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Peak performance organisations are made up of peak performing individuals and teams with exceptional communication skills!
The LIFO® Method is a unique performance improvement system that is the foundation for three core training programs: • Maximising Individual Performance • Building ea! erformance Teams • "eveloping #xceptional Communication Skills Further training programs are availa$le %hich use the LIFO® Method for specific $usiness applications:
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Leadership for ea! erformance ea! erformance Sales Optimising Negotiation Outcomes Resol ing Conflict for &uccess Time !anagement Maximised Coaching for ea! erformance
Wh" should I use the LIFO® !ethod# $elo% are some interesting statistics that could &e costing "ou mone"' • 'ecent reports have suggested that a$senteeism represents a ma(or cost for )ustralian $usinesses* ) +,,- study conducted $y the recruitment company Morgan and Ban!s found that sic! leave %as costing )ustralian $usinesses .+*/0 $illion a year* • ) Turnover 1 )$senteeism study conducted $y 2allis in +,,- 3 +,,45 found that 4+6 of )ustralian %or!ers admitted to fa!ing sic!ies* They also discovered that happy employees %ho feel they have a comforta$le %or!place5 have a good relationship %ith their $oss5 feel competent in %hat they are doing and %ho connect at a social level %ith their co7%or!ers use much less sic! leave than their unhappy counterparts* • The total cost of %or!ers compensation claims in )ustralia for stress related conditions is estimated at over .+,, million every year* )ccording to the 8ational 2ealth and &afety 9ommission5 %or!7related stress accounts for the longest stretches of a$senteeism* • &tress can have a ma(or effect on %or! performance* &ome of the consequences of %or!place stress include a$senteeism5 diminished performance5 negative attitude and cynicism5 decline in commitment and creativity5 and a decreased a$ility to concentrate5 learn and interact %ith other employees :;<or!place &tress=5 rice%aterhouse9oopers Legal5 +,,0>*
The 2udson survey entitled ;<hy #mployees <al!: +,,/ 'etention Initiatives 'eport=5 postulated that more than one third of %or!ers expect to change (o$s %ithin the next three years* They also discovered that career advancement5 relationship %ith their managers and training is more important than money in retaining staff* )ccording to an employment $randing survey of over 0,, )ustralian (o$see!ers $y 2ays recruiters :+,,0>5 in determining a company@s reputation as an employer5 0A6 of employees vie% treatment and support offered as Bextremely important@* )lso rated as Bextremely important@ %ere the relationship $et%een management and staff :0/6>5 and training and development offered to employees :/?6>* )ccording to an international study $y the Future Foundation ;Cetting the edge in the 8e% eople #conomy= :+,,4>5 poorly performing employees cost )ustralian $usinesses ./*D $illion a year* The study also concluded the follo%ing: ?/6 of employees leave their (o$s $efore they $ecome competent* It ta!es an average of seven months for an employee to $ecome competent in their role* o #mployers spend ?+6 of their time redoing or correcting mista!es $y other team mem$ers* o Managers $elieve the top +/6 of performers are +*E times more competent than the $ottom +/6 of employees* )ccording to "r Fohn &ullivan in ;#nd Bequal treatment@ todayG Focus on top performers= :+,,4>5 top performers almost al%ays exceed the performance of average %or!ers $y %ell over +/6* In fact5 organisations that have estimated the performance differential $et%een average and top performing employees have found that it is often -,,6 higher* &ullivan also found that managers typically spend A,6 of their time %ith +,6 of their team %ho are considered to $e underperforming5 and A,6 of the profita$le activities %ithin their department come from +,6 of their employees*
(o% does the LIFO® !ethod %ork# The LIFO® Method offers a fast5 effective and lasting path to improve performance of individuals5 teams and organisations through: • reducing ineffective $ehaviour and targeting the strategies that %or!5 • getting rid of self7 or team7inflicted $arriers to achieving high performance5 • giving insight and understanding into %hat ma!es people tic!5 there$y improving communication and motivation5 • improving personal organisation and focus5 • improving pro$lem7solving strategies5 • coping more effectively in stressful situations5 and • increasing personal s!ills of persuading5 influencing5 delegation and planning*
The easy-to-use personal style surveys highlight each person’s preferred way of doing things, both in normal circumstances and under stress.
