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It has been narrated that [Imam] Ja`far Ibn Muhamad said: Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.

h) used to put his face between the breasts of [his daughter] atimah (as) before going to s!eep." (#ihaar a!$ %nwar& 'o!. ()& p. *+). Is this hadith 'a!id, -uestion It has been narrated that [Imam] Ja`far Ibn Muhamad said: Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) used to put his face between the breasts of [his daughter] atimah (as) before going to s!eep." (#ihaar a!$ %nwar& 'o!. ()& p. *+). Is this hadith 'a!id, .oncise answer
$ /ur hadiths are categori0ed into two groups1 some are dependab!e that ha'e authentic chains of narrators& and others aren2t dependab!e which are unauthentic or their chain of narrators isn2t c!ear etc. $ 3he abo'e mentioned hadith has been narrated in the boo4 Manaqib5 of Ibn 6hahr %shub and Biharul-Anwar has reported it from there. 6ince this hadith has no chain of narrators or hasn2t been cited in an7 sources& it isn2t re!iab!e. $ %ssuming that it is re!iab!e and authentic& pa7ing attention to a few points can so!'e the prob!em: 8$ Pa7ing attention to the high ran4 of the %h!u!$#a7t and that the 9uran sa7s that the7 ha'e been purified and 3he :erse of Purification5 (referring to %h0ab:))) which asserts their infa!!ibi!it7. ;$ %mong a!! of the daughters of the Prophet (pbuh) and the %h!u!$#a7t& <ad7 atimah (as) stands out and was of some 'er7 uni-ue traits. rom the beginning of her creation& numerous specia! situations and conditions came up for the Prophet (pbuh) and %!!ah e'entua!!7 (swt) granted him atimah (as). )$ <o'e& grace and 4indness are a!! 'er7 natura! things that are usua!!7 found in e'er7 fami!7. or e=amp!e& it is norma! for one to 4iss his mother& sister or daughter after achie'ing a spiritua! goa!. 6uch e=pressions of care and !o'e don2t come from !ust and se=ua! desire& the7 rather ha'e an emotiona! side to them& not a passionate one. ($ It seems as if such -uestions are caused b7 wrong!7 understanding what these hadiths are sa7ing. Ma7be the person as4ing this -uestion thin4s that the Prophet (pbuh) wou!d 4iss <ad7 atimah2s chest whi!e she wasn2t co'ered& whi!e such a presumption is comp!ete!7 incorrect because co'ering one2s se!f and obser'ing such borders is an ordinar7 issue that e'er7one accepts and does& and 'io!ating them is considered the 'io!ation of fami!7 and socia! mora!s. 3hus& how can one then imagine that the Prophet or an7 of the other infa!!ib!es wou!d 'io!ate such 'a!ues, In the end& we reach the conc!usion that when norma! fami!ies and indi'idua!s consider e=pressing !o'e and care a norma! thing& there is no prob!em in the Prophet (pbuh) e=pressing !o'e and care to his be!o'ed daughter and he is no e=ception& especia!!7 since their >=ce!!encies were a!! infa!!ib!e and free of an7 sin.

?etai!ed %nswer
In a genera! !oo4 at our hadiths& the7 can be di'ided into two groups1 some are re!iab!e and can be referred to as sahih (a term literally meaning correct that refers to an authentic hadith)& whi!e others aren2t re!iab!e and are ca!!ed thaif (!itera!!7 meaning wea45) and majhul (!itera!!7 means un4nown5). In order to be ab!e to re!7 on a hadith and act according to it& fi-h and Is!amic e=perts are re-uired to ana!70e its sanad (chain of narrators) to see if it is an authentic one or not and in other words& see if its narrators are -ua!ified for narrating or not. %fter ma4ing sure that a hadith2s sanad is an authentic one& the7 pa7 attention to and ma4e use of it& citing and re!7ing on it in their @urisprudentia! acti'ities. #ut if a hadith2s sanad is un4nown or a wea4 one& or one that doesn2t name a!! of the narrators ti!! the imam& it can no !onger be re!ied on and made use of. 3he hadith that has been as4ed of has been cited in Biharul-Anwar& and its main source is the boo4 of Manaqibu AleAbi- aleb& wor4 of Ibn 6hahr %shub. 3he te=t of the hadith is as fo!!ows:

