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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.

22& 2'13

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The Role of Parenting Styles in Enhancing or Hindering Childrens performance in preschool Activities
1. 2. (enard )itali *s+iono1, and -eresa (. .wo/a2 0oast Star E01E -.0& (o2 12'3' !'117 .o/3asa 4en5a. E/ail6 *s+iono3ernard7g/ail.co/ 4en5atta 8ni9ersit5& Sc+ool of Education& Earl5 0+ild+ood Studies 1epart/ent. P.#. (o2 225%:''%''& Nairo3i& 4en5a. ,e-/ail of t+e corresponding aut+or6 as+iono3ernard7g/ail.co/

Abstract E2tensi9e studies +a9e 3een conducted on t+e relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and adolescents; acade/ic perfor/ance. <owe9er& li/ited studies +a9e focused on t+e relations+ip 3etween t+ese st5les and presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance. -+e current stud5 soug+t to esta3lis+ t+e relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curricular acti9ities in 4isauni 1istrict& 4en5a. * correlational researc+ design was e/plo5ed to carr5 out t+e stud5. * sa/ple si=e of 1:' pre-sc+ool c+ildren toget+er wit+ t+eir parents was purposi9el5 selected 3ased on t+eir perfor/ance le9els in curricular acti9ities fro/ 2' pre-sc+ools. * >uestionnaire and an inter9iew sc+edule were utili=ed to collect data on parenting st5les. ?urt+er& data on presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in presc+ool acti9ities were collected t+roug+ docu/ent anal5sis of c+ildren;s progress reports. ?indings indicated t+at t+ere was a significant relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and c+ildren;s perfor/ance in presc+ool acti9ities. -+ere was a significant relations+ip 3etween 3etween aut+oritati9e parenting st5le and c+ildren;s perfor/ance w+ere r @ '.!!2 and p @ '.'' A '.'1. *ut+oritarian parenting st5le was negati9el5 correlated to c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities w+ere r @ -'.2:1 and p @ '.''2 A '.'1. -+ere was no significant relations+ip 3etween per/issi9e parenting st5le and c+ildren;s perfor/ance. It was t+erefore concluded t+at parenting st5les significantl5 influence c+ildren;s perfor/ance in presc+ool curriculu/ acti9ities. Keywords Parenting st5les and c+ildren& Pre-sc+ool education& Parents and parenting st5les !ac"gro#nd information -+e fa/il5 +as t+e greatest sociali=ing influence on c+ildren (Ngwiri& 2''! . -+is is 3ecause t+roug+ words and deeds of parents& c+ildren;s personalit5 is s+aped and t+eir wa5s of doing t+ings 3eco/e +a3itual. .oreo9er& it is t+e pri/e responsi3ilit5 of t+e parents to sociali=e t+eir c+ildren in order to confor/ to societal standards and 3e a3le to function successfull5 in t+e co//unit5. 0onse>uentl5& parents s+ep+erd t+eir c+ildren fro/ dependent infants into co/petent and independent indi9iduals w+o interact effecti9el5 in t+eir en9iron/ent. Parents influence t+eir c+ildren;s 3e+a9ior t+roug+ esta3lis+ed patterns of parental aut+orit5 called parenting st5les. (erB (2'': defines parenting st5les as a co/3ination of parenting 3e+a9iors t+at occur o9er a wide range of situations& creating an enduring c+ild-rearing cli/ate. ?urt+er/ore& 1arling and Stein3erg (1CC3 define parenting st5les as e/otional cli/ate in w+ic+ t+e parents; 3e+a9ior toward t+eir c+ildren is e2pressed. It is in t+e conte2t of t+is e/otional cli/ate t+at parents; 3e+a9ior influence c+ildren;s personalit5 conse>uentl5 affecting t+eir acade/ic perfor/ance in sc+ool. (au/rind (1C71 identified t+ree 3asic parenting st5les6 aut+oritarian& aut+oritati9e and per/issi9e parenting st5les. ?urt+er researc+ 35 .acco35 and .artin (1C!3 identified a fourt+ parenting st5le called unin9ol9ed or neglectful parenting st5le. In 4en5a& li/ited researc+ +as 3een docu/ented on t+e relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and c+ildren;s perfor/ance in presc+ool acti9ities. #gwari (2'11 conducted a stud5 in .ount Elgon district to esta3lis+ t+e influence of parenting st5les on secondar5 sc+ool girls; self-concept and acade/ic perfor/ance. -+e stud5 found t+at girls of aut+oritati9e parents perfor/ed 3etter acade/icall5 t+an t+ose of ot+er parents. Dirls of aut+oritarian parents +ad poor perfor/ance and low self-concept. -+is stud5 re9ealed t+at secondar5 sc+ool girls; acade/ic perfor/ance and self-concept are significantl5 correlated wit+ parenting st5les used 35 t+eir parents. (ut t+e e2tent to w+ic+ t+ese findings relate to presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance +as not 3een esta3lis+ed. -+e current stud5 t+erefore soug+t to esta3lis+ t+e relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. P#rpose of the St#dy -+e purpose of t+is stud5 was to esta3lis+ t+e relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and pre-sc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities in 4isauni 1istrict& .o/3asa 0ount5 4en5a.

