Hu,ilee challenges 5en1ans to li,erate and release themsel0es .rom all chains o. oppression: corruption and marginali=ation o. an1 -ind: it is a 1ear o. .reedom& accounta,ilit1 and responsi,le citi=enship (6la& 1#7.. . )hese calls to <uestion the role o. religion in 5en1a7 ?hat are the priorities o. ,oth 9hristianit1 and other religious institutions in de0eloping the people o. 5en1aG ?hat can ,e e>pected .rom these religions as the1 ,egin to e>amine themsel0es and attempt to de.ine themsel0es in light o. the ma2or issues that a..ect the people o. 5en1a in their cele,ration o. the Hu,ilee 1earG Is the spiritual world more important than the temporal realit1G )he encounter that people ha0e had with Iod in their respecti0e .aith demands that citi=ens ta-e their spiritual and social responsi,ilit1 o. ,ringing de0elopment to the people (Aaum& 199!; . )his also applies to the citi=ens o. 5en1a. )he reading o. the Ai,lical and Luran teaching should ,e percei0ed in light o. peoples4 li,eration: the encounter with these religious sources challenges 5en1ans to ,e the .irst anchors o. a wholistic human de0elopment. In cele,rating the .i.t1 1ears o. independence& 5en1ans should reali=e that religion& 9hristianit1 and education ha0e had great in.luence in de0elopment. 6ach citi=en must ,e gi0en the responsi,ilit1 .or their growth: their own wa1 o. implementing li,eration among the people o. 5en1a. 6ducation has ,een the source o. .reedom and sel. actuali=ation .or the people o. 5en1a such that the citi=ens o. this nation can no longer ,e ta-en .or granted: the1 can no longer -eep on rel1ing on .oreign aids .or their de0elopment. )hough religion and cultural integration with other nations and ha0ing sur0i0ed .or the last .i.t1 1ears o. independence& 5en1ans are read1 to own de0elopment through their own spirit o. accounta,ilit1 as the1 pa1 their ta>es so as to minimi=e e>cessi0e ,orrowing .rom other nations. 1"6 C%'C,&0I%' '( T/E 9 1 )%R9 R( )his article has addressed the role o. education& religion and people culture and religion in the de0elopment o. 5en1a in .i.t1 1ears period o. de0elopment. It has also ,een noted that 5en1a is an important countr1 that pla1s a great role in the de0elopment o. her citi=ens. )wo important remar-s can ,e deduced .rom the a,o0e o,ser0ations and which must ,e utili=ed ,1 scholars articulating the place o. religion& education and culture in areas o. de0elopment in 5en1a7 )irstly& neither economic growth nor e0en state-,uilding should ,e thought o. as goals in themsel0es& although ,oth are crucial aspects o. a ,etter .uture .or 5en1ans. 8n1 de0elopment enterprise must ,egin ,1 considering how people .ull range o. resources& including their spiritual or religious resources& can ,e utili=ed .or their general well-,eing which including attaining their ,asic needs. Religious resources do not consist onl1 o. networ-s o. people who relate to each other through religious practice or adherence. It is <uite .easi,le to thin- o. de0elopment in the .uture in terms o. spiritual empowerment& in a similar sense as has ,een considered in regard& .or e>ample& to womenFs and 1outh4s empowerment. 0econdly& it has ,ecome clear that much de0elopment thin-ing has ,een .ar too short-term. Pro2ects are o.ten intended to last .or a short period& and 2udged to ,e successes or .ailures a.ter that time. It has ,ecome apparent that in man1 cases a much longer time.rame is needed& and that a speci.ic de0elopment pro2ect ma1 need more 1ears .or its reali=ation. 9onsidered in their short-term& medium or long terms& pro2ects could easil1 1ield ,etter results. +e0elopment planning is generall1 oriented towards speci.ic outcomes& and indi0idual pro2ects are 2udged ,1 their success in producing results& o,scuring the .act that in man1 cases the process o. de0elopment is at least as important as the end-product o. a particular scheme or operation. 8s 5en1a pride hersel. in these .i.t1 1ears& she must also prepare hersel. .or greater attainment and ,e the amphitheatre o. de0elopment o. her people. 5en1a should struggle to attain sel. actuali=ation within the ne>t .ew 1ears. Hence the Hu,ilee 1ear must touch on the core issues that a..ect and in.luence the de0elopment o. the human person: it must touch on the core essence o. what is considered as integral and wholistic de0elopment which all religions should ,e engaged in. $n the other hand& religions must diagnose the situation and needs o. their mem,ers and e0en encourage them to .ull1 engage themsel0es in areas o. de0elopment: the1 must there.ore encourage dialogue and ,ecome partners with the go0ernment and with other agencies o. de0elopment in 5en1a. In its <uest .or de0elopment in 5en1a& religion must also ,ecome the 0oice o. the 0oiceless& the poor and the

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Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#

