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Constitutional Law II: Church and State Outline I. INTRODUCTION [8/2 !

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. U.S. Const. Art. I. Stans"ur# $. %ar&s (PA 1793): Jewish citizen subpoenae to testi!" on a Satur a". A!ter re!usin# because it was his Sabbath$ he was he% in conte&pt an !ine ten poun s. 'e appea%s un er the a Penns"%(ania Constitution statute which sa"s: (1) All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty od according to the dictates of their own consciences! (") #hat no human authority can in any case whatsoever control or interfere with their rights of conscience! ($) #hat no preference shall ever be given, by law, to any religious establishment or modes of worship. )he P%ainti!! ar#ues: Substantive Liberty *c% 1+,-: )he PA Const. #rants the ri#ht to e.ercise re%i#ion accor in# to own conscience$ which to hi&$ &eans that he cannot wor/ on his Satur a" Sabbath. 'a(in# to testi!" on Sat inter!eres w0his ri#ht o! conscience. Denominational Neutrality *c% 3-: A #o(t cannot pre!er$ &aintain or support one !aith o(er another. Current %aw shows a pre!erence to those who worship on Sun a" an #i(es pre!erence to their re%i#ious estab%ish&ent or &o e o! worship. Neutrality btw Religious and Nonreligious reasons: I! there are i&portant enou#h secu%ar reasons to #et out o! testi!"in#$ there shou% be i&portant enou#h re%i#ious reasons. It is i&portant here to %oo/ to the i&pact o! the statute an as/ 1 oes it #enerate e2ua%it" a&on#st those who are si&i%ar%" situate 34 )he Court re%ies on i!! ar#u&ents$ an re5ects Stansbur"4s c%ai& !or acco&&o ation: Anarchy: I! he #ets out o! this one %aw un er the ar#u&ent that he obe"s his re%i#ion$ he or others cou% potentia%%" #et out o! other %aws usin# the sa&e ar#u&ent an the resu%t wou% be anarch". *6o to% &e to &ur er &" nei#hbor Majoritarian Ar#u&ent *response to . neutra%it"-: A uni!ie approach is necessar"$ b0c it4s i&possib%e to account !or a%% the i!!erent Sabbaths an to #i(e e(er"one that a" o!!7 instea $ 5ust Sun a" o!! base on &a5oritarian interest. 8ot state4s pre!erence !or one re%i#ion or another$ 5ust !o%%owin# the &a5orit". Formal Neutrality: As %on# as the %aw is !acia%%" neutra% an as %on# as it treats e(er" citizen so%e%" on (irtue o! their citizenship$ the %aw is o/ (!ocus: !or& or intent). o C.!. substantive neutrality/equality ca%%s !or #o(t action that has e2ua% i&pact$ e(en i! this re2uires the #o(t to ta/e re%i#ion into account !ntanglement concerns: 9hat counts as re%i#ious obser(ance !or acco&&o ation3 Inappropriate !or #o(t to tr" to !i#ure that out. 'state o( Thornton $. Caldor) Inc. *+,8-.) /. 0ur1er: C) %aw !orbi s :rs !ro& !orcin# their :es to wor/ on their Sabbath an )hornton is a Sun a" Sabbath obser(er. 9hen he is &o(e to a %ower position b0c o! his obser(ance$ he sues.

2oldin1: %aw (io%ates the :C b0c it creates an abso%ute an un2ua%i!ie ri#ht not to wor/ !or re%i#ious reasons$ an thus !a(ore re%i#ion o(er a%% other interests. ;ai%s Le3on. )he primary effect o! the statute is to a (ance re%i#ion o statute con!ers its bene!it on an e.p%icit%" re%i#ious basis o when :r cannot consi er an" other interests$ that estab%ishes state pre!erence !or re%i#ion )here is co&prehensi(e$ iscri&inatin# an continuin# state sur(ei%%ance$ which creates e.cessi(e governmental entanglements between church an state. O4Connor concurrin1: !ee%s co&pe%%e to inc%u e that this oes not e!!ect ut" o! reasonab%e acco&&o ation un er )it%e <II o =easonab%e$ rather than abso%ute$ acco&&o ation o :.ten s that re2uire&ent to a%% re%i#ious be%ie!s$ not 5ust obser(ance o! Sabbath A%so in(o/es !ndorsement test: an ob5ecti(e obser(er wou% see this as a state en orse&ent o! re%i#ion to the etri&ent o! those who o not share it. II. 2ISTOR5 [8/28! 6. Reli1ious 'sta"lish3ents 9hat is an estab%ish&ent3 Church an state 5oin to estab%ish a nationa% re%i#ion. )he #o(ern&ent has so&e contro% o(er re%i#ious institutions an there is so&e re%i#ious contro% o(er the state. %eatures& 1. Assi#nin# po%itica% ri#hts on%" to &e&bers o! the !aith (ri#ht to (ote7 appoint&ents7 test oaths !or o!!ice) ,. Suppression o! escent ( epen in# on the stren#th o! the estab%ish&ent) 3. Co&pe%%in# worship0atten ance at church >. =e#u%ation o! church structure + octrine (%icense preachers$ #o(ern&ent contro% o(er re%i#ious ocu&ents) ?. Co&pe%%e !inancia% support !or church @. =e%i#ious e ucation in pub%ic schoo%s "hy !stablishment# #heological 'ustification& power of the state should be used for the glory of od, or for the spiritual welfare of the people (olitical 'ustification& the inculcation of certain common religious ideas, symbols and values is useful for civil purposes. See Parsons$ 'obbes. 0arnes $. 7irst 8arish in 7al3outh (Aass$ 1B1C)$ J. Parsons *1BIn the Aass Const *17-$ Art II sets up a ;:C (Dpro(i e he oth not isturb the pub%ic peaceE ea%s w0anarch" ob5ection)$ whi%e Art III sets up an estab%ish&ent (re2uires atten ance un%ess conscientious ob5ection7 ta.e + F is rei&burse b" state to &a5orit" re%i#ion in "our co&&unit" un%ess ob5ection$ then to church o! "our choosin#). Garnes is a re%i#ious teacher that wants ta. F that his a herents pai . 2oldin1: P oes not #et the F b0c Uni(ersa%ist Church is not an estab%ishe church. HParson4s ar# !or estab%ish&ent o! re%i#ion )he s"%%o#is&& o #he purpose of the state is to provide for happiness and civil order, and ,

o happiness and civil order re)uires religion and morality, and o to diffuse religion, need public support, so o the state should be supporting religion 9h" is re%i#ion necessar" to pro&ote happiness an or er3 o Iaw is a cru e too%. Coerci(e$ an can4t #et into heart %i/e re%i#ion can. =e%i#ion reaches (irtues that %aw cannot. State can re#u%ate per!ect uties ( on4t /i%%$ stea%) but not i&per!ect uties (#i(e to charit"$ be #oo parent$ chi% ) or secret o!!enses. Pp% nee incenti(es to be #oo citizens a%% the ti&e. Jne cou% ob5ect to this as a &atter o! !act (re%i#ion not necessar" !or pro&otin# &ora%s)

Anticipate ob5ections to estab%ish&ent an his responses 1. %reedom of conscience is violated by compelled support. ;ree o& o! conscience is not the sa&e thin# as !ree o& o! &one": when "ou enter ci(i% societ" "ou #i(e up so&e ri#hts$ inc%u in# the ri#ht to be ta.e !or ci(ic en s a#ree to b" the representati(e %e#is%ature. ,. *t is unreasonable make someone pay for a benefit they are not receiving . GU) societ" in #enera% is better when peop%e a here to per!ect an i&per!ect uties$ so so&e bene!it is recei(e b" e(er"one. 3. *t is antichristian to coerce people into religion . Ai#ht be case that state oesn4t ha(e power to pro&ote Christianit" as true re%i#ion. Gut State oes ha(e the ri#ht an ut" to pro&ote happiness an or er an Christianit" is a &eans to that en >. *ntolerant. 8ope$ Art II protects !ree o& o! conscience an worship. 2o""es *Le$iathan.: A pure%" po%itica% ar#u&ent$ the ra ica% (ersion o! Garnes. In or er to a(oi ci(i% isor er$ an to achie(e stabi%it"$ #o(t &ust contro% a%% be%ie!s. =e%i#ion 5ust pro(i es an a(enue !or con!%ict btw so(erei#n4s ru%es an re%i#ious be%ie!s. "hy Not !stablish# 1. ba !or &inorit" re%i#ions ,. ba !or a%% re%i#ions a. )oc2ue(i%%e: &inisters %ose zea% b0c the" no %on#er ha(e incenti(e b. #o(t contro% subor inates re%i#ious ob5ecti(es0secu%arization o! re%i#ion 0. In(luences on Reli1ious Li"ert# [,/2! 1. $uritan views (theo%o#ica%) a. ;:C: into%erant (%e!t %itt%e roo& !or in i(i 4% e.peri&entationKinsiste on #enera% a herence to cree s an canons o! Puritan Ca%(inis&) b. :C: , istinct spheres$ but coor inate Kpro(i e &ateria% ai an &utua% support to each other$ but o not want the& to contro% each other i. pub%ic propert" onate to church$ re2uire atten ance at church$ encoura#e po%itica% acti(it" o! parishioners

ii. Gut pastors cannot run !or o!!ice ,. !vangelical views (theo%o#ica%) a. ;:C: !ar &ore to%erant than Puritans b. :C: Prohibit a%% &i.tures o! re%i#ion an po%iticsH, entirely istinct spheres i. <er" s/eptica% o! state !un in# o! church 1. Corruption when priests on pa"ro%%sKaccountab%e to states

ii. religious voluntarism& re%i#ion is an inwar pheno&enon that &ust be sincere%" a opte $ cannot be coerce b" state 3. !nlightenment views (po%itica%)(Ioc/e)(Je!!erson) a. ;:C: (er" stron# theor" o! to%eration b. :C: stron# separation o! C+S i. S/eptica% (iew o! re%i#ion: on4t want it inter!erin# w0state ii. State shou% #i(e no specia% ai $ support$ pri(i%e#e to re%i#ion c. Share i ea o! religious voluntarism with :(an#e%ica%s >. %ivil Re&ublican views (po%itica%)(9ashin#ton) a. ;:: !air%" to%erant$ acco&&o ationH!rien %" b0c thin/ re%i#ion is necessar" to pro&ote persona% pub%ic (irtue b. :C: Dso!t estab%ish&entEKci(ic an re%i#ious (a%ues an s"&bo%s i. I&bue the pub%ic s2uare w0a co&&on re%i#ious ethic an ethosK a%beit one %ess eno&inationa%%" speci!ic than Puritans ii. Societ" nee s re%i#ion !or &ora%it" DPub%ic/ =e%i#ionEK&i.ture o! patriotis& an re%i#ion Loc&e *Letter on Toleration.: 1. e)uality: no person has the authorit" o(er another in the spiritua% rea%& can ar#ue so&e pp% are too %az" to be sa(e $ or on4t ha(e the e u$ etc ,. futility: irrationa% !or state to use coerci(e power b0c can4t coerce chan#e in inwar be%ie!s. Ge%ie!s contro%%e b" "our reasonin#$ not "our wi%%. Coercion on%" wor/s on wi%% Can ob5ect to this pre&iseKprocess o! socia%ization can a!!ect be%ie!s 3. legislative: i! e(er" state en!orces own re%i#ious be%ie!s on pp%$ a %ot o! states wi%% ha(e the wron# re%i#ion. So&e pp% wi%% not be sa(e 5ust b0c o! where the" were born. >

9ashin1ton Ietter to Lua/ers: acco&&o ation w0 ue re#ar !or protection an essentia% interests o! that nationnot that stron# o! an acco&o ationist /e((erson4s (iews on acco&&o ation are unc%ear: Dcon(ince he has no natura% ri#ht in opposition to his socia% uties.E A%so unc%ear on whether he thou#ht actions shou% be protecte $ or 5ust be%ie!s (Dneither pic/s &" poc/et nor brea/s &" %e#E 'irginia Assessment %ontroversy [,/:! <a Assess&ent Gi%%: e(er"one is ta.e an F is sent to "our eno&ination. I! on4t speci!"$ F #oes to #enera% e u !un . Lua/ers an Aennonites are e.e&pte Htheir F #oes to a #enera% !un . D9hereas the #enera% i!!usion o! Christian /now%e #e hath a natura% ten enc" to correct the &ora%s o! &en$ restrain their (ices$ an preser(e the peace o! societ"EKsa&e 5usti!ication as seen in Art III o! Aass Gi%%$ Parsons in Garnes$ 690ci(ic repub%icanis& %adison4s %e3orial and Re3onstrance 61ainst ;6 6ssess3ent 1. religious voluntarism can4t use coercion to #enerate re%i#ious be%ie!s (Ioc/e$ :(an#e%ica%s$ :n%i#hten&ent$ )JKco&pe%%e re%i#ion is eparture !ro& 'is p%an) ,. social ( ri#ht o! re%i#ious conscience cannot be a%ienate (trans!erre to ci(i% societ") b0c re%i#ious uties are &ore i&portant than secu%ar uties cannot be trans!erre to #o(t 3. sli&&ery slo&e i! a%%ow 6o(t to estab%ish Christianit"$ wi%% estab%ish one sect ne.t >. equality no one has authorit" o(er another in choosin# re%i#ion (Ioc/e)7 so&e are sub5ect to particu%ar bur ens (8onHChristians)$ so&e to bene!its (Lua/ers) ?. incom&etence how o we /now #o(ts wi%% pic/ ri#ht re%i#ion3 (Ioc/e) @. unnecessary )or religion has sur(i(e w0o it 7. corru&tion a&a#in# to re%i#ion (pri e an in o%ence o! c%er#") B. unnecessary )or the state attac/s ci(ic or er s"%%o#is&. I! is not w0in state power$ how can it be necessar" !or the state3 9. signal o) &ersecution un oin# 6reat :.peri&ent 1C. de&o&ulation pp% wi%% (ote w0!eetba !or econo&" an wea%th 11. stri)e historica%%" spea/in#$ stateHsupport o! re%i#ion has %e to contro(ers"$ war 1,. adverse to religion wi%% be a bac/%ash a#ainst re%i#ion !ro& !orcin# pp% into it 13. rule o) law ba !or #o(t to pass %aw that is unstab%e at inception 1>. clear majority no e(i ence that the" want it 1?. sli&&ery slo&e ** i! #o(t is wi%%in# to usurp ri#ht hat has not been a%ienate $ it wi%% not respect an" other ri#hts ;ir1inia Reli1ious 7reedo3 0ill ()J) passe instea : Dci(i% ri#hts ha(e no epen ence on our re%i#ions opinion$ an" &ore than our opinions in ph"sics or #eo&etr".E Framing the Religion %lauses Aa ison: ori#ina%%" thou#ht unnecessar"7 %ater$ necessar" b0c it not$ Dnecessar" an properE c%ause cou% be interprete to #i(e #o(t the power to set up a church (cou% base on ci(ic or er ar#). P%us the" ha pro&ise it. 'ouse ebate: o S"%(ester an 'untin#ton thou#ht the C%ause &i#ht be ta/en to be hurt!u% to re%i#ion$ which wou% un er&ine ci(ic (irtue an ci(i% or er o Ii(er&ore: wante Dno %aws touchin# re%i#ionE to protect 8.'.4s estab%ish&ent ?

o Aa ison wante Dnationa%E be!ore re%i#ion Senate ebate: o Jne proposa%: DCon#ress sha%% &a/e no %aw respectin# an estab%ish&ent o! one religious sect or society in preference to othersE ;act that this %an#ua#e was re5ecte can be use to rebut =:'8LUIS) ar# that :C a%%ows #o(t to !a(or re%i#ion o(er nonH re%i#ion as %on# as not one sect o(er another. Aa5or ebates arisin# out o! the !ra&in#: o ;ree o& o! re%i#ion M !ree o& o! conscience3 o Dexercise o! re%i#ionE e&arcates protection !or action$ as we%% as be%ie!3N o :C pre(ent #o(t support o! re%i#ion$ or 5ust one sect o(er another3 o :C a !e era%is& pro(ision 5ust &eant to pre(ent !e #o(t !ro& estab%ishin# a nat4% re%i#ion which inter!ere w0state estab%ish&ents3 Jr &ore than that3

C. Incor<oration and Local 'sta"lish3ent [,/=! +. Incor<oration 8er3oli *+8=-.[ +!: Ct sa"s priest has no stan in# !or his ;:C c%ause a#ainst 8ew Jr%eans !or his !ine un er or inance prohibitin# e.posure o! corpses at Catho%ic !unera%s. 1st A&en &ent oesn4t app%" to the states. 1st A&en &ent incorporate in 19>C$ throu#h 1>th A&en &ent (Cantwell) 2. 7ederalis3 $. 8ersonal Li"ert# %ederalism. )'JAAS$ concurrin# in Newdow (,CC>) o :C is a !e era%is& pro(ision inten e to pre(ent Con#ress !ro& inter!erin# w0state estab%ish&ents )e.t: DCon#ressOrespectin# an estab%ish&entE 'istor"0:.istin# Practice: @ states ha estab%ishe re%i#ion at ti&e o! Go= :C oes not e&bo " an in i(4% ri#ht to be !ree !ro& coerci(e !e estab%ish&ents7 states an on%" states were irect bene!iciaries. P%us incorporation o! this in i(4% ri#ht wou% prohibit precise%" what the :C was inten e to protectKstate estab%ish&ents. 8ot necessar" to protect or ere %ibert"7 ;:C oes that (ersonal +iberty. G=:88A8$ concurrin# in Sche3< (19@3) o ,e& history& ;e era%is& position oesn4t ta/e into account chan#es wrou#ht b" the 1>th A&en &ent: create panop%" o! new !e era% ri#hts !or the protection o! citizens7 no estab%ishe churches !or 3 eca es up to 1>th. IAS': b" ti&e 1>th was written$ :C ha co&e to stan !or a 1nonestab%ish&ent princip%e4 which cou% be i&p%e&ente at state no %ess than !e %e(e% o ,e& indiv-l right& :C is a co#uarantor$ w0;:C$ o! re%i#ious %ibert" oes protect in i(4% ri#hts o %ailure of .laine Amendment (no state sha%% &a/e an" %aw estab%ishin# a re%i#ion)& b0c it wou% ha(e been super!%uous a!ter the passin# o! the 1>th$ not b0c ;ra&ers o! 1>th i n4t want to protect re%i#ious %iberties !ro& state.

o /ven if not intended& it4s too %ateP It is incorporate so shut up. :. Localis3. State o( Ore1on $. Cit# o( Ra>neesh<ura3 *D. Or. +,8=. [8+! Co&&une !or&e aroun a re%i#ion7 own a %ot o! propert". See/in# reco#nition as cit". Q:8I:Q. Ct app%ies Ie&on7 this !ai%s pri&ar" e!!ects an entan#%e&ent. 9A=Q: e!en e Aass s"ste&: i! "ou on4t %i/e it$ #et out. o P=JG: e.it is not a%wa"s a rea%istic optionKnowhere to #o7 on4t ha(e s/i%%s to %ea(e 8JRIAS: %ibertarian0utopia o! utopias ar#: we are a%% !ree pp%$ i! so&e want to %i(e in a co&&unit" boun b" re%i#ious or er$ wh" not3 9h" shou% #o(t prohibit so&eone !ro& !ree%" e&bracin# a re%i#ious est3 III. D'7INITION O7 R'LI?ION [,/,! )he thresho% ob5ection: Ct e!inin# re%i#ion &a" be so&e /in o! estab%ish&ent in itse%!. United States $. See1er *+,@-) Clar&. [ +2!Kexpands statutory def-n A@/ Uni$ersal %ilitar# Trainin1 and Ser$ice 6ct e.e&pts !ro& ra!t those persons who b0c o! their religion training and belief are conscientious%" oppose to participation in war. H=e%i#ious trainin# an be%ie! is e!ine as (1) an in i(i ua% be%ie! in re%ation to a Supre&e Gein#$ an (,) not a po%itica%$ socio%o#ica% or phi%osophica% (iew or persona% &ora% co e. See#ar oes not be%ie(e in Supre&e Gein#7 tries to #et out o! the ra!t7 Ct a opts a broa !unctiona% e!inition o! re%i#ion an e.ten s protection to See#er. HSee#er4s c%ai&: o <io%ates the ;:C in iscri&inatin# a#ainst re%i#ions that o not ho% !aith in a Supre&e Gein# (denominational neutrality) o <io%ates the :C because it treats re%i#ious ob5ectors i!!erent !ro& secu%ar ob5ectors an pri(i%e#es peop%e base on re%i#ious be%ie!. o Canon o! const. a(oi ance counse%s towar s interpretin# DSupre&e Gein#E %i/e Du%ti&ate concernE H6o(t ar#ues: o #ext& o Sup Gein# c%ear%" has to o w0re%i#ion7 #i(en that$ wh" are we i&putin# onto Con#ress the (iews o! so&e wac/" theo%o#ians3 o :.ception to the e.e&ption is broa %" wor e an inc%u es what we wou% thin/ o! as e%e&ents o! conscience o 0ver1inclusive& DU%ti&ate concernE can &ean an"thin#. o %/C gives Congress latitude to %i!t bur ens !or re%i#ion. )hat is what it i here. 2oldin1: BA sincere an &eanin#!u% be%ie! which occupies in one4s %i!e a p%ace para%%e% to that !i%%e b" 6o E is inc%u e in statutor" e!inition o! Dre%i#ious be%ie!.E o 6o is not a istinct bein# but is characterize instea as the hi#hest i ea% that hu&ans can concei(e$ our ultimate concern$ or the #roun s o! our (er" bein#. Ge%ie!s that per!or& the sa&e !unction as 6o are inc%u e un er this e!inition. o 9hat &atters is how eep%" a person be%ie(es$ not in what or wh" o Sincerit" is thresho% L o! !act in an" case un er this statute