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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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$ethodology * correlational design was e/plo5ed to carr5 out t+is stud5. .ugenda and .ugenda (2''3 asserts t+at correlational researc+ in9ol9es collecting data in order to deter/ine w+et+er and to w+at degree a relations+ip e2ists 3etween two or /ore >uantifia3le 9aria3les. -+e current stud5 ai/ed at in9estigating parenting st5les used 35 parents and esta3lis+ing w+et+er t+ese st5les relate to presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. * correlation coefficient was co/puted to s+ow t+e direction and strengt+ of t+e relations+ip. -+is design was used in order to pro9ide a rigorous and replica3le procedure for esta3lis+ing and understanding t+e relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. %ocation of the St#dy -+is stud5 was carried out in 4isauni 1istrict of .o/3asa 0ount5 4en5a. -+e district is located on t+e Nort+ern part of .o/3asa Island and it can 3e accessed t+roug+ t+e N5ali (ridge and .o/3asa-.alindi Eoad fro/ .o/3asa town. It co9ers an area of appro2i/atel5 1'C.7 B/2. *ccording to t+e 1CCC Population and <ousing 0ensus (D#4& 1CCC t+e population of 4isauni stood at 2%C& !:1 increasing fro/ 153& 32% in 5ear 1C!C. -+is represents :3F population increase in a period of ten 5ears. -+e district is esti/ated to +a9ing /ore t+an 1%3& '37 poor people (4isauni 01?& 2'11 . *ccording to 4sauni 01? (2'11 3!.3F of people 4isauni li9e 3elow po9ert5 line. -+e +ig+ population in t+is area +as pro9ed to 3e a serious c+allenge in t+e pro9ision of essential ser9ices suc+ as water& +ousing& sanitation& education and +ealt+ care. Sample Si&e * sa/ple si=e of 1:' pre-sc+ool c+ildren aged 3etween 5 and : 5ears were selected fro/ 2' pre-sc+ools for t+e stud5. Eig+t (! c+ildren were purposi9el5 selected fro/ eac+ pre-sc+ool consisting of top four (% and 3otto/ four (% . -+e four top and four 3otto/ perfor/ing c+ildren were purposi9el5 sa/pled to esta3lis+ w+et+er t+eir parents; parenting st5les influenced t+eir perfor/ance in curricular acti9ities. ?urt+er& a sa/ple si=e of 1:' parentsG one per eac+ presc+ool c+ild selected were in9ited to t+e presc+ools to fill a >uestionnaire and 3e inter9iewed on t+eir parenting st5les. -+e sa/ple si=e for t+e current stud5 was c+osen considering pre9ailing financial and ti/e constraints. 4ot+ari (2''% states t+at financial and ti/e resources a9aila3le a/ong ot+er factors deter/ine t+e sa/ple si=e selected for a stud5. *ccording to .cneill (1CC' data in a large scale stud5 intended for statistical anal5sis s+ould 3e collected fro/ at least a sa/ple of 1'F of t+e population. -+is 9iew was taBen into consideration in t+e selection of t+e sa/ple for t+is stud5. -+e presc+ools selected represented 1'F of total nu/3er presc+ools in 4isauni& w+ile t+e c+ildren selected represented 12F of total nu/3er of c+ildren in presc+ools selected. -a3le 1 presents t+e sa/ple si=e for t+e stud5. -a3le 16 Sa/pling ?ra/e for Presc+ools& 0+ildren and Parents Sa/ple for Sc+ools Sa/ple for 0+ildren Sa/ple for Parents 1escription -otal Nu/3er Pu3lic pre-sc+ools 2: 1' !' !' Pri9ate pre-sc+ools 1:C 1' !' !' Pre-sc+ool c+ildren 1:&!13 2' 1:' Parents 15&''' 2' 1:' -a3le 1 s+ows t+at out of t+e 2: pu3lic presc+ools found in t+e district& 1' presc+ools were selected to participate in t+e stud5. )iBewise& out of t+e 1:C pri9ate presc+ool found in t+e district& 1' were selected. Eig+t (! presc+ool c+ildren were selected fro/ eac+ presc+ool 3asing on t+eir perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -+eir parents were t+en in9ited in t+e presc+ool to fill t+e >uestionnaire and 3e inter9iewed. *ppendi2 I$ s+ows t+e sc+ools w+ic+ participated in t+e stud5. Research 'nstr#ments -+e >uestionnaire& inter9iew sc+edule& and docu/ent anal5sis tec+ni>ues were used to collect data in t+is stud5. -+e /ain tools for t+e stud5 were >uestionnaire and docu/ent anal5sis. Huestionnaire was used to collect infor/ation fro/ parents and an inter9iew session was used to corro3orate t+e data collected. 1ocu/ent anal5sis was used to collect data on presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -+e selection of t+ese tools was guided 35 t+e nature of data collected& t+e ti/e a9aila3le as well as t+e o3Iecti9es of t+e stud5. (ata Analysis -+e Statistical PacBage for Social Sciences (SPSS was used to prepare and organi=e data for anal5sis. 1ata was anal5=ed statisticall5 using descripti9e and inferential statistics. It was anal5=ed descripti9el5 using /eans& standard de9iations& and percentages. -+e Pearson Product-.o/ent 0orrelation 0oefficient and one wa5 *N#$* tec+ni>ues were utili=ed to test t+e +5pot+eses at J @ '.'5 significance le9el. 1ata fro/ inter9iew was anal5=ed descripti9el5 w+ile t+at fro/ t+e >uestionnaire was anal5=ed 3ot+ descripti9el5 and inferentiall5. -+e results of t+is stud5 +a9e 3een reported on t+e 3asis of o3Iecti9es and +5pot+eses. 15:

