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Infants Edition
We can count on
from the biggest
number to work out
a number sentence
I can double numbers
together
I can use Skip
Counting to work out
how many squares to
move forward when
playing Snakes and
A Special thank you to Rockingham Lakes P.S in W.A who developed this booklet
Using Basic Facts
Remembering Basic Number Facts helps us to work with numbers
quicker and with ease. Different people remember different number
facts. How many number facts can you remember?
3!y!3!>!5!
41!–!26!>!26!
23!.!3!>!21!
4!,!4!>!7!
21!,!2!>!22!
6!y!5!>!31!
36!.!36!>!1!
61!.!41!>!31!
39!–!29!>!21!
21!,!2!>!22!
3!y!4!>!7!
:!,!6!>!25!
3!,!3!>!5!
25!,!7!>!31!
41!,!81!>!211!
21!,!21!>!31!
29,!3!>!31!
26!,!26!>!41!
61!,!31!>!
2
Skip Counting
Let’s skip
count by 2s!
2 4 6 8 10 12
14 16 18…
We can skip count lots of things…like our pencils,
Lego, toys, counters…
Count forwards and backwards by 2s
3! 5!
7!
9! 21! 23! 25! 27! 29! 31!33!
Count forwards and backwards by 5s
6!21!26!31!36!41!46!51!56!61!66!71!
76!81!86!91!96!:1!:6!211!216!221!
Count forwards and backwards by 10s starting from
different points
! 21!31!41!51!61!71!81!91!:1!211!!!
9!29!39!49!59!69!79!89!99!:9!219!!
Count forwards and backwards by 100s
211!311!411!511!611!711!811!911!!!
3
Counting On
Count on by ones from the biggest number to
calculate an addition number sentence. Count on by
ones from the biggest number to calculate an
26!,!:!>!35!
26!27!28!29!2:!31!32!33!34!35!
!
9!,!6!>! 24!
9!:!21!22!23!24!
!
31!,!9!>!39!
31!32!33!34!35!36!37!38!39!
!
28!,!8!>!35!
28!29!2:!31!32!33!34!35!
and then carefully count along the number line and
stop at the second number.
26!!!!!!!!,!!!!!!!!!!7!
Keep the first
number in your
memory
Count along the
number line 6
spaces and then
stop
26!27!28!29!2:!31!32!
4
Counting Back
Count back by ones from the biggest number to
calculate a subtraction number sentence.
34!–!9!>!26!
34!33!32!31!2:!29!28!27!26!
!
41!–!7!>!35!
41!3:!39!38!37!36!35!!
!
39!–!23!>!27!
39!38!37!36!35!34!33!32!31!2:!29!28!27!
!
32!–!23!>!:!
32!31!2:!29!28!27!26!25!24!23!22!21!:!
and then carefully count back along the number line
and stop at the second number.
24!!!!!!!!.!!!!!!!!!!7!
Keep the first
number in your
memory
Count back along
the number line 6
spaces and then
stop
24!23!22!21!:!9!8!!
5
Grouping of place value
Separate numbers into thousands, hundreds, tens
and ones and then calculate the answer
34!,!25!>!
!
31!,!4!,!21!,!5!>!
!
41!,!8!>!
48!
56!,!63!>!
!
51!,!6!,!61!,!3!>!
!
:1!,!8!>!
:8!
239!,!256!>!
!
211!,!31!,!9!,!211!,!51!,!6!>!
!
311!,!71!,!24!>!
384!
!
Remember to add the hundreds, the tens and the ones together.
Don’t forget any of the numbers! Place Value can be used as a
mental maths strategy by itself and when using other strategies
like counting on.
6
- Subtraction -
Grouping of place value
Separate numbers into hundreds, tens and ones
36!–!23!>!@! 31!–!21!>!21! !!!21!,!4!>!!24!
!!!!!6!.!3!!>!4!!
31!!6!!21!3! !
!
!
!
!
:7!.!54!>!@! :1!–!51!>!61!!!61!,!4!>!!64!
!!!!!7!.!4!!>!4!
:1!!7!!!51!4!
!
!
!
!
348!–!223!>!@! 311–211!>211!! !211,31,6!>!236!!
! ! ! ! !!!!41.!21!>31!
311!41!8!211!21!3! !8!.!3!>!6!
!!!!
!
!!!
!
!
!
!
!
7
Ten-Frames
Give some from one number to another to make
easier numbers to work with.
!9!,!8!!jt!21!,!6!!!!!!!!7!,!9!!!jt!!!21!,!5!
Move 2 from 7 to the 8.
This will make 10.
Move 2 from the 6 to the 8.
This will make ten
26!,!38!!!is the same as!!!31!,!33!>!53!
Move 5 from the 27 to make 20. Then add 20 and 22 together.
8
Doubling
When you double a number you add it to itself.
