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Nov 30, 2013

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Antennna/Communications

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Antennna/Communications

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

AntennaTheory

ANTENNA

Consistsofawireorotherconductor,oracollectionofwiresorconductors,that

converts electrical energy into electromagnetic waves for transmission, and

electromagneticwavesintoelectricalenergyforreception

Anantennapassivereciprocaldevice.

Acts as a transducer to convert electrical oscillations in a transmission line or

waveguidetoapropagatingwaveinfreespaceandviceversa.

Functions as an impedance matcher between a transmission line or waveguide

andfreespace.

All antennas have a radiation pattern which is a plot of the field strength or

powerdensityatvariousangularpositionsrelativetotheantenna.

BasicAntennaOperation

2

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

CompleteAntennaSystem

The coupling device (coupling coil) connects the transmitter to the feeder.

The feeder is a transmission line that carries energy to the antenna. The antenna

radiatesthisenergyintospace.

AntennaTerminologyandParameters

Radiation Pattern a polar diagram or graph representing field strengths or power

densitiesatvariousangularpositionsrelativetoanantenna.

Absoluteradiationpatternradiationpatternplottedinvariabledistance,fixedpower

Relativeradiationpatternradiationpatternplottedinvariablepower,fixeddistance

Frontlobemajorlobe;lobethatreceivesthemostenergy

Sidelobeslobesadjacenttothefrontlobe

Backlobeslobesindirectionexactlyoppositethefrontlobe

3

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

Fronttobackratioratioofthefrontlobepowertothebacklobepower

Fronttosideratioratioofthefrontlobepowertothesidelobepower

Line of shoot or point of shoot line bisecting the major lobe from the center of the

antennainthedirectionofmaximumradiation

Nearfieldfieldpatternthatisclosetotheantenna(inductionfield)

Farfieldfieldpatternthatisatagreatdistance(radiationfield)

Duringonehalfofacycle,powerisradiatedfromanantennawheresomeofthe

powerisstoredtemporaryinthenearfield.Duringthesecondhalfofthecycle,power

inthenearfieldisreturnedtotheantenna.

4

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

Radiation resistance the resistance that, if it replaced the antenna, would dissipate

exactlythesameamountofpowerthattheantennaradiates

2

i

P

R

r

=

Antennaefficiencyratioofthepowerradiatedbyanantennatothesumofthepower

radiatedandthepowerdissipated

e r

r

d rad

rad

in

rad

R R

R

P P

P

P

P

+

=

+

= =

Where: =antennaefficiency

Prad=powerradiatedbyanantenna(W)

Pd=powerdissipatedinantenna(W)

Rr=radiationresistance(ohms)

Re=effectiveantennaresistance(groundresistance,ohms)

i=antennacurrentattheinput

AntennaGain

Directive gain ratio of the power density radiated in a particular direction to the

powerdensityradiatedtothesamepointbyareferenceantenna(isotropicantenna)

Directivitymaximumdirectivegain

) (ref D

D

P

P

D =

Power gain same as directive gain, except that antenna efficiency is taken into

account

D A

P

= ; indB: D A

P

log 10 =

Foranisotropicantenna,powergainisapproximately1.64(2.15dB)

EffectiveIsotropicRadiatedPower(EIRP)

t in t rad

A P D P EIRP = =

Where: Prad=powerradiatedbyanantenna(W)

Dt=transmitantennadirectivegain(unitless)

Pin=totalantennainputpower(W)

At=transmitantennapowergain(unitless)

5

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

TodeterminethepowerdensityatagivendistanceRfromatransmitantenna:

2 2

4 4 R

D P

R

A P

P

t rad t in

D

= =

AntennaCaptureArea

2

2

4

;

4

C

r

r

C

A

A

A

A = =

Capturedpower:

C

t in

cap

A

R

A P

P

2

4

=

Where: AC=effectivecapturearea

=wavelengthofreceivesignal

Arreceiveantennapowergain(unitless)

R=distancebetweentransmitandreceiveantennas

AntennaPolarizationorientationofelectricfieldradiatedfromtheantenna

Antenna Beamwidth angular separation between two halfpower (3 dB) points on

themajorlobeofanantennasradiationpattern

Antennagainisinverselyproportionaltobeamwidth

Antennabandwidthfrequencyrangeoverwhichantennaoperationissatisfactory

Antennainputimpedanceorfeedpointpointontheantennawherethetransmission

lineisconnected;generallycomplex

Za=Ra+jXa where: Ra=antennaresistance

Ra=Re+Rr Xa=antennareactance

6

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

Problems:

1. For an antenna with input power of 100 W, rms current of 2 A and effective

resistanceof2ohms,determinethe(a)antennaradiationresistance;(b)antenna

efficiency;(c)powerradiatedfromtheantenna.