9elsh $. United States *+, C) /. 0lac&. [ +,!Kexpands even more 9e%sh ho% s a stron# conscientious ob5ection to war base on theo%o#ica%$ historica% an persona% (iews. A&en s state&ent b" crossin# out Dre%i#ious trainin#.E At this point T@5 ha been a&en e to e%ete DSupre&e Gein#$E but sti%% inc%u e e.ception to e.e&ption. 2eld *<luralit#.: C%ai&ant with be%ie!s si&i%ar to See#er4s !it within the re%i#ious trainin# an be%ie! e.e&ption e(en thou#h he speci!ica%%" insiste that his be%ie!s were not re%i#ious. Dee&ly held secular belie)s count+ o 9hat oesn4t count are consi erations base on Dpo%ic"$ pra#&atis&$ or e.pe ienc"E o AS: Ct see&s to torture e.ception %an#ua#e out o! e.istence w0this e!4n 2arlan concurrin1: Statute is unconst b b" !a(orin# theistic re%i#ion o(er other conscientious bases !or ob5ectin# to war *conception o! :C that e&bo ies neutrality btw re%i#ious an nonre%i#ious be%ie!s-. o Si&p%" inc%u in# nontheistic re%i#ions was not enou#h because the e.e&ption wou% sti%% !a(or re%i#ion o(er other bases !or conscientious ob5ection. o A &its to ha(in# &a e a &ista/e in See1er b" interpretin# Dre%i#ious be%ie!E as inc%u in# nonre%i#ious. %alna& $. 5o1i *:rd Cir. +, ,. [ :C!: SCI0)A was tau#ht in 8J pub%ic schoo%s7 the Court ho% s that this (io%ates the Ie&on )est. 6da3s concurrin1: Use!u% in icia to e!inin# re%i#ion: 1. Content o! the a%%e#e re%i#ion: &ust ea% w0matters o) ultimate concern a. &eanin# o! %i!e an eath7 proper &ora% co e7 &an4s ro%e in the uni(erse b. app%ie : U:S: Dbasis o! e(er"thin#E Dinner content&entE ,. com&rehensiveness a. broa er scope in ter&s o! V o! sub5ects it concerns is i&portant b. app%ie : U:S: su!!icient%" co&prehensi(e to a(oi su##estion o! an iso%ate theor" unconnecte w0one wor% (iew or basic be%ie! s"ste& 3. )ormal, e-ternal or sur)ace signs that may be analogi.ed to acce&ted religions a. %east i&portant$ but use!u% heuristic b. app%ie : U:S: traine teachers7 cere&on"$ the Pu5a )=IG: ar#ues !or multi&le de)initions o! re%i#ion un er the !irst a&en &ent (;U8C)IJ8AI approach) o e.pansi(e e!inition un er the ;:C o to account !or &u%tip%"in# !or&s o! e.ercise o narrow e!inition un er the :C o so #o(t is not prohibite !ro& oin# i&portant thin#s o A a&s response: o )e.tua%%"$ re%i#ion is on%" use once$ there!ore shou% be a uni!ie e!48 o I! the court accepte or !oun the ri#ht e!inition (hisP)$ the" wou% n4t ha(e to ea% with con!%ict. o 9i%% create too &an" co&p%e.ities in the octrine

Ar#u&ents !or a broa e!inition: narrow is unconstitutiona%. o It wou% re2uire courts to e%(e eep%" into the nature o! a c%ai&ant4s be%ie!s in or er to eci e whether the" in(o%(e a Supre&e Gein# or so&e ana%o#ous i(ine rea%it"$ !orcin# Courts to &a/e sensiti(e theo%o#ica% 5u #&ents in territor" un!a&i%iar to the&. *Cts are not Darbiters o! scriptura% interpretationE #homas v. ,eview .oard 19B1Ar#u&ents !or a narrow e!inition: o I! an e.pansion was app%ie un er the ;:C$ it cou% %ea to (irtua%%" %i&it%ess e.e&ptions !ro& %aws because o! the &u%tip%icit" o! &ora% be%ie! s"ste&s in A&erica. o I! app%ie un er the :C$ a broa test cou% pre(ent #o(ern&ent !ro& pro&otin# or teachin# &an" (iews about &ora% or socia% 2uestions. o Jri#ina%is& I;. R'LI?ION IN T2' R'?UL6TOR5 ST6T' 6. 7ree 'Dercise and 6cco33odation [,/+C! 8ote: rise o! re#u%ator" state&ore con!%icts w0re%i#ion 8ote: ;:C an :C see& to con!%ict o(er whether acco&&o ations are re2uire $ on one e.tre&e (;:C)$ or constitutiona%%" prohibite $ on the other (:C) 'istorica% Qebate: Are acco&&o ations constitutiona%%" re2uire 3 Mc%onnell/s Accommodationist 'iew [8 ! o )he !ramers en orse &an ator" acco&&o ations: 9ashin#ton supporte acco&&o ations in his writin# that Dthe %aws &a" a%wa"s be e.tensi(e%" acco&&o ate E (Lua/er %etter)7 Aa ison sai that re%i#ious ut" is #reater than ci(i% ut"$ thus there can be no con!%ict. o 2tate Constitution Pro(isions. )he 8U state constitution written in 1777 has two &a5or c%auses. (A) )he c%ause that e!ines !ree e.ercise in ter&s o! conscience an inc%u es re%i#ion action. (G) )he peace an sa!et" c%ause p%aces %i&its on %ibert" I&p%ication is that re%i#ious acco&&o ation is re2uire un%ess peace an sa!et" is i&p%icate Jther state constitutions ha(e sa&e !ra&ewor/ (8.'$ S.C.) State const4s pro(i e the &ost irect e(i ence o! the ori#ina% un erstan in#$ !or it is reasonab%e to in!er that those who ra!te an a opte 1st A&en assu&e D!ree e.ercise o! re%i#ionE &eant what it ha &eant in their own states o Series o! historical ex-s where acco&&o ations were #rante : oaths$ &i%itar" e.e&ptions$ an state estab%ish&ent ta.es 0amburger/s Anti Accommodationist 'iew [,=!: o Citation to framers not su!!icient: no e.p%icit te.t sa"in# that ri#ht to !ree e.ercise inc%u es a ri#ht o! e.e&ption !ro& ci(i% %aws o 2tate Constitutions o not sa" this: breach o! peace M breach o! an" %awKri#ht to e.ercise re%i#ious%" pro(i e "ou o not brea/ the %aw. o )he history of exemptions are iso%ate circu&stances$ not #enera% e.e&ptions7 re!%ect that the" are per&issib%e$ but not re2uire

o Con!ir&e b" !act that on%" #i(en throu#h %e#$ not throu#h cts o =e%i#ious issenters rare%" as/e !or e.e&ptionsKthe" 5ust wante e2ua%it"$ an so the" went a!ter state estab%ish&ents +. 0elie( and Conduct: The %or3on Cases Re#nolds $. United States *+8 ,) C./. 9aite. [++:!: Pri(ate secretar" to Gin#ha& Uoun# was in icte !or bi#a&" un er the Aorri%% Act. H=e"no% s4 c%ai&: antiHpo%"#a&" %aw prohibits ;: o! his re%i#ion b0c his re%i#ion re2uires po%"#a&" o 8ote: i! re%i#ion on%" allowed po%"#a&"$ ;:C c%ai& !ai%s b0c insi#ni!icant bur en HCon#ress authorize to pass this statute3 o U:S. )he s"%%o#is&: necessar" to preser(e !oun ations o! repub%ican #o(ern&ent. Con#ress has the ut" to protect ci(i% or er Po%"#a&" has %on# histor" o! bein# consi ere ba !or societ"0sub(ersi(e to #oo or er Con#ress &ust ban po%"#a&" to preser(e ci(i% or er H:.e&ption #rante !ro& the %aw b0c o! ;:C3 o 8J: "hile laws cannot inter)ere w/mere religious belie)s and o&inions, they may w/&ractices that violate general social duties. o Justi!ication: o Anarchy ar#: e.e&ptions wou% in e!!ect Dper&it e(er" citizen to beco&e a %aw unto hi&se%!E o 0riginalist ar#: Just a!ter <ir#inia ;:C$ state enacte a statute punishin# po%"#a&" with eath$ thus the" cou% n4t ha(e &eant to inc%u e po%"#a&" in !ree e.ercise. o #homas 3efferson: D%e#is%ati(e powers o! the #o(t reach actions on%"$ an not opinionsOhe has no natura% ri#ht in opposition to his socia% utiesE (Ietter to Qanbur" Gaptists). )his is p%ace a#ainst a Ioc/ean bac/ rop: the state has the power to protect ci(i% or er. o AcQonne%% wou% ar#ue that sa&e resu%t cou% be reache b" reco#nizin# an acco&&o ation$ but o(erri in# it here b0c o! state co&pe%%in# interest in !orbi in# po%"#a&" o Ge%ie! (s. Action: Ge%ie!s are up to "ou$ but "ou on%" ha(e ri#hts so %on# as "our actions on4t in!rin#e on others ci(i% %iberties. Da$is $. 0eason *+8,C) /. 7ield. [++,!: Iaw re2uire re#istrants to ta/e oath that the" wou% n4t ai $ abet$ counse% or a (ise an" other person to en#a#e in po%"#a&". Q re!use . HCha%%en#e: ;:C at %east protects be%ie!sKoath is 5ust about spea/in# be%ie!s out %ou . HCt: Po%"#a&" is a cri&e an thus$ teachin#$ a (isin#$ counse%in# this practice is ai in# a cri&e. Criminal prohibitor" %aws (pub%ic or er %e#is%ation) o 8J) nee to be suspen e un er the 1st A&en . b0c a re%i#ious sect encoura#es that cri&e7 i! this were a%%owe $ there wou% be anarch". o Cri&e is not the %ess o ious b0c sanctione b" what an" particu%ar sect

1C

&a" esi#nate as a re%i#ion 9hat about i! sect re2uires hu&an sacri!ice3 o Supports 'a&bur#er (iew that a%% (io%ations o! %aw can be construe as a!!ectin# pub%ic or er HConsistent w0=e"no% s3 o I! =e"no% s &eant that 1st A&en on%" protects re%i#ious be%ie!s0opinions when the" are insi e "our hea $ these are consistent. ACQJ88:II thin/s protection !or Dbe%ie!sE shou% at %east e.ten to pro!essin# those be%ie!s. 2. %odern 'De3<tions [,/++! Sher"ert $. ;erner *+,@:) /. 0rennan. [+2=!1landmark case! beginning of accommodationist 'urisprudence A e%%e Sherbert is an SQA who was ischar#e b" her :r b0c she wou% not wor/ on Satur a"$ her Sabbath7 she cou% not !in another 5ob !or the sa&e reasons. State is2ua%i!ie her !ro& Ue "ene(its !or !ai%in# w4o good cause to accept suitab%e wor/. Issue: Is acco&&o ation constitutiona%%" re2uire un er the ;:C3 2oldin1: 9hen re%i#ious uties con!%ict with a #enera% %aw$ the #o(ern&ent is constitutiona%%" re2uire to acco&&o ate the be%ie(er4s conscience$ to e.e&pt hi& !ro& the %aw$ un%ess restrictin# the be%ie(er4s !ree o& is necessar" to ser(e a co&pe%%in# #o(ern&ent interest. SC &a" not app%" e%i#ibi%it" pro(isions so as to bur en her ;:. Test +. Does the disEuali(ication (or "ene(its i3<ose an# "urden on her 7' a. DI! the purpose or e!!ect o! a %aw is to i&pe e the obser(ance o! one or a%% re%i#ions$ or is to iscri&inate in(i ious%" btw re%i#ions$ that %aw is constitutiona%%" in(a%i e(en thou#h the bur en &a" be in irectE i. here$ two i&per&issib%e effects 1. i&pe es obser(ance o! re%i#ion (substantive liberty) ,. iscri&inates btw re%i#ions: statute has e.e&ption !or Sun a" worshipper(io%ates denominational neutrality. 8ot e(en )ormally neutral (re%i#ionHb%in : a(oi a%% re%i#ious c%assi!ications in ra!tin#. Co&petin# theor" to acco&&o ations) b. 2nconstitutional %onditions *1B1-& the ru%e !orces her to choose btw !o%%owin# the precepts o! her re%i#ion an !or!eitin# #o(t bene!its$ J= aban onin# one o! the precepts o! her re%i#ion in or er to accept wor/. 6o(t i&position o! such a choice puts the sa&e /in o! bur en upon the ;: o! re%i#ion as wou% a !ine i&pose !or Sun a" worship. 2. I( #es) does so3e com&elling state interest satis(# the su"stantial in(rin1e3ent o( the +st 63end ri1htF i( so) is the law at issue the least restricti$e 3eans o( <rotectin1/(urtherin1 those interestsG *SS. a. DJn%" the #ra(est abuses$ en an#erin# para&ount interestE4 b. here$ possibi%it" o! !rau (e(i ence sti%% prob wou% n4t be enou#h)$ a &inistration an e!!icienc" concerns are not co&pe%%in# Stewart concurrin1: =esu%t in this case is at o s w0Ct4s past interpretation o! the :C (no ai ). Ct4s past interpretation$ thou#h$ is wron#. 8ee to ro%% bac/ interpretation o! :C$ so it oesn4t con!%ict w0interp o! ;:C here (acco&&o ations re2uire ).

11

2arlan dissentin1: Acco&&o ations are permissible (there is !%e.ibi%it" in the Const)$ but not re)uired. o Since acco&&o ation here sin#%es out !or !inancia% assistance those whose beha(ior is re%i#ious%" &oti(ate e(en thou#h it enies such assistance to others whose i entica% beha(ior is not re%i#ious%" &oti(ate $ it cannot be co&pe%%e b" neutra%it" un er%"in# =e%i#ion C%ause. Can we istin#uish =e"no% s3 1. State ha co&pe%%in# interest in =$ J=7 ,. = is ri#ht b0c it ea%t w0be%ie!$ here con uct is what is at issue 9isconsin $. 5oder *+, 2) C./. 0ur1er. [+::!KCt-s clear statement that some accommodations are mandatory under %/C. 5igh1water mark for accommodations. A&ish parents are !ine !or not sen in# their chi% ren to schoo% a!ter 13 2eld: A law neutral on its )ace can nevertheless violate the F!% i) it unduly burdens religion e-ercise and was not su&&orted by a com&elling &ur&ose+ State i not show how its a &itte %" stron# interest in co&pu%sor" e ucation wou% be a (erse%" a!!ecte b" #rantin# an e.e&ption to the A&ishKnot narrow%" tai%ore as app%ie to A&ish. 1. A&ish pro(e that re2uirin# A&ish chi% ren o(er 13 to ac2uire A&ish attitu es an speci!ic s/i%%s nee e to per!or& a u%t ro%e o! A&ish !ar&er o! housewi!e$ an she%terin# the& !ro& &ateria%is&$ co&petition an inte%%ectua%is& in pub%ic schoo%s constitutes a sincere religious e-ercise an it was burdened a. Ct re5ects ar#u&ent that this is 5ust wa" o! %i!e$ conce in# that i! c%ai&s were &oti(ate b" re5ection o! conte&porar" secu%ar (a%ues$ wou% not be re%i#ious. Qistin#uishes )horeau4s phi%osophica% an persona% choice. i. 8J): tension btw this e!inition an the e!4n o! re%i#ion on%" a !ew "ears ear%ier in See#er an 9e%sh ( ra!t cases) b. Gur en c%ear b0c chi% ren %earn thin#s consi ere D an#erousE to A&ish ,. A&ish pro(e state oes not ha(e com&elling interest a. =e5ects ar# that chi% ren wi%% be bur enso&e on societ": A&ish co&&unit" has been a hi#h%" success!u% se%!Hsu!!icient socia% unit. A%so re5ect ar# that e&ocrac" re2uires e ucate citizenr"Hpart o! %i(in# in a e&ocrac" is a%%owin# &inorit" (iews an practices to !%ourish. i. Criticis&: 2uaint (iew o! A&ish: no in!o on e.it rates$ #en er e2ua%it"$ etc. In &ost cases$ state interests !oun to be co&pe%%in#. 9h" not in these cases3 o Uo er o h"bri ri#ht: ;:C W parenta% choice (ri#ht to pass on re%i#ious be%ie!s to chi% ren) o passes J on A&ish an appro(es o Sherbert: eno&inationa% neutra%it" prob%e&Ki! the" can &a/e e.e&ptions !or Sun a" worshippers$ can4t be co&pe%%in# interest not to e.e&pt Sat worshippers :. The De3ise o( 'De3<tions [,/+@! '3<lo#3ent Di$isions $. S3ith *+,,C) /. Scalia. [+: !6radical departure )wo 80A :es !ire !ro& their 5ob because the" in#este pe"ote !or sacra&enta% purposes

1,

at a re%i#ious cere&on"7 then not e%i#ib%e !or une&p%o"&ent bene!its. 2eld: Ie#is%atures are not constitutiona%%" &an ate to #rant e.e&ptions in the !ace o! a neutral and generally a&&licable law. Ie#is%ati(e acco&&o ation is permissible thou#h. o Qistin#uish: Statutes targeted at re%i#ious be%ie!s (re#u%ation o! be%ie! !or sa/e o! re#u%atin# be%ie!) M unconst$ see =e"no% s. GU) belief1conduct distinction is not valid7 so$ statutes targeted at re%i#ious practices a%so are protecte b" ;:C (which is what Ct %ater !in s in Iu/u&i). /usti(ication: o 3e-t can be rea to support i ea that i! bur en on ;: is not the ob5ect o! the %aw$ it is not !orbi en: #enera% re#u%ations o! con uct aren4t %aws Dprohibitin# ;:.E o $recedent 9e ha(e ne(er he% that re%i#ious be%ie!s e.cuse one !ro& co&p%iance w0otherwise (a%i %aw. Qistin#uishes: o 5oder: h"bri case$ in(o%(es ri#ht o! parents to irect e u o! chi% ren <er" unpersuasi(e$ un%ess "ou thin/ parenta% ri#hts &a/e it i&possib%e !or states to re#u%ate schoo%s o Sher"ert: stan s !or proposition that where the State has in p%ace a s"ste& o! in i(i ua%ize e.e&ptions$ it &a" not re!use to e.ten the s"ste& to cases o! re%i#ious har ship (b0c o! the arbitrariness that resu%ts !ro& iscretion in consi erin# in i(4%s) o Anarchy An" societ" a optin# SS in a%% cases wou% be courtin# anarch"$ see =e"no% s. :(en &ore so now than then: b0c we are a i(erse nation an b0c we (a%ue that i(ersit"$ we cannot a!!or the %u.ur" o! ee&in# presu&pti(e%" in(a%i e(er" re#4n o! con uct that oes not protect a co&pe%%in# interest. o J4CJ88J=: institutional capacity& cts can$ an ha(e$ !i#ure out where e.e&ptions are appropriate b" ba%ancin# state interests an re%i#ious interests. o SCAIIA: 9e o not want courts &a/in# these ecisions b0c the" are antiH e&ocratic institutions. G0c acco&&o ation is per&issib%e$ %e#is%atures wi%% #enera%%" protect ri#hts o! re%i#ious #roups. o J4CJ88J=: 8o$ the" won4t protect &inorities. )he who%e i ea o! the 1 st A&en is to ta/e these Ls out o! the reach o! the e&ocratic &a5orit"$ see GarnetteKma'oritarianism is a particu%ar concern in the conte.t o! re%i#ious !ree o&. o Administration/Rules& Gri#htH%ine ru%es are pre!erab%e to ba%ancin# tests7 the %atter wi%% &ean the ct is constantly in the business o! eter&inin# whether the i&pact o! (arious %aws on re%i#ious practice su!!ices !or e.e&ption (ta.es$ ru# %aws$ chi% %abor %aws$ etc). )hat bur en shou% be on the %e#is%ature. O4Connor dissentin1: *in a ition to abo(e- re5ects Ct4s istinction: te.t o! the 1st A&en oes not istin#uish btw %aws that are #enera%%" app%icab%e an those that tar#et a particu%ar re%i#ious practice. 9ants SS !or a%% o! it. Aarsha%%$ in e!ense o! S&ith. )he ho% in# in S&ith is correct$ but SCAIIA4s 5usti!ications are wron#. o Ju icia% ba%ancin# test (SS) necessari%" %ea s to underestimating the strength of the countervailing state interest. )he state interest in a cha%%en#e re#4n wi%% se% o& be threatene i! on%" a !ew pp% see/ e.e&ption !ro& it. =ather$ a %e#it 13

state interest is o!ten Dco&pe%%in#E on%" in re%ation to cumulative concerns. 9ei#hin# a state interest a#ainst a narrow c%ass see/in# an e.e&ption is %i/e as/in# whether this particu%ar straw wi%% be the one to brea/ the ca&e%4s bac/. o Ie#is%ature is better suite to cra!t e.e&ptions b0c the" ta/e bi##er picture into account7 court$ on the other han $ consi ers on%" the !acts be!ore it o (rivileging religion over non1religion& const pre!erence resu%ts !ro& #rantin# re%i#ious e.e&ptions. :!!ect is that nonHre%i#ious are the on%" ones boun b" the %aws an"&ore. :specia%%" pertinent in ;S cases$ b0c ;SC sa"s that e(er" i ea is o! e2ua% i#nit". An this resu%t is worse than the e !acto ine2ua%it" that we be#in with$ b0c this is intentiona% an thus o!!en s :CHconnotes en orse&ent. AcConne%%4s =esponse to Aarsha%%: o I! Aarsha%%4s ,n ar#u&ent is correct$ then he &ust be wron# that statutor" acco&&o ations are per&issib%e$ b0c specia% treat&ent is specia% treat&ent. o 2ymmetry btw clauses& Un er Aarsha%%4s %o#ic$ re%i#ion can be sin#%e out !or :C purposes$ but not !or ;:C. Structure o! =e%i#ion C%ause is actua%%" such that re%i#ion is is!a(ore un er :C an !a(ore un er ;:CHHXe2ua% treat&ent o(era%% b" insu%atin# re%i#ion !ro& e!!ect o! #o(t action$ whether !a(orab%e or not. =. 8ostHS3ith: R7R6) 0oerne) RLUI86 [,/+ ! R7R6 *Reli1ious 7reedo3 Restoration 6ct) +,,:. [+-+H2! o Purpose: restore co&pe%%in# interest test o! SherbertHUo er an re5ect S&ith. Cts shou% app%" SS whene(er a %aw substantia%%" bur ens re%i#ion o Scope: e(er"thin#P ;e statutes$ !e e.ec actions$ state statutes$ cit" or inancesO Cit# o( 0oerne $. 7lores *+,, ) /. Ienned#. [+-C! Church was in esi#nate historic area7 unab%e to e.pan un er historic preser(ation %aws. Church as/e !or e.e&ption un er =;=A. 2eld: As it app%ies to state an %oca% #o(ern&ents$ =;=A is unconstitutiona% because it e.cee s Con#ress4s 1>th A&en $ T? power. /usti(ication: T? #i(es Con#ress the power to en!orce ;:C$ but =;=A oes not en!orce the %awHit chan#es the &eanin# o! the %aw. Jn%" the cts ha(e the power to sa" what the %aw is$ Aarbur". Con1ress ar1ued that =;=A is a proper e.ercise o! Con#ress4 re&e ia%0proph"%actic power: to a(oi i!!icu%t" o! pro(in# %aws were enacte w0unconstitutiona% ob5ect o! tar#etin# re%i#ious be%ie!s an practices (S&ith)$ Con#ress can use SS on a%% #enera%%" app%icab%e %aws that bur en re%i#ion to s&o/e out the rea% cases o! iscri&ination. Ct res<onse: 9hen Con#ress e.ercises its re&e ia% power$ the re&e " it see/s &ust be proportiona% to the bur en it see/s to %i!t. 1. =;=A !ai%s proportiona%it" test b0c recor %ac/s &o ern e.4s o! #enera%%" app%icab%e %aws passe b0c o! re%i#ious bi#otr" su!!icient to upho% e.pansi(e nature o! the %aw. ,. C%ear that Con#ress is rea%%" tr"in# to e.e&pt pp% !ro& inci enta% bur ens on %aw$ which S&ith te%%s us ies not (io%ate ;:C. A%so$ re2uirin# SS at state %e(e% is consi erab%e intrusion into the States4 tra 4% prero#ati(es an #enera% authorit" to re#u%ate !or hea%th an we%!are Ste$ens concurrin1: =;=A is a %aw respectin# an estab%ish&ent o! re%i#ion an thus 1>