Epvcmjoh! 2! 2!,!2!>!3! ! Epvcmjoh!3! 3!,!3!>!5!
Epvcmjoh! 4! 4!,!4!>!7! ! Epvcmjoh!5! 5!,!5!>!9!
Epvcmjoh! 6! 6!,!6!>!21!! Epvcmjoh!7! 7!,!7!>!23!
Epvcmjoh! 8! 8!,!8!>!25!! Epvcmjoh!9! 9!,!9!>!27!
Epvcmjoh! :! :!,!:!>!29! ! Epvcmjoh!21! 21!,!21!>!31!
Epvcmjoh! 22! 22!,!22!>!33!! Epvcmjoh!23! 23!,!23!>!35!
Halving
When you halve a number you break it into
2 equal parts.
Ibmg!pg!3!! >!2!!! ! Ibmg!pg!5!! >!3!
Ibmg!pg!7!! >!4!!!!!!!Ibmg!pg!9!! >!5!!!!!
Ibmg!pg!21!! >!6!!!!! Ibmg!pg!23!! >!7!
Ibmg!pg!25!! >!8!!!!! Ibmg!pg!27!! >!9!!!
Ibmg!pg!29!! >!:!!!!!!!Ibmg!pg!31!!>!21!
Knowing the doubles of numbers helps you to halve
them as well. Doubling and Halving helps us to
calculate maths problems more quickly by using
different mental maths strategies like ten frames
and bridging
9
Use Counting On to Solve
Subtraction
We can solve subtraction number sentences by Counting
On instead of counting back. Sometimes Counting On
makes it easier to solve a subtraction problem.
28!.!25!>!4!
Jotufbe!pg!Dpvoujoh!Cbdl!
28!27!26!25!24!23!22!21!:!9!8!7!6!5!4!
ju!jt!fbtjfs!boe!rvjdlfs!up!Dpvou!Po!
Tubsu!bu!25!boe!tupq!bu!28!
25!26!27!28!
36!.!27!>!:!
Jotufbe!pg!Dpvoujoh!Cbdl!
36!35!34!33!32!31!2:!29!28!27!26!25!24!23!22!21!:!!
Ju!jt!fbtjfs!boe!rvjdlfs!up!Dpvou!Po!
Tubsu!bu!27!boe!tupq!bu!36!
27!28!29!2:!31!32!33!34!35!36!
4:!.!34!>!27!
Jotufbe!pg!Dpvoujoh!Cbdl!
4:!49!48!47!46!45!44!43!42!41!3:!39!38!37!36!35!34!
33!32!31!2:!29!28!27!
Ju!jt!fbtjfs!boe!rvjdlfs!up!Dpvou!Po!
Tubsu!bu!34!boe!tupq!bu!4:!
34!35!36!37!38!39!3:!41!42!43!44!45!46!47!48!49!4:!
10
Number Lines
With Number lines, we can make jumps
to solve number problems.
23!–!7!>!7!
1!2!3!4!5!6!7!8!9!:!21!22!23!!
!! !!!!!
Using the number line
we can start at 12 and
jump back 6 numbers
to give us an
4!
6!
51!52!53!54!55!56!57!58!59!5:!61!
61!–!9!>!53!
We can also jump by
bigger numbers to make
it quicker to find the
We can use Number Lines with other maths strategies
such as ten frames
!)4*!!
!!!!34!,!46!>!!!jt!uif!tbnf!bt!!!31!,!49!
!
Give the 3 from 23 to the 35 to make 38 and then imagine a
number line by adding on the 20.
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!21!!!!!21!
49!!!!59!!!!!!!69!
!!!!)4*!
! !!57!,!24!>!!!!jt!uif!tbnf!bt!!!5:!,!21!
Give the 3 from 13 to 46 to make 49 and then imagine a number
line by adding on the 10
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!21!
5:!!!!!!!!!!!!!6:!
11
Friends of Ten
Friends of Ten work together to make maths problems
easier. Recognition of number combinations to ten
must be automatic.
6!,!6!>!21! 8!,!4!>!21! 9!,!3!>!21! :!,!2!>!21!!!!5!,!7!>!21!
!
2:!,!2!>!31! 24!,!8!>!31! 23!,!9 !>!31! 22!,!:!>!31! 26!,!6!>31!
!
36!,!36!>!61!!! 46!,!26!>!61! !!56!,!6!>!61! 31!,!41!>!61!
Bridging
When bridging numbers you add or subtract from
the numbers in a problem to make it easier to solve.
Bridging to multiples of 10 helps to make maths
problems easier to solve.
Bridge to 20
Take 2 from 14 and give
it to 18
25!,!29!>!23!,!)29!,!3*!>!23!,!31!>!43!
Bridge to 40
Take 3 from 55 and give
it to 37
48!,!66!>!)4!,!48*!,!63!>!51!,!63!>!:3!