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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-+e Pearson Product .o/ent 0orrelation was utili=ed to test +5pot+esis <'1& w+ic+ was used to s+ow t+e direction and /agnitude of t+e relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and pre-sc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in pre-sc+ool acti9ities. 4ot+ari (2''% states t+at Pearson;s coefficient of correlation is t+e /ost widel5 used /et+od of /easuring t+e degree of relations+ip 3etween two 9aria3les. #ne wa5 *N#$* was used to test +5pot+eses <'2& <'3& <'%& and <'5 in order to e2plore w+et+er t+ere are differences in /eans of c+ildren of parents wit+ different /ont+l5 inco/e le9els. #so and #nen (2''C state t+at *N#$* is an anal5sis tec+ni>ue t+at co/pares indi9idual or group differences of su3Iects e2posed to different treat/ents. -reat/ents in t+is stud5 were t+e different /ont+l5 inco/e le9els& e/plo5/ent status& /arital status& and education le9els of parents of presc+ool c+ildren in 4isauni. 4ot+ari (2''% states t+at *N#$* tec+ni>ue is an e2tre/el5 useful tool in e2a/ining significant differences t+at e2ist in /ore t+an two sa/ple /eans si/ultaneousl5. -+e essence of *N#$* is to detect w+et+er 9ariation in sa/ples can 3e attri3uted to c+ance or specific causes. Research )indings (emographic (ata of Parents In t+is stud5 1:' parents w+ose presc+ool c+ildren +ad 3een selected 3ased on t+eir perfor/ance in presc+ool acti9ities were sa/pled to participate. #f t+e 1:' parents sa/pled& 1%% (C'F accepted to participate in t+e stud5 w+ile 1: (1'F declined to participate. -+e de/ograp+ic infor/ation t+at was re>uired of t+e parents includedG t+e parents; se2& /arital status& education le9el& e/plo5/ent status& and /ont+l5 inco/e. Parents Se* Parents w+o participated in t+e stud5 were asBed to indicate w+et+er t+e5 were /ale or fe/ale. -a3le 2 presents t+e results on se2 of t+e parents w+o participated in t+is stud5. -a3le 26 Parents; Se2 ?re>uenc5 .ale ?e/ale -otal 3! 1': 1%% Percent 2:.% 73.: 1''.'