(io%ates :C. Pro(i es church w0%e#a% weapon that no atheist or a#nostic can obtain7 this pre!erence is !orbi en. o 9ou% nee we%%H e(e%ope !actua% recor to support his ar#u&ent in a cu&u%ati(e sense. 8J):: constitutiona% as app%ie to !e era% %aw b0c Con#ress cou% #et sa&e thin# one b" attachin# ri er &an atin# SS to e(er" statute it passes base on the authorit" un er which the statute itse%! is base on 8J):: 1, states ha(e enacte &iniH=;=As (state =;=As) RLUI86 *1?9H@CApp%ies SS to substantia% bur ens on re%i#ious e.ercise (1) i&pose b" land use regulations (zonin# %aws$ %an &ar/ preser(ation %aw)7 (,) o! persons resi in# in0con!ine to institutions (&risons, mental institutions). App%ies to states in these conte.ts. Constitutiona% b0c (1) 3urisdictional 5ooks. Passe un er: o Spen in# C%ause: Con#ressiona% power to attach con itions to !e spen in# has %on# been uphe% o ;e #o(t spen s V on prisons o Co&&erce C%ause: Con#ress can re#u%ate as %on# as proo! o! co&&ercia% acti(it" o Ian use re#4ns a%wa"s i&p%icate co&&erce (,) ,ecord of discrimination ensures proportionality& :(i ence that zonin# b s are #i(in# pre! to nonre%i#ious or#4ns o(er re%i#ion (3) 2tatute comes w4in 2mith exception: whether to #rant e.e&ptions to in&ates an zonin# ecisions in(o%(e in i(i ua% assess&ents. So are en!orcin# ;:C as e!ine b" cts. GU): SCAIIA in S&ith was a%so concerne about 8QQ: not enou#h irection to courts to eci e what is co&pe%%in# interest an what is substantia% bur en. An that prob re&ains. 0. Current 7' Doctrine +. Neutralit# and ?enerall# 6<<lica"ilit# [,/+8! Church o( Lu&u3i 0a"alu 6#e $. Cit# o( 2ialeah *+,,:) /. Ienned#. [+@2!: Santeria$ an A!roHCuban re%i#ion that practices ani&a% sacri!ice$ p%anne to open a church7 to a(oi this$ the cit" passe a series o! or inances out%awin# Dani&a% sacri!iceE per!or&e D!or an" t"pe o! ritua%.E :!!ect was to prohibit the /i%%in# o! ani&a%s !or re%i#ious purposes$ whi%e continuin# to per&it (e2ua%%" pain!u%) ani&a% /i%%in# !or other purposes (!oo $ sport$ pest contro%$ sci e.peri&entation). 2eld: ;acia%%" neutra% %aws that speci!ica%%" tar#et re%i#ious practices are sub5ect to SS. +. #he law is not neutral or generally applicable under 2mith! therefore must pass 22. o 8eutra%it": o 3e-t Dsacri!iceE Dritua%E o *m&act: on%" app%ie to Santeria o 4verinclusive Ie#it interests in pub%ic hea%th an pre(entin# crue%t" to ani&a%s cou% be a resse b" &uch narrower restrictions o Jne o! the or inances si&p%" punishe an"one who unnecessari%" /i%%s an ani&a%. GU) ;I A6 has eter&ine that /i%%in#s !or re%i#ious reasons are 1?

unnecessar"$ whereas &ost others are not (inc%. huntin# !or sport). Qe(a%ues re%i#ious reasons b" 5u #in# the& to be o! %esser i&port than re%i#ious. AISJ it is a s"ste& o! indiv-li7ed exemptionse.ception to S&ithSS. o 4bject/&ur&ose& ;:C protects a#ainst #o(t hosti%it" that is &as/e $ as we%% as o(ertKsuppression o! Santeria sacri!ice was the ob5ect o! the or inances. :(i ence: ti&in# o! e&er#enc" cit" counci% &eetin#s$ &inutes re(ea% hosti%it" towar s Santeria o 6enera% app%icabi%it": oesn4t e!ine w0precision the stan ar b0c or inances here !a%% we%% be%ow the &ini&u& stan ar necessar" o 2nderinclusive w0respect to a%%e#e interestsK oesn4t app%" to %ots o! other instances o! /i%%in# 2. +aw fails 22& protectin# pub%ic hea%th an ani&a%s cannot be co&pe%%in# interests where the statute is so un erinc%usi(e: DA %aw cannot be re#ar e as protectin# an interest o! the hi#hest or er when it %ea(es appreciab%e a&a#e to that suppose %" (ita% interest unprohibite .E Scalia concurrin1: Ie#is%ati(e purpose is irre%e(ant to whether the %aw is neutra% or not. Just %oo/ at te.t an e!!ects$ not wh" the statute was passe . o Inconsistent w0S&ith *13B-3 Rader $. /ohnston *+,,@) D. Ne". [+@@!: ;rosh cha%%en#es U8S4s re2uire&ent that !u%%H ti&e stu ents %i(e on ca&pus. 'is re2uest to %i!e in Christian Stu ent ;e%%owship ha been enie b" the resi ent sta!!. =u%e !ai%s S&ith$ &ust pass SS. 8ot #enera%%" app%icab%e b0c there are a %ot o! e.e&ptions (103 o! c%assP) o 6rante at iscretion o! b 7 not we%%H e!ine or e%ineate 8ot neutra% b0c o! its en!orce&ent: e(i ence o! hosti%it" towar s CS; a&on# a &inistrators o! the ru%e7 a%%ows a%% o! these other e.ceptionsHon%" e.p%anation can be tar#etin# re%i#ion 7raternal Order o( 8olice $. Newar& *+,,,) :rd Cir /ud1e 6lito. [+@ !: )wo Aus%i& po%ice o!!icers who wore bear s because o! re%i#ious uties cha%%en#e their epart&ent4s ru%e !orbi in# !acia% hair7 the Court held that the epart&ent4s po%ic" is unconstitutiona%. 6enera% app%icabi%it": )he &e ica% e.e&ption a%one &a e the po%ic" not #enera%%" app%icab%e an tri##ere SS because it e(a%ues re%i#ious reasons !or wearin# a bear b" 5u #in# the& to be o! %esser i&portant than secu%ar$ &e ica% reason =e5ects cit" e!ense that the" on%" a%%owe &e ica% e.ception b0c &an ate b" AQA. A%ito respon e that )it%e <II i&poses sa&e ob%i#ation on :rs to acco&&o ate re%i#ion. o Criticis&: i! #rantin# an" statutori%"H&an ate e.e&ption auto&atica%%" &eans S&ith protection is %ost$ we are (er" c%ose to =;=A. :!!ect: re%i#ious interests &ust be treate sa&e as bestHtreate secu%ar interests. ,ader 8 %raternal 0rder 9 presumptively invalid if substantial burden 8 secular exceptions. .roader understanding of :individuali7ed exceptions.;

1@

Note on 2#"rid Clai3s J. SJU):=: h"bri Hri#hts concept is untenab%e. =u%e cannot be that there is a h"bri c%ai& tri##erin# SS an" ti&e , constitutiona% ri#hts ser(e as basis o! p%ea in#s b0c e.ception wou% swa%%ow the S&ith ru%e. =u%e cannot be that there is a h"bri c%ai& on%" when the nonH;:C c%ai& wou% %an P insi e SS an"wa"Kthen h"bri ru%e is super!%uous. o At %east one ct has re!use to app%" h"bri e.ception at a%% (@th Cir) o So&e %ower cts: as %on# as nonH;:C c%ai& is co%orab%e$ h"bri ru%e is tri##ere an there is SS. Co%orab%e M !air probabi%it" or %i/e%ihoo (stan ar !or pi)3 2. Issues under 2ei1htened Scrutin# [,/2:! *i. 0urdens on Reli1ion: )he bur en o! proo! is on the P to show a co#nizab%e bur en. 0raun(eld $. 0rown *+,@+) /. 9arren. [+ @!: Jrtho o. Jews are put at a co&petiti(e econo&ic isa (anta#e because o! Sun a" c%osin# %aw (the" a%so can4t wor/ on Sat). 2eld: A statute w/secular &ur&ose and e))ect is valid des&ite its indirect burden on religious observances 2NL!SS the state may accom&lish its &ur&ose by means which do not im&ose such a burden+ Direct burden i&poses sanction on re%i#ious acti(it" . o 8ote %aw can be irect and neutra%$ %i/e pe"ote %aw in S&ith$ an Uo er *ndirect burden re#u%ates so&e other acti(it" that has spi%%o(er e!!ects on . o 'ere$ &ust c%ose shop on Sun a" i!!icu%t to obser(e Sat Sabbath an sta" in business /usti(ication: anarchy concern: i! in irect bur ens are Dbur ensE !or ;:C purposes$ it wou% open the !%oo #ates to too &an" t"pes o! %iti#ation *17B-. 6<<lication: In irect bur en here7 secu%ar purpose an e!!ect M Sun a" to#etherness. Iaw in irect%" &a/es Satur a" Sabbath &ore i!!icu%t an &ore e.pensi(e. o 9h" cou% n4t purpose sti%% be acco&p%ishe here throu#h e.e&ption to such a s&a%% pop4n3 A &inistrationHhow to en!orce3 ;rau H!inancia% incenti(es to sa" "ou can4t wor/ on a" other than Sun. Distin1uishin1 Sher"ert: legal rights A e%%e4s re%i#ious practices were %e#a%%" pena%ize (she was enie a #o(t bene!it because she e.ercise her re%i#ion). 'ere$ the %aw is not assessin# an" pena%t" a#ainst Graun!e% (whether he obser(e on Sabbath or not he can4t open shop on Sun). 0rennan J Stewart dissentin1: concei(e o! doctrine of unconstitutional conditions &ore broa %"Kno istinction btw this case an Sherbert: in both$ there is a choice btw econo&ic sur(i(a% (re%i#ious practice &a e &ore e.pensi(e) an re%i#ion as a resu%t o! #o(t action. L#n1 $s. Northwest Indian Ce3eter# 8rotecti$e 6ssociation *+,88) O4Connor. [+8:! )he state threatene to bui% a roa throu#h a !orest that 8ati(e A&ericans he% sacre an use !or worship7 the Court held that whi%e the inci enta% e!!ect o! the roa wou% be to &a/e it &ore i!!icu%t to en#a#e in their re%i#ious practice$ it wou% not ha(e the ten enc" to &ut any &ressure or &enalty on them to act contrary to their religious belie)s$ so there was no bur en on their re%i#ious e.ercise$ an strict scrutin" oes not app%". 17

o Soun s %i/e a coercion test !or bur ens o Ana%o#" to Ro#: Use o! SS8 (nu&erica% i enti!ier) robs the& o! their spirit. Ct re5ecte c%ai& there. In neither case was their coercion. o 5ow could you distinguish< Practices see& &uch %ess si#ni!icant in =o" than I"n# GU) J4CJ88J=: Ct cannot cha%%en#e P4s a%%e#ation o! how i&portant bur en is G=:88A8 QISS:8)I86: centrality test: Ct shou% ta/e into consi eration how i&portant the Dbur ene E re%i#ious e.ercise is to the re%i#ion. Gut centra%it" shou% not be e2uate w0sur(i(a% o! the re%i#ion itse%!. 2upport& o we a%rea " i this in Uo er: treate ob5ection to schoo% atten ance as Dcentra%E to the A&ish !aith o te.t: DprohibitE M broa $ &ore than 5ust %aws that coerce Sub5ecti(e bur en in =o" (s. ph"sica% bur en in I"n# GU) thin %ine Ytoo har to app%" in other cases o (ractically speaking$ J4Connor4s narrow e!4n o! Dbur enE is necessar" #i(en her esire !or app%ication o! SS to all %aws that bur en re%i#ion. 0rennan dissent: )he prob%e& can be acco&&o ate throu#h a showin# o! centra%it"0substantia%%": a re%i#ious (eto is o/a" when it un er&ines the tota%it" o! the re%i#ious practice$ or substantia%%" threatens to !rustrate the practice. )he re%i#ious #roup has the bur en o! pro(in# centra%it". *ii. Sincerit# [,/2=! Sincerit" is a%&ost a%wa"s conce e in ;:C cases. Gut is possib%e that c%ai& cou% !ai% on this pt. 0allard) +,==) /. Dou1las [+,:! In ict&ent !or &ai% !rau a#ainst I AA &o(e&ent &e&bers !or a%%e#e !a%se representations (hea%e thousan s$ are i(ine &essen#ers). 2eld: A court cannot pass on the !actua%it" o! re%i#ious be%ie!Kon%" 2uestion is whether the be%ie! is sincere%" he% . Jur" cannot eci e on truth!u%ness o! re%i#ious assertions. /ac&son dissentin1: Gecause a ct cannot eter&ine !a%sit" o! state&ents$ shou% n4t eter&ine sincerit"Kthe &ost con(incin# proo! that one be%ie(es his state&ents is to show that the" ha(e been true in his e.perience. 8o 5u icia% e.a&ination o! !aith. *iii. ?o$ern3ent Interests United States $. Lee */. 0ur1er) +,82. [+,,!: A&ish !ar&er0carpenter ob5ecte to the #o(ern&enta% re2uire&ent to pa" socia% securit" because o! his re%i#ious practice o! carin# !or their own e% er%". Ct app%ie Sherbert an !oun no ;:C (io%ation. %ogni.able burden )ound+ 'e is re2uire b" %aw to o so&ethin# which con!%icts irect%" with his re%i#ious be%ie!. 523 com&elling interest )ound6and it is narrowly tailored as applied to Amish o SS ser(es pub%ic interestH esi#n o! the s"ste& re2uires uni(ersa% support. A%%owin# e.e&ptions !ro& A&ish wou% %ea to e.e&ptions !or other re%i#ious be%ie!s an un er&ine the s"ste&.

1B

o 9orse$ no princip%e wa" to istin#uish #enera% ta.es an those un er SSCt wou% ha(e to a%%ow ob5ectors to withho% portions o! #enera% ta.es too (i.e. Z o! ta.es that #o to war). (Anarchy arg7 Ct istin#uishes Uo er: SS s"ste& is &ore co&p%e. an i!!icu%t to a &inisterH uni!or&it" is &ore essentia% than !or e ucationa% s"ste&$ which is run in part %oca%%". o Cou% ha(e respon e that can (iew e u at %ar#e an then see Uo er as #rantin# e.e&ption !ro& nationwi e s"ste& (I thin/ wea/) o S):<:8S sees no istinction: precise%" the sa&e re%i#ious interest is i&p%icate in both cases Ste$ens concurrin1: A#rees w0Ct4s conc%usion b0c o! the ris/ that a &"ria o! other c%ai&s wou% be too i!!icu%t to processH#o(t shou% not be in the business o! e(a%uatin# the re%ati(e &erits o! i!!erent re%i#ious c%ai&s. Qisa#rees w0Ct in that on the !acts: a &inistrati(e%" it wou% be eas" to e.e&pt$ an !isca%%"$ the s"ste& wou% bene!it. )hin/s ho% in# cou% be e.p%aine better b" *S&ith- ru%e. ?onKales $. O Centro) 2CC@) /. Ro"erts [2C2!Kcategorical v. case1by1case analysis of exemptions =e%i#ious #roup ta/es co&&union b" rin/in# sacra&enta% tea w0ICQ in it. 9ant e.e&ption !ro& en!orce&ent o! Contro%%e Substances Act un er =;=A. 2eld: =;=A re2uires the #o(t to e&onstrate that the co&pe%%in# interest test is satis!ie throu#h a&&lication o) the challenged law to the &articular claimant whose e.ercise o! re%i#ion is bein# bur en. ovt must look beyond broadly formulated interests 'ustifying general applicability of the challenged law and scrutini7e the asserted harm of granting specific exceptions to particular religious claimants. o )e.t o! =;=A: Dto the personE o =;=A e.press%" a opte test Das set !orth in Sherbert an Uo erE: in each o! these cases Ct %oo/e be"on broa %" !or&u%ate interests 5usti!"in# #enera% app%icabi%it" an scrutinize the asserte har& o! #rantin# speci!ic e.e&ption to particu%ar re%i#ious c%ai&ants at bar o Act itse%! conte&p%ates e.e&ptin# certain pp% !ro& its re2uire&ents i! Dconsistent w0hea%th an sa!et"E o :.e&ption a%rea " #rante !or 80A pe"ote use o =;=A p%ain%" conte&p%ates that cts wou% reco#nize in i(4% e.ceptionsKthat is how the %aw wor/s o )reat"0Int4% ob%i#ations insu!!icientH#o(t 5ust #a(e #enera% e(i ence 6<<lication: 'ere there is a co&pe%%in# interest in app%ication o! the statute #enera%%"$ but app%ication to #roup here is not narrow%" tai%ore to achie(e it. 6o(t4s ar# rests so%e%" on slippery slope concerns: I! I &a/e an e.ception !or "ou$ I4%% ha(e to &a/e an e.ception !or e(er"one. Reconcilin1 Lee: Ct i not ta/e categorical approach thereK%oo/e at e(i ence that #rantin# the re2ueste acco&&o ations a%one (A&ish on%") wou% serious%" co&pro&ise its abi%it" to a &inister the pro#ra&. 6o(t has not pro(i e e(i ence o! that here. o )his istinction is 2uestionab%eKIee ha s%ipper" s%ope ar# too =nder case1by1case analysis, #o(t shou% ha(e ar#ue that po%icin# an e.e&ption (onH

19

site inspections$ i enti!" ti&es o! cere&onies$ etc) entan#%e&ent un er Ie&on *prob%e&s p.,1CH1,:. Return o( *Statutor#. 'De3<tions [,/2-! Gac/#roun on ;:C in prison conte.t o Turner: Prison re#4n that in!rin#es on prisoner4s constitutiona% ri#ht is (a%i i! reasonable related to legitimate pedagogical interest. Qeter&inin# reasonab%eness: (1) (a%i rationa% connection (,) whether prisoner has a%ternati(e &eans !or e.pressin# re%i#ious (iew0practice7 (3) i&pact o! acco&&o ation on #uar s$ other in&ates$ prison resources (>) absence o! rea " a%ternati(e ru%e is e(i ence o! reasonab%eness7 eas" or ob(ious a%ternati(es &a/e re#u%ation in(a%i o )urner is sti%% #oo %aw. Can brin# )urner c%ai& an =IUIPA c%ai&. o Cutter: =IUIPA on its !ace oes not (io%ate :C b" !a(orin# re%i#ion =IUIPA in prison conte.tKCts aren-t aligned in how to apply 22 of ,+=*(A> 9arsoldier ,th Cir) 2CCP 80A in %owHsecurit" prison be%ie(es cuttin# his hair wou% cost hi& his wis o& an stren#th an that he4 be unab%e to 5oin ancestors in a!terH%i!e. As punish&ent !or re!usin# to cut his hair$ he has been con!ine to his ce%%$ ha a 4% uties i&pose $ rec%assi!ie into w/ #roup w0%ess pri(i%e#es$ e.pe%%e !ro& c%asses$ etc. o Subst+ 5urden G0c the #roo&in# po%ic" intentiona%%" puts si#ni!icant pressure on in&ates to aban on their re%i#ious be%ie!s b" cuttin# their hair it i&poses a subst. bur en on re%i#ious practice. See Sherbert. o %om&elling State *nterest U:S: (1) security& a%%ows 2uic/ i o! in&ates$ in&ates &a" hi e contraban in their hair$ ris/ o! puncture woun s !or #uar s !ro& searchin#. (,) health and safety& %ice$ hair stuc/ in &achines. (3) public safety: pre(ent escapees !ro& easi%" is#uisin# i s b" cuttin# hair. o Least Restrictive Alternative CQC !ai%s to &eet bur en. (1) Conc%usor" state&ents are not enou#h. (,) =e%iance on !our outHo!Hcircuit cases not ispositi(e b0c ea%t w0&a. securit" prison: #i(en the re uce securit" pressures at &ini&u& securit" !aci%ities$ least restrictive means in max security prison may not be identical to what is re)uired at min. (3) CQC cannot &eet bur en un%ess it e&onstrates that it has actually considered and re'ected the efficacy of less restrictive measures before adopting the challenged practice. (>) ;ai%ure to e.p%ain wh" other institutions w0sa&e co&pe%%in# interests (!e prisons$ wo&en4s prisons) are ab%e to acco&&o ate the sa&e re%i#ious practices. o 6o(t ar#ue that wo&en were %ess an#erous an that there wou% be a &in0en!orce&ent prob%e&s$ but i n4t pro(i e an" e(i ence. Shou% ha(e a%so researche whether inci ents o! (io%ence ha(e resu%te !ro& e.e&ptions in other s"ste&s. th 2a$enaar) @ Cir) 2CC-6comes out other way =e(erse !in in# that P (/oup%oc/) is %i/e%" to succee on propose D%ess restricti(e a%ternati(eEKper&ittin# on caseHb"Hcase basis to those in&ates w0%ow securit" ris/. Conc%u e that . ct ha not #i(en due de)erence to the judgment o) &rison o))icials$ as re2uire b" =IUIPA (cites I'). Prison ar#: in i(i ua%ize e.e&ptions are prob%e&atic b0c cause resent&ent7 cop"cat e!!ect7 en!orce&ent issues in eter&inin# who is e.e&pt o See&s that @th Cir is &o(in# bur en bac/ to P a!ter e.pert testi!ies in support o! J ,C

o! prison o!!icia%s o GU) =IUIPA shi!ts bur en onto #o(t to pro(e %east restricti(e a%t. (ws) o 9th Cir re2uires &ore than 5ust e.pert4s conc%usor" state&entsKwant e(i ence that ha(e re5ecte e!!icac" o! a%% the options ((. )urner: 5ust nee to &a/e sure there are no ob(ious a%ternati(es) See "S Legal Analysis o) %laims )or Religious !-em&tion1Summary through Se&t C. 'sta"lish3ent Clause and 6cco33odation +. Clash 0etween The Clauses [+C/+! Tho3as $. Re$iew 0oard) +,8+ [22@!: A J. 9itness brou#ht suit to be e%i#ib%e !or Ue co&pensation a!ter he %e!t 5ob in ob5ection to &a/in# co&ponents !or ar&" tan/s7 Ct held that state &ust pro(i e Ue co&pensation to :e who %e!t 5ob b0c o! re%i#ious ob5ections. RehnEuist4s Dissent: o )he octrina% ri(in# !orce behin the tension is the overly broad interpretation of the two clauses. o ;:CKa (ocates Graun!e% $ not Sherbert (wou% beco&e S&ith) o :CKwou% %i&it to #o(t support o! prose%"tizin# acti(ities o! re%i#ious sects ( isse&ination o! re%i#ious tenets). See Stewart issent in Sche&pp o Ct4s :C octrine (Ie&on) is inconsistent w0;:C octrine (Sherbert)K re%i#ious acco&&o ations wi%% ne(er ha(e a secu%ar purpose$ wi%% a%wa"s a (ance re%i#ion$ an wi%% entan#%e #o(t (in assessin# sincerit" an be%ie!) o A 4% !orces behin tension: o )he #rowth o! re#u%ator" state (socia% we%!are pro#ra&s) o Incorporation a#ainst the states =eso%(in# the C%ashHoptions: 1. judicial restraint: best escription o! Ct to a" o S&ith: acco&&o ation not constitutiona%%" re2uire $ but per&issib%e b" %e#is%ature o 8arrower un erstan in# o! :C than Ie&on: &ost acco&&o ations per&issib%e ,. accommodationist+ AcQonne%%. o Seep preHS&ith octrine unchan#e an a%ter :C to be &ore hospitab%e towar s acco&&o ation 3. se&arationism o S&ith W Ie&onKe%i&inate 5u icia% acco&&o ations an &a/e %e#is%ati(e acco&&o ations suspect i! not per se unconst )he 'istorica% Un erstan in#K,n A&en &ent Qebate Proposa% to e.e&pt an" Dperson re%i#ious%" scrupu%ousE !ro& co&pu%sion to bear ar&s o Gou inot: accommodation is re)uired K#o(t cannot inter!ere w0re%i#ious senti&ents o! an" person. Cannot epen on &a5orit" to protect re%i#ious. o Genson: 'udicial restraintKno natura% ri#ht to opt out o! &i%itia %ea(e it to %e#is%ature$ no oubt the" wi%% protect re%i#ious