Solution:

(a) = = = 25

2

100

2 2

i

P

R

r

(b) % 59 . 92

2 25

25

=

+

=

+

=

e r

r

R R

R

(c) W P P

P

P

in rad

in

rad

59 . 92 ) 100 ( 9259 . 0 ; = = = =

2. DeterminethepowergainindBforanantennawithadirectivegainof50dBand

efficiencyof75%

000 , 100 ; log 10 50 ; log 10 = = = D D D A

P

dB A

P

75 . 48 )] 75 . 0 )( 000 , 100 [( log 10 = =

3. DeterminetheEIRPindBmforanantennawithdirectivityof33dB,efficiencyof

82%andinputpowerof100W.

t in t rad

A P D P EIRP = =

262 . 1995 ; log 10 33 = =

t t

D D

W P P

P

P

in rad

in

rad

82 ) 100 ( 82 . 0 ; = = = =

W D P EIRP

t rad

5098 . 611 , 163 ) 262 . 1995 ( 82 = = =

dBm

x

W

dBm in 13 . 82

10 1

5098 . 611 , 163

log 10 :

3

=

4. Find the power density at a point 20 km from an antenna with input power of

1kWandpowergainof23dB.

526 . 199 ; log 10 23 = =

t t

A A

2

2 2

/ 694 . 39

) 20000 ( 4

) 526 . 199 ( 1

4

m W

k

R

A P

P

t in

D

= = =

7

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

5. Ahalfwavedipoleisdrivenwitha10Wsignalat200MHz.Areceivingdipole

100 km away is aligned such that the gain is cut in half. Determine the receive

powerandvoltageintothe73ohmreceiver.

Forahalfwavedipole:D=1.64

Forthewavelength:=c/f=1.5m

Receivedpower:

W x

k

A

R

A P

P

C

t in

cap

12

2

2 2

10 16 . 19

4

) 5 . 1 )( 64 . 1 )( 5 . 0 (

) 100 ( 4

) 64 . 1 )( 10 (

4

= = =

Where:

4

) 5 . 1 )( 64 . 1 )( 5 . 0 (

4

2 2

= =

r

C

A

A

a.

Forthevoltagereceived:P=V

2

/R;V=37.4V

BasicAntenna

ElementaryDoubletanelectricallyshortdipole

ThroughMaxwellsEquation:

R

Il

E

sin 60

=

Where: E=electricfieldintensity(V/m)

I=dipolecurrent(A,rms)

l=endtoendlengthofthedipole

R=distancefromthedipole

=wavelength

= angle between the axis of the antenna and the direction of

radiation

Since:PD=E

2

/120:

2 2

2 2 2

sin 30

R

l I

P

D

Pro

it is

max

Hal

G

W

A

e

Qua

oblem:An

s 3A, wh

ximumra

Forthe

E

lfWaveD

Generally

Widelyus

Aresonan

end)

arterwav

Monop

thelow

Alsoca

Charac

waves

Curren

Toredu

ofimpr

Size is

closeto

nelement

at is the

adiation?

ewavelen

R

Il

E

s 60

=

Dipole

yreferred

sedatfreq

ntantenna

veGround

pole(singl

werendei

alledMarc

ctersitics a

ntmaxima

ucepowe

rovingcon

only half

oground

arydoubl

field stre

gth:=c/

R

60 sin

=

asHertza

quenciesa

a(amulti

dedAnten

le)antenn

therdirec

conniante

are simila

aoccursat

erlosses,g

nductivity

f as long

letis8cm

ength 25k

/f=15m

k 25 )( 15 (

) 08 . 0 )( 3 (

antenna

above2M

ipleofqu

nna

naonequ

ctlyconne

enna

ar to the H

tthegrou

groundsh

yisthrou

compared

8

mlong.If

km away

k)

90 sin )

=

MHz

uarterwav

arterwav

ectedtogr

Hertz ante

undedend

houldbea

ughacoun

d to the H

the20M

y from the

V 64 . 120

velengtha

velengthlo

roundort

enna beca

ds

agoodcon

nterpoise

Hertz ant

MHzcurren

e doublet

m V /

andopen

ongmoun

througha

ause of th

nductor.A

tenna but

GlennOp

Ant

ntflowing

t, in a di

circuited

ntedverti

acoupling

he ground

Analtern

t should b

pleAvendao

tennaTheory

gthrough

rection of

atthefar

callywith

gnetwork

dreflected

nativeway

be located

o

y

h

f

r

h

k

d

y

d

9

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

AntennaLoading

Physicaldimensionsforlowfrequencyantennasarenotpractical.Toincreaseelectrical

length,loadingtechniquesareapplied.

AntennaArrays

Formed when two or more antenna elements are combined to form a single

antenna

Increasethedirectivityoftheantennaandconcentratesradiatedpowerwithina

smallgeographicarea

Antenna elements can be driven or parasitic. Driven elements are directly

connected to the transmission line and receive power from the source. Parasitic

elements receive energy through mutual induction with a driven or another

parasiticelement.