-a3le 2 indicates t+at t+ere were 2:.%F /ale and 73.:F fe/ale parents. -+is finding suggests t+at /ot+ers of presc+ool c+ildren in 4isauni 1istrict are /ore in9ol9ed in t+eir c+ildren sc+ool /atters t+an t+e fat+ers. -+e finding also suggests t+at /aIorit5 of /ot+ers of presc+ool c+ildren in 4isauni re/ain at +o/e w+ile fat+ers worB& t+erefore /ost of t+e /ot+ers were a9aila3le for t+e stud5 w+ile fat+ers were not. -+is finding is consistent wit+ t+at of Ndani (2''! in w+ic+ /ore wo/en turned up for t+e stud5 t+an /en. Ndani attri3uted t+is finding to t+e fact t+at /ore /en were engaged in e/plo5ed la3our t+an wo/en. -+is finding can also 3e attri3uted to t+e fact t+at c+ild care in t+e *frican societ5 is /ainl5 a wo/an;s agenda. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Childrens Performance -+e o3Iecti9e of t+is stud5 soug+t to esta3lis+ w+et+er t+ere was a relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -a3le 3 presents t+e results. -a3le 36 Eelations+ip (etween Parenting St5les and 0+ildren;s Perfor/ance in 0urriculu/ *cti9ities Parenting St5le *ut+oritati9e St5le Per/issi9e St5le *ut+oritarian st5le -otal N C5 1C 3' 1%% .ini/u/ !3.' 57.' %3.' .a2i/u/ 1''.' C1.' !7.' .ean Score C3.7 77.C 7%.1 !1.C

-+e results in ta3le 3 indicate t+at c+ildren w+ose parents used aut+oritati9e st5le attained +ig+er /ean score (C%F in presc+ool curriculu/ acti9ities t+an t+ose of per/issi9e (77F and aut+oritarian parenting st5le (7%F . 0+ildren raised 35 aut+oritarian and per/issi9e parenting st5les attained /ean scores 3elow t+e group;s a9erage score of !1.C. 0+ildren raised 35 aut+oritati9e parenting st5le attained t+e +ig+est /ean score w+ile t+ose raised 35 aut+oritarian attained t+e lowest. -+ese finding is consistent wit+ )a/3orn et al (1CC1 w+o found t+at adolescents of aut+oritati9e parents scored +ig+er le9els of co/petence t+an t+ose raised 35 per/issi9e and aut+oritarian parents. -+is i/plies t+at parenting st5les used 35 parents relate to c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -+e strengt+ and direction of t+is relations+ip was soug+t 35 testing t+e following 157

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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+5pot+esis6 H0: There is no significant relationship between parenting styles and preschool childrens performance in curriculum activities. -+e Pearson Product .o/ent 0orrelation coefficient was utili=ed to test t+is +5pot+esis. -a3les %& 5 and : present t+e results for t+is testG -a3le %6 Pearson Product .o/ent 0orrelation 0oefficient on *ut+oritati9e Parenting St5le and 0+ildren;s Perfor/ance *ut+oritati9e *ut+oritati9e Pearson 0orrelation Sig. (2-tailed N 0+ildren;s Perfor/ance Pearson 0orrelation Sig. (2-tailed N 1%% .!!2
,,