Life Orientations® effectiveness is due to a number of unique factors: • it is not a test and there are no right or %rong ans%ers5 (ust a recognition of %hy people approach tas!s and people in different %ays5 +
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the feed$ac! you receive is all a$out you :not you compared to a statistical average person>5 and is po%erful %hilst $eing straightfor%ard5 the feed$ac! is accurate $ecause the survey requires you to identify %hat you actually do5 not %hat you %ould li!e to do or thin! others %ant you to do5 the issues that arise from the feed$ac! are relevant and practical5 and give a ro$ust $asis for choosing ne% improvement strategies quic!ly5 it is a facilitator of personal exploration rather than a cold diagnostic tool that forces people into a narro% stereotype5 the LIFO® Method helps people identify their strengths in relation to %hen things are going %ell and also %hen they are faced %ith opposition5 stress or conflict5 Life Orientations® can identify %hen someone is overdoing their strengths and as a result not getting the results they envisaged5 it is a dynamic measure5 %hich means that it can $e used time and again to chec! on personal development*
Worldwide Practitioners More than eight million people in +A countries have experienced the $enefits of training and coaching programs utilising the LIFO® Method* L !O® is now available in "ustralia and #ew $ealand! From the Boardroom to the &hop Floor: H H H H H H H H Creater leadership initiatives More effective strategic planning #xceptional sales results #nhanced customer relations 'educed employee a$senteeism and stress leave 'educed employee turnover Better use of time and resources Increased accounta$ility
I**and much more The LIFO® Stor" %he L !O® ðod originated in '()* as a positive and structured tool to supplement organisational development5 T7groups5 and sensitivity training* These ne% group methods helped people learn ho% to improve themselves $y studying each othersJ $ehaviour5 thoughts5 and feelings* 2o%ever5 many participants o$(ected to the method as too un7 structured5 personal5 and em$arrassing for people %ho %or! together* 'esponding to these concerns5 "r* &tuart )t!ins5 %ith consultant "r* #lias orter5 developed the Life Orientations® &urvey and the Life Orientations® Method $ased on the %or! of #rich Fromm5 9arl 'ogers5 and )$raham Maslo%* In ?D0A5 the Life Orientations® &urvey %as presented $y "r* )t!ins and his partner "r* )llan Katcher in the 2uman Factors in Management course at L9L) and %ith such diverse clients as the )merican 9ancer &ociety5 Mattel Toys5 Ceneral Foods5 L*&* &teel5 and the &tate of 9alifornia*
. organisations in +A countries* One of KatcherJs earliest LIFO® agents5 Business 9onsultants5 Inc*5 Fapan5 gre% to $ecome one of the largest consulting firms in Fapan and one of the largest users of LIFO® Training in the %orld* &ince ?DEA in Fapan alone5 ?5??E50-/ people have completed a LIFO® survey* B9on5 as it is also !no%n5 purchased )llan Katcher International5 Inc*5 in +.eople %ere fascinated %ith the non7critical5 easy7to7accept interpretation of their survey results and %ere delighted %ith the o$(ective %ay in %hich they could no% tal! to each other a$out their strengths* )fter the fun and surprise of classifying their $ehaviour5 they $egan to as! %hat they could do %ith their ne%7found self7a%areness and understanding* To ans%er these questions5 "r* )t!ins extended the Life Orientations® Method $eyond diagnosis to include six developmental strategies779onfirming5 9apitaliMing5 Moderating5 &upplementing5 #xtending5 and Bridging77for performance improvement* To simplify and aid memory5 the Life Orientations® trademar! %as shortened $y "r* )t!ins to LIFO®5 a contraction of Life Orientations®* )t!ins and Katcher soon found the demand for the LIFO® Method outstripped their delivery capacity5 so they started licensing organisational trainers in the LIFO® Method and developing %or!$oo!s to accelerate learning* In ?DE05 Katcher $egan to focus his LIFO® practice internationally5 appointing agents in many countries5 and focusing on executive coaching5 team$uilding5 and O" applications* )t!ins directed LIFO® programs in the Lnited &tates5 %ith emphasis on the developmental strategies applied to management development5 individual productivity5 communications5 and team%or!