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Chapter 1 Overview

1.1 History of GSM

1.1.1 GSM Development
Mobile telecommunications technology began as early as 1920s when the mobile telecommunications system for shortwave developed first at that time. The first public bus telephony system in 1946 served as the basis for modern public mobile telecommunications system. ollowing the development of telecommunications technologies such as mobile radio transmission! channel management and mobile switching! various mobile telecommunications systems li"e cellular phone! mobile call! land cellular mobile telecommunications and satellite mobile telecommunications also emerged rapidly. #ince 19$0s! cellular mobile telecommunications has developed from the first generation of simulation cellular mobile telecommunications system to the second generation of digital cellular system. %stablished in %urope! 1991! &#M is a global system for digital cellular mobile telecommunications and has gained unprecedented development because of its public standards worldwide and strong roaming ability. 'ccording to global mobile telecommunications system institution! the number of &#M subscribers is e(pected to reach 1 billion in over 206 roaming countries by early 2004. &#M mainly provide voice service and low speed data service. )ompared with the first generation! &#M has such distinct features as high security! strong anti*interference ability! high spectrum effectiveness and capability with the mean fre+uency reuse coefficient less than ,.

1.1.2 GPRS Development

&eneral -ac"et .adio #ervice /&-.#0 is a new bearer service based on the current &#M system. 1t can be regarded as the application of &#M in 1- and 2.23 data networ"! and also as the application of internet in radio service. &-.# can be used in T-! 4%5 browser! %*mail etc The primary difference between &-.# radio pac"et data system and the current &#M voice system is that &#M is a circuit*switched system while &-.# is a pac"et switched system. The basic process of pac"et switching is to divide the data into several small pac"ets and transfer them to the destination in a storage*

switch way through different routes! and then arrange into complete data. .adio channel is a very rare resource in &#M system. %ach channel can only provide a transfer rate of 9.6"bit6s or 14.4"bit6s in circuit*switched system. )ombining several slots together provides higher rate! but it can only be en7oyed by one subscriber and is not feasible considering cost*efficiency. -ac"et switched &-.# can arrange the mobile channels in a fle(ible way to serve many &-.# data subscribers and ma"e full use of the radio resource. &-.# can theoretically combine a ma(imum of $ slots together and provide a bandwidth as high as 1,1.2"bit6s shared by many subscribers. &-.# is a great leap for &#M system in radio data service which provides a convenient and highly efficient radio pac"et data service at low costs. &-.# is especially for interrupted! burst! fre+uent or small data transmission. 1t is also adopted in burst large data transmission. Most mobile internet protocols have such features. 'ccording to the &-.# proposal made by %T#1! &-.# can be divided into two stages after commercial use. 1n the first stage! it offers services such as %*mail! internet browsing. The second stage of &-.# is based on %8&% %*&-.#. %8&% is a high rate mobile data standard with a data transmission rate as high as 9$4"bit6s. %8&% can greatly improve the efficiency of &-.# channel coding and fully meet the re+uirement for broadband in the future radio multimedia application. 8ifferent from the current &#M system! %8&% adopts a modulation technology recommended in the 9& mobile telecommunications. 's a transition from &-.# to 9&6:MT#! %8&% finished its feasibility study and got %T#1 approval in 199,. The standardi;ation process of %8&% consists of two stages. The first stage focused on the enhanced &-.# /%&-.#0 and enhanced circuit switching digital service /%)#80 and standardi;ed in 1999. The second stage defined the improved multimedia and real time services and standardi;ed in 2000. %8&% enables networ" operators to ma"e full use of the current radio networ" e+uipment during the transition from &-.# to 9&6:MT#. %8&% has the following primary features< 10 %8&% has a high rate. The current &#M networ" mainly uses &uassian Minimum #hift =eying /&M#=0 modulation. %8&% adopts >ctal -hase #hift =eying /$-#=0 modulation with a rate of 9$4"bit6s in mobile environment and 2Mbit6s in static environment! which generally meets the re+uirement of the third mobile telecommunication system and all "inds of radio application. 20 %8&% supports both pac"et switched data transmission and circuit switched data transmission at the same time. The timeslot rate of pac"et switched service with %8&% is as high as 11.2*69.2"bit6s! and for circuit switched service! this rate can reach 2$.$"bit6s. 90 %8&% supports both symmetric and asymmetric data transmission. 1t is a

very important feature for mobile networ" and other data services. 1n %8&% system! subscribers can en7oy a downlin" rate higher than uplin" rate. 40 Technically! %8&% is an improvement for radio interface. To a large e(tent! it can be regarded as an effective general radio interface technology which promotes the 9& evolution for cellular mobile system.