0+ildren;s perfor/ance .!!2,, .''' 1%% 1 1%%

.''' 1%%

,,. 0orrelation is significant at t+e '.'5 le9el (2-tailed . -a3le % indicates t+at t+e relations+ip 3etween aut+oritati9e parenting st5le and c+ildren;s perfor/ance was significant w+ere r @ '.!!2 and p @ '.'' A '.'5. -+e p 9alue '.'' was found to 3e less t+an t+e critical 9alue of '.'5. -+e null +5pot+esis was t+erefore reIected on t+e 3asis of t+is finding. -+e findings of t+e stud5 indicate t+at t+ere was a strong positi9e correlation 3etween aut+oritati9e parenting and presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -+is finding i/plies t+at +ig+er scores on aut+oritati9e parenting st5le relates to +ig+er presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -+e coefficient of deter/ination was co/puted to deter/ine t+e effect of aut+oritati9e parenting st5le on presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance. -+is was done 35 s>uaring t+e r @ '.!!2 to get percentage of 9arianceG w+ic+ indicated '.77!. -+is suggests t+at aut+oritati9e parenting st5le accounts for up to 7!F 9ariance in presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -+is i/plies t+at parents can i/pro9e presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities 35 up to 7!F 35 resorting to aut+oritati9e parenting st5le and related practices. -+ese findings were consistent wit+ t+e findings of #gwari (2'11 w+o found t+at parenting st5les influenced acade/ic perfor/ance of secondar5 sc+ool girls in .ount Elgon 1istrict& 4en5a. S+e found t+at girls of aut+oritati9e parents perfor/ed 3etter t+at t+ose of ot+er parents. -+e findings also agree wit+ findings of (au/rind (1C!C & )a/3orn et al. (1CC1 and Stein3erg et al. (1CC1 done in t+e 8nited States of */ericaG t+e5 found t+at parenting st5les were significantl5 associated wit+ adolescents; acade/ic perfor/ance in sc+ool. -+e5 found a positi9e correlation 3etween aut+oritati9e parenting st5le and adolescents acade/ic perfor/ance. -+e findings of t+e current stud5 were in agree/ent wit+ t+e findings of (au/rind (1C:7 w+o found t+at presc+ool c+ildren of aut+oritati9e parents were /ore ac+ie9e/ent K oriented t+an t+ose of aut+oritarian and per/issi9e parents. (au/rind (1CC1 also found t+at c+ildren of aut+oritati9e parents scored +ig+l5 in self K estee/ and acade/ic perfor/ance at t+e /iddle K sc+ool le9el in 8nited States of */erica. -+e findings of t+e current stud5 were also in agree/ent wit+ t+e findings of (au/rind et al. (2'1' w+o found t+at adolescents w+ose parents were aut+oritati9e during t+eir presc+ool 5ears were /ore co/petent t+an adolescents w+ose parent were aut+oritarian and per/issi9e during t+eir presc+ool 5ears. In t+e lig+t of t+ese findings& 1urBin (1CC5 cites t+ree reasons w+5 aut+oritati9e parenting st5le is positi9el5 associated wit+ c+ildren;s acade/ic perfor/ance in sc+ool. ?irst& +e suggests t+at aut+oritati9e parents pro9ide a +ig+ le9el of e/otional securit5 t+at pro9ides t+eir c+ildren wit+ a sense of co/fort and independence and +elps t+e/ succeed in sc+ool. Second& +e suggests t+at aut+oritati9e parents pro9ide t+eir c+ildren wit+ e2planations for t+eir actions w+ic+ pro9ide c+ildren wit+ a sense of awareness and understanding of t+eir parents; 9alues& /orals& and goals. -+e trans/ission of t+ese goals and 9alues e>uips t+ese c+ildren wit+ t+e tools needed to perfor/ well in sc+ool. -+ird& +e suggests t+at aut+oritati9e parents engage in gi9e-and-taBe co//unication wit+ t+eir c+ildren w+ic+ nurtures sBills in interpersonal relations t+at conse>uentl5 +elp t+e/ to e2cel in sc+ool& 3ot+ sociall5 and acade/icall5. -+e current stud5 found aut+oritati9e parenting st5le to 3e sensiti9e to c+ildren;s needs and feelings as well as encouraging c+ildren to e2press t+eir desires and feelings. It was also found to practice fir/ and reasona3le control on c+ildren;s 3e+a9ior wit+out 3eing puniti9e. Parents w+o practiced t+is st5le were found to 3e willing to acco//odate t+eir c+ildren;s 9iew points and at t+e sa/e ti/e pro9iding e2planations for t+eir e2pectations of t+eir c+ildren.

15!