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o Jac/son: 9ants to a Dupon pa"in# an e2ui(a%entE b0c re%i#ious shou% n4t be ab%e to !reeHri e. Gut oesn4t see& to ha(e an" const prob%e& w0acco&&o ation C%ear that 'ouse i not entertain separationist (iew at a%%. An b0c i n4t en up inc%u in# the e.e&ption$ acco&&o ation &ust not be const re2uire . So %oo/s %i/e 5u icia% restraint has &ost support in this histor". Abner 6=::8:: acco&&o ations as a D2ui pro 2uoE !or :C %i&its :C re2uire&ent o! secu%ar purposebe%ie(ers are thwarte !ro& o!!erin# her (a%ues !or &a5orit" acceptance as %aw pri&a !acie ri#ht to e.e&ption !ro& those %aws that irect%" con!%ict w0their re%i#ious be%ie!s. )ra eHo!!. o Appea%in# theoretica%$ not octrina%$ ar# o AcQonne%% criticis&: pre&ise o! 6reene4s ar# is incorrect: re%i#ious (iews are not e.c%u e !ro& po%itics. Cts ha(e a%%owe re%i#ious in!%uence on %e#is%ati(e process. o )hen wh" oes A sti%% want acco&&o ation3 Ie#is%ati(e process oes not protect re%i#ious minorities. )he D=e%i#iousE Justi!ication !or =e%i#ious Acco&&o ations SAI)': uties to 6o are prior to uties in societ" e.p%ains specia% protection o! re%i#ious i eas but not !or secu%ar counterparts. o Is it prob%e&atic to base acco&&o ation po%ic" on a theo%o#ica% rationa%e3 2. Current Doctrine: 'sta"lish3ent Clause [+C/2! Cutter) 2CC-) /. ?ins"ur1 [2:,!HH Court upho% s =IUIPA a#ainst !acia% cha%%en#e. Starts w0pre&ise that there is space btw :C an ;:C where %e#is%ati(e acco&&o ation is per&issib%e T'ST to deter3ine constitutionalit# o( le1islati$e acco33odations : Constitutiona% i! (1) alleviates e-ce&tional 8govt6created9 burdens on &rivate religious e-ercise$ an o 6o(t e%e&ent &i#ht not be abso%ute prere2uisiteH&i#ht be o/ i! %i!tin# bur en o! pri(ate actor (,) is &easure so that it does not override other signi)icant interests or im&ose unacce&table burdens on bene)iciaries$ an o Thornton $. Caldor *+,8-. [2=8!: abso%ute e.e&ption !ro& wor/ !or re%i#ious reasons was unconst b0c i n4t ta/e interests o! :r or other :es into account (3) acco&&o ation oesn4t i!!erentiate a&on# !aiths0denominational neutrality Ct respon s to speci!ic #o(t ob5ections: 1. =IUIPA o(erri es si#ni!icant interests o! prisons$ prison o!!icia%s an ta.pa"ers o =:SPJ8S:: Shou% in&ate re2uests !or re%i#ious acco&&o ations beco&e e.cessi(e (a &in costs$ too &uch prison %iti#ation)$ i&pose un5usti!ie bur ens on other institutiona%ize persons$ or 5eopar ize the e!!ecti(e !unctionin# o! an institution (not enou#h e!erence)$ the !aci%it" wou% be !ree to resist. In that e(ent$ a 5u ication o! as a&&lied challenges wou% be in or er. ,. Statute (io%ates princip%e o! denominational neutrality o =:SPJ8S:: statute oesn4t iscri&inate on its !aceHprotects a%% re%i#ionsKi! an"thin# shou% i&pro(e .&. A#ain$ brin# asHapp%ie cha%%en#es i! not en!orce ,,

e2ua%%" 3. =IUIPA a (ances re%i#ion b" encoura#in# prisoners to D#et re%i#ionE o =:SPJ8S:: oubt a%% acco&&o ations wou% be percei(e as bene!its (Sosher !oo suc/s in prison). o Shou% ha(e sai an" a (ance&ent is inci enta%Kstatute partia%%" enacte to #et ri o! iscri& in prison >. =IUIPA i&per&issib%" a (ances re%i#ion b" #i(in# #reater protection to re%i#ious ri#hts that to other constitutiona%%" protecte ri#hts o =:SPJ8S:: 63os: uphe% re%i#ious e.e&ption !ro& )it%e <II: Dre%i#ious acco&&o ations nee not co&e pac/a#e w0bene!its to secu%ar entitiesE [[[can )avor religious over nonreligious[[[ A&en &ent to ;air 'ousin# Act (9S)KConsi er un er Cutter 'o&eowners4 associations cannot restrict ho&eowners !ro& puttin# up re%i#ious si#ns$ s"&bo%s$ isp%a"s U8:SS ru%e is necessar" to pre(ent si#ni!icant a&a#e to propert"$ ph"sica% har& to persons$ a pub%ic nuisance$ or si&i%ar un ue har ships o Ii!tin# Gur en: not #o(t4a%$ but that &i#ht be o/ o 8onbene!iciaries: statute pro(i es e.ceptions o Qeno&inationa%%" neutra% )hin/ about h"posKD6o %o(es AcCain0Pa%inE TeDas %onthl# $. 0ulloc&) +,8,) /. 0rennan [2=:! )\ ha an e.e&ption !ro& sa%es ta. %aws #i(en to re%i#ious pub%ications7 the Court he% that the %aw %ac/e su!!icient brea th to sur(i(e an :C cha%%en#e. T'ST (or acco33odations *<ositi$e test.. Const un er :C i!: +. pro(i es !or wi e arra" o! nonsectarian #roups as we%% as re%i#ious or#anizations7 o C.!. 9alK: uphe% propert" ta. e.e&ption !or re%i#ious properties$ an rea% estate owne b" wi e arra" o! nonpro!its 2. !or secu%ar purpose o I! was to pro&ote re!%ection on u%ti&ate Ls$ e.e&ption shou% not be reser(e so%e%" !or pub%ications a ressin# re%i#ious issues. o /xemption meant to lift financial burden, not any burden on religious scruples or d.m. ?hb 1$@A Test restated *ne1ati$e $ersion.: Unconst un er :C i!: 1. &ar/e %" bur ens nonHbene!iciaries i&poses unacceptab%e bene!its on bene!iciariesKta. e.e&ption is subsi ize b" other ta.pa"ers ,. cannot be seen as %i!tin# a -#o(t4a%%" i&pose 3- substantia% bur en not a !%at %icense or occupationa% ta. that restrains in a (ance the ;: o! re%i#ion$ un%i/e in %urdoc& an 7ollett )a. M s&a%% !raction o! (a%ue o! each sa%e an pa"ab%e b" bu"erposes %itt%e an#er o! curtai%in# re%i#ion Scalia dissentin1: I! an"thin# the L is whether the e.e&ption is co&pe%%e un er the ;:C. :(en i! not$ %e#is%ature is certain%" per&itte to pass e.e&ption. Cannot

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istin#uish Aur oc/ or ;o%%ett. 9hite concurrin1: (io%ates Press C%auseKsubsi " a(ai%ab%e to re%i#ious #roups an no one e%se. 9hat about speech interests o! others (can app%" this ar# to housin# a&en &ent) 'ow o "ou reconci%e resu%ts in Cutter an )e.as Aonth%"3 Contextual i!!erence between the %e(e% o! #o(ern&ent contro% an po%ic" interests in prisonsre2uires specia% consi eration Bature of burden imposed: Ii!tin# a bur en (s. pro(i in# a bene!it o In C$ prison re#u%ations are e!inite%" restrictin# re%i#ious practices o In )A$ ta. e.e&ption isn4t %i!tin# a bur en$ it is pro(i in# a bene!it AS: %an#ua#e is i!!icu%t to reconci%e T96 $. 2ardison) +, [2=8!: )9A cannot epri(e another :: o! his shi!t pre! b0c he i not a here to re%i#ion that obser(e Sat Sabbath. Un er )it%e <II$ an"thin# &ore than e &ini&us cost M un ue har ship. %arshall dissent: i! an acco&&o ation can be re5ecte si&p%" b0c it in(o%(es pre!erentia% treat&ent$ then the statute si#ni!ies nothin#. 9hi%e :C Ls wou% be raise b" interpretin# the %aw to co&pe% :rs or !e%%ow :es to incur substantia% costs$ not a%% acco&&o ations are cost%"$ an %itt%e atte&pt ha been &a e to acco&&o ate here. :. Deno3inational Neutralit# [+C/+=! 9hat oes Q8 re2uire when #rantin# e.e&ptions0acco&&o ations3 ;re2uent Q8 (io%ations a%%e#e where statute is neutra% on its !ace Larson $. ;alente *+,82. [2-+!: Uni!ication Church cha%%en#e a A8 statute that e.e&pte !ro& state re#istration an recor in# re2uire&ents (!or charitab%e or#anizations) re%i#ious or#anizations that recei(e ?CZ or &ore o! their contribution !ro& &e&bers or a!!i%iate or#anizations. C%ai& un er :C$ inter a%ia. 2eld: ?CZ ru%e c%ear%" #rants eno&inationa% pre!erence7 oes not satis!" strict scrutin" b0c not c%ose%" !itte to ser(e an" co&pe%%in# interest that state has in pre(entin# abuse. Iar#er$ &ore estab%ishe churches &ore %i/e%" to be e.e&pt7 %ess we%%Hestab%ishe churches %i/e%" to be is!a(ore Ct re%ie on a %ot o! I' showin# that %an#ua#e o! statute was ra!te so as to e.e&pt so&e (Catho%ics)$ but not other (Aoonies) re%i#ions Ct e3<hasiKes that e2ua%it" a&on# re%i#ions was one o! the &ost i&portant princip%es o! the ;oun in#. Con!ir&e repeate %" in both state&ents an const enact&ents o! the p *,@1Distin1uish ?illette *+, +.[2@2!G Ct uphe% !e %aw e.e&ptin# conscientious ob5ectors who ob5ecte to a%% wars$ but not those who ob5ecte to particu%ar wars$ which ha the a!!ect o! e.e&ptin# Lua/ers$ but not Catho%ics. =ationa%e: accommodations need not be e)ual if there are neutral, secular reasons, not based on religious favoritism, for distinguishing among religious practices. Aa"be Iarson shou% be un erstoo as app%"in# SS on%" to %aws that ha(e a iscri&inator" purpose o Gut strict te.tua%ist &i#ht not be ab%e to istin#uish b0c purpose was

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e.tracte !ro& I' Another possibi%it": conscientious ob5ector e.e&ption pre&ise on assess&ent o! in i(i ua%s$ whereas Iarson statute iscri&inates base on re%i#ions as re%i#ions

0oard o( 'ducation) Iir#as /oel ;illa1e School District *+,,=) /. Souter. [2-2! )he (i%%a#e o! Sir"as Joe%$ &a e up o! u%tra ortho o. Jews is &a e a separate schoo% istrict b" state statute to acco&&o ate han icappe chi% ren (parents i n4t want the& atten in# nearb" pub%ic schoo%s b0c o! !ear an trau&a o! bein# w0such i!! pp%7 rest o! chi% ren atten pri(ate schoo%) 2eld: <io%ates :C: (1) A%%ocates po%itica% power base on a re%i#ious criterion. Ana%o#" to re%i#ious test. (,) 8either presupposes nor re2uires #o(4ta% i&partia%it" towar re%i#ionK!ai%s Q8 Schoo% istrict was create !or purpose o! bene!ittin# this particu%ar re%i#ious #roup. o Ronin# accor in# to (i%%a#e %ines #oes a#ainst tren o! conso%i atin# schoo% istricts. o <i%%a#e recei(e its new #o(t4a% authorit" not as one o! &an" co&&unities e%i#ib%e !or e2ua% treat&ent un er a #enera% %aw So no assurance that the ne.t si&i%ar%" situate #roup wi%% recei(e schoo% istrict o! its own b0c a %e#is%ature4s !ai%ure to enact a specia% %aw is unre(iewab%e Souter is e&an in# Dup !ront neutra%it".E Justi!ication b" ana%o#": i! %aw pro(i e buses !or Catho%ic schoo%s on%"$ c%ear%" (io%ation o! Q8 e(en w0o Protestants brin#in# suit Ienned# concurrin1: )his %aw (io%ates :C b0c (1) o! e%e#ation o! ci(i% authorit" a%on# re%i#ious %ines to re%i#ious entit". (,) Gut no Q8 prob%e&Kcan4t be unti% an un%ess another re%i#ious #roup is enie its own schoo% istrict. Scalia dissentin1: (1) 8o proo! that a%%ocation is on re%i#ious %inesK&i#ht be on c%tura% %ines7 (,) 8o Q8 prob%e&. UpH!ront neutra%it" is not necessar". Ste$ens concurrin1: A (ances another ar#u&ent a#ainst constitutiona%it": (3) )hese /i s wou% ha(e been sent out to other pub%ic schoo%s but parents i n4t want the& to assi&i%ate into &ainstrea& cu%ture. State cannot$ un er the :C$ ta/e a!!ir&ati(e action to ai se#re#ation o! this character. )his estab%ishes$ rather than acco&&o ates$ re%i#ion. Unc%ear whether S):<:8S is sa"in# assi&i%ation is a (a%ue that :C &eant to pro&ote$ but c%ear that on his (iew it oesn4t a%%ow !or se#re#ation SCAIIA response: this (iew is hosti%e towar s re%i#ion$ which is contrar" to :C =. 8er$asi$e ?o$ern3ental 8resence [+C/+-! Chat happens in environments where active, or even controlling, participation by govt is necessary if religious exercise is to be possible at all< CruK) +, 2) 8er Curia3 [2@@! Gu hist in prison !i%es suit !or (io%ation o! ;:C7 a%%e#es reta%iation !or istributin# re%i#ious &ateria%s$ whi%e other re%i#ious a herents are rewar e !or their spiritua%it". =:AA8Q:Q to %et .ct eter&ine whether there was pa%pab%e iscri&K&in !u% o! J o! prison o!!icia%s$ but not co&p%ete e!erenceKprisoners ha(e ri#hts too. 0ur1er concurrin1: there cannot possib%" be a const re2uire&ent that the #o(t pro(i e ,?

&ateria%s !or e(er" re%i#ion an sect practice in this i(erse countr" Qoes this (iew (io%ate Q83 RehnEuist dissentin1: :C oesn4t protect ri#ht to prose%"tize7 oesn4t e(en i&p%icate :C so 5ust nee s to pass rationa% basis re(iew 8o one on ct wou% ta/e this positon to a" Un er =IUIPA$ this is bur en so #o(t is #oin# to nee co&pe%%in# interest Iatco(() 2nd Cir) +,8- [288!Kuni)ue circumstances of military makes )uasi1 establishment a permissible accommodation 2eld: Pub%ic%" !un e chap%ainc" within the US Ar&" oes 8J) (io%ate the :C Ct c%ai&s this oesn4t (io%ate the princip%e o! '$erson b0c it is (o%untar" (not co&pu%sor" or coerci(e)$ but it c%ear%" oes. :C is about &ore than that. o 6o(t cannot Dai one re%i#ion$ aid all religions$ or pre!er one re%i#ion o(er anotherE )he nee to acco&&o ate ;: o! &i%itar" is what is rea%%" oin# the wor/ here o 6o(t cannot !orce citizens to choose btw ser(in# in &i%itar" an #i(in# up their ri#ht to !ree e.ercise (areas where re%i#ious %ea ers0!aci%ities are not a(ai%ab%e) Jther ar#s: o ;ra&er4s intent: Con#ress4 authorization o! a &i%itar" chap%ainc" be!ore an conte&poraneous w0a option o! :C C.!. %arsh o Counter(ai%in# constitutiona% interests$ i.e. 9ar Power C%ause Cannot outsource it$ %i/e Ps want$ b0c o ;inancia% in!easibi%it"$ especia%%" o! s&a%% re%i#ions o Iac/ o! &i%itar" trainin# nee e so that chap%ains can !unction e!!ecti(e%" in the !ie% Re3ands as to ci(i%ian c%er#" that is a(ai%ab%e to retirees an troops statione in urban USKre2uires showin# that those #roups on4t ha(e access to nor&a% re%i#ious resources Ri1don) D.D.C. +,, [2 !6arises under ,%,A 8a(" !orba e chap%ains !ro& encoura#in# parishioners to participate in Ca&pai#n to %obb" Con#ress&en to o(erturn Pres4 (eto o! Partia% Girth Abortion Gan. Cite re#4ns prohibitin# &e&bers on acti(e ut" !ro& participatin# in partisan po%itica% acti(it". 2eld: (io%ation o! =;=A Qs ha(e not shown how Ar&"4s interest in po%itica%%"H isintereste &i%itar"$ #oo or er an iscip%ine$ an protection o! ser(ice &e&bers4 ri#ht to participate in the po%itica% process (which are co&pe%%in# interests) are in an" wa" !urthere b" this restriction on the speech o! &i%itar" chap%ains. o =abbi S0;ather = o not wish to ha(e their con#re#ants prose%"tize !e%%ow so% iers$ so wh" wou% it create potentia% con!%icts$ or create an#er to %o"a%t"$ iscip%ine or &ora% o! the troops3 o 6r3#4s unheeded res<onse: are "ou /i in#3 =e%i#ion W po%itics M i(isi(eness 'ow eci e i! wasn4t un er =;=A3 o S&ithK&i#ht sti%% nee to pass SS b0c h"bri c%ai& w0;S ,@

Luer": Can the &i%itar" re2uire that chap%ains o!!er ecu&enica% pra"ers an prose%"tize at e(ents where so% iers o! i!! !aith are present3

not

;. 8O9'R O7 T2' 8URS' 6. Intro: ?o$ern3ent 6id [+C/+@! '$erson $. 0d o( 'du) +,= ) /. 0lac& [:=C! A pub%ic schoo% b $ usin# ta. supporte !un s$ rei&burse parents !or the cost o! sen in# their chi% ren to schoo% on count" buses7 inc%u e parents o! parochia% schoo% chi% ren U<held rei&burse&ents a#ainst :C cha%%en#e b0c the state a%so pai !or the cost o! transportin# pub%ic schoo% stu ents an thus$ it was si&p%" a part o! a #enera% pro#ra& o! transportation not ea%in# with re%i#ion. o A#rees that :C &an ates Dno ai to re%i#ionE but isa#rees o(er app%ication: busin# to Catho%ic Schoo%s ] ai to re%i#ionK)ransportation subsi ies are periphera% to e ucationa% process o StateHp tra!!ic po%ice ser(e sa&e purpose as bus subsi "Ksa!e transportation. =e!%ects !act that #enera% #o(t bene!its can e.ten to re%i#ion. Conce es that pro(ision o! buses approaches D(er#e o! constitutiona%it"Eprett" separationist Ct b" &o ern stan ar s o ;:C re2uires that #o(t cannot e.c%u e Catho%ics (or an"one) !ro& recei(in# bene!its o! pub%ic we%!are %e#is%ation b4c of their faith, or lack of it Rutled1e Dissent: o Aa ison in =e&onstrance oppose e(er" !or& an e#ree o! o!!icia% re%ation btw c+sK&one" ta/en b" ta.ation !ro& one is not to be use or #i(en to support another4s re%i#ious trainin# or be%ie!$ or in ee one4s own. o <A Assess&ent ta.e pub%ic !or support o! re%i#ion$ sa&e thin# here. o <er" purpose o! the contribution is to e!ra" the cost o! sen in# stu ent to p%ace where he wi%% recei(e pri&ari%" re%i#ious teachin# o Jn issent4s (iew$ no rationa% %ine can be rawn btw bus subsi ies an pa"&ents !or %ar#er$ but no %ess necessar" ite&s$ such as boo/s$ b% #s$ teachers )heories o! re%ations btw #o(ern&ent an re%i#ion: 1. Strict se&aration *RUTL'D?'. govt may not contribute ta-6raised )unds to the su&&ort o) an institution which teaches the tenets and )aith o) any church no matter what )orm the subsidy may ta:e o I&p%icit base%ine: #o(t inaction o 9ou% n4t carr" to %o#ica% e.tre&eKDco&&on ri#htE ser(ices rea%%" istin#uishab%e3 )ransportation to schoo% one3 ,. Neutrality *0L6CI. govt may subsidi.e any institution that is &roviding a &ublic service, and need not ;or may not7 discriminate either in )avor o) religious institutions or against them o I&p%icit base%ine: #o(t4s treat&ent o! ana%o#ous nonre%i#ious acti(ities an institutions o 9ou% n4t carr" to %o#ica% e.tre&e either (boo/s$ b% #s$ etc) o L: Dnee notE (. D&a" notEH which is &ore p%ausib%e un erstan in#3

