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Name Muhammad Arif Samoon Roll No. 06 Department Urban And Infrastructure Engineering
Wednesday, August 19, 2009
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Stone being used in Refuge Tower
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INTRODUCTION DIFFERENT STONES a. Marble b. Gneiss c. Limestone d. Mississippian Limestone e. Quartz Pebbles f. Carboniferous Sandstone g. Stone Mountain Granite STONE STRUCTURES a. Stone Masonry b. DryStone Walls c. Stone Bridge d. Stone Fireplaces e. Rock Fill Dams i. Rawal Dam (ACE) f. Stone Pillars g. Stone Arches GLOSSARY REFERENCES
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Stone is a rock or a piece of rock, shaped or finished for a particular purpose.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary
Stone is Sustainable
Stone is a highly durable, low maintenance building material with high thermal mass. It is versatile, available in many shapes, sizes, colors and textures, and can be used for floors, walls, arches and roofs. Stone blends well with the natural landscape, and can easily be recycled for other building purposes. But is stone a sustainable building solution? There are currently over 400 building stone quarries in the UK, more than enough to meet current demand, but with a growing influx of cheap, imported stone and synthetic imitations, the industry is under threat. To meet sustainability standards, steps must be taken to ensure that the stone is found on site, reclaimed from nearby demolished buildings or sourced from a local stone quarry. Only then can stone be considered a true example of a sustainable building material.
Concrete and steel may weigh as much, but nothing can rival stone for its beauty and durability.
Building with stone By Charles McRaven
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2 DIFFERENT STONES
Marble is metamorphosed limestone, and so it is easily cut like limestone. However, because it has been metamorphosed, primary inhomogeneities have been obliterated to provide a rock with much more uniform physical properties, and only vague traces of original layering or structure can be seen (as in the view below). As a result, marble is Marble in the U.S. Post Office, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A. easily cut sculpted without breaking polished to a fine shiny finish That's why marble has been used for centuries for building and sculpting. For example, the Parthenon and the other buildings of the (Greek) Athenian Acropolis were built of marble.
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Gneiss is a metamorphic rock typically resulting from intense metamorphism, often during mountain-building events. Many of the builings and retaining walls at the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York, are made of gneiss. Washington Hall at the United States Military Academy is built of gneiss.
Gneiss at West Point, New York, U.S.A.
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Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate: CaCO3). The deposition of limestone strata is often a by-product and indicator of biological activity in the geologic record. Calcium (along with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) is a key mineral to plant nutrition: soils overlying limestone bedrock tend to be pre-fertilized with calcium. Limestone is an important stone for masonry and architecture, vying with only granite and sandstone to be the most commonly used architectural stone. Limestone is a key ingredient of quicklime, mortar, cement, and concrete. The solubility of limestone One of the jewels of the Aldstadt (Old City) of Innsbruck, in water and weak acid solutions Austria, is the city's cathedral, the Jakobsdom (the leads to important phenomena. Cathedral of St. Jakob). Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible groundwater sources (ponds and streams), as surface water easily drains downward through cracks in the limestone. While draining, water slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks; dissolving the calcium-carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Most well-known natural cave systems are through limestone bedrock. .
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d. Mississippian Limestone
The east side of the present Georgia State Capitol building in Atlanta, Georgia
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e. Quartz Pebbles
Such pebbles are the abundant product of the weathering of the Piedmont's high-grade metamorphic rocks, granites, and quartz veins. Stream gravels rich in quartz pebbles are therefore common in the Piedmont, and the church's builders incorporated them as a cheap and long-lasting, if rarely-used, building material. The mortar-rich mixture results in a featureless grey building surface with a dreary, if not forlorn, aspect that may be appropriate for a Methodist Church in a land of Baptists.
The building shown above is the First Methodist Church of Elberton, Georgia.
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f. Carboniferous Sandstone
Sandstone at Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire.
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g. Stone Mountain Granite
Stone Mountain is a prominent rounded hill of granite amidst the otherwise gently rolling landscape east of Altanta (see below). It is one of several bodies of granite intruded into the Piedmont about 300 million years ago, as the African margin of Gondwana and the southeast margin of Laurentia (ancestral North America) collided to form the southern Appalachians. Erosion has removed the surrounding metamorphic rocks into which the Stone Mountain granite was intruded, leaving the form of the pluton exposed. Today, Stone Mountain is culturally famous for a large sculpture of Confederate heroes on its northern face. A hiking trail climbs to its top, and a cable car provides access as well.