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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-a3le 56 Pearson Product .o/ent 0orrelation 0oefficient on *ut+oritarian Parenting St5le and 0+ildren;s Perfor/ance *ut+oritarian *ut+oritarian Pearson 0orrelation Sig. (2-tailed N 0+ildren;s Perfor/ance Pearson 0orrelation Sig. (2-tailed N 1%% -.2:1
,,

0+ildren;s Perfor/ance -.2:1,, .''2 1%% 1 1%%

.''2 1%%

,,. 0orrelation is significant at t+e '.'5 le9el (2-tailed . -a3le 5 indicates t+at t+e relations+ip 3etween aut+oritarian parenting st5le and c+ildren;s perfor/ance was significant w+ere r @ -'.2:1 and p @ '.''2 A '.'5. -+e p 9alue '.''2 was found to 3e less t+an t+e critical 9alue of '.'1. -+e null +5pot+esis was t+erefore reIected on t+e 3asis of t+is finding. -+e stud5 found a negati9e correlation 3etween aut+oritarian parenting st5le and presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -+is i/plies t+at +ig+ /easures on aut+oritarian parenting st5le relates to lower presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities and 9ice 9ersa. -+e researc+er furt+er co/puted t+e coefficient of deter/ination to deter/ine t+e effect of aut+oritarian parenting st5le on presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance. -+is was done 35 s>uaring t+e r @ -'.2:1 to get percentage of 9arianceG w+ic+ indicated '.':!. -+is suggests t+at aut+oritarian parenting st5le accounts for :.!F 9ariance in presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance. -+is finding i/plies t+at parents can i/pro9e presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities 35 up 7F 35 discarding aut+oritarian parenting st5le and related practices. -+ese finding is in agree/ent wit+ t+e findings of #gwari (2'11 t+at found aut+oritarian parenting st5le associated wit+ poor acade/ic perfor/ance of secondar5 sc+ool girls in .ount Elgon 1istrict& 4en5a. -+e findings of t+e current stud5 were also consistent wit+ t+e findings of (au/rind (1C!C & )a/3orn et al. (1CC1 and Stein3erg et al. (1CC1 in t+e Nort+ */erican w+o found t+at aut+oritarian parenting st5le was associated wit+ low acade/ic perfor/ance a/ong adolescents in sc+ool. -+e findings of t+e current stud5 were in agree/ent wit+ t+e findings of (au/rind (1C:7 w+o found t+at presc+ool c+ildren of aut+oritarian parents were less ac+ie9e/ent K oriented t+an t+ose of aut+oritati9e parents. (au/rind (1CC1 also found t+at c+ildren of aut+oritarian parents scored 9er5 low in self-estee/ and acade/ic perfor/ance at t+e /iddle-sc+ool le9el in 8nited States of */erica. -+e findings also agree wit+ t+e findings of (au/rind et al. (2'1' w+o found t+at adolescents w+ose parents used aut+oritarian parenting st5le during presc+ool 5ears were inco/petent and /aladIusted in class. -+e findings of t+e stud5 were also consistent wit+ findings of 1orn3usc+ et al. (1C!7 w+o found aut+oritarian parenting st5le was negati9el5 associated wit+ adolescents; sc+ool grades. <owe9er& t+e present stud5 focused on presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. It found aut+oritarian parenting st5le associated wit+ lower perfor/ance in c+ildren;s perfor/ance in t+ese acti9ities. -a3le :6 Pearson Product .o/ent 0orrelation 0oefficient on Per/issi9e Parenting St5le and 0+ildren;s Perfor/ance Per/issi9e Per/issi9e Pearson 0orrelation Sig. (2-tailed N 0+ildren;s Perfor/ance Pearson 0orrelation Sig. (2-tailed N 1%% -.'7: .3:2 1%% 1%% 1 0+ildren;s Perfor/ance -.'7: .3:2 1%% 1

,,. 0orrelation is significant at t+e '.'5 le9el (2-tailed . -a3le : indicates t+at t+e relations+ip 3etween per/issi9e parenting st5le and c+ildren;s perfor/ance was not significant w+ere r @ -'.'7: and p @ '.3:2 L '.'5. -+e p 9alue '.3:2 was found to 3e /ore t+an t+e critical 9alue of '.'5. -+e null +5pot+esis was t+erefore accepted on t+e 3asis of t+is finding. -+e stud5 found no significant correlation 3etween per/issi9e parenting st5le and presc+ool c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. -+ese finding suggests t+at t+ere is no significant relations+ip 3etween per/issi9e parenting st5le and c+ildren;s perfor/ance in curriculu/ acti9ities. 15C