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marginali=ed particularl1& women and children: it must challenge an1 t1pe o. ideolog1& political s1stems and programmes that are pretentious and decei0ing in their ad0ocate o. human li.e while in actual .act the1 are a.ter e>ploitation o. the people o. 5en1a. Burther& religion should ,e read1 to resist an1 socio-economic s1stem that uses human ,eings as an end to ac<uire economic ,ene.its and wealth1 .or a .ew corrupt indi0iduals. )his is a great challenge ,ut real de0elopment has a cost that e0er1 religion should ,e willing to pa1. )his was the challenge the writer o. the Aoo- o. /e0iticus addressed and in which 5en1a is now cele,rating in its .i.tieth 1ear o. the /ord4s .a0our or the Cear o. Hu,ilee. RE)ERE'CE0 8gostini& ). (2''1 . "very #iti$ens% &andbook. Nairo,7 Paulines. 8hmad& H.*.). (199# . 'slam%s (esponse to #ontemporary 'ssues. )il.ord Sur0e17 IslamicInternational. Aarrows& S.P. (2'11 . D/a,our 6conomics and the +e0elopment o. Papal 6nc1clicalsE. )ournalof *arkets and *orality. %ol.& No.177-22. Aaum& I. (19!; . "thics and "conomics+ #anada%s #atholic ,ishops and the "conomic #risis. )oronto7 /orimar. Aaur& H. (199' . -he #atholic #hurch in Kenya+ A #entenary &istory. Nairo,i7 Paulines. A1rne& ). (19!; . 'ntegral .evelopment of a /hole Person+ A &andbook for #hristians.Ndola7 *ission Press. Aadr-han& 8. (199; . D)he Luranic 9onsideration o. )echnological *ightE& in "cho of 'slam No 119 *a1& 199;. Aennaars& I.8. D6ducation +e0elopment and Human PersonE& in Philosophical 0ocus 1n #ulture and -raditional -hought System in .evelopment. Nairo,i7 60ans Arothers /td. 9astells *. (199! . -he 'nformation Age+ "conomy, Society and #ulture. Alac-well Pu,lishing& $>.ord. 9hege& *. D)he 8.rican 6conomic 9rises and the Bate o. +emocrac1 in Su,-Saharan 8.ricaE& in ?.$. $1ugi and 8. Iitonga (6ds . .emocratic -heory and Practice in Africa. Nairo,i7 @ni0ersit1 o. Nairo,i& pp.1"#-177. +aneel *./. (199! . African "arth keepers (2 0ols. @NIS8 Press& Pretoria& 199!-99 . +a1& ).P. (197# DHinduism& Hainism and Si-hism in 5en1aE& in Aarret& +.A.& Kenya #hurches&and ,ook. 5isumu7 60angel. 6la& H.*. (19!9 . *y 0aith as an African. New Cor-7 $r,is Aoo-s. Io0ernment o. 5en1a& (2''# . *illennium .evelopment 2oals. Nairo,i7 *inistr1 o. Planning and National +e0elopment. Ierrie ter Haar. (199! . &alfway to Paradise+ African #hristians in "urope. 9ardi.. 8cademic Press& 9ardi... Iurdo.& 9.6. (19!1 . #atholic Social -eaching on 3iberation -hemes. ?ashington +9. @ni0ersit1 o. 8merica. Hollen,ec-& +. (1977 . #atholicism and 3iberation+ #ontributions to American Public Philosophy. New Cor-7 9am,ridge. International Bederation .or Human Rights ($cto,er 2''! . D6conomic +e0elopment or Human RightsG 8ssessing the Impact o. 5en1a4s )rade and In0estment Policies and 8greements $n Human RightsE& No. ('"7#1-#". Ishumi& 8.I.*. (197" . "ducation and .evelopment. Nairo,i7 6ast 8.rican /iterature. /angle1& *.: 5iggins& ). (197; . A Serving People. Nairo,i7 6ast 8.rican /iterature. *,iti& H.S. (19"9 . 'ntroduction to African (eligion and Philosophy. Nairo,i7 Heinemann. *e2ia& R. (19!! . .evelopment without *asks. 5ampala7 St. Paul Pu,lications. *ugam,i& H.5 (199" . (eligion and Social #onstruction of (eality. Nairo,i7 Nairo,i @ni0ersit1 Press. *ohamed& S. (2''2 . 'slamic 421s in Africa+ -he Promise and Peril of 'slamic 5oluntarism. 9entre o. 8.rican Studies& @ni0ersit1 o. 9openhagen. *waura& P.N. (2''# . D8I9S and Socio-economic +e0elopmentE& in ?amue& I.& )heuri. *.*.&Luest for 'ntegrity in Africa. Nairo,i7 8cton Press. $-umu-Aigam,o& ?. (2''" . DSelecti0e 9ommunication7 Inno0ation and Per.ormance .or the 9hurch in 8.ricaE& in 8.rican 6cclesiastical Re0iew& 0ol. ;! no. ;& +ecem,er 2''". Rodne1& ?. (19!9 . &ow "urope 6ndeveloped Africa. Nairo,i7 Heinemann. Saw1er 8.& 75iolent #onflicts and 2overnance #hallenges in /est Africa+ -he #ase of the *ano (iver ,asin Area%& )ournal of *odern African Studies, ;2& # (2''; & pp.;#7-"#. Samita& M.?. (2''# . DIn0ol0ement in +e0elopment within 8.rican 60angelical and Pentecostal 9hurchesE& in ?amue& I.& )heuri& *.*.& Luest .or Integrit1 in 8.rica.Nairo,i7 8cton& 2''#. Stephen& 6. (2''; . /orlds of Power+ (eligious -hought and Political Practice in Africa. /ondon7 Hurst. )heuri& *.*.& (1999 . DPo0ert1 in 8.ricaE& in Ietui& *.N.& $,eng& 6.8. -heology of (econstruction. Nairo,i7 8cton Pu,lishers. . (2''1 . DReligion and 9ulture as Bactors in the +e0elopment o. 8.ricaE& in Ietui& *.N.& )heuri& *.*. 8uest for 'ntegrity in Africa. Nairo,i7 8cton Pu,lishers. )alimo& 8. (2''( . Applied "thics and Africa%s Social (econstruction. Nairo,i7 8cton.

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