The Venable Stonehenge Mansion, Atlanta, Georgia
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3 STONE STRUCTURES
a. Stone Masonry
Traditional stone masonry evolved from dry stone stacking. Stone blocks are laid in rows of even (courses) or uneven (uncoursed) height, and fixed in place with mortar, cement or lime mixture pasted between the stones. The building stones are normally extracted by surface quarrying, drilled and split using diamond saws or iron wedges, and then shaped and polished according to their requirements. The basic hand tools used to shape stones are chisels, mallet and a metal straight edge, but modern power tools such as angle grinders and compressed air-chisels are often used to save time and money. Stones are either shaped (dressed) into a block, known as ashlar masonry, or left rough and cut irregularly, known as rubble masonry. Mortared stone structures are less durable than dry stone, because water can get trapped between the stones and push them apart. Traditional stone masonry is rarely used today, because stone is expensive to quarry, cut and transport, and the building process is labour and skill-intensive. Instead, most modern stonework utilises a veneer of stone (thin, flat pieces) glued against a wall of concrete blocks. This is known as veneered stone or stone cladding. Slipform stone structures are a cross between veneered masonry and traditional masonry. Short forms (around 2 feet tall) are placed on either side of the wall, to serve as a guide for the structure. Stones are placed inside the forms with the flat face out, and concrete is then poured behind the rocks to hold it together. Stone buildings can be constructed quickly and easily with this method.
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b. DryStone Walls
The earliest form of stone construction is known as dry stone, or dry stacking. These are freestanding structures such as field walls, bridges and buildings that use irregularly shaped stones carefully selected and placed so that they fit closely together without slipping. Structures are typically wider at the base and taper in as height increases. The weight of the stone pushes inwards to support the structure, and any settling or disturbance makes the structure lock together and become even stronger. Dry stone structures are highly durable and easily repaired. They allow water to drain through them, without causing da mage to the stones. They do not require any special tools, only the skill of the craftsman in choosing and placing the stones.
Seventeenth century dry stone wall at Muchalls Castle, Scotland.
Using a batter-frame and guidelines to rebuild a dry stone wall in South Wales UK
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c. Stone Bridges
Medieval dry stone bridge in Alby, Sweden
Stone bridge in Madison proveing grounds Dam
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d. Rock Fill Dams
Definition ICOLD defined a rockfill dam as, "an embankment type of dam, dependent for its stability primarily on rock. As rockfill dams must contain an impervious zone - now usually selected earth with filter zones, comprising a substantial volume of the dam. The term Rockfill dam usually represents a dam that contains more than 50% of compacted or dumped pervious fill. The dam is dependent for water tightness on an impervious upstream blanket or an impervious core."
Rock-fill dam of Paradela, Montalegre.
Like an earth dam it is composed of fragmental materials, with each particle independent of the others. The mass stability is developed by the friction and inter-reaction of one particle on another rather than by any cementing agent that binds the particles together. Advantages
Economical - due to the use of cheap local materials. Suitable where the foundation conditions are not good, especially where high hydrostatic uplift is likely to be a factor in design. Rockfill is particularly suitable when there is no satisfactory earth available and when a plentiful supply of sound rock is at hand. The rockfilling is especially adapted to construction during wet and cold weather and permits continuous work under weather conditions that would not permit earth or concrete construction. Very rapid constructions are possible with rockfill because of its adaptability to bad weather and because the process of filling does not have to be interrupted for rolling or other separate compaction operations. The rockfill dam with an upstream diaphragm is very well adapted to stage construction. The dam height can be increased merely by dumping more rock behind the impervious diaphragm without interfering with or encroaching on the reservoir. The dam is then made water-tight by continuing the impervious face upward. The stage construction concept is also suitable for cofferdamming, as the first part of the dam serves as a cofferdam which protects the remainder of the foundation for further construction.
Page 15 of 21 Types Composite Earth and Rockfill Central earth core
Sloping earth core
Upstream core Rock with a thin membrane or diaphragm to hold water Central thin membrane
Upstream thin membrane or deck
Unbonded or dry masonry Dam with rubble retaining zone
(C) Thomas, Henry H. The Engineering of Large Dams
Likely to be satisfactory Likely to be unsatisfactory Granite, diorite Gneiss Basalt Sandstone Dense limestone Dolomite Quartzite Massive Schist Shale Slate Schist Siltstone Porous limestone Chalky limestone
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Example of Rock fill dam; Rawal Dam
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e. Stone Pillers
Mamallapuram/Mahabalipuram - a UNESCO world heritage site. Scene of the most awesome rock hewn monolithic temples and sculptures.
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f. Stone Arches
A stone arch consists of stones specially cut so that the joints between stones radiate from a common centre; the soffit is arched and the stones bond in with the surrounding walling. • The individual stones of the arch are termed voussoirs. • The arched soffit the intrados. • The upper profile of the arch stones the extrados.
See figure to the right.
The voussoirs of the segmental arch are cut with steps that correspond in height with stone courses, to which stepped extrados is bonded. The stones of an arch are cut so that there are an uneven number of voussoirs with a centre or key stone. The key stone is the last stone to be put in place as a key to the completion and the stability of the arch, hence its name: key stone.
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4 Glossary of Terms
Mortar is a workable paste formed by mixture of cement, water and fine aggregate sand to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them. The blocks may be stone, brick, cinder blocks, etc. Mortar is a mixture of sand, a binder such as cement or lime, and water and is applied as a paste which then sets hard. Mortar can also be used to fix, or point, masonry when the original mortar has washed away.
Soffit is underside of an arch.
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• • • • • Stone Structures:A List Building with stone By Charles McRaven Stone Masonry http://www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/ConstructionStone.html Stone Sustainabilty http://www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/ConstructionStone.html Dry Stone http://www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/ConstructionStone.html Different Stones http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/BS-Main.html
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