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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-+is finding is inconsistent wit+ t+e findings of (au/rind (1C:7 & 1orn3usc+ et al. (1C!7 & )a/3orn et al. (1CC1 & and (au/rind et al. (2'1' . (au/rind (1C:7 found t+at presc+ool c+ildren of per/issi9e parents were less co/petent wit+ low self-estee/. ?urt+er/ore& 1orn3usc+ et al. (1C!7 found per/issi9e parenting st5le negati9el5 associated wit+ adolescents; sc+ool grades. -+e5 found t+at adolescents of per/issi9e and aut+oritarian parents scored lower grades t+an adolescents of aut+oritati9e parents. <owe9er& t+e current stud5 found no significant relations+ip 3etween per/issi9e parenting st5les. -+e inconsistenc5 3etween t+e current stud5 and studies /entioned a3o9e could 3e attri3uted to cultural and econo/ic differences t+at e2ist in t+e areas under stud5. -+e inconsistenc5 could also 3e as a result of t+e 9er5 s/all sa/ple of per/issi9e parents (1C w+o participated in t+e stud5. Pallant (2''5 states t+at t+e si=e of a sa/ple /a5 affect t+e statistical significance of a correlation coefficient co/puted. Recommendations (ased on t+e findings of t+is stud5& t+e researc+er reco//ends t+e following6 Recommendations for the School $anagers and Administrators -+e stud5 soug+t to esta3lis+ t+e relations+ip 3etween parenting st5les and c+ildren;s perfor/ance in presc+ool acti9ities. It found t+at aut+oritati9e parenting st5le was associated wit+ +ig+er perfor/ance of c+ildren in presc+ool acti9ities w+ile aut+oritarian parenting st5le was associated wit+ lower perfor/ance. -+erefore& t+ere is need for sc+ool /anagers and ad/inistrators to de9ice progra//es ai/ed at sensiti=ing parents on t+eir parenting st5les. -+e progra//es s+ould +elp parents 3e aware and understand t+eir parenting st5les and t+eir i/plications on c+ildren;s perfor/ance. -+e5 s+ould t+en 3e sensiti=ed to adopt st5les and practices of aut+oritati9e parents t+at were found to +elp c+ildren do well in presc+ool curriculu/ acti9ities. Recommendations for the Policy $a"ers in the $inistry of Ed#cation Polic5 /aBers at t+e .inistr5 of Education s+ould de9elop policies t+at would encourage parents to adopt appropriate parenting st5les. -+is can 3e done 35 use of se/inars& worBs+ops and focus group discussions at grass root le9els. -+is can also 3e done 35 de9eloping a +and3ooB or /anual on effecti9e parenting st5les for parents of presc+ool c+ildren. Polic5 /aBers at t+e .inistr5 of Education s+ould also pro9ide co/pre+ensi9e guidelines on co//unit5 capacit5 3uilding t+roug+ training and sensiti=ation on parenting st5les. -+e5 s+ould de9ice progra//es t+at s+ould target local co//unit5 leaders suc+ as c+iefs& assistant c+iefs& count5 representati9es& local religious leaders w+o would in turn sensiti=e parents and co//unit5 /e/3ers on opti/al parenting st5les and related practices. -+is can 3e done 35 use foru/s suc+ as pu3lic /eetings& religious congregations& c+iefs; 3ara=as and so fort+. Recommendations for the C#rric#l#m (eveloper -+ere is need for t+e 4en5a Institute of 0urriculu/ 1e9elop/ent (4I01 and t+e National 0entre for Earl5 0+ild+ood Education (N*0E0E to de9elop a curriculu/ and a training /anual ai/ed at educating parents and co//unities on parenting st5les and t+eir i/plications on c+ildren;s perfor/ance in sc+ool. -+e curriculu/ s+ould ai/ at facilitating training of parents on parenting sBills and st5les t+at en+ance c+ild de9elop/ent. References (au/rind& 1. (1C:7 . 0+ildcare practices anteceding t+ree patterns of presc+ool 3e+a9ior. Genetic Psychology Monographs& !& %3K!!. (au/rind& 1. (1C71 . 0urrent patterns of parental aut+orit5. "evelopmental Psychology Monographs #ournal$ % &'(. (au/rind& 1. (1C!C . Eearing co/petent c+ildren. In 1a/on& M. (ed. & )hild "evelopment Today and Tomorrow. San ?rancisco6 Josse5-(ass. (au/rind& 1. (1CC1 . -+e influence of parenting st5les on adolescent co/petence and su3stance use. #ournal of *arly +dolescence$ 11& 5:-C5. (au/rind& 1.& )ar=elene& E.& N #wen& (. E. (2'1' . Effects of Presc+ool Parents Power *sserti9e Patterns and Practices on *dolescent 1e9elop/ent. Parenting: ,cience and Practices$ '0$ '! -.0'. "oi: '0. '0/00'!.1!'10102.10 10. (erB& ). E. (2'': . )hild "evelopment (:nd ed. 8S*6 Pearson Education Inc. 1arling& N.& N Stein3erg& ). (1CC3 . Parenting st5le as conte2t6 *n integrati9e /odel. Psychological 3ulletin$ ''2(3 $ %!7-%C:. 1orn3usc+& S...& Eitter& P.).& )eider/an& P. <.& N Eo3ert& 1.?. (1C!7 . -+e relation of parenting st5le to adolescent sc+ool perfor/ance. )hild "evelopment$ !/$ '.%%-'.! . 1urBin& 4. (1CC5 . "evelopmental ,ocial Psychology: 4rom 5nfancy to 6ld +ge. (lacBwell6 .alden& .*. Ders+off& E. -. (2''2 . Parental corporal punis+/ent and associated c+ild 3e+a9iors and e2periences6 * /etaanal5tic and t+eoretical re9iew. Psychological 3ulletin& './& 53CK57C.