,7

=econci%in# Aa ison4s =e&onstrance with :(erson Aim vs+ !))ects& <A Assess&ent is ai&e at in(i#oratin# re%i#ion$ but :(erson is concerne with sa!e transportation o! chi% ren$ an the e!!ect o! that happens to be that &one" supports re%i#ion Neutral %riteria <A Assess&ent a%%ocate the F on re%i#ious #roun s$ un%ess ta.pa"er ob5ecte $ whi%e bus pro#ra& was neutra% btw re%i#ious an nonre%i#ious bene!iciaries Direct v+ *ndirect Aid& )he <A Assess&ent #i(es ai irect%" to churches$ whi%e :(erson is rei&bursin# parents$ which is ar#uab%" in irect. %ontent o) aid &rovided& <A Assess&ent pro(i es !un in# !or re%i#ious institutions to use an" wa" the" choose$ whi%e the :(erson rei&burse&ent is ear&ar/e !or use !or sa!e transportation 0oard o( 'ducation $. 6llen *+,@8. [:-2! Ioca% schoo% istrict lent !ree te.tboo/s appro(e b" pub%ic schoo%s !or secu%ar sub5ects to stu ents in #ra es 7H1,$ inc%u in# nonpub%ic schoo% stu ents. U<held un er :(erson. o )he ai was !or secu%ar or nonHi eo%o#ica% aspects o! the e ucationa% process. o =e!use to a#ree that secu%ar an re%i#ious trainin# is so intertwine that secu%ar te.tboo/s are instru&enta% in the teachin# o! re%i#ion 0lac& dissentin1) has to istin#uish :(erson: Goo/s irect%" assist the teachin# an propa#ation o! sectarian re%i#ious (iewpoint7 bus subsi ies &ere%" pro(i e a #enera% transportation ser(ice in now wa" re%ate to substanti(e re%i#ious (iews an be%ie!s Peripher" ar#u&ent: )here are so&e thin#s that are at the core o! teachin# (te.tboo/s an teachers) an there are others that are on the outs/irts (buses$ po%icin#$ stu ent hea%th). Alternative criticism of Allen: Pro(ision o! the te.tboo/s cou% un er&ine the re%i#ious character o! the schoo% curricu%u&. As &ore state ai is #i(en to re%i#ious schoo%s$ teachers wi%% ha(e a har er ti&e teachin# secu%ar courses !ro& a re%i#ious perspecti(e. o :C was &eant to protect re%i#ionKwas it !ro& secu%arization3 0. No 6id 6<<roach [+C/2+! Le3on $. IurtK3an$ C./. 0ur1er *+, +. [: 2! (A statute a%%ows the state to irect%" rei&burse nonpub%ic schoo%s !or spen in# on secu%ar e ucation ser(ices7 courses &ust be appro(e b" superinten ent. ,* statute pro(i es irect pa"&ents to teachers in nonpub%ic schoo%s to supp%e&ent sa%aries i! the"4re teachin# secu%ar courses. In$alidated b0c i! state is !un in# re%i#ious aspects o! schoo%$ it (io%ates the pri&ar" e!!ects pron# b" a (ancin# re%i#ion. 'ere$ thou#h the statutes are care!u%%" esi#ne to a(oi i&per&issib%e pri&ar" e!!ect b" chec/in# that the !un in# is on%" use !or secu%ar purposes$ the" thereb" (io%ate the entan#%e&ent pron#. *catchH,,o )e.t: :C app%ies b0c oesn4t 5ust bar creation o! church$ prohibits an" %aw Drespectin# an estab%ish&ent o! re%i#ion.E Si#na%s broa er intent to bar %aws that si&p%" &o(e in irection o! estab%ish&ent. o Purposes o! the :C: &eant to pre(ent 3 e(i%s: (1) sponsorship o! re%i#ion7 (,)

,B

!inancia% support o! re%i#ion7 (3) acti(e in(o%(e&ent b" #o(t in re%i#ion The Le3on Test: to sur(i(e an :C c%ai& a %aw &ust: 'a(e a secular <ur<ose 'a(e a <ri3ar# e((ect that neither ad$ances nor inhi"its reli1ion) an Not create eDcessi$e entan1le3ent "etween church and state. ;actors to consi er !or e.cessi(e entan#%e&ent7 app%ie o Character and <ur<oses o( those "ene(itted o =e%i#ious character o! the schoo%: i&pressionab%e a#e o! stu ents$ &an" o! the teachers are nuns7 pro.i&it" to church &a/es it easier to inte#rate re%i#ion7 re%i#ious s"&bo%s7 re%i#ious%"Horiente curricu%u& o Purpose o! the schoo% is to incu%cate re%i#ious octrine into chi% ren i!!icu%t to istin#uish what is secu%ar !ro& what is re%i#ious in the schoo% b0c re%i#ious instruction an (ocation is natura% part o! schoo% %i!e o Nature o( the aid o In the en(iron&ent in which these teachers are p%ace (hire b" re%i#ious o!!icia%s$ teachin# in re%i#ious en(iron&ent$ surroun e b" others o! sa&e re%i#ion) it is #oin# to be har !or the& e(en in #oo !aith to separate secu%ar !ro& re%i#ious teachin# o Qistin#uishin# A%%en: teachers ha(e a substantia%%" i!!erent i eo%o#ica% character than boo/s. )e.tb/4s content is ascertainab%e$ teacher is not. o Relationshi< "tw cJs o In or er to ensure statute is not ha(in# pri&ar" e!!ect o! a (ancin# re%i#ion$ #o(t wou% nee to set up (arious chec/s an sur(ei%%ances o! the re%i#ious schoo%s Criticis3s: o )eachers can be re%ie upon to obe" the ru%es a#ainst re%i#ious in octrination w0o constant &onitorin# o ;un s can #o to re%i#ious teachers as %on# as part o! #enera%$ neutra% pro#ra& to ensure that e u is o! hi#h 2ua%it". Chy is Ct so concerned< (1) secu%arization o! re%i#ious schoo%s7 (,) conscience ri#htsH ta.in#7 (3) i(isi(eness0Q8Kwhat about those who on4t ha(e enou#h a herents !or schoo% see ws for timeline of school funding cases Co33ittee (or 8u"lic 'ducation $. N#Euist *+, :. [:8+! [+C/22!6line drawing to prevent diversion of aid from secular to religious activities (1) Doney grants to nonpublic schools for maintenance and repair of facilities and e)uipment. U8A8IAJUSIU S)=UCS QJ98. 8o atte&pt &a e to restrict pa"&ent to e.pen itures re%ate to up/eep o! !aci%ities use e.c%usi(e%" !or secu%ar purpose Aere statistica% percenta#e (?CZ o! a&t e.pen e on co&parab%e &aintenance in pri(ate schoo%) wi%% not su!!ice as a #uarantee that state !un s wi%% not be i(erte to !inance re%i#ious e u

(,) #uition grants for families using nonpublic schools. S)=UCS QJ98 @H3 U8Q:= :;;:C)S. ,9

8o &eans o! #uaranteein# the ai wi%% be use !or secu%ar purposes ;act that #rant went to parents was on%" one !actor (%ea(es 3p open) =e5ecte state e!ense that b0c rei&burse&ents$ parents nee not pa" the F to the re%i#ious schoo%: #rants still giving incentive to parents to sen chi% ren to sectarian schoo%s. =e5ecte ar# that pro(i e to pro&ote ;: o! %owHinco&e parentsK i!!erence btw bur enin# !aith an si&p%" not he%pin#

(3) )a. cre its !or !a&i%ies usin# nonpub%ic schoo%s. S)=UCS QJ98 @H3 U8Q:= :;;:C)S. Qistin#uishe 9a%z (uphe% 8U4s s"ste& o! e.e&ptin# re%i#ious or#anizations !ro& propert" ta.es): o 'istor": ta. e.e&ptions when 1st A&en was a opte o Atte&pte to #uar a#ainst an#ers o! #o(t oppressin# re%i#ion b" ta.ation o :.e&ption co(ere a%% propert" e(ote to re%i#ious$ e ucationa% or charitab%e purposes (s. ta. cre its !%owin# pri&ari%" to parents o! chi% ren atten in# sectarian schoo%s %ee& *+, -.: In(a%i ates state pro(isions o! ser(ices (hea%th$ re&e ia%$ :SI) pro(i e b" pub%ic schoo% pro#ra&s on pri(ate re%i#ious schoo%s. J(erru%e . 9ol3an *+, .: Upho% s state pro(isions !or au.i%iar" ser(ices !or stu ents e%i(ere on neutra% sites in trai%ers. 0all *+,8-.: ho% s unconstitutiona% the practice o! sen in# teachers to /1, re%i#ious schoo%s !or a!terschoo% re&e ia% ser(ices. 61uilar *+,8-.Kunconstitutiona% e(en i! &onitor to &a/e sure secu%ar b0c then entan#%e&ent (catch ,,). o As many as four 'ustices still support this more separationist approach C. Neutral 6id6demise of diversion! rise of true private choice +. Indirect 6id 9itters $. 9ashin1ton De<t o( Ser$ices (or the 0lind) +,8@) /. %arshall [:,,! 9A State (ocationa% rehabi%itation assistance statute pro(i es F to assist (isua%%" i&paire o(erco&e han icappe . L: can a recipient use the F at a Christian co%%e#e3 6<<l#in1 Le3on) <ri3ar# e((ect is not to ad$ance reli1ion o p irect%" to the stu ent: an" ai that u%ti&ate%" !%ows to re%i# e u oes so on%" as a resu%t o! the &rivate choices o! ai recipients o pro#ra& &a e available generally w/o regard to nature o) institution bene)itted o creates no financial incentive to un erta/e sectarian e u (bene!its are sa&e no &atter what t"pe o! institution ai is app%ie to) o on%" s&a%% a&t o! o(era%% (ocationa% rehab !un wi%% be use at re%i#ious schoo%s$ b0c o! wide range of choices available 8owell concurrin1: Shou% be eci e on the broa er #roun that state programs that

3C

are wholly neutral in offering edu assistance to a class defined w4o reference to religion do not violate second prong$ b0c an" ai to re%i#ion resu%ts !ro& the pri(ate choices o! in i(4% bene!iciaries. o Iast !actor abo(e shou% not &atter$ b0c o! %ueller: uphe% statute a%%owin# ta.pa"ers to ta/e state inco&e ta. e uctions !or e.penses incurre in e u. )he %ar#est e uctib%e b" !ar was tuitionapp%icab%e on%" to ta.pa"ers usin# nonpub%ic schoo%s$ 9@Z o! which were re%i#ion. Lel3an $. Si33onsH2arris *2CC2) C./. RehnEuist. [=C:!6formali7ing new approach: direct v. indirect w4private choice [+C/2:! Jhio i&p%e&ente (oucher pro#ra& !or those !a&i%ies who %i(e in the !ai%in# C%e(e%an pub%ic schoo% istrict: pro(i es tuition ai !or stu ents to atten participatin# pub%ic or pri(ate schoo% o! their parent4s choosin#. I! choose pri(ate$ chec/s &a e pa"ab%e to parents who then en orse chec/ to chosen schoo%. 9CZ use at re%i#ious schoo%s Distin1uishes #o(t pro#ra&s that pro(i e ai irect%" to re%i#ious schoo%s (Aitche%%$ =osenber#er)$ an pro#ra&s o! true pri(ate choice$ in which #o(t ai reaches re%i#ious schoo%s on%" as a resu%t o! the #enuine an in epen ent choices o! in i(i ua%s (9itters) Test (or constitutionalit# o( 1o$t aid: 1. ai &ust be neutral w/res&ect to religion ,. pro#ra& &ust pro(i e assistance to broad class not esi#nate b" re%i#ious criteria 3. c%ass &ust ha(e #enuine and inde&endent choice 6<<lied: neutra%it" an true choice e.iste un er this pro#ra&. Beutral& Qoes not create !inancia% incenti(es s/ewe towar re%i#ious schoo%sK such incenti(es not present when ai a%%ocate on basis o! neutra%$ secu%ar criteria that neither !a(or nor is!a(or re%i#ion$ an is a(ai%ab%e e2ua%%" to re%i#ious an secu%ar bene!iciaries. I! e!!ect is that ai is isproportionate%" !orwar e to re%i#ious schoo%s$ that is irre%e(ant. #rue choice& cou% choose !ro& sta"in# in pub%ic schoo% an #ettin# tutoria% ai $ nonre%i#ious pri(ate schoo%$ &a#net schoo%$ co&&unit" schoo%s Souter dissentin1: )here is not neutrality& subsi ies cappe prett" hi#h (F,,?C) an re%i#ious schoo%s are cheaps/ews sche&e towar s bene!ittin# re%i#ious schoo%s. An this is e(i ence b" the !act that 9@Z o! participatin# chi% ren chose re%i#ious schoo%sK this is ue to the structure o! the pro#ra& (see be%ow) o =ehn2uist rep%": this %ine o! reasonin# %ea s to absur conse2uences: in C%e(e%an $ where &ost pri(ate schoo%s happen to be re%i#ious$ this pro#ra& wou% be unconstitutiona% GU) in area where &ost pri(ate schoo%s are not re%i#ious$ this sa&e pro#ra& wou% be constitutiona% V o! participatin# re%i#ious schoo%s that are re%i#ious is irre%e(ant$ as it Z o! recipients that choose to use the ai at re%i#ious schoo% )here is not true choice: not &an" spots open in secu%ar pri(ate schoo%s or &a#net0co&&unit" schoo%s. An the pub%ic schoo%s are aw!u%. )rue choice not a(ai%ab%e whenever there is an e u a%ternati(e to re%i#ious schoo% Gut pri(ate choice is not the constitutiona% stan ar an"wa". 8ee to %oo/ at

31

other !actors as we%%: o Amount of aid 9itters: (er" %itt%e ai wou% !%ow to re%i#ious schoo%sKhere$ &ns in pa"in# !or practica%%" the !u%% a&t o! tuition !or thousan s o! 2ua%i!"in# stu ents$ the ai purchases e(er"thin# that tuition purchasesKbe it instruction in &ath or in octrination in !aith o %reedom of conscienceKtra itiona% :C concern )a.pa"er F bein# spent on !un in# o! re%i#ious e ucation M co&pe%%e support o! re%i#ion Je!!erson7 Aa ison4s Ae&oria% an =e&onstrance o 2eculari7ation of religionKtra itiona% :C concern Con itions are attache to receipt o! the #o(t ai $ such as no teachin# about hatre on basis o! re%i#ion an no iscri&ination in hirin# an a &ission 0re#er dissentin1: Eivisiveness: when there is a hu#e a&t o! F at sta/e %i/e here$ i!!erent re%i#ions are #oin# to co&pete w0each other !or the !un s. )his historica%%" ha %e to socia% con!%ict. )wo sets o! cases arose a!ter Re%&an )rue Pri(ate Choice: re%ies on the i ea that as %on# as there is a brea/ in the %ine o! !un in#$ there is no constitutiona% (io%ation. Qirect ai : when is it acceptab%e !or the state to pro(i e ai irect%" to re%i#ious institutions3 9hen it is !or boo/s$ transportation an !aci%ities. 2. Direct 6id [+C/2: II! 61ostini *+,, ) /. O4Connor. [=+ !Mbegins retreat from :no direct aid; =e&e ia% instruction !or a%% %owHinco&e stu ents$ !un e b" !e era% #o(t$ can ta/e p%ace at re%i#ious schoo%s !or those chi% ren who atten the&. J(erru%in# Ga%% an A#ui%ar =e5ects Ie&on presu&ption that teachers on pre&ises o! re%i#ious schoo%s cannot be truste to teach secu%ar%". =e!or&u%ate octrine: entan#%e&ent pron# now part o! effects pron# o! Ie&on %itchell $. 2el3s *2CCC. [=+ ! Yunclear how case would come out today Chapter , channe%s !e era% !un s to %oca% e ucationa% a#encies which o!!er assistance to secu%ar pri(ate$ pub%ic an re%i#ious schoo%s b" %oanin# secu%ar instructiona% &ateria%s an e2uip&ent. Pri(ate schoo%s recei(e ai base on V o! chi% ren enro%%e . )'JAAS0PIU=AII)U: re%i#ious use o! neutra%%" pro(i e &ateria%s not unconst. Agostini test (a) 6id cannot result in 1o$t4al indoctrination o( reli1ion Kcan an" re%i#ious in octrination that occurs in those schoo%s be !easib%" attribute to #o(t4a% action3 a. )urns on neutralityKno in octrination i! #o(t$ see/in# to !urther secu%ar purpose$ o!!ers ai such that: i. Gene!iciaries not chosen on re%i#ions %inesKpro(i e to a%% who a e2uate%" !urther the purpose 3,

ii. ai that re%i#ions schoo%s #et resu%ts !ro& true private choice iii. ai not re%i#ious in content b4c aid is less likely to have effect of advancing religion *". Cannot de(ine its reci<ients "# re(erence to reli1ion *c. No eDcessi$e entan1le3ent ,e'ects& 1. per se ru%e that irect ai is unconstitutiona% a. pri(ate choice is easier to see when ai passes throu#h han s o! in i(i ua%s$ but that oesn4t &a/e it const re2uire . ;i#urati(e%" passin# throu#h in i(4%s han s is enou#hKperHcapita structure oes this ,. D8o i(ertibi%it"E ru%e a. rea% issue is whether ai itse%! has i&per&issib%e con uct 3. =e%e(ance o! whether ai is #i(en to Dper(asi(e%" sectarianE schoo% a. Irre%e(ant as %on# as recipient a e2uate%" !urthers #o(t4s secu%ar purpose b. Jri#ins in hosti%it" to Catho%icis& Applied& Pri(ate .&. contro%s perHcapita a%%ot&ent sche&e7 none o! the ai pro(i e has i&per&issib%e contentKstatute e.p%icit%" bars an"thin# o! that sort. Qi(ersion has occurre $ but it is irre%e(ant. J4CJ88J= (an G=:U:=) CJ8CU==I86Kcontro%s 8eutra%it" not su!!icientP Qirect ai sub5ect to a 4% contro%s. 8erHca<ita allocation o( aid N true <ri$ate choice. o 8ot wholly dependent on in i(i ua% choice b0c parents cannot re!use the share o! ai attributab%e to the& in perHcapita sche&e o Just %oo/s &ore %i/e en orse&ent in !or&er ( irect ai ) but not %atter Since not true pri(ate choice (i! it was$ bene!iciaries can use !un s !or e u w0re%i#ious purpose)$ Ct 3ust re3ain concerned w/diversion *unconst i! P pro(es ai use !or re%i#ious purposes). %ust ha$e sa(e1uards (or direct aid. o 5ere, though, diversion shown is de minimus . An there are a e2uate sa!e#uar sKassu&e schoo% o!!icia%s wi%% act in #oo !aith. Pro#ra& is per&issib%e b0c o Qistribute accor in# to neutra% criteria 8o re%i#ious content7 bene!iciaries M a%% schoo%s o Ai not supp%antin#$ but co&p%e&entin#$ schoo% !un s o 8o irect ai )a/es !or& o! %oans SJU):= QISS:8)I86: 8eutra%it" not su!!icient !or constitutiona%it"Ka%%ows #o(t to breach (a%ues behin :C =i#hts o! conscience o! ta.pa"ers (repeatin# concern e.presse in Re%&an) Secu%arization o! re%i#ion (repeatin# concern e.presse in Re%&an) Qi(isi(eness (i.e. Gre"er in Re%&an) 9ou% %oo/ at other !actors: )"pe o! ai recipient o 'ei#htene i!: <er$asi$el# sectarian ( i!!icu%t to ai these t"pes o! schoo%s w0o supportin# the octrina% e!!ort)$ or pri&ar" schoo% Aetho s o! istributin# ai 33

o Qirect (inc%u in# perHcapita) (. in irect Ai itse%!: o =e%i#ious content3 o ;or& it ta/esKcash$ boo/s$ transp3 o Divertibility has occure 3Klike 0-Connor, if yes, unconst o Supp%ant ite&s that wou% otherwise be purchase at schoo% e.pense$ or 5ust supp%e&ent3 o Substantia%it". 9itters.