* 2e named this developmental emphasis LIFO® Training* &ince then5 the LIFO® Method and LIFO® Training have $een used $y over A million people in +.? to $ecome B9on LIFO® International5 Inc*5 %hich is no% the sole source for the LIFO® Method and LIFO® Training %orld%ide* !$TI erses LIFO® Less T"pecasting and !ore $eha ioural Change &tyles7$ased instruments are popular training tools $ecause they reduce the complexities of human $ehaviour do%n to a managea$le num$er of NtypesN or Nstyles*N They give people a feeling of quic! insight into themselves and others* They provide a common language for tal!ing a$out similarities and differences* Oet some of the $est learning possi$ilities inherent in these instruments are often overloo!ed* )nd sometimes these instruments actually reinforce stereotypes that limit our understanding of people* Personalit" T"pes ersus Strategies for Change Most styles7$ased instruments are $ased on the assumption that differences in $ehaviour arise from different personality types* This $elief can $e a $arrier to $ehavioural change $ecause a personality NtypeN is fixed 77 it is not su$(ect to choice or change* eople say to themselves5 NIf that is the %ay that I am5 if thatJs me5 %hy should I changePN They may even 4 . and &tuart )t!ins5 Inc*5 in +...? in order to integrate the %orld%ide reach and expertise of the t%o companies* The firms %ere merged in Octo$er +.5....
%onder5 N2o% can I changePN Typing people provides them %ith information a$out who the+ are5 $ut it does not offer them guidelines a$out how to improve their performance. The MBTI yields a single5 four7%ord Npersonality typeN la$el5 %hich is a constructed $y selecting one %ord from each of four %ord pairingsRfor example5 N#xtroverted &ensing Thin!ing Fudging*N These la$els are determined $y a process of Nsemantic differential5N in %hich one rates oneself on a scale %ith one %ord at one end of the scale and another %ord at the other end* MBTI results are represented in terms of the %ords at the extreme end of the scales5 %hich form eitherSor categories :such as Nintrovert vs* extrovertN>* The resulting Npersonality typesN do not adequately express the %ide range of $ehaviours in $et%een the t%o extremes* This approach transforms quantitative differences into categorical differences* <ith enough training5 la$els such as these may help people understand themselves $etter* 2o%ever5 these la$els still encourage people to thin!5 NThatJs (ust ho% I / .we prefer some st+les more than others. LIFO® Training ta!es a fundamentally different approach from typing or la$elling* It holds that you are not one type or another: it demonstrates that people prefer some $ehavioural styles more than others* Though it $egins %ith a styles7$ased instrument5 it does not typecast people* The LIFO® &urvey descri$es differences in behaviour5 rather than perception and (udgment as does the Myers7Briggs ersonality Type Indicator :MBTI>* eople are %illing and a$le to change %hat they do* erception and (udgment are much less amena$le to change* Changing what people dobeats telling them who they are. To support the emphasis on $ehavioural change5 the LIFO® style la$els end %ith the suffix5 i7n7g* This suggests a process5 not a fixed Nproduct*N For example5 people are descri$ed as Npreferring the &upporting Civing &tyle5N or Nacting in a &upporting Civing %ay*N Preference not Competence The LIFO® styles also descri$e $ehavioural preferences5 not competencies* articipants are not la$elled5 (udged5 or limited $y their survey results* La$elling someone %ith a personality type can $ecome an excuse for su$standard performance* :NIJm no good at that 77 IJm (ust not that type of person*N> Freedom from Categorical )udgments In LIFO® training5 differences in $ehaviour are descri$ed quantitativel+5 not qualitatively* There is no reference to good or $ad5 right or %rong5 strong or %ea!* Qualitative or categorical (udgments often lead to oppositional thin!ing 77 Nmy %ayN vs* Nyour %ayN 77 %hich can promote conflict5 impede team%or!5 and ma!e people less %illing to change their $ehaviour* The LIFO® survey identifies a personJs relative preference for four $asic $ehavioural styles or patterns* #veryone uses all four $asic $ehavioural patterns* They (ust use them to varying degrees* Of the people ta!ing the LIFO® survey5 //6 prefer using t%o styles regularly5 %hile -?6 use three styles and /6 use all four styles %ith a$out the same frequency* That leaves only D6 preferring to use (ust one style most of the time* We are not one st+le or another .