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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.22& 2'13

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D#4 (1CCC . National population and +ousing census. $ol 1. .inistr5 of Planning and National 1e9elop/ent. Nairo3i6 0entral (ureau of Statistics. )a/3orn& S. 1.& .ounts& N. S.& Stein3erg& ).& N 1orn3usc+& S. .. (1CC1 . Patterns of co/petence and adIust/ent a/ong adolescents fro/ aut+oritati9e& aut+oritarian& indulgent& and neglectful fa/ilies. )hild "evelopment$ :2& 1'%C-1':5. )ar=elere& E. E. (2''1 . 0o/3ining lo9e and li/its in aut+oritati9e parenting6 * conditional se>uence /odel of disciplinar5 responSES. In J. 0. Mest/an (Ed. & Parenthood in +merica: 7ndervalued$ underpaid$ under siege (pp. !1K!C . .adison& MI6 8ni9ersit5 of Misconsin Press. )eung& 4.& )au& S.& N )a/& M.). (1CC! . Parenting st5les and acade/ic ac+ie9e/ent6 * cross cultural stud5. Merrill 8 palmer 9uarterly$ %%$'! -' .. .acco35& E.E.& N .artin& J.*.&(1C!3 . Sociali=ation in t+e conte2t of t+e fa/il56 parent K c+ild interaction. In E... <et+erington (Ed. & P.<. .ussen (Series Ed. & Handboo: of )hild Psychology: ;ol. % ,ociali<ation$ Personality$ and social development (pp. 1-1'1 . New OorB6 Mile5. .cNeill & P. (1CC' . =esearch Methods. (2nd ed. )ondon6 Eic+ard 0la5 )td. .ugenda& #. .. N .ugenda& *. D. (2''3 . =esearch Methods. Nairo3i-4en5a6 *frican 0entre for -ec+nolog5 Studies (*0-S Press. Ndani& .. (2''! . Eelations+ip (etween 0o//unit5 Participation and Presc+ool .icros5ste/s in -+iBa 1istrict& 4en5a. Published Ph. " Thesis. >enyatta 7niversity. Ngwiri& ). N. (2''! . Powerful Parenting: ?hat *very Parent ,hould >now. Nairo3i6 Hueene2 <oldings )td. #gwari& E. *. (2'11 . Influence of Parenting St5les on Self-0oncept and *cade/ic Perfor/ance6 Students; Perception6 * case of Secondar5 Sc+ools in .ount Elgon 1istrict& 4en5a. (online *9aila3le6 +ttp6PPwww. */a=on.co.uB. #so& M. O. N #nen& 1. (2''C . + General Guide to ?riting =esearch Proposal and =eport: + Handboo: for 3eginning =esearchers. Nairo3i6 Jo/o 4en5atta ?oundation. Pallant& J. (2''5 . ,P,, survival manual: + step by step guide to data analysis using ,P,, version '.. New OorB6 #pen 8ni9ersit5 Press. Stein3erg& ).& .ounts& N. S.& )a/3orn& S. 1.& and 1orn3usc+& S. .. (1CC1 . *ut+oritati9e parenting and adolescent adIust/ent across 9aried ecological nic+es. #ournal of =esearch on +dolescence$ 1& 1CK3:.

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