A!ter Aitche%%$ how &uch is %e!t o! Ie&on3 Intrinsica%%" re%i#ious ai sti%% not per&itte So%e%" re%i#ious c%ass o! bene!iciaries sti%% not per&itte An"thin# other than that$ we ha(e to see about A%itoH%i/e%" to #o w0p%ura%it" 9hat cause the shi!t !ro& 1971H,CC13 =ea%i#n&ent o! ProtestantHCatho%ic &a5orit"7 Catho%ic schoo%s &ore sectarian7 octrina% !ai%ureHtrue pri(ate choiceMc%earHcut a%ternati(e D. State Restrictions on 6id [+C/28! Ke)ual access cases (exception to /C re)uirement that direct aid be segregated and confined to secular uses, b4c of %2 concerns<) 9id3ar $. ;incent +,8+) /. 8owell [@22!6breaking pt& Cts begin to see more cases through lens of :e)ual access; (here, ,osenberger) than :no aid; (+emon, By)uist) 0ac&1round: Uni(ersit" re#4n !orba e the use o! Uni(ersit" b% #s D!or purposes o! re%i#ious worship or re%i#ious teachin#ECornerstone$ an or#4n o! e(an#e%ica% Christian stu ents$ barre !ro& &eetin# in UASC b% #s !or their &eetin#s$ which inc%. pra"er$ h"&ns$ Gib%e co&&entar"$ an iscussion o! re%i#ious (iews an e.periences. 2oldin1: =e%i#ious #roups cannot be e.c%u e !ro& an open pub%ic !oru& at a hi#herH %e(e% e ucationa% institution. ;SC re2uires e2ua% access. C%ai& !or e2ua% accesse(a%uate un er ;ree Speech C%ause o )here is an o&en &ublic )orum heree.c%usion o! re%i#ious worship an re%i#ious teachin# M content iscri&ination nee s to be 5usti!ie b" co&pe%%in# interest un er SS o State oes not ha(e co&pe%%in# interest in co&p%"in# w0:C b0c an e2ua% access po%ic"0open !oru& that a%%ows re%i#ious worship an instruction oes not (io%ate the :C. 6<<lication o( Le3on (it4s 19B1$ re&e&ber) to <ro<osed o<en (oru3: (1) secular purpose c%ear%" &etKnon iscri&ination a#ainst re%i#ious speech7 (3) a(oi s entanglement w0re%i#ion (in ee $ ris/ #reater entan#%e&ent b" atte&ptin# to en!orce e.c%usion b0c nee to eter&ine what wor s an acti(ities !a%% w0in re%i#ious worship an re%i#ious teachin#$ an nee to &onitor #roup &eetin#s)7 (,) (rimary effect is B0# to advance religion: an" re%i#ious bene!it wou% be incidental. (a) oes not con!er i&pri&atur o! state appro(a% o! re%i#ionKno &ore co&&itte to re%i#ion than to #oa%s o! SQS or Uoun# Socia%ist A%%iance. Uni(ersit" oes not en orse e(er"thin# it per&its on a neutra% basis. (b) !oru& is a(ai%ab%e to a broa c%ass o! nonre%i#ious as we%% as re%i#ious 3>

spea/ers. =e%i#ious #roups wi%% not o&inate. 9hite4s Dissent: )his isn4t a ;S caseopen pub%ic !oru& ana%"sis is inapp%icab%e. Qistin#uish DworshipE an DinstructionE !ro& Dta%/in# about re%i#ionEK!or&er cate#ories o! re%i#ious speech protecte b" ;:C$ not ;SC o Super!%uit": ;:C wou% be unnecessar" i! ;SC co(ere a%% re%i#ious speech$ such as worship Un er ;:C$ can e.c%u e worship b0c &aintainin# a stricter separation o! church an state than :C re2uires (conce es that Uni( cou% a%%ow worship) is a per&issib%e state en . An the bur en on ;: is abso%ute%" &ini&a% here (can &eet a b%oc/ an a ha%! awa" in %ess co&!ortab%e con itions). o 9ants to create space btw what ;:C re2uires an what :C prohibits State can ha(e :C interests e(en i! :C isn4t (io%ate b" e2ua% access po%ic" o 8ote: =ehn2uist &i#ht a#ree with this ?ood News Clu" $. %il(ord Central School) 2CC+) / Tho3as [@=+! Co33unit# Use Re1ulations: a%%ow schoo%s to be use !or ci(ic$ socia% an recreationa% &eetin#s$ an entertain&ent e(ents$ an other uses pertainin# to the we%!are o! the co&&unit"$ pro(i e the uses are none.c%usi(e. Prohibits use !or re%i#ious purposes. 0ac&1round: 6oo 8ews C%ub is a pri(ate Christian or#4n !or chi% ren a#es @H1,. =e2ueste ho% in# &eetin#s in schoo% ca!eteria a!terHschoo%. At &eetin#s$ the" sin# son#s$ hear Gib%e %essons an &e&orize scripture. =e2uest enie b0c o! re#4n. 2eld: :.c%usion o! 68C is unconstitutiona% (iewpoint iscri&ination (base on i eo%o#" or opinion or perspecti(e o! spea/er)$ un5usti!ie b" :C. =e#u%ations estab%ish limited &ublic )orum, un er which content iscri&ination is per&issib%e$ but (iewpoint iscri&ination is not <P iscri& cannot be 5usti!ie un er SSKno co&pe%%in# interest in co&p%"in# w0:C b0c access oes not (io%ate :C. Scalia concurrin1: reiterates that this is <P iscri&ination Souter and ?ins"ur1 dissentin1: )i&in# ( irect%" a!ter schoo%) an !or&at (stu ents #o irect%" !ro& c%ass to &eetin#) o! 6oo 8ews #atherin#s su##est i&pri&atur o! o!!icia% o& in &in s o! "oun# chi% ren )'JAAS re5ects as hec/%er4s (eto: &ere an#er o! &isperception o! en orse&ent oesn4t outwei#h ;S ri#hts o! c%ub &e&bers Ste$ens and Souter dissentin1: Qistin#uishes Dspeech about a particu%ar topic !ro& a re%i#ious point o! (iewE (La3"4s Cha<el) !ro& Dre%i#ious speech that a&ounts to worshipE an Dre%i#ious speech ai&e at prose%"tizin# or incu%catin# be%ie!.E Ii&ite pub%ic !oru& can inc%u e !irst w0o ha(in# to inc%u e %atter two b0c the" cause i(isi(eness an c%i2ues. 'as en#a#e in content$ not (iewpoint$ iscri&ination which is per&issib%e Rosen"er1er $. Uni$ersit# o( ;ir1inia +,,-) /. Ienned# [su<<! [+C/2,! 7acts: U<A authorizes pa"&ents !ro& is Stu ent Acti(ities ;un (SA;) to outsi e contractors !or the printin# costs o! a (ariet" o! pub%ications issue b" stu ent #roups. )he" &ust inc%u e in their ea%in#s w03ps an in a%% written &ateria%s a isc%ai&er that

3?

the" are in epen ent o! U<A. U<A withhe% authorization !or pa"&ents to a printer on beha%! o! 9i e Awa/e Pro uctions upon eter&inin# the stu ent newspaper was a re%i#ious acti(it" (Dpri&ari%" pro&otes or &ani!ests a particu%ar be%ie! in or about a eit" or an u%ti&ate rea%it"E)$ as prohibite b" U<A4s #ui e%ines !or rei&burse&ent$ which a%so prohibits po%itica% acti(ities. 2eld: (1) Stu ent Acti(ities ;un is a %i&ite pub%ic !oru&. 9i e Awa/e is bein# enie access to the !oru& b0c o! its (iewpoint(io%ates ;SC. <P$ not content iscri&$ b0c re%i#ion is not e.c%u e as a sub5ect &atter: is!a(ore treat&ent on%" to those writin#s w0re%i#ious e itoria% (iewpoints (,) G0c there is no co&pe%%in# interest in co&p%"in# w0:C$ this e.c%usion !ai%s SS. In irect$ not irect$ ai o F #oes to printer$ no pub%ic !un s !%ow into 9i e Awa/e4s co!!ers 8eutra% o Groa c%ass o! bene!iciaries o Ai not re%i#ious in contentHHF #i(en to printers 8ot the e2ui(a%ent o! irect support to a re%i#ion !ro& a #enera% ta. o )o the e.tent a stu ent is intereste in speech$ with rawa% is per&itte to co(er the who%e spectru& o! speech 8o en orse&ent: e.press isc%ai&er that these are not (iews o! U<A 8o i(ertibi%it" HHF #oes ri#ht to printers Souter dissent: )his is not an eEual access case. It is a core :C case. o Ana%o#" !ro& pub%ic street corner to open c%assroo& space is o/$ but it brea/s own when "ou tr" to e.ten to &ore than !oru&s !or %itera% spea/in#: G0c there is no tra 4% street corner printin# pro(i e b" the #o(t on e2ua% ter&s to a%% co&ersecono&ic bene!its are bein# e.ten e irect%" to re%i#ion in c%ear (io%ation o! principle against direct aid o :(en i! this case i i&p%icate the ;SC: this is content iscri&ination$ not (iewpoint iscri&ination <P iscri& on%" present when #o(t ta/es si es an s/ews pub%ic ebateKhere bars !un in# to a%% re%i#ious acti(ities b0c it is a core :C case$ on%" a!ter we a ress those issues shou% we e(en %oo/ at ;S )his is irect ai : neutra%it" a%one is not su!!icient to &a/e it in irect. In 9itters an co.$ there was a%so #enuine pri(ate choice$ which is absent here. o 8o thir Hpart" to brea/ the chain btw #o(t an re%i#ious bene!iciar": printer oesn4t ha(e the option o! ta/in# the F an usin# it print a secu%ar 5ourna% instea . ;or&a%is& to treat printer as inter&e iar". )his is para i#&atic case o! irect !un in# o! a re%i#ious &issionKe.act%" what :C was &eant to protect a#ainst o =e en orse&ent ar#: there is a%wa"s i&p%ie en orse&ent when there4s !un in#

3@

o =e i(ersion ar#: the who%e thin# is i(ersionKit is bein# use to e%i(er a re%i#ious &essa#e0preachin# Dthe wor E o =e not a ta.: Prohibition a#ainst irect ai app%ies to &ore than 5ust ai eri(e !ro& ta. re(enue. :ither it is a ta.$ an (io%ates !ree o& o! conscience Jr it4s not a ta.$ an (io%ates princip%e o! :C &eant to protect re%i#ion !ro& a corruptin# epen ence on support !ro& #o(t 'istorica% rea in# o! :CK ebate: Tho3as concurrin1 ;ra&ers saw :C as a prohibition on #o(t4a% pre! !or so&e re%i#ious !aiths o(er others (non&re)erentialism) o Aa ison re: <A )a. Assess&ent was 5ust &a b0c it was !or the An#%ican Church on%" o 89 Jr inance o Aa ison appro(e %e#is%ati(e chap%ains :(en i! Aa ison be%ie(e that nonestab%ish&ent princip%e prec%u e #o(t !inancia% support !or re%i#ion per se$ no in ication that he too/ QISS:8)4s e.tre&e (iew that #o(t &ust iscri&inate a#ainst re%i#ious a herents b" e.c%u in# the& !ro& &ore generally available financial subsidies. Souter dissentin1 ;ra&ers care about &ore than 5ust neutra%it" btw re%i#ionsKan" !un in# to re%i#ions was prob%e&atic o Aa ison ha &an" ar#s about <A Gi%% that wou% ha(e app%ie whether or not the ai was bein# istribute e2ua%%" a&on# sects (State !un in# o! re%i#ious #roups (io%ates (a%ues un er%"in# :C) S%ipper" s%ope ar# =i#ht o! conscience Corruption o! re%i#ion o <A Assess&ent ha an optHout !or F to #o to re%i#ion o! "our choosin#$ or #enera% e u !un $ an Aa ison sti%% oppose it o Jut#rowth o! the =e&onstrance was <A Gi%% !or :stab%ishin# =e%i#ious ;ree o&Kproscribe the use o! ta. o%%ars !or all re%i#ious purposes o Aa ison repu iate his appro(a% o! %e#is%ati(e chap%ain Strate#ies we4(e seen !or e!en in# e.c%usion o! re%i#ion !ro& bene!its: =e%i#ion ] Speech (super!%uit")$ 9hite in 9i &ar =ationa% interest in pro&otin# e#ree o! separation X :C &an ates$ 9hite in 9i &ar 8o <P iscri&$ on%" content0sub5ect &atter e.c%u e $ Souter in =osenber#er an 6oo 8ews C%ub (Ste(ens too in %atter) o :(en i! <P iscri&$ :C interests tru&p ;S concerns 6o(t shou% ha(e iscretion !or istributin# !un sKCt not s"&pathetic Ju icia% &ini&a%is&: cou% be su!!icient :C concerns !or co&pe%%in# interest$ but it a%% epen s on the !acts$ J4Connor in =osenber#er

37

Loc&e $. Da$e#) 2CC=) C./. RehnEuist [=:8! [+C/:C!Ktakes Chite-s approach A state sponsore scho%arship pro#ra& is #rante to aca e&ica%%" #i!te chi% ren so %on# as the" o not use it to pursue a e#ree in theo%o#" 2eld: )his e.c%usion oes 8J) (io%ate the ;:C$ :C$ or ;S $lay in the <oints btw ;:C an :C: so&e state actions per&itte b" :C but not re2uire b" the ;:C$ %i/e here: (1) G0c o! pri(ate choice$ there is no oubt that here the State cou% per&it Pro&ise Scho%ars to pursue a e#ree in e(otiona% theo%o#" un er the :C$ 9itters. (,) Gut the ;:C oesn4t &an ate inc%usion: o Aini&a% bur en here 8ot subsi izin# (s. cri&ina% sanctions in Lu&u3i (SS) 8ot !orcin# stu ents to choose btw re%i#ious be%ie!s an recei(in# ai either$ un%i/e Sherbert o 8o ani&us here (a%%ows use at per(asi(e%" re%i#ious schoo%s) In Lu&u3i (SS) Ct thou#ht ani&us that &oti(ate the bi%% was i&portant o 'istorica% antipath" to !un in# re%i#ious &inistriesKthis case is specia% )his is a para i#&atic :C caseKthat4s wh" !ree o& o! conscience co&es into p%a" o Qeno&inationa% neutra%it" =osenber#er0;S ar# (SS) oesn4t app%" here: Pro&ise Scho%arship Pro#ra& is not a !oru& !or speech. Purpose is to pro(i e !inancia% assistance !or e u$ not to encoura#e a i(ersit" o! (iews !ro& pri(ate spea/ers o 'ea(i%" criticize !or not e%aboratin# on this istinctionK oes see& that in both cases state is pro(i in# F to pro&ote e u in pub%ic !oru& o 8o0%ess p%a" in the 5oints when ;S is an issue Scalia *and Tho3as. Dissent: Lu&u3i4s ho% in# that Da %aw bur enin# re%i#ious practice that is not neutra% &ust un er#o SSE is inconsistent w0to a"4s ho% in#. Rule: since :(erson$ when the state &a/es a pub%ic bene!it #enera%%" a(ai%ab%e$ that bene!it beco&es part o! the base%ine a#ainst which bur ens on re%i#ion are &easure 7 an when the state withho% s so%e%" on basis o! re%i#ion$ (io%ates ;:C. %adison4s Re3onstrance: irecte at bi%% D!or the support o! Christian teachers.E 'istor" was concerne with %aws that sin#%e out &inisters !or !inancia% ai $ not those that inc%u e re%i#ious &inisters in pub%ic bene!it pro#ra&s. State4s Interest: Ct e!ers to !ree o& o! conscienceKthis sort o! protection has no %o#ica% %i&it an can 5usti!" sin#%in# out o! re%i#ion !or e.c%usion !ro& pub%ic pro#ra&s in (irtua%%" an" conte.t. Le1islati$e 3oti$e doesn4t 3atter: Ct so&eti&es %oo/s to %e# intent to s&o/e out &ore subt%e instances o! iscri&$ but o so on%" as a supplement to the core #uarantee o! !acia%%" e2ua% treat&ent$ not as a rep%ace&ent !or it. Case is a"out discri3ination a1ainst a reli1ious 3inorit# : those whose be%ie! in re%i#ion is so stron# that the" e icate their stu " an their %i(es to the &inistr". 9ou% contrar" conc%usion in Ioc/e (. Qa(e" ha(e &an ate inc%usion o! re%i#ious schoo%s in a%% (oucher pro#ra&s that inc%u e pri(ate schoo%s3

3B

o J4Connor an =ehn2uist thou#ht so + thus eci e to cut the e2ua% access cases o!! at this point. Sca%ia thin/s this is an arbitrar" %ine to raw. o *A%% this a&bi#uit" is rea%%" about what neutra%it" rea%%" is un er :Co =osenber#er a%rea " see&s to su##est "es o 8o$ cou% istin#uish !ro& (oucher pro#ra&s: o 'i#her e ucation (. pri&ar"0secon ar" e u o Ii&it Ioc/e to cases about e ucation preparin# !or careers in the &inistr"$ not &ore #enera% re%i#ious pro#ra&s '. Charita"le Choice [++/-!KFelman strongly supports constitutionality 8R98R6 *+,,@. [=@+H@:!: Can pro(i e !un in# to re%i#ious pro(i er in two wa"s: (1) irect S w00charitab%e or#4n7 (,) (oucher. I! throu#h &etho (1)$ can4t use F !or re%i#ious teachin#. I! throu#h (,)$ no %i&itations on how F is spent. o Coinci es w05urispru ence in schoo% !un in# casesK irect ai (. true pri(ate choice. Purposes 1. (rotect religious freedom of provider: no iscri&ination a#ainst re%i#ious #roups re: receipt o! !e era% !un s7 e.e&ption !ro& iscri&ination in hirin#7 retain in epen ence7 protection o! interna% #o(ernance an isp%a" o! s"&bo%s ,. (rotect religious freedom of beneficiaries: bene!iciaries can ob5ect to re%i#ious%"H base bene!its an ha(e ri#ht to a%ternati(e w0in reasonab%e a&ount o! ti&e an o! a (a%ue which is not %ess7 re%i#ious #roups that ha(e S4 w0state cannot iscri&inate base on re%i#ion a. Bote: this statutor" ri#ht to a%ternati(e is &ore than constitutiona% #uarantee$ as interprete in AcCa%%u&O 7reedo3 7ro3 Reli1ion 7oundation $. %cCallu3) th Cir. 2CC: [=@-! )a.pa"er suit to en5oin 9isconsin correctiona% authorities !ro& !un in# ;aith 9or/s$ a ha%!wa" house that incorporates Christianit" into its treat&ent pro#ra&. ;9 is one o! the ha%!wa" houses with which the state contracts$ an is there!ore an option$ an is so&eti&es reco&&en e b" paro%e o!!icers (but not to nonHChristians). It is a 9H&onth pro#ra&$ whi%e a%% o! the other ha%!wa" houses (which are a%% secu%ar) are 3 &onths. I! an o!!en er enro%%s in ;9$ the state rei&burses a part o! the cost in accor ance w0the ter&s o! the S. 2eld: ;un in# is constitutiona%. o Pri(ate choice e.ists: o %ollows #homas in Ditchell: ana%o#" to Re%&an. A%thou#h here the state has isperse w0the inter&e iate step b" which the recipient han s his (oucher to the ser(ice pro(i er$ there is no const i!! btw #i(in# the (oucher recipient a piece o! paper that irects the pub%ic a#enc" to pa" the ser(ice pro(i er an the a#enc"4s as/in# the recipient to in icate his pre!erence an pa"in# the pro(i er whose ser(ice he pre!ers. o Bo coercion: paro%e o!!icers. can reco&&en ;97 su##estion ] coercion o Any choice 9 true choice<& a%ternati(es on4t ha(e to be o! e2ua% (a%ue to the chooser. So oesn4t &atter that 9 &o &i#ht be &ore e!!ecti(e than 3. Consistent w0Re%&an: re2uire D#enuineE secu%ar options3 39

Consistent with pri(ate choice princip%es$ because there is no coercion an the en s are secu%ar$ the choice &ust be pri(ate to pro(i e insu%atin# &ateria% between #o(ern&ent an re%i#ion. 63os *+,8 .: uphe% )it%e <II a%%owin# re%i#ious or#4ns to iscri&inate in hirin#. Qoes this e.ten to or#4ns that recei(e #o(t !un in#3 Dod1e *S.D. %iss +,8,.: 8o$ Ie&on contro%s: substantia% an irect !un in# o! <icti&4s Assistance Coor inator$ an then a%%owin# re%i#ious pre!erence !or se%ection a (ances re%i#ion an is unconstitutiona%. See nb !or QJC)=I8AI SUAAA=U: 6J<) ;U8QI86 J; =:II6IJ8 ;I. R'LI?ION) ?O;'RN%'NT) 6ND CULTUR' 6. '((orts to Create 6 8u"lic Culture Chat role can govt play in promoting religion in the process of creating civic culture< +. Co3<elled S<eech [++/@! Torcaso $. 9at&ins *+,@+. [= :! Artic%e 37 o! AQ Const barre test oath e.cept !or D ec%aration o! be%ie! in the e.istence o! 6o . )orcaso was barre !ro& ser(in# as a notar" pub%ic. U8CJ8S)I)U)IJ8AI. 6rt ;I) Cl : o! the ;e Const: Dno re%i#ious test sha%% e(er be re2uire E :C: o Un er :(erson$ a state nor the !e era% #o(ern&ent can !orce a person to pro!ess a be%ie! or isbe%ie! in 6o . 8either can %aws be passe or re2uire&ent i&pose that ai a%% re%i#ions a#ainst nonbe%ie(ers or re%i#ions who be%ie! in 6o a#ainst those who o not. o Jne o! the pri&ar" !eatures o! estab%ish&ent is e.c%u in# peop%e not part o! the !a(ore re%i#ion !ro& po%itica% power. ;:C o Un er S&ithHIu/u&i$ %aws that tar#et re%#ions are sub5ect to SS. 8o co&pe%%in# state interest !or re2uirin# a!!ir&ation o! be%ie! in 6o . =e%i#ious tests an po%itics. Pau% 'orwitz be%ie(es the re%i#ious test c%ause ou#ht to be interprete narrow%" (actua% oaths !or ser(ice are prohibite ) but so&e thin/ it shou% be interprete broa %" (Con#ress as/ 5u #es re%i#ious 2uestions urin# no&ination process). Co33onwealth $. Coo&e *+8-,.[= !: A teacher is char#e with assau%tin# a stu ent !or not rea in# the bib%e in schoo%7 As to ;:C$ the Court raws a istinction between affirmation o! re%i#ion an teachers who &ere%" re2uire their stu ents to read the bib%e. o Prob: the" are bein# re2uire to sa" it o(er an o(er e(er" a"$ not 5ust rea in# !ro& it as historica% te.t 0oard o( 'ducation $. 0arnette) +,=:) /ac&son [= ,!Kcompelled recitation of secular creed 2eld: State &a" not re2uire stu ents to sa" p%e #e or en#a#e in co&pu%sor" !%a# sa%ute. Rationale: State oesn4t ha(e the authorit" to co&pe% the !%a# sa%ute throu#h coercion (i%%e#iti&ate &eans)$ e(en i! the en s are %e#iti&ate (pro&otin# patriotis& an nationa%is&). )hus$ re%i#ious reasons !or re!usin# to sa%ute are irre%e(ant. o 2lippery slope& those who be#in coerci(e e%i&ination o! issent soon !in the&se%(es e.ter&inatin# issenters. o Conceptual: I! ;S protects a#ainst punish&ent !or e.ercisin# the ri#ht$ the ri#ht