10

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

BroadsideArray

Madebyplacingseveralresonantdipolesofequalsizeinparallelwitheachother

andinastraightline.Allelementsarefedinphasefromthesource

Radiatesatrightanglestotheplaneofthearrayandverylittletothedirectionof

theplane

EndfireArray

Same element configuration as the broadside array except that the transmission

lineisnotcrisscrossedbetweenelements

11

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

RhombicAntenna

AnonresonantantennasuitedforHFtransmission

Madeupoffournonresonantelementsterminatedinaresistor

SpecialPurposeAntennas

FoldedDipole

Asingleantennamadeupoftwoelements

Inputimpedanceisequaltohalfwaveimpedance(72)timesthesquareofthe

numberoffoldedwires.(2

2

*72=288)

12

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

YagiUdaAntenna

A linear array consisting of a dipole and two or more parasitic elements: one

reflectorandoneormoredirectors

CommonlyusedforVHFTVtransmission

TurnstileAntenna

Formed by placing two dipoles at right angles to each other (90 degrees out of

phase)

Radiationpatternproducesnearlyanomnidirectionalpattern

13

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

LogPeriodicAntenna

Consists of several dipoles of different length and spacing that are fed from a

singlesourceatthesmallend.Thetransmissionlineiscrisscrossedbetweenthe

feedpointsofadjacentpairsofdipoles

Advantage: independent of radiation resistance and radiation pattern to

frequency

Notatypeofantennabutaclassofantenna

Physicalstructureisrepetitive,makingelectricalcharacteristicsrepetitiveaswell

Formulafordipolelengthandspacing:

3

4

2

3

1

2

3

4

2

3

1

2

1

L

L

L

L

L

L

R

R

R

R

R

R

= = = = = =

1 1

1

= =

n

n

n

n

L

L

R

R

Where: R=dipolespacing

L=dipolelength

=designratio(lessthan1)

14

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

Foratypicaldesign:=0.7;=30

HelicalAntenna

A broadband VHF or UHF antenna suited for applications for which radiating

circularlypolarizedelectromagneticwavesarerequired

Mountedonagroundplanemadeupofeithersolidmetalormetalscreen

Twomodesofpropagationareavailable:normalandaxial.

PowerGainofaHelicalAntenna

]

) (

) ( 15 [ log 10 ) (

2

NS D

dB A

p

=

Where: Ap(dB)=antennapowergain(dB)

D=helixdiameter(m)

N=numberofturns

S=pitch

=wavelength

3dBBeamwidthofaHelicalAntenna

) / )( / (

52

NS D

=

Problem: Determine the power gain and beamwidth for an endfire helical antenna

with the following parameters: helix diameter = 0.1 m, number of turns = 10, pitch =

0.05mandfrequencyofoperation=500MHz

15

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

Solution

m

x

x

f

c

6 . 0

10 500

10 3

6

8

= = =

dB

NS D

dB A

p

349 . 5 ]

6 . 0

) 05 . 0 * 10 (

)

6 . 0

1 . 0

( 15 [ log 10 ]

) (

) ( 15 [ log 10 ) (

2 2

= = =

= = = 79 . 108

) 6 . 0 / 05 . 0 * 10 )( 6 . 0 / 1 . 0 * (

52

) / )( / (

52

NS D

UHFandMicrowaveAntennas

Shouldbehighlydirective

Concentrates power in a narrow beam (beamwidth decreases with increasing

antennagain)

Highlydirectionalantennasareusedwithpointtopointmicrowavesystems

ParabolicAntenna

Consistsofaparabolicreflectorandthefeedmechanism

Feedmechanismradiatestheenergytowardthereflector(centerfeed,hornfeed,

Cassegrainfeed)

Parabolicreflectorsaresometimescalledparabolicdishantennas

All waves radiated toward the parabola from the focus will be in phase when

they reach the directrix, regardless from which point on the parabola they are

reflected

16

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

ParabolicAntennaBeamwidth

D

70

=

Beamwidthbetweennulls:0=2

ParabolicAntennaPowerGain(withrespecttoanisotropicantenna)

2

) (

D

A

p

=

Problem: Determine the beamwidth and transmit and receive power gains of a

parabolicantennawiththefollowingparameters:dishdiameterof2.5m,frequencyof

operationof4GHz,anda55%efficiency.

m

x

x

f

c

075 . 0

10 4

10 3

9

8

= = =

= = =

5 . 2

075 . 0

70

70

D

2 2

)

075 . 0

5 . 2

( 55 . 0 ) (

= =

D

A

p

HornAntenna

Toovercomethedifficultiesinradiatingenergyusingawaveguide,themouthof

thewaveguidemaybeopenedout,aswasdonetothetransmissionline,butthistime

anelectromagnetichornresultsinsteadofthedipole.

Thereareseveralpossiblehornconfigurations,themostcommonare

(a) Sectoralhornflaresoutinonedirectiononly.

(b) Pyramidal Horn flares out in both direction and has the shape of a

truncatedpyramid

(c) ConicalHornflaresoutinbothdirectionsandisalogicalterminationfora

circularwaveguide.

17

GlennOpleAvendao

AntennaTheory

Special horn antennas are the Casshorn and the Hoghorn antenna, which are rather

difficulttoclassifysinceeachisacrossbetweenahornandaparabolicreflector.

LensAntenna

The lens antenna is yet another example of how optical principles may be applied to

microwave antennas. It is used as a collimator at frequencies well in excess of 3 GHz

andworksinthesamewayasaglasslensusedinoptics.

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