$ased Feed&ack Is /asier to *ccept ) quantitative vie% of strength also ma!es it easier for people to give and to receive constructive feed$ac!* <hen people are frustrated or irritated $y others5 they typically use pe(orative terms to descri$e %hat $others them: NBill is domineering5N N&ally is stu$$orn5N or NFeff is aimless*N If these !inds of %ords are used %hen giving feed$ac!5 they trigger defensive reactions and create resistance to change* In LIFO® %or!shops5 participants learn to vie% unproductive $ehaviours as the excessive use of productive strengths* ) person %ho comes across as domineering is simply $eing overly directing5 someone %ho is acting stu$$ornly is $eing too steadfast5 and someone %ho appears aimless is too experimental* <ith this understanding5 people learn to give strength7$ased feed$ac!5 in %hich they recommend that others use a little bit less of some 0 .ie% of Strength Leads to -reater $eha ioural Change In contrast to the categorical la$els of the MBTI approach5 LIFO® theory vie%s $ehaviour along a continuum5 from Ntoo littleN at one end to Ntoo muchN on the other* The notion is that %e all tend to underuse some strengths5 and overuse others* #ither extreme can ma!e us less effective and can $e perceived $y others as an irritating %ea!ness* LIFO® training eliminates the concept of personal N%ea!ness5N %hich creates a defensive learning climate* <hat other people call %ea!nesses are seen simply as excesses5 or strengths carried too far* These excessive $ehaviours may $e unproductive5 $ut they are not N$adN 77 they are (ust Ntoo much of a good thing*N .amNRreinforcing attitudes that can $loc! real $ehavioural change* )s a result5 it can increase communication gaps $et%een people instead of $ridging them* * +uantitati e .o-called /weaknesses/ are simpl+ strengths pushed to excess too much of a good thing. For example5 a person may overuse the strength of acting quic!ly and $ecome impulsive* )nother person may overdo the search for excellence and $ecome perfectionistic* The LIFO® approach to descri$ing $ehaviour in strength7$ased terms allo%s people to accept developmental goals and receive feed$ac! %ith a minimum of defensiveness* LIFO® developmental strategies help people identify %hich strengths they need to use less frequentl+ and %hich to use more frequentl+* <or!shop participants develop action plans for gradually changing their $ehavioural patterns so they display (ust the right amount of the appropriate strengths to accomplish %hat they %ant effectively and efficiently* &ince almost everyone needs repeated practice to change esta$lished ha$its5 this incremental approach ma!es it easier for participants to progressively master ne% %ays of vie%ing and responding to people5 pro$lems5 and situations* )ny approach that is $ased on categories 77 especially personality types 77 ma!es it much harder for people to change their $ehaviour* ersonality theories propose that the %ay one $ehaves springs from %ho one Nis*N )s a consequence5 people are li!ely to feel that in order to change %hat they do5 they have to change %ho they are* This is of course a recipe for failure* Strength.