1.1.3 Evol tion to 3G

1n order to uniform the global mobile telecommunication standard and telecommunication band! reali;e 9& global roaming! and improve the spectral efficiency and the data service transmission rate to meet the re+uirement of multimedia service! 1nternational Telecommunications :nion *.adiocommunication #ector 1T: . began the study on the 9& mobile telecommunications 14 years ago. 5y ?une 90th! 199$! the calling deadline for the standard of the 9& mobile telecommunications radio transmission technology /.TT0! 1T: . had received si(teen 9& .TT standard resolutions consist of si( resolutions for satellite mobile and ten resolutions for land mobile from 'merica! %urope! )hina! ?apan! #outh =orea etc The T8 #)8M' standard resolution proposed by )hina is one of the ten land mobile 9& .TT resolutions. 1T:. raised the following re+uirement for the 9&< @@ high speed land mobile< 88< terminal at 300"m6h mobile speed provides a transmission rate of 144"bit6s. T88< terminal at 120"m6h mobile speed provides a transmission rate of 144"bit6s. @@ medium and low speed land mobile< 88 and T88< terminal at medium and low speed provides a transmission rate of 9$4"bit6s. @@ land wal"ing and indoor fi(ed terminal 88 and T88< terminal at wal"ing speed or in fi(ed condition provides a transmission rate of 2Mbit6s. 'ccording to 9& standard re+uirement! 1T: . carried out a two*year study on ten land mobile standard resolutions in terms of evaluation! emulation! integration! "ey parameter confirmation and finally approved five technical specifications /including that proposed by )hina0 for radio transmission in Tur"ey 1T: . plenary meeting in May 3th! 2000. 'mong these five specifications! three are based on )8M' and two are based on T8M'. @@ specifications based on )8M'<

1MT2000 )8M' 8#4)8M'cdma2000 8# 1MT2000 )8M' M)cdma2000 M) 1MT2000 )8M' T88T8#)8M'T8)8M' @@ specifications based on T8M'< 1MT2000 T8M' #)uwc 196 1MT2000 T8M' M)8%)T #ince T8M' is not a mainstream in the 9&! T8M' #) and T8M' M) are used as regional standards for upgrading 1# 196 and 8%)T system. The three .TT specifications based on )8M'! also called one family! three members! become the mainstream in the 9&. 5oth )8M'8# and )8M'M) are fre+uency division duple( / 880. )8M' T88 is time division duple( /T880. 1T: . assigns independent band for 9& 88 and T88A Therefore! 88 and T88 are coe(istent and complementary with each other. )onsidering core networ" signaling adaptation and public core networ" resource! most &#M networ" operators choose :MT#64)8M'. 'lthough 9& is called radio broadband multimedia! in fact! the primary tas" of 9& is to solve the problem of increasing voice service. 1n )hina! the current bandwidth is already not in line with the rapid increase of the voice subscribers. Boice service with 9& networ" can not only meet the re+uirement of the increasing subscribers but also help to reduce costs and improve service ability. The overall building costs of 9& networ" voice service is e(pected to be 7ust half of that of 2& networ" voice service. Meanwhile! the high*+uality voice service at low costs enables subscribers to e(plore more services 9& provides! such as videotelephony! multimedia and other data services. 8uring the initial stage! :MT# coverage may not as large as that of &#M! together with the uneven development of 9& worldwideA therefore! the terminal should be &#M6:MT# dualband and support &#M :MT# roaming and system switching! in order to solve the problem of service continuity and cross*operator roaming. 1n :MT# coverage area! dualband terminal can en7oy :MT# high rate data service and voice service as well. 1n the dead ;one of :MT#! dualband terminal subscribers can still get support from &#M voice service and low rate data service. Therefore! &#M networ" will continue to provide voice service and low rate data service for a long time in future. 1t is a long term tas" to carry out &#M networ" optimi;ation and &#M radio planning for the future 9& building.

1.2 Ra!io "etwor# Plannin$ Optimi%ation

The ob7ective is to build a radio networ" of large capacity and broad coverage as

best as possible and ma"e it available for future networ" development and e(pansion. Cetwor" planning optimi;ation is a systematic pro7ect covering the whole process of networ" building from technology system comparison to radio transmission theory! from antenna feeder inde( analysis to networ" capability forecast! and from pro7ect low level design to networ" performance test and system parameter ad7ustment optimi;ation. Cetwor" planning is an integrated technology re+uiring wired and wireless "nowledge and abundant practical e(periences. 1t involves from macro view such as technology system! characteristic of coverage capability and general design idea of radio networ"! to micro view such as cell parameters.

1.2.1 Ra!io "etwor# Plannin$ Optimi%ation &low

The radio networ" planning optimi;ation flow chart is as follows<

&i$ re 1.1 .adio networ" planning optimi;ation flow The first stage is call service coverage analysis. The following information is re+uired in order to support networ" planning< cost limit! various maps! coverage area type! service type! terminal type and proportion! coverage and capability re+uests of different services! available band! class of service! population distribution! the development of system capacity! income distribution! and the use of fi(ed*line phone. The second stage is emulation. Cetwor" dimensioning estimate should be carried out on the basis of 5## e+uipment and the mature planning method after call service coverage analysis to get the coverage areas and the number of base stations! and then obtain the configuration /type! address and height of base station! carrier type! power amplifier type! fre+uency! antenna feeder

combination! e+uipment type0 of all base stations according to call service distribution. :se planning software for emulation and verify and ad7ust the estimate result. %nsure the stated coverage and capacity and a certain class of service. The third stage is survey. )arry out field e(ploration according to emulation result. .ecord potential base station address following the re+uirement of base station building! including power supply! transmission! electromagnetic bac"ground! land condition. .ecommend proper resolution for base station address on the basis of the offset range from the ideal address! the influence on the future cell splitting! economic return! and coverage forecast! and decide whether the electromagnetic bac"ground is purified or not. The forth stage is system design. 8ecide the fre+uency! neighboring cell plan! and operating parameters of each cell according to the distribution and type of base stations. inish the database. The fifth stage is installation and debugging. )arry out system installation and debugging according to designed data and ma"e sure the normal system running. The si(th stage is optimi;ation. 4ith the increase of subscribers! networ" re+uires continuous optimi;ation. >ptimi;ation is a refined ad7ustment and a complementary to pro7ect defects. 1t also includes resource ad7ustment of e(ception conditions such as high*volume traffic burst. )ircuit test! traffic statistics! alarm and sub7ective sense are usually used as optimi;ation measures. #ignaling tracing and analysis plays a decisive role in solving tough problems. )arry out optimi;ation report and suggestions for future networ" building. 4hen the traffic volume e(ceeds the former ob7ect! e(tend the networ" and carry out new analysis of capacity and coverage.

1.2.2 Diffi' lties in Ra!io "etwor# Plannin$

'mong the si( stages above! the first four stages are usually called preplanning6planning stages and the last two stages are optimi;ation stages. %arly planning is of vital importance to networ" running. Date optimi;ation can hardly change the networ" architecture and the +uality of networ" runningA therefore! networ" planning deserves enough emphasis and attention. The main problems of &#M planning optimi;ation are as follows< 10 1t is difficult to ma"e theoretical forecast of coverage area because of the comple( transmission environment! highly fluctuant signals! and big differences among multi*channel transmissions due to various buildings. 20 5esides man*made noise! other serious interferences such as ad7acent signals! intermodulation and other radio 7amming have to be considered in

pro7ect design and controlled within a proper range. 90 re+uency resource becomes more and more limited with great increase of subscribers. 40 8ue to outside influences! the cellular structure and base station placement cannot be carried out e(actly according to plan in actual pro7ect. 30 There are some networ" planning problems in particular situation.