1]. :"! #]

( )( )

(Imam #a-ir and Imam 6adi- [as] said that the Prophet [pbuh] wou!dn2t s!eep unti! he wou!d 4iss the midd!e of <ad7 atimah2s face and p!ace his face between her breasts and pra7 for her.) It has a!so been narrated that he wou!dn2t s!eep unti! he wou!d 4iss the midd!e or the side of her chee4 or in between her breasts.) Ibn 6hahr %shub& born in A++ (!unar ca!endar) and author of the boo4 Mana-ib5& sa7s in the introduction of his boo4: I ha'e narrated these hadiths either from a group of m7 companions (6hias)& or from the 6unnis.5 Be then goes on to mention one genera! sanad for a!! of the boo4s that he has used for narrating these hadiths (regard!ess of whether the7 are 6unni or 6hia boo4s). %s for the disputed hadith& he has not mentioned an7 specific source that it has been obtained from& and no other sanad for it& ma4ing it a mursal (a hadith whose sanad hasn2t been comp!ete!7 mentioned and isn2t 4nown) one. 3herefore&

first of a!!& it isn2t a re!iab!e hadith& and second!7& if we were to assume that hadiths of this t7pe were re!iab!e& pa7ing attention to some 4e7 points can so!'e an7 possib!e -uestions that might come up: 8$ 3he ho!7 Prophet (pbuh) and the %h!u!$#a7t& are of a 'er7 high ran4 and possess some uni-ue spiritua! characteristics that ma4e them incomparab!e with others. or instance& the ho!7 9uran has spo4en of their e=treme purit7 in the 'erse 4nown as 3he 'erse of purification5 (2].($ %& '(% * ") +' ", -*. "/ 0( ]%!!ah [swt] on!7 wants to remo'e a!! impurit7 and sin from 7ou& /h %h!u!$#a7t& and thorough!7 purif7 7ou.) Csing the term 0 &which is used to show that something e=c!usi'e!7 be!ongs to a certain case or instance& is proof that this b!essing is one that has so!e!7 been granted to the Prophet2s househo!d& thus with the he!p of %!!ah and according to his desire& and with the he!p of their own righteous deeds& the infa!!ib!es ne'er get c!ose to sins& a!though the7 are ab!e to do so. 3he term + is used for an7 impurit7& regard!ess of what t7pe1 whether it is an impurit7 that human nature considers impure& or one that re!igion considers impure& or e'en both. 3he term %& means purification and in this 'erse& is an emphasis on a!! impurities being remo'ed from the %h!u!$#a7t. %ccording to a!! Is!amic scho!ars and commentators of the 9uran& ) * "refers to the househo!d of the Prophet (pbuh)& and man7 hadiths in both 6hia and 6unni sources assert that what is meant b7 the househo!d of the Prophet (pbuh) are fi'e indi'idua!s: Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)& %!i (as)& atimah (as)& Basan and Busain (as)& who are a!so 4nown as 3he Dob!e i'e5 or 3he .ompanions of the .ape5.