Si0teen T"pes ersus Four St"les There are sixteen different MBTI personality types* It can $e difficult for %or!shop participants to remem$er the meaning of each type5 let alone understand the differences $et%een them* The complexity of the categories ma!es it hard for people to learn ho% to recogniMe other peopleJs NtypesN and therefore determine the most effective communication strategies for influencing them* In contrast5 there are (ust four $asic LIFO® $ehaviour styles5 or orientations to life5 %hich are much easier to remem$er* This conceptual simplicity follo%s the psychologist Ceorge KellyJs Nmini7maxN principle: any $ehavioural construct should include the minimum num$er of concepts required to explain the maximum range of $ehaviours* The simplicity of LIFO® theory does not oversimplify the diversity of human $ehaviour* In fact5 it does a far $etter (o$ of explaining the extraordinary variety of %ays that people $ehave* It does this $y identifying a personJs relative preference for the four $asic LIFO® categories under $oth favourable and unfavourable conditions* Oet the smaller num$er of concepts ma!es it easier for participants to learn5 remem$er5 and apply the information in practical %ays that improve their performance* The simplicity of LI !" theory encompasses the e#traordinarydiversity of human behaviour.strengths and a little bit more of other strengths* This strength7$ased feed$ac! is much more li!ely to $e perceived as helpful and supportive* eople are therefore more li!ely to accept and act upon it* People learn to use a little bit more of some strengths and a little bit less of other strengths. LIFO® St"le Preferences are Situational The %ord pairs that form the MBTI semantic differentials are not presented in any context* Oou simply rate yourself in the a$stract* In contrast5 the LIFO® survey is highly contextual* <hen ta!ing the survey5 you are as!ed to thin! of yourself in a particular setting: at %or!5 %ith your family5 or as part of a specific group* The survey itself consists of a series of statements that descri$e different situations* )fter reading each statement5 you ran! four possi$le reactions according to ho% li!ely you are to act that %ay in that particular situation* The choices that you ma!e are therefore much more concrete 77 much more connected to ho% you actually see yourself responding to people5 pro$lems5 and situations* People $eha e 1ifferentl" in 1ifferent Situations In contrast to the fixed la$els of the MBTI approach5 LIFO® style preferences are not set in stone* They are dynamic* eople use different styles in different contexts and in different relationships* For example5 research sho%s that approximately /.6 of the population changes their $ehavioural patterns in stressful situations* eople may also use different styles at home and at %or!5 or %ith their supervisors and %ith their co7%or!ers* )ny instrument that yields a single Npersonality typeN is therefore inaccurate predictor of ho% most people %ill actually $ehave in the real %orld* E .
. minutes* <or!shop participants can ta$ulate their results in a$out five minutes* The LIFO® survey can also $e completed online in advance of a %or!shop and automatically ta$ulated5 saving valua$le classroom time* Because of its systematic structure and practical focus5 LIFO® training is easily grasped and immediately useful* It provides a cognitive map for getting through5 getting agreement5 and getting action from others* articipants learn to give strength7$ased feed$ac! a$out $ehavioural choices and their impact* They learn a language for discussing individual5 interpersonal5 and team performance issues %hile respecting diverse values5 goals5 strengths5 and styles* Pro en Results %ith World%ide *cceptance LIFO® training has $enefited over eight million people in more than +.$alf the population behaves differently under stress.5.%orld pro&lems3 The LIFO® instrument can $e administered in (ust ?/ to +. organisations %orld%ide* It has proved itself to $e a valua$le part of management and supervisory development %ith target populations varying %idely in educational $ac!ground5 %or! experience5 and organisational position* !ultiple *pplications A .. / er"da" Language2 Practical Focus2 and /ase of *dministration LIFO® training uses everyday language5 free of psychological terms and (argon5 ma!ing the concepts easy to understand and to discuss* 9ontrast the LIFO® style la$el N&upporting CivingN %ith the MBTI la$el NIntroverted &ensing Feeling Fudging*N In LIFO® %orkshops participants practice ne% skills that enhance producti it"2 communication2 and team%ork2 and the" %ork together to de elop practical action plans to use these skills to attack immediate2 real. $e"ond 1iagnosis to Impro ing Performance LIFO® %or!$oo!s5 training materials5 and performance support tools ena$le participants to lin! their LIFO® survey results to six performance improvement strategies to attain clearly defined development goals* These materials focus on appl+ing information to improve performance5 rather than on information for informationJs sa!e or5 even %orse5 la$elling people so that their $ehaviour can $e predicted* redictions tend to $e self7fulfilling5 and once a person has $een la$elled5 his or her options for $ehavioural change may actually $e reduced instead of expanded* L !O® training focuses on improving performance0 not 1ust diagnosing patterns.