>C

&ust a%so inc%u e protection a#ainst co&pe%%in# speech. o 0rthodoxy& #o(t can4t prescribe what sha%% be ortho o. in po%itics$ nationa%is&$ or re%i#ion$ or !orce citizens to con!ess b" wor or act their !aith therein 7ran&(urter dissent: S&ith ar#HH6enera%%" app%icab%e %aws !or %e#iti&ate #o(t interests are not unconstitutiona% b0c the" happen to touch re%i#ious be%ie!s. o 5istory of /C: concerne w0estab%ish&ent$ not #enera%%" app%icab%e %aws o Anarchy& no %i&itin# princip%e to restrictin# state4s use o! #enera% %aws to achie(e its en s. )a.ation is coerci(e$ but &i#ht in!rin#e on so&e re%i#ious be%ie!s. L: Can Garnette be reconci%e w0S&ith3 Is it 5ust that co&pe%%e speech is specia%$ co&pare to other #o(t actions that &i#ht touch re%i#ion3 Qon4t ;ran/!urter4s ob5ections app%" w0e2ua% !orce to re%i#ion3 2. 8u"lic 8ra#er i. School 8ra#er [++/++! 'n1el $. ;itale) +,@2) 0lac& [=8=!: JneH%ine non eno&inationa%%" theistic prayer at be#innin# o! each schoo% a" recite in presence o! teachers. Stu ents were ab%e to optH out (respon in# to coercion ar#u&ent in Garnette). 6"in1ton School District $. Sche3<<) +,@:) /. Clar& [=8@!: Jne stu ent rea s .ible verses o(er %ou spea/er. )hen recites Ior 4s Pra"er. Stu ents in c%asses stan an 5oin in unison !or the pra"er. Participation is (o%untar" 2eld: 6o(t is w0o power to prescribe b" %aw an" particu%ar !or& o! pra"er which is to be use as an o!!icia% pra"er in carr"in# on an" pro#ra& o! #o(t4%%" sponsore re%i#ions acti(it". o 3he !%, unli:e the F!%, does not de&end u&on any showing o) govt/al coercion+ Gut here$ there is indirect coercion an"wa"$ an that counts. o 9hen the power$ presti#e$ an !inancia% support o! #o(t is p%ace behin a particu%ar re%i#ious be%ie!$ the in irect coerci(e power upon re%i#ion &inorities to con!or& is p%ain o 8ot sa(e b" !act that it is eno&inationa%%" neutra%$ or that it is (o%untar" o Non6&re)erentialism is not the right !% testKSche3<<: pra"ers (io%ate ru%e o! neutra%it" towards re%i#ion o Qiscusses co&pu%sor" atten ance an teachers as ro%e &o e%s o Uni2ue :C concerns in pub%ic schoo%s3 o :C (a%ues at sta/e: o = of govt and religiondestroys govt (socia% stri!e) 8 degrades religion (too persona% an sacre to be coerce 7 re%i#ion &ore %i/e%" to succee when #o(t oes not pro&ote itKc.!. :urope) o 2lippery slope ar#u&ent !ro& Aa ison4s =e&onstrance: #o(t pra"er is antece ent step to estab%ish&ent$ an historica%%"$ estab%ishe re%i#ion is antece ent to re%i#ious persecutions o (aradigmatic& :stab%ishin# #o(tHco&pose pra"ers was one o! the (er" reasons co%onists %e!t :n#%an !or A&erica ProHschoo% pra"er: 1. Stewart dissent *Sche3<<.: o <o%untar" schoo% pra"er is an accommodation un er the ;:C !or re%i#ious

>1

stu ents. *Ii&itin# (io%ations to coerci(e e.ercises a%%ows acco&&o ation.o .ut this wouldn-t be lifting substantial burden ?hb 1GH! recall CutterA o ;orbi in# (o%untar" schoo% pra"er has the a!!ect o! seculari7ing religionK stu ents &ust #o to schoo% an &ust be there !or &uch o! the a" ,. RehnEuist dissent *9allace.: historical tradition shows that :C not inten e to re2uire neutra%it"$ 5ust to !orbi pre!erence a&on# sects (non&re)erentialism). o Ion#stan in# co&&it&ent to theis& an theistic pra"er b" pub%ic o!!icia%s$ e.#.$ Presi ent4s )han/s#i(in# proc%a&ations7 Con#ressiona% Chap%ains7 D6o Sa(e the CtE (Scalia dissentin1 in 9eis3anKanother proHcoercion re2uire&ent ar#) o 19th centur" treatises o 89 Jr inance: re%i#ion sha%% !ore(er be encoura#e GU) o ;ra&in# o! :C: nonpre!erentia%is& re5ecte o Perhaps schoo% pra"er is not nonpre!erentia% (e(en i! that is the test)K i!!erent sects ha(e i!!erent (iews on proper pra"er content an proce ure$ i!! (ersions o! Gib%e o %actual impossibility& so&eone wi%% a%wa"s be o!!en e b" what state oes 3. %oercion is re2uire !or :C (io%ation$ an there is no in irect coercion hereK (o%untar" o ProHcoercion: %in/s concerns o! ;:C an :C o ProHcoercion: re%i#ion is a pub%ic &atterK#o(t shou% be ab%e to sponsor at pub%ic e(ents o ConHcoercion: Drespectin# re%i#ion$E not Da#ainstE re%i#ion. 8ot a%% purposes o! :C re%ate to coercion. GIACSAU8 concurrin# in 9eis3an o A%ienation o! issi ents: the state shou% not act in a wa" to endorse re%i#ion b0c it e.c%u es nonbe%ie(ers o Pre(entin# e#re ation o! re%i#ion o Pre(entin# re%i#ion !ro& un er&inin# #o(t. o Qe&ocrac" o ConHcoercion: avoid redundancy& ;:C c%ear%" bars coercion. I; :C re2uires coercion$ :C is unnecessar" b0c ;:C wi%% a%wa"s bar potentia% (io%ations$ see SJU):= concurrin# in 9allace o 'ow Sca%ia wou% respon : :C sti%% bars state&ents that are sectarian but not coerci(eKthere is sti%% wor/ to be one b" :C >. Peop%e shou% %earn to ha(e respect !or re%i#ion7 e ucation re2uires a stu " o! re%i#ion an re%i#ious histor". o GU) Sche3<< istin#uishes pra"er !ro& %iterar" or historica% Gib%e stu " 9allace $. /a((ree) +,8@ [=,@! [++/+2! AI statute authorize a &o&ent o! si%ence in pub%ic schoo% c%assroo&s e(er" &ornin# D!or &e iation or (o%untar" pra"er.E 2eld: <IJIA):S ;I=S) P=J86 J; I:AJ8. :ntire%" &oti(ate b" a purpose to a (ance re%i#ionKhere$ to encoura#e stu ents to pra" urin# the si%ent perio . o Sponsor o! pro(ision ha sai it was an e!!ort to return (o%untar" pra"er to schoo%. o 197B statute a%rea " protecte &o&ent o! si%ence !or D&e itationE >,

O4Connor concurrin1: Ao&ents o! si%ence that are not inherent%" re%i#ious are constitutiona% b0c the" on4t !orce pupi%s to co&pro&ise their be%ie!s. o 9ou% Ct upho% D&o&ent o! si%ence or pra"erE %aw w0o e(i ence o! i%%icit purpose3 <io%ate ,n pron# o! Ie&on b" a (ancin# re%i#ion3 Lee $. 9eis3an) +,,2) Ienned# *-H=. [=,8! 2eld: unconstitutiona% !or a pub%ic schoo% to sponsor (pro(i e #ui e%ines) a c%er#"H%e $ nonsectarian pra"er at a &i %e schoo% #ra uation cere&on". o =e!uses to app%" Ie&on b0c unnecessar": there is coercion$ so we /now there is a (io%ation. o :.tre&e%" broa (iew o! #o(t4a% coercion: Schoo% p%ace ob5ectin# stu ents in an untenab%e position o! in irect coercion #i(en subt%e coerci(e pressure o! the pub%ic schoo% en(iron&ent (to atten #ra uation) an the ro%e o! pub%ic pressure$ inc%u in# peer pressure (once there$ to participate). A%thou#h this subt%e coercion i not in uce ob5ectin# stu ents to 5oin the pra"er$ it pressure the& to participate in a &ore passi(e wa"Kb" 2uiet%" ac2uiescin#$ #i(in# others the i&pression that the" were 5oinin# or appro(in# it. o Su##ests it is unconstitutiona% !or #o(t to subt%" an in irect%" coerce pp% into situation that creates appearance that the" are participatin# in or appro(in# re%i#ious con uct 0lac&3un concurrence: Ie&on$ not coercion (a%thou#h Ct is ri#ht that it is su!!icient)$ is the proper test !or :C. :C broa er than coercion b0c estab%ish&ent has other prob%e&s: o Ga !or #o(tKsocia% stri!e i&peri%s #o(t o Ga !or re%i#ionKsecu%arization$ corruption o Eemocracy& 9hen #o(t asserts re%i#ious truth it oesn4t #i(e issi ents a wa" to isa#ree or persua e. I! ebate is essentia% to e&ocrac"$ then #o(t cannot pro&ote e&ocrac" an re%i#ion at the sa&e ti&e. )he #o(ern&ent en orse&ent o! re%i#ion inter!eres with the #o(ern&ent responsibi%it" to protect e&ocrac". In en orse&ent$ it trans!or&s e&ocratic ecision &a/in# into re%i#ious truth. Scalia4s dissent: o ;ro& the nation4s ori#in$ pra"er has been a pro&inent part o! #o(t4a% cere&onies an proc%a&ations (see =:'8LUIS) e.4s abo(e. )his histor" shows that :C re2uires nonpre!erentia%is& btw sects. o Souter concurrin1 response: :.4s that Sca%ia presents are breaches o! broa er princip%e 'istor"4s chan#e Kno %on#er ha(e pure%" &onotheistic pop4n can4t protect :C princip%es throu#h nonpre!erentia%is& an"&ore #i(en i(ersit" o! be%ie!s an btw be%ie(ers an nonbe%ie(ers. o 8J8P=:;:=:8)IAIISA 'AS 8J) CAU6') J8 9I)' )': C). o Coercion is re2uire !or :C (io%ation$ an there is no coercion here: coercion that was ha%%&ar/ o! estab%ish&ents was b" !orce o! %aw an threat o! pena%t"$ not b" sponsorin# a non eno&inationa% cere&on" with a bene iction that no one is !orce to recite. An stan in# here 5ust shows respect !or re%i#ious. o Souter concurrin1 response: coercionsuper!%uit" o! :C o (ublic nature of religion& =e%i#ion is un%i/e porno#raph"$ "ou on4t o it in the

>3

pri(ac" o! "our ho&e$ it4s a co&&una% e!!ortKre%i#ion is an i&portant uni!"in# &echanis&. I&portant to re%i#ious esp at cere&onia% e(ents o App%" to e(er" a" schoo% pra"er3 )he P%e #e AG8:= 6=::8:: Un er Garnette$ schoo%s cannot coerce participants in secu%ar cree . Un er 9eis&an pub%ic cere&on" is coerci(e e(en i! on4t ha(e to participate. )hat &eans schoo%s cannot con uct P%e #e in c%assroo&s at a%% (e(en w0o Dun er 6o E). o 90o in(o/in# Garnette$ cou% sa": P%e #e is worse than 9eis&an b0c be"on re%i#ious content an in irect coercion to stan $ it is e(er" a" an a!!ects stu ents at "oun# a#e. Newdow *,th Cir) 2CC:.: state&ent that US is Done nation un er 6o E is a pro!ession o! re%i#ious be%ie!K&onotheis&. DUn er JesusE or DUn er <ishnuE is not o/$ an DUn er 6o E is the sa&e thin#$ since not e(er"one is &onotheistic. =:<:=S:Q in 'l& ?ro$e *2CC=. !or %ac/ o! stan in#. ii. Le1islati$e 8ra#er [++/+:! %arsh $. Cha3"ers) +,8:) /. 0ur1er [su<<!Ktradition exception to +emon +. U<holds %e#is%ati(e pra"er b" pub%ic%" pai chap%in. Rationale: o 9e are not #oin# to %oo/ at +emon: *purpose an e!!ect o! a (ancin# re%i#ion$ 2uintessentia% entan#%e&ent$ an thus !ai%s-. o Ie#is%ati(e pra"er is such a %on#stan in# tradition that it is part o! the !abric o! our societ". Conce es that historica% patterns aren4t enou#h$ but there4s &ore: o G0c the practice ates bac/ to the ;oun in#$ its constitutiona%it" is supporte a%so b" the original understanding of the meaning of the %irst Amendment. o A8Q b0c it #oes bac/ to the ;irst Con#ressKthe sa&e Con#ress that !ra&e the ;irst A&en &entKshe s %i#ht on how ;ra&ers thou#ht :C applied to the practiceKtheir actions re(ea% their intent. 0rennan dissentin1: D'istorica% practice to re(ea% the intentE is not the ri#ht :C test. <a%ues an purposes o! :C &ust be at heart o! the test *11-. )he" are: o %reedom of ConscienceKso&e %e#is%ators here are bein# coerce to participate. Ct is wron# that this is not a bi# ea% b0c the" are a u%ts7 the" ha(e specia% incenti(es to suppress their issent as po%iticians o Autonomy of ,eligionK &inisters are bein# !orce to con!or& pra"ers to &a/e the& secu%ar enou#h !or the #o(t4s use o Eegradation of ,eligionKtoo c%ose%" in(o%(e w0#o(t. =e%i#ion is too Dpersona%$ sacre $ ho%"E to per&it its per(ersion b" the state. o Eivisivenenss6:C &eant to ensure essentia%%" re%i#ious issues not beco&e the occasion !or batt%e in the po%itica% arena. Prob hereHso&eone !i%e this %awsuit. Ste$ens dissentin1: an" state pra"er to a" wi%% (io%ate nonpre!erentia%is& b0c o! re%i#ious i(ersit". 8ot e(er"one is o! the Ju eoHChristian tra ition. Ainorit" re%i#ions wi%% ne(er #et representation. See& &ore power!u% a!ter Si&pson3 2. U<holds NI Le1islati$e 8ra#er to 6sH6<<lied Challen1e: >>

(a) :(en thou#h it was sa&e c%er#"&an !or 1@ "rs (Presb"terian)$ absent proof he was reappointed b4c of impermissible motives$ his %on# tenure in itse%! oes not (io%ate :C (b) :(en thou#h p at pub%ic e.pense$ Continenta% Con#ress i that too. 'istor" e.e&pts !ro& Ie&on. (c) :(en thou#h pra"ers are in Ju eoHChristian tra ition$ content o! pra"ers is not o! concern where there is no indication that the prayer opportunity has been exploited to proselyti7e or advance any one, or to disparage any other, faith or belief Si3<son $. Chester(ield$ 2CC-) =th Cir) /. 9il&inson [su<<! P is a 9itch who was e.c%u e !ro& %ist o! those who rotate in %ea in# pra"er at Count" Goar &eetin#s. 2eld: 6i(en that the historica% practice re%ie on in Aarsh was one o! Ju eoHChristian %e#is%ati(e pra"er$ it4s constitutiona% to e.c%u e pra"ers outsi e Ju eoHChristian tra ition. HI! an"thin#$ this is &ore inc%usi(e than Aarsh b0c it e&p%o"s a rotation s"ste& rather than pra"ers b" one pastor !ro& sa&e re%i#ion. So it can4t be unconstitutiona%. H=e5ecte notion that &eetin#s constitute %i&ite pub%ic !oru& (no <P iscri&)K#o(t speech$ 5ust happens that #o(t as/s i!!erent peop%e to co&e spea/ !or it o GU) on4t %i&itin# princip%es o! Aarsh app%"3 o :(i ence o! i&per&issib%e &oti(e in not appointin# 9itch o :(i ence that opportunit" has been e.p%oite to ispara#e other be%ie!s b" excluding o AS thin/s Ju #e i the best he cou% #i(en Aarsh Nie3e#er concurrin1: ^when a #o(ern&enta% bo " en#a#es in pra"er !or itse%! an oes not i&pose that pra"er on the people$ the #o(ern&enta% bo " is #i(en #reater %atitu e than when the #o(ern&ent i&poses pra"er on the peopleI o Atte&ptin# to istin#uish %e#is%ati(e pra"er !ro& :n#e% an Sche&pp o GU) that wasn4t Aarsh Ct4s rationa%eKthe" 5ust &a e e.ception :. 8u"lic Reli1ious Dis<la#s Dore ex-s of how /C is context1dependent (concerns stronger in schools b4c of children! concerns lessened in legislative prayer b4c of tradition>) i. 2olida# S#3"ols [++/+8! L#nch $. Donnell#) +,8=) RehnEuist [-+C! :ach "ear a =ho e Is%an cit" erects a nati(it" scene on the owntown shoppin# area as part o! Christ&as isp%a" a%so inc%u in# c%own$ rein eer$ caro%ers$ etc. Cost F13@? at ti&e$ no&ina% %i#htin# !ees$ FC &aintenance. 2eld: )he #o(4t isp%a" o! this cr_che oes not (io%ate the :C. H;irst #oes throu#h &an" e.4s (reco#nition o! Christ&as an )han/s#i(in# as ho%i a"s w0re%i#ious si#ni!icance7 &otto7 P%e #e$ etc) to pro(e that our histor" is per(a e b" e.pressions o! re%i#ious be%ie! *seems as though tradition is playing role hereH)hen e.presses issatis!action w0Ie&on$ but procee s to app%" it: Secu%ar purpose: to ce%ebrate the 'o%i a" an epict its ori#ins. )he isp%a" en#en ers a !rien %" co&&unit" spirit o! #oo wi%% in /eepin# w0the season. o Ceak version: 5ust nee DaE secu%ar purposeKon%" in(a%i ate i! statute is who%%" &oti(ate b" re%i#ious purpose o Ste$ens dissent: characterizin# a cr_che as &ere%" a neutra% harbin#er o! the ho%i a" season cheapens itK&ore &eanin# than that to Christians >?

o 0rennan dissent: inc%u in# a cr_che #oes be"on ce%ebratin# the ho%i a" Kit in(o/es the notion o! one particu%ar re%i#ious be%ie! o 8ote stan ar o! re(iew: %ower ct c%ear%" erroneous in !in in# no secu%ar purpose3 Pri&ar" e!!ect: 8o &ore bene!icia% to or &ore o! an en orse&ent than e.pen in# &one" on te.tboo/s$ transportation$ an #rants !or re%i#ious schoo%s (cou% ar#ue it is &ore o! an en orse&ent)$ or than Sun a" c%osin# %aws$ or %e#is%ati(e pra"er (ba ana%o#"Knot sub5ect to Ie&on). :(en i! there is a (ance&ent$ it4s o/ as %on# as it is in irect$ re&ote an inci enta%. :.cessi(e entan#%e&ent: no e(i ence o! contact with re%i#ious authorities an it was ine.pensi(e an re2uires no &aintenance. 8o po%itica% i(isi(enessKthe %iti#ation itse%! cannot be the e(i ence. O4Connor concurrin1: proposes !ndorsement 3est as a c%ari!ication o! Ie&on. Ie&on shou% be un erstoo to !orbi the #o(t !ro& en orsin# re%i#ion$ either e%iberate%" or in e!!ect$ an that the !irst two pron#s shou% be &o i!ie accor in#%". 6o(t (io%ates :C i! it intends to communicate a message that endorses religion (one re%i#ion or re%i#ion #enera%%") J= i!$ whate(er the #o(t4s intention$ its action has the affect of communicating such a message. o Secon pron# su##ests shi!t in !ocus to Dreasonab%e obser(erE proper%" in!or&e o! the re%e(ant histor" an conte.t. So e(en #o(t action w0pri&ar" e!!ect o! a (ancin# re%i#ion is constitutiona% as %on# as it oesn4t ob5ecti(e%" en orse re%i#ion. Aore sub5ecti(e than pri&ar" e!!ects pron#H%ess !ocus on nature an e#ree o! concrete %e#a% bene!its. Un er%"in# (a%ue: #o(t en orse&ent o! re%i#ion a%ienates nonbe%ie(ers$ an &a/es the& !ee% secon Hc%ass or not !u%% &e&bers o! the po%itica% co&&unit". /xpressive harms0 (concern w0substantive equality) not 5ust )ormal neutrality) App%ication: (1) sub5ecti(e intent to ce%ebrate 'o%i a"7 (,) Do(era%% ho%i a" settin#E chan#es what (iewers &a" !air%" un erstan to be the purpose o! the isp%a"Kacknowledgement of trad-l symbol o! public ho%i a" bein# ce%ebrate . o Criticisms& (1) can acco&p%ish secu%ar purpose w0o cr_che inc%usion o! one sen s c%ear &essa#e en orsin# re%i#ion7 (,) ana%o#" to art &useu& is a stretch: peop%e on4t #o to shoppin# center to %earn about a pub%ic ho%i a"7 (3) in #enera%$ the test is hi#h%" sub5ecti(e an !actHspeci!ic 0rennan Dissent: 8o secu%ar purpose: c%ear s"&bo% o! Christianit" Creche is not a !or& o! Dcere&onia% eis&E which has %ost is re%i#ious content throu#h rote an repetition. Qistin#uish &otto$ P%e #e. 6lle1hen# $. 6CLU) +,8, [-+,! 1. Cr_che on #ran staircase o! count" courthouse. Si#n sai onate b" =o&an Catho%ic #roup. J(er the &an#er was an an#e% bearin# D6%oria in e.e%sis eoE 0lac&3un *w/O4Connor.) (or the Ct: (io%ates the :C$ un er the endorsement test. D6%or" to 6o in the hi#hestE &a/es its re%i#ious &eanin# un&ista/ab%" c%earK praises 6o in Christian ter&s Un%i/e I"nch$ nothin# in the conte.t o! the isp%a" etracts !ro& the creche4s re%i#ious &essa#e (no Santa$ rein eer or wishin# we%%)7 it is the sin#%e e%e&ent o! >@

the isp%a" (besi es !%owers$ which a to re%i#ious &essa#e) Si#n isc%osin# ownership oesn4t he%p7 rather it e&onstrates the #o(t is en orsin# the re%i#ious &essa#e o! that or#4n ,. 1B !t 'anu//ah &enorah$ 5ust out Cit"HCount" b% #$ ne.t to >? !t Christ&as tree. At the !oot o! the tree was si#n DSa%ute to Iibert"E an Aa"or4s na&e. Aenorah owne b" Jewish #roup$ but store $ erecte an re&o(e b" cit" each "ear 0lac&3un *J O4C. controllin1: oes not (io%ate the :C$ un er the endorsement test ;ocus on co&bine isp%a" o! &enorah$ tree$ an si#n. )ree an si#n are not re%i#ious s"&bo%s. >? !t tree (. 1B !t &enorah. Aenorah positione to the si e. Ienned# wou% ha(e uphe% both. Attac/s en orse&ent testKe&braces a 5urispru ence o! &inutiae7 !ew tra 4% practices ac/now%e #in# re%i#ion wi%% withstan it (responseKit is rea%%" 5ust ac/now%e #in# re%i#ious ori#ins$ it wi%% not be ob5ecti(e%" en orsin# re%i#ion an wi%% pass). ii. The Ten Co33and3ents [++/+,! %cCrear# Count# $. 6CLU) 2CC-) /. Souter [-2=! )wo count" courthouses put up %ar#e$ #o% H!ra&e copies o! the )en Co&&an &ents. ACIU sue . Counties e.pan e isp%a"s$ issuin# reso%ution e&phasizin# re%i#ion in po%itics in Sentuc/"$ an a in# B other ocs$ each ha(in# re%i#ious the& or e.cerpte to hi#h%i#ht re%i#ious e%e&ent. Q Ct issues PI. 3r D;oun ations o! A&erican IawE isp%a" erecte $ a in# (arious other ocs (Star Span#%e Ganner$ Aa#na Carta$ Gi%% o! =i#hts)$ each w0state&ent about its historica% an %e#a% si#ni!icance. U8CJ8S)I)U)IJ8AI un er Ie&on: Secu%ar Purpose: none here$ as e(i ence b" series o! e(ents %ea in# up to isp%a" o 2trong version& secu%ar purpose must not be secondary to re%i#ious purpose an cannot be a sha&Kthis pron# is oin# a %ot o! wor/. %onte-t is :ey under !% in determining what )airly can be understood to be the &ur&ose o) the dis&lay$ C.!. 9a%%ace$ I"nch !or&u%ation. =econci%in# 9: in that (er" case Ct i n4t accept purporte secu%ar purpose. o =e5ects counties4 epistemic argument Y purpose is un/nowab%e an there!ore this pron# shou% be co&p%ete%" aban one . D:.a&ination o! purpose is a stab%e o! statutor" interpretation.E I%%ustration o! broa er ebate re statutor" interpretation o =e5ects counties4 ar# that shou% %oo/ 5ust at 3r isp%a" to !in secu%ar purpose: A opts O4Connor ar#: Dreasonab%e person has a reasonab%e &e&or"E an wou% /now isp%a" is 5ust e.tension o! series o! atte&pts b" #o(t to put re%i#ious e%e&ents on isp%a" o I&portant that here the te.t o! the co&&an &ents is isp%a"e . Qistin#uishes Sup Ct: 'ebrew$ surroun e b" other %aw&a/ers Scalia dissent: =e5ects Ie&on an en orse&ent test. Ca%%s !or non&re)erentialism within the sco&e o) our historical tradition as an a%ternati(e. I! re%i#ion has to be co&p%ete%" non eno&inationa%$ there cou% be no re%i#ion in the pub%ic !oru& at a%%$ but histor" shows that cannot be the case (%oo/ at a%% the pub%ic ac/now%e #e&ents o! re%i#ion). 9hat the :C rea%%" estab%ishe is non&re)erentialism among monotheists. In a ition to histor" (1)$ this test a%so is 5usti!ie b" (,) &a5oritarianis&K99.7Z o! be%ie(ers are &onotheistic7 (3) >7