3he :erse of Purification5 is concrete e'idence on the infa!!ibi!it7 of the Prophet (pbuh) and his househo!d (as)&
because a!! sins are a form of impurit7 and according to the 'erse& the7 ha'e been purified of a!! impurit7.[)] In the 'er7 rich and 'a!uab!e supp!ication of !iyaratu "amiatil-#abirah we read: 1 ',12 " 3" 1 /' ,4 which means that %!!ah protected 7ou (3he %h!u!$ #a7t) from wrongdoing& sa'ed 7ou from corruption& c!eaned 7ou from fi!th (immora!it7)& remo'ed a!! impurit7 from 7ou and thorough!7 purified 7ou.[(] ;$ %mong a!! of the daughters of the Prophet (pbuh)& <ad7 atimah (as) is abo'e a!! and an e=ceptiona! one& and the beginning of her creation is an e=traordinar7 one. Bere& we wi!! draw 7our attention to a hadith that Ibn 6hahr %shub narrates& but this time with se'era! sanads for it (and not !i4e the one that was mentioned in the -uestion abo'e which had no sanad): %bu ECbaidah Fhadda2 and others report that Imam 6adi- (as) said that the Prophet (pbuh) wou!d 4iss <ad7 atimah (as) fre-uent!7. 6ome of his wi'es were troub!ed b7 this act and ob@ected to it. 3he ho!7 Prophet (pbuh) rep!ied: Ghen I was raised to the s4ies& Habrie! too4 m7 hand and !ed me to paradise. 3here& I was gi'en a date which I ate (in another tradition it has been stated that he was gi'en an app!e). The fruit turned into a sperm seed in m7 bac4 and once I returned to earth I s!ept with Fhadi@ah and she became pregnant with atimah (as). 3herefore she is a hea'en!7 woman that is !i'ing among norma! humans and e'er7 time I miss and !ong for the fragrance of paradise& I sme!! m7 daughter.[A] 3herefore& the re!ationship between the Prophet (pbuh) and his daughter is a deep one and his !o'e and fondness towards her is manifest to a!!. )$ /ne can easi!7 see a warm and sincere re!ationship between the members of norma! and sound fami!ies which !ac4s an7 form of !ust and passion in a!! cases& whether it is them !oo4ing at each other& sha4ing hands or e'en 4issing each other. or e=amp!e& when oneIs mother& sister or daughter come bac4 from a pi!grimage trip (for instance Ba@@)& he 4isses them& because the7 ha'e returned from a sacred p!ace. 6uch forms of showing !o'e& care and happiness are a!! so!e!7 for the spiritua! b!essings the7 carr7& nothing more. 6ometimes& %!!ah (swt) grants a beautifu! and po!ite chi!d to a coup!e. Ghen the7 repeated!7 4iss him and show him affection& it shows that there is a 'er7 tight re!ationship between them and no one sco!ds them for such acts. ($ It seems that the main cause for such a -uestion is that the person who is -uestioning& thin4s that the Prophet (pbuh) wou!d 4iss <ad7 atimahIs chest whi!e it had no co'ering whi!e such a perception is tota!!7 incorrect. 3hat is because obser'ing such borders in 'er7 norma! peop!e is ordinar7& and crossing these red !ines is considered brea4ing fami!7 and socia! mora! 'a!ues and codes. 3hus& how can one e'en thin4 about high characters such as the infa!!ib!es committing such acts, In addition to the fact that <ad7 atimah (as) was a mere chi!d during the time she !i'ed with the Prophet (pbuh) and as soon as she reached the age of J& she got married with Imam %!i (as). 3herefore& when such forms of affection and !o'e between fami!7 members are comp!ete!7 norma! and accepted b7 a!!& the7 are a!so acceptab!e b7 the infa!!ib!es.

Indeed& there are important reasons behind wh7 the7 sometimes e=press their !o'e for certain fami!7 members (such as to show others how important that person is for them in order for others to a!so respect them) and in this case& these t7pes of hadiths that are sometimes -uestioned about& ha'e no prob!em and their interpretation is c!ear.

[8] Manaqib& 'o!. )& pg. ))(& Bihar& 'o!. ()& pg. (;. [;] %ha0ab:)). [)] afsir $emouneh% 'o!. 8*& pg. ;J;. [(] Mafatihul-"anan& pg. JK). [A] Manaqib% 'o!. )& pg. ))(.