trengths: Principled2 cooperati e2 dedicated2 pursues e0cellence3 For someone %ho emphasises this orientation in hisSher $ehaviour it is very important to $e a .good deed= %ill $ring its (ust desserts* Ideals serve as standards* Thus one is al%ays comparing self and others to those standards5 D .good person=5 to $e nice to people5 to feel a %orth%hile human $eing 3 one %ho is doing hisSher share to ma!e a contri$ution5 and then some* There is a strong $elief that ideals and values are important5 and that each of us can help ma!e this a $etter %orld to live in* Thus %hat is of greatest concern is a sense of mission and purpose5 and the desire to $ehave in such a %ay that one can feel heSshe is living up to hisSher $est intentions and capa$ilities* Key to one@s efforts is the importance of not simply preaching $ut $eing 3 serving as an example for others5 trying to $e responsive and co7operative* There is an inner sense of satisfaction derived from $ehaving in this %ay %hich goes $eyond external recognition* One does not $oast a$out personal $ehaviour requesting recognition although there %ill $e good feelings derived from appreciation and ac!no%ledgement of personal efforts* There is a $asic %illingness to $elieve in the %orth and value of others 3 to $e interested in helping people gro% and develop* One $ecomes a mem$er of a group and shares its goals and values5 and should $e dedicated to enhancing its %elfare5 expecting appropriate guidance and direction from leaders5 prefera$ly people %ho have personal integrity and earned respect through their competence* One $elieves that re%ards %ill come from $eing earned 3 that a .LIFO® training is used in numerous applications5 including team $uilding5 management and supervisory development5 leadership training5 interpersonal communication5 selling styles5 and conflict resolution* <hat are the LIFO &tylesP There is a total of 4 styles:7 The supporting 4 gi ing.in orientation Philosoph+: 5If I pro e m" %orth &" %orking hard and pursuing e0cellence2 the good things in life %ill come to me36 5I alue e0cellence36 2oals: Pro e %orth3 $e helpful3 .
hopefully meeting them through constant striving through improvement* Failure to meet such goals often leads to disappointment5 disillusionment and guilt* In conflict situations there is a desire to deal %ith the other person in a fair and reasona$le %ay %ith the expectation that there %ill $e reciprocity* There is little interest in trying to ta!e advantage of the other person and great distaste and discomfort for emotional confrontations* Often5 it is difficult to directly as! for something one %ants or expects5 hoping for the other person to recognise the need and gratify it* <hen pressed hard5 the person relying on this orientation is li!ely to accede to the other person5 %ithout expressing reservations* Thus others %ill often feel that this person is easy to get along %ith* <hen crises arrive5 such a person all too often tends to feel overly responsi$le yet is %illing to see! and accept advice from others %ho demonstrate their expertise and mastery* %+pical behaviours: • through listening to %hat people have to say5 • appreciating others@ a$ilities to solve pro$lems5 • through providing resources necessary for others to get things done5 • through encouraging others %hen they meet difficulties5 • lending a hand5 • removing road $loc!s %hich may $e in someone@s %ay5 • preparing the %ay for someone5 • $eing considerate of another person@s time or difficulties and not intruding %ith one@s o%n needs5 demands5 or $urdening the person %ith additional inputs5 • anticipating the needs of another person and ta!ing care of them in advance5 • co7operating and colla$orating %ith others to expedite a tas!5 ma!e it easier5 more en(oya$le5 etc*5 • providing the value of one@s experience and advice to facilitate progress :if requested>5 • underta!ing an assignment in a %illing5 %holehearted and dedicated manner5 • not helping5 unless as!ed5 $ut $eing %illing to pitch in if as!ed5 • emphasises the importance of goals and values5 • providing assignments $ut not constantly as!ing for information a$out it5 • encouraging others to participate in pro$lem7solving and decision7ma!ing5 • trusting others5 and • helping others develop* The controlling 4 taking. .o er orientation Philosoph+: ?.
ma!ing hay %hile the sun shines= and ta!ing advantage of opportunities that arise* 9onsequently5 time is of utmost importance* Further5 there is a tendency to trust one@s o%n intuitive assessment of situations5 or to rely on experts %ho one trusts and5 having done that5 to marshal the resources necessary to ma!e things happen* This is also accompanied $y an en(oyment of the po%er of decision7ma!ing and the delight in autonomous functioning* 9hallenges and variety intrigue such a person* 9onsequently someone %ho favours this orientation is usually involved in many activities* There is a $elief in individual responsi$ility and capa$ility* <hen conflict occurs there is a %illingness to confront differences in a confident and assertive %ay to get one@s %ay and to convince others of the value of the position that has $een ta!en* Through intensive give and ta!e5 this person learns the value of other vie%points and can ma!e decisions accordingly* There is en(oyment of competitive disputation5 as %ell as an emphasis on stating one@s vie%s and feelings openly and directly* In stress situations5 there is a desire to restore control immediately5 to ta!e actions quic!ly and to $e involved in a num$er of situations personally* rompt and competent handling of situations is valued* %+pical behaviours: • expressing confidence that the person can achieve %hat is as!ed for :I can do that* I !no% it can $e done>5 • expressing desires directly to eliminate confusion5 • indicating specifically %hat one is loo!ing for5 • ma!ing decisions quic!ly5 • gathering resources and directing them against the tas!5 • letting others !no% %here they stand %ith himSher5 • $eing %illing to ta!e ris!s5 • staying on top of %hat is happening5 • acting directly to sho% %hat is needed5 • confronting differences5 • ta!ing charge %hen there is no action5 • exercising initiative to get things done5 and • acting independently* ?? .trengths: Persistent2 initiating2 urgent2 directing3 Of ma(or concern is getting things accomplished that one desires 3 and quic!ly* The person %ho emphasises this orientation has high confidence in hisSher capa$ility5 in the $elief that given dedicated energy and imagination any pro$lem can $e solved 3 and usually5 if %ithin the area of hisSher !no%ledge and experience5 through personal involvement* &uch a person has an interest in .5If I get results &" &eing competent and sei7ing opportunit"2 the good things in life %ill &e there for the taking36 5I alue action36 2oals: $e competent3 -et results3 .
trengths: S"stematic2 anal"tical2 maintaining2 tenacious3 The person %ho relies heavily on this orientation is interested in minimising loss and optimising gains* There is a !een interest in getting things done accurately and thoroughly* )nalysis5 planning5 systems and routines are used to minimise ris! and assure that everything is $eing handled properly* 9are5 caution5 organisation and good systematic ha$its are therefore highly valued* One %ould feel that it@s a lot easier and less expensive5 to ma!e sure one !no%s %hat one %ants to do5 has surveyed alternatives to determine the $est and most economical %ay to do it5 has planned ho% to get it done %ith resources availa$le and follo%s7up systematically to assure that things have $een done according to plan* There is a $elief that more things get out of hand $ecause people lose focus and concentration 3 $ecome distracted5 instead of staying %ith one thing fully until it is finished* olicies and procedures are follo%ed rigorously* Once systems5 policies and procedures have $een esta$lished this person favours follo%ing them until someone proves there is a $etter %ay 3 or one that ma!es more sense* )ttention is paid to small details as %ell* 9onsequently there is emphasis on appropriate documentation and information retrieval systems* In disagreements !een attention is paid to the accuracy of facts and information5 the quality of reasoning involved and the systematic covering of all aspects of the issue* There is a calm and deli$erate manner preferred to deal %ith such situations5 a reluctance to engage in emotional $ehaviour and a preference for spending time on research $efore $ecoming involved in arguments* Once engaged in de$ate5 only $etter facts or superior logic %ill prevail in overcoming this person@s vie%s* There is no rush to achieve resolution and one can hang on doggedly despite pressure* ) similar deli$erateness5 emphasising research and analysis5 characterises the approach to extreme stress situations* Once understanding of %hat is involved is clear5 then efforts are made to organise a planned approach to remedy the situation* Information is gathered as ?+ .The conser ing 4 holding.on orientation Philosoph+: 5If I think &efore I act and make the most of %hat I8 e got2 I can &uild up m" suppl" of the good things in life36 2oals: $e careful3 -et it right3 .
a%a" orientation Philosoph+: 5If I please other people and fill their needs first2 then I can get the good things in life that I8 e %anted all along36 5I alue harmon"36 2oals: 9no% people3 -et along3 .efforts progress to assess %hat is involved5 to !eep trac! of events and to evaluate performance* Long term resolutions are favoured to immediate relief* %+pical behaviours: • dou$le chec!ing %hat has happened5 • esta$lishing a clear structure for %or! efforts5 • carefully analysing %hat is involved $efore acting5 • documenting %hat happens5 • calling attention to the need for information $efore ma!ing decisions5 • spending effort to assure clarity of instructions5 • thoroughly revie%ing all the details involved5 • adhering to schedules and $udgets5 • attention to costs %hen considering proposals5 • maintaining calmness %hen crises arrive5 • assuring o$(ective and fair evaluations5 • ma!ing sure everything is treated in an organised and systematic fashion5 • chec!ing the logic and facts that underlie a position5 • encouraging attention to details5 • assuring adherence to policies and procedures5 • providing consistent $ehaviour5 and • requesting appropriate planning and organisation for meetings* The adapting 4 dealing.trengths: /mpathetic2 tactful2 fle0i&le2 enthusiastic3 ) $asic consideration is the desire to have people li!e and admire you* There is !een interest in $eing included $y others in activities and groups* ) person %ho emphasises this orientation en(oys %or!ing %ith people5 finds the challenge of ne% relationships exciting and !no%s that once one gets to understand people one can influence them a lot* There is ?- .
alidit" ?4 .effort spent o$serving as %ell as $eing friendly and socia$le* There is the realisation that understanding ho% a person thin!s and feels5 %hat heSshe values and %hat heSshe is sensitive to provides important !eys to gain acceptance and colla$oration* This person has also learned that it is important to !eep oneself open to ne% experiences5 to $e enthusiastic and %illing to experiment5 and to $e flexi$le in relating to people* <hen one approach fails there is the feeling that there are others that can %or!* #ven in failure situations5 the $elief exists that if one !eeps one@s eye open there %ill $e cues that %ill help to discover more successful %ays* There is emphasis on presenting points and ideas %ith tact and care* Life is vie%ed as a matter of give and ta!e 3 this person en(oys negotiating and dealing %ith people* 2eSshe $elieves that it