oesn4t i&pe e ;:C ri#hts. o =esponse: S):<:8S in ;an Orden: that is 5ust not true as an ori#ina% &atter1;oun ers on%" care about protectin# Christianit"Knot Jews an Aus%i&s. o Counterrep%": that &i#ht be true !or so&e peop%e but not a%% ;an Orden $. 8err#) 2CC-) RehnEuist [-: !Mcompanion to DcCreary )\ State Capito% contains 17 &onu&ents an ,1 historica% &ar/ers co&&e&oratin# the Dpeop%e$ i ea%s an e(ents that co&pose )e.an i entit".E 2eld: CJ8S)I)U)IJ8AI. Ct re!uses to app%" Ie&on (b0c Gre"er). Instea $ %oo/s to: Unbro/en tra ition o! o! o!!icia% ac/now%e #&ent o! ro%e o! re%i#ion in A&erican %i!e. I"nch. A%so$ ac/now%e #e&ents o! the ro%e p%a"e b" the 1C Co&&an &ents are co&&on throu#hout A&erica. Conce es it is i!! when "oun# schoo% chi% ren are the au ience$ Stone sti%% #oo . 0re#er concurrin1: 8one o! the Ct4s tests capture the !un a&enta% purpose o! the :CK pre(entin# i(isi(eness. :C shou% be un erstoo to !orbi #o(t isp%a"s o! re%i#ion *enacte !or a secu%ar purpose3- on%" when there is e(i ence it wi%% cause socia% con!%ict. )his re2uires the e.ercise o! legal 'udgment (not persona% Sca%iaP) in each an e(er" case. Gi# picture0aeria% (iew o! :C$ see a%so his concurrin# opinion in Lel3an 'ere$ the &onu&ent was there !ore >C "ears un isturbe Kno one co&p%aine . Si#n sa"in# it was onate b" the :a#%es istances it !ro& the cit". o GU) &a"be that4s b0c &inorit" %ac/s a (oice Ste$ens dissentin1: Iast @? "ears$ we ha(e estab%ishe a societ" an 5urispru ence that con!%icts w0;oun ers4 (iew. Shou% rea Constitution b" eri(in# !ro& the C%ause4s te.t an histor" the broa princip%es that re&ain (a%i to a". 8ot a &atter o! persona% pre! (Sca%ia)Kwith one eye towards Nation/s history and the other )i-ed on its democratic as&irations+ o SCAIIA rep%" in %cCrear#: :(en i! this is true$ it shou% be accor in# to e&ocratica%%" a opte aspirations o! our current societ"$ not 9 une%ecte 5u #es. Peop%e sti%% support so&e re%ationship btw c+s *?33-. Neutrality #ui es the ana%"sisKwe are not boun b" ;ra&er4s e.pectationsK5ust b" the %e#a% princip%es the" enshrine . Stor"4s (ision (ori#ina%is&) that States shou% not iscri&inate btw Christian sects has at its !oun ation the princip%es that #o(t &ust re&ain neutra% btw (a%i s"ste&s o! be%ie!. As re%i#ious p%ura%is& has e.pan e $ so has our acceptance o! what constitutes (a%i be%ie! s"ste&s. SUAAA=U: PUGIIC QISPIAU ):S)S 1. Coercion: Senne " (broa er (iew o! what counts thou#h)(Iee)$ Sca%ia$ )ho&as ,. Bonpreferentialism: =ehn2uist7 Sca%ia (a&on# &onotheists)Knot accepte 3. Ie&on: Souter$ %ower courts b0c ne(er o(erru%e >. /ndorsement: J4Connor (Ct in A%%e#hen") ?. Eivisiveness& Gre"er (<an Jr en) @. #radition1base e.ception Ye.tre&e%" narrow *hb=. '$olution and Creationis3 [++/2C! '<<erson $. 6r&ansas *+,@8) /. 7ortas.[-=8!Kcannot prohibit teaching of evolution >B

An Ar/ansas antiHe(o%ution statute &a/es it un%aw!u% !or a teacher in an" state supporte schoo% or uni(ersit" to teach a theor" that &an/in ascen e or escen e !ro& a %ower or er o! ani&a%s 2eld: Iac/s Secu%ar Purpose: D;un a&enta%ist sectarian con(iction was an is the reason !or the %aw4s e.istenceE an the %aw prohibits the teachin# o! e(o%ution D!or the so%e reason that it is ee&e to con!%ict with a particu%ar re%i#ious octrine.E Purpose o! a (ancin# re%i#ion b" protectin# the re%i#ion !ro& co&petin# (iews. 6o(t &ust be neutra% in &atters o! re%i#ious theor"$ octrine an practice. ;irst A&en &ent &an ates #o(t neutra%it" btw re%i#ion an nonre%i#ion. ;orbi s the pre!erence o! a re%i#ious octrine or the prohibition o! theor" which is ee&e anta#onistic to a particu%ar o#&a. 0lac& concurrin1: Iaw shou% ha(e been in(a%i ate so%e%" on (a#ueness #roun s. Ct shou% not in(a%i ate statute base on a%%e#e &oti(es behin itKtoo har to /now what the" were *cb: esp pop re!eren u&-. o epistemic arg to secu%ar purpose re2uire&ent 6has been re5ecte b" the Court &an" ti&es. Gut hot%" ispute . An there is potentia% secu%ar purpose: re&o(e contro(ers" !ro& pub%ic schoo%s *cb: pre(ent socia% Qarwinis&-Ki&p%ies that an" secu%ar purpose wi%% o. Luestione the re%i#ious neutra%it" o! the Ct4s reasonin#$ notin# that the teachin# o! e(o%ution cou% in!rin#e the re%i#ious !ree o& o! those who consi er e(o%ution an antiHre%i#ion octrine. 'dwards $. 61uillard *+,8 .[---!Kcannot promote the teaching of creationism Iouisiana Dba%ance treat&entE statute: i! e(o%ution is tau#ht$ creation science has to be tau#ht$ an (isa (ersa. 2eld: Iac/s Secu%ar Purpose: State4s e!enses are a sha&. Ct won4t be b%in to %e#is%ature4s pree&inent re%i#ious purpose (a (ance an en orse a particu%ar re%i#ious un erstan in# o! creation)Ke.a&ines content o! statute an I'. Academic freedom re5ecte : this actua%%" restricts !%e.ibi%it" o! teachers. o Ii/e in 9a%%ace there is no secu%ar purpose that was not !u%%" ser(e b" e.istin# state %aw be!ore the enact&ent o! the statute in L %airness (state c%ai&e that creation sci re!%ecte %e#iti&ate scienti!ic opinion that ha been i&proper%" represse $ an it conten e that the statute per&itte stu ents to con!ront the co&petin# e(i ence an eci e the &atter !or the&se%(es): 8o state is 5ust intereste in pro&otin# creationis&$ e(i ent b" !act that it i n4t encoura#e an" other perspecti(e on ori#ins o! hu&an /in Scalia dissent: Ie&on re!ers to DaE secu%ar purposeKan" wi%% o (weak version) o 'ere$ awareness o! tension btw stu ents4 re%i#ious be%ie!s an e(o%ution$ or e%i&inatin# hosti%it" o! %e#. (which itse%! (io%ates :C) towar s re%i#ion =e%i#ious can (ote base on their re%i#ionsKIe&on !orbi s actin# !or purpose o! a (ancin# re%i#ion$ not actin# on re%i#ious con(ictions o Can4t presu&e %aw4s purpose is to a (ance re%i#ion si&p%" b0c it coinci es w0the tenants o! so&e or a%% re%i#ions Do$er 6rea School District *%.D. 8a. 2CC-. [--8!Kcannot promote the teaching of *E *"oun# earth creationis&Kcon!%icts w0hu#e a&ount o! scienti!ic e(i ence. IQKbest

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e.p%anation !or the #aps in the theor" o! e(o%ution is so&e !or& o! o(era%% esi#nCt stri/es own po%ic" that stu ents wi%% be aware o! #aps0probs in Qarwin4s theor" an other theories %i/e IQ$ an that !orces teachers to rea Dtheor"$ not !actE isc%ai&er :as" case b0c the te.tboo/ ori#ina%%" re!erre to DcreationE throu#hout an a%% schoo% i was rep%ace those re!erences w0EIQ$E an Sup Ct prece ent sa"s schoo%s cannot pro&ote creationis&. Jther !actors: o IQ is not scienceKnot in peer re(iewe 5ourna%s$ not accepte in sci co&&unit"$ no research an testin#re%i#iouscannot be a (ance b" state Possib%e rep%": we are 5ust ensurin# the teachin# o! i!!erent (iewpoints$ 5ust %i/e in histor" c%ass. =esponse: in science we on%" teach (iews that &eet stan ar o! scienti!ic criterion.

o Pro&otes creationist re%i#ion b" sin#%in# out e(o%ution !ro& rest o! sci curric. as Dtheor"Esu##ests to reasonab%e obser(er that e(o%ution is on%" hi#h%" 2uestionab%e hunch$ when in !act #roun e in e.tensi(e e(i ence Luestions: 1. ;:C cha%%en#e to curricu%u& teachin# e(o%ution3 Qoubt!u% *hb 1@,,. 'ow can state be neutra% w0respect to c%ai&s that see& to ha(e unani&ous scienti!ic support (&ore so than e(o%ution) an sti%% con!%ict w0re%i#ion3 9hat is neutra%it" then3 -. Challen1es to School Curriculu3 [+2/2!Klimits to state-s power to inform citi7ens %oKert $. 2aw&ins Count# 0oard o( 'ducation *@th Cir) +,8 .[-@+!Kpublic school Ars. ;rost want a%ternati(e assi#n&ents #i(en to her chi% ren in p%ace o! rea in# series that the" sai contains &ateria% o!!ensi(e to their re%i#ious be%ie!s. Q. Ct #a(e p%ainti!!s an optHout to acco&&o ate the bur en on their re%i#ious e.ercise. 2eld: =e2uirin# rea in# o! &ateria%s containin# passa#es consi ere to be o!!ensi(e to sincere re%i#ious be%ie!s oes not constitute a bur en on re%i#ion. o P re%ie on Sher"ert: bein# coerced/com&elled to rea the passa#es M bur en o =:J:C):Q: Sherbert in(o%(e #o(t co&pu%sion to engage in conduct that violated religious convictions7 here$ no a))irmation or denial o) religious belie) or inter)erence w/&er)ormance or non6&er)ormance o) a religious e-ercise Pub%ic schoo%s &ust create #oo citizens out o! chi% ren$ 0ethel$ which in(o%(es teachin# civil tolerationKbein# ci(i% with others e(en i! "ou abhor their re%i#ious (iews0respectin# i(ersit". )his is not the sa&e as !orcin# religious tolerationKa!!ir&in# i(er#ent re%i#ious be%ie! as an e2ua% roa to sa&e 6o . o P sti%% cou% ha(e re%ie on unconstitutional condition ar#u&ent: !orce to #i(e up pub%ic bene!it (atten in# pub%ic schoo%) to e.ercise re%i#ion o P re%ie on 5oder: e.posure to &ateria% that con!%icts w0re%i#ious be%ie!s an wi%% ten to eni#rate chi% ren4s re%i#ious be%ie!s M bur en o =:J:C):Q: In )8$ stu ents can optHout o! e.posure to o!!ensi(e

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&ateria% (re%i#ious schoo% or ho&e schoo%in#). In Uo er$ A&ish ha no ri#ht to opt out o! #oin# to schoo% at a%%$ which is what the" ob5ecte to. o '<<erson estab%ishe that it (io%ates the :C !or schoo%s to tai%or pub%ic schoo% curricu%u& to satis!" princip%es or prohibitions o! an" re%i#ion Ienned#4s concurrence: :(en i! there was a bur en$ there is sti%% a co&pe%%in# state interest in: o Qe(e%opin# critica% thin/in# s/i%%sK#i(in# stu ents the too%s to criticize an re(ise (iews the" ho% . Just as i&portant to se%!H#o(t as ci(i% to%erance. o ;rost ob5ects to thisKschoo%s shou% n4t incu%cate autono&" into stu ents awa" !ro& be%ie!s tau#ht b" their parents o )eachin# ci(i% to%erance o A(oi in# re%i#ious i(isi(eness o Qistin#uish optHout !or %ess core sub5ects$ %i/e =J)C o Jther possibi%ities she i n4t &ention o repub%ican: stu ents nee to be ab%e to thin/ critica%%" to e!!ecti(e%" participate in e&ocratic societ" 0o11s concurrence: o :C: )he schoo% boar en5o"s a%&ost %i&it%ess authorit" to esi#n schoo% curricu%u& on%" %i&ite b" the :stab%ish&ent C%ause$ thus as %on# as the state is not actin# to a (ance or inhibit re%i#ion$ there is no prob%e&. o ;:C: )here is a bur en here: stu "in#0e.posure to series is con uct o Gut wou% n4t re2uire acco&&o ation b0c o! co&p%e.it": optHout re#i&e wou% ne(er en i! an"thin# o!!ensi(e to an" re%i#ious be%ie! was a bur en that re2uire acco&&o ation GU) reca%% Sup Ct re2uires caseHb"Hcase ana%"sis o! prob%e&s associate w0acco&&o ations$ O Centro NOT': whether this is a bur en or not &i#ht epen on whether "ou a#ree with G=:88A8 (centra%it" su!!icient) or J4CJ88J= (coercion re2uire ) in L#n1. O: I! this ca&e up to a"$ an there was no stateH=;=A$ wou% the e.ceptions to the rea in# re2uire&ent !or nonHre%i#ious reasons ta/e it out o! the scope o! #enera%%" app%icab%e$ an into SS3 Ientuc&# State 0d o( 'du $. Rudasill *+, ,.[- -!6religious schools Cha%%en#e un er T? o! SU Const0Gec/ner A&en &ent (Dnor sha%% an" &an be co&pe%%e to sen his chi% to an" schoo% to which he &a" be conscientious%" oppose E) to state4s re#u%ations !or re%i#ious schoo%s. o )eachin# in :n#%ish7 =e2uire instruction in certain branches o! stu "7 8o !ewer schoo% a"s0"r than pub%ic schoo%sKper&issib%e o )eacher certi!ication7 )e.tboo/s &ust be !ro& stateHappro(e %ist7 State accre itation stan ar s !or re%i#ious schoo%s the&se%(esKi&per&issib%e o Gec/ner A&en &ent$ rather than Snott A&en &ent$ b0c %e# reco#nize i&portance o! preparin# stu ents to inte%%i#ent%" e.ercise ri#ht to su!!ra#e. )his can sti%% be one in schoo%s that on4t &eet the i&per&issib%e re2uire&ents. o )o co&pensate$ state can #i(e stu ents stan ar ize achie(e&ent tests.

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Ga resu%tsnot Dschoo%sE b0c not achie(in# const purpose. O: I! %oKert is ri#ht that state has interest in incu%catin# certain (a%ues into stu ents at pub%ic schoo%s$ wh" not in re%i#ious schoo%s3 *but this case is eci e un er state constC.(. Ne"ras&a eD. rel. Dou1las $. 7aith 0a<tist Church) NI Su< Ct) +,8+ [- ,! U<held state accre itation re2uire&ents (appro(a% o! curricu%u&$ teacher certi!icates$ etc) as app%ie to re%i#ious schoo%s b0c the" were Dreasonab%eEK!or e.$ ho% in# a teachin# certi!icate &eans "ou ha(e a e#ree$ which is a re%iab%e in icator o! success in the !ie% o! e u. =e5ecte schoo%4s e(i ence that its stu ents i !ine on stan ar ize tests. O: Can states re2uire pub%ic schoo%s to teach e(o%ution as part o! science curricu%u&3 0. Reli1ion and De3ocrac# [+2/:! Chat role can religion play as the basis or 'ustification for government action< Ie#a% positions 1. GU=6:= in Le3on: Can i ates wi%% be !orce to ec%are an (oters to choose *state ai or not to subsi ize teachers$ inc%u in# at re%i#ious schoo%s-. It wou% be unrea%istic to i#nore the !act that &an" peop%e con!ronte w0issues o! this /in wi%% !in their votes aligned with their faith. Jr inari%" po%itica% ebate an i(ision are hea%th" &ani!estations o! our e&ocratic s"ste& o! #o(t. Gut political division along religious lines * i(isi(eness- was one o! the principa% e(i%s a#ainst which the ;irst A&en &ent was inten e to protect. ,. G=:88A8 concurrin# in %cDaniel: *in stri/in# own un er ;:C e.c%usion o! c%er#" !ro& %e#is%ature- )he &ere !act that a purpose o! the :C is to re uce or e%i&inate re%i#ious i(isi(eness or stri!e oes not p%ace re%i#ious iscussion$ ass4n$ or po%itica% participation in a status %ess pre!erre than ri#hts o! iscussion$ ass4n an po%itica% participation #enera%%" *public debate of religious ideas is const protected-. )he anti ote which the Const. pro(i es a#ainst zea%ots who wou% in5ect sectarianis& into the po%itica% process is to sub5ect their i eas to re!utation in the &/tp%ace o! i eas an their p%at!or&s to re5ection at the po%%s. Roe $. 9ade *+, :.: <ar"in# opinions o! i!!erent re%i#ious #roups M e(i ence o! %ac/ o! consensus on when %i!e be#insrestriction on abortion is re%i#ious en orse&ent. 2arris $. %cRae *+,8C.: 8o (io%ation o! the :C 5ust because a %e#is%ati(e act *no Ae icai !or abortion- happens to coinci e with a re%i#ious be%ie! *SCAIIA in A#ui%%ar -$ i! the %aw sti%% has a secu%ar purpose. 9e"ster $. Re<roducti$e 2ealth Ser$ices *+,8,.*Ste$ens dissentin1.: prohibitin# abortion >C a"s a!ter conception has no secu%ar purposeKen orse&ent o! re%i#ious tenet 0owers $. 2ardwic& *+,8@.: Ct see&s to e.p%icit%" use &ora% an re%i#ious 5usti!ication !or cri&ina%izin# so o&". 0lac&3un dissentin1: ina e2uate 5usti!ication. Lawrence $. TeDas *2CC:.: J(erru%es 0owers in ho% in# that re%i#ious an &ora% (iews o not pro(i e %e#iti&ate state interest. 6t&ins $. ;ir1inia *2CC2.: :.ecutin# the &enta%%" retar e (io%ates Bth A&en . ;8: cite re%i#ious a&icus curiae brie!s that a#ree with this positionKsai not ispositi(e$ but pro(i es !urther support that there is consensus on the issue. 8or&ati(e positions 6udi: i! tr"in# to be a #oo citizen$ o not support a restricri(e %aw un%ess "ou ha(e a

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secu%ar reason !or this a (ocac" (&rinci&le o) secular rationale) A8Q this secu%ar reason wou% be su!!icient to &oti(ate "ou to support the %aw in the absence o! an" other re%i#ious reason "ou &i#ht ha(e (&rinci&le o) secular motivation). Justi!ication: re%i#ious reasons are inherent%" i!!erent !ro& other reasons o Accessibility& so&e peop%e ha(en4t ha the re%e(ant e.periences or e.posure to bac/#roun princip%es necessar" to i enti!" w0re%i#ious reasons o Authority structure in religions pro(i es rationa%e !or o&inatin# other #roups (what is &ore i&portant than sa(in# peop%e4s sou%s3) o Eictates o! a re%i#ion o!ten extend to religious as we%% as secu%ar conduct un er&ine re%i#ious !ree o&s (&ust worship proper%" to sa(e "our sou%) o *ntensity& b0c o! authorit" which re%i#ious princip%es$ irecti(es an tra itions are co&&on%" !e%t to ha(e (a#ain$ sa(in# sou%s)$ it is %ess %i/e%" that isputants can achie(e reso%ution or e(en peace!u%%" a#ree to isa#ree. %cConnell: 1. #he supposed divineness, intolerance and absolutism of religious argument does not distinguish it from secular ideology 0, provide 'ustification for excluding it a. /mpirical problem& so&e re%i#ious ar#u&ents are 2uite respect!u%7 so&e secu%ar ar#u&ents are &i%itant b. Bormative problems& i. <irtua%%" e(er" si#ni!icant socia% re!or& &o(e&ent %e b" re%i#ious acti(ists ii. Un er(a%ues e&ocratic process as peace!u% &eans !or reso%ution o! con!%ictco&pro&ises an coa%ition bui% in# ". #he principle of secular religion rests on a false distinction btw generally accessible public reason and religious ideas a. Accessibility& so&e theorists conten there is no i!!erence btw re%i#ious an other reasons episte&o%o#ica%%"Yrest on sa&e e.periences as an" other be%ie! (i entit" po%iticsK&en 5ust on4t #et it7 whites on4t #et it) $. #he principle of secular rationale is incompatible with the very principles of e)ual citi7enship that are its supposed basis a. Qe#ra es re%i#ious persons !ro& the status o! e2ua% citizens AS: AcConne%%4s (iew is !%awe K !rontHen neutra%it" but bac/Hen specia% treat&ent: =e%i#ious reasons shou% be ab%e to co&pete e2ua%%" in the po%itica% process b0c the" are no i!!erent than secu%ar reasons. )hen i! re%i#ious &inorities %ose within the po%itica% process the" shou% be a!!or e specia% Constitutiona% protections (acco&&o ations).

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