!
12
x Multiplication x
(Grouping)
4!y!5!>!23!
This means 3 groups with four items in each group.
5!y!6!>!31!
Four groups with 5
items in each group.
!
!
8!y!7!>!53!
Seven groups with six
items in each group.
!
This is always done with concrete materials such as counters,
pegs, blocks, toys or drawings.
13
÷ Division ÷
(Sharing)
23!÷!4!>!5!
We need to find out how many items are in each group, so we
make 3 groups and equally share the 12 items.
!
21!÷!3!>!6!
We need 2 groups and
Equally share the 10 items
!
!
!
29!÷!7!>!4!
We need 6 groups and
equally share the 18 items
This is always done with concrete materials such as counters,
pegs, blocks, toys or drawings.
14
Number Families
Knowing the relationship between addition and
subtraction, division and multiplication, helps us to work
with numbers when we solve number stories and
number sentences.
These are often called ‘turn around facts’
!
24!,!8!>!31!! 8!,!24!>!31!!!!31!–!8!>!24! !31!–!24!>!8!
!
6!y!4!>!26! ! 4!y!6!>!26! !!!26!÷!4!>!6!!!26!÷!6!>!4!
Number Families help us to solve hidden number problems
39!.!!!>!5!jt!uif!tbnf!bt!39!– 5!>!!
!
!,!67!>!232!jt!uif!tbnf!bt!232!– 67!>!!
!
– 2:!>!6!jt!uif!tbnf!bt!2:!,!6!>!
!
!!!!!!!:!y!!!>!74!jt!uif!tbnf!bt!74!÷!:!>!
!
!!!!!!! ÷!6!>!5!jt!uif!tbnf!bt!5!y!6!>!
We can work out hidden numbers by using the relationships
between number operations ( + ‐ x ÷ ).
15
Combination of Numbers
Numbers are made up of parts to make a whole. Knowing the
different parts of numbers helps us to use other mental
maths strategies like Place Value, Bridging and Number
Families. It is helpful to know the combinations for numbers
5, 10, 20, 50 and 100.
:!,!2!>!21!
9!,!3!>21!
4!,!8!>!21!
21!
different parts
5!,!7!>!21!
8!,!4!>!21!
7!,!5!>!21!
6!,!6!>!21!
5!,!2!>!6!
4!,!3!>!6!
6!
3!,!4!>!6!
different parts
2!,!5!>!6!
16
Solving Number Stories
Read the number story carefully. Highlight the important maths words.
Write out the number sentence using the highlighted words to help you.
Number Story
Number Sentence
Miss Murray had some fish in her fish tank. She
went shopping and bought 7 more fish and now
she has 18. How many fish did Miss Murray have to
begin with?
Miss Lee had 17 pencils. She gave some pencils out
to the children and now she only has 12 left. How
many pencils did Miss Lee give out to the children?
!
22!
!!!!!!!!,!8!>!29!
!
!!!!28!.!!!!!>!23!
6!
Sam bought some lollies from shop. She had 3 bags
with 4 lollies in each bag. How many lollies did Sam
have all together?
!
!!!!4!y!5!!!>!!
23!
!
Mrs Jones had 12 glitter pens. She decided to share
them between 3 students. How many pens did
each student get?
!
5!
!!!!23!!÷!4!>!!
17
Website
Go to
Lake Munmorah Public School website:
www.lakemunmor-p.schools.nsw.edu.au/
 Click on Maths
Click on KLA’s
Here you will find many interesting and fun activities for your children.
Games
If you need help working Maths into any of these games contact the
school and we will give you some ideas.
 Cards
 Trouble
Connect 4
Tick-tack toe
 Battleship
 Any dice game . You can always change the numbers on your dice
or purchase ones with many numbers already on them.
 First to 20 – toss a dice and continue add the number you toss on
your next turn. (Make larger numbers for older children)
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GLOSSARY
Other words for:
plus
Eg:
3 plus
2 equals 5
+
3 add on 2 equals 5
count on
and
sum of
3 count on 2 equals 5
3 and 2 equals 5
The sum of 3 and 2 is 5
Subtraction take away
Eg: 8 take away 5 equals 3
-
minus
8 minus 5 equals 3
subtract
less than
difference between
8 subtract 5 equals 3
5 less than 8 is 3
The difference between
8 and 5 is 3
Multiplication lots of
Eg:
3 lots of 5 equals 15
×
groups of
times
multiplied by
product of
3 groups of 5 equals 15
3 times 5 equals 15
3 multiplied by 5 is 15
The product of 3 and 5
is 15
Division
quotient of
÷
Eg: The quotient of 15 and 5
is 3
divided by
shared equally
how many groups of
15 divided by 5 is 3 is 5
15 shared equally
between 3 is 5
How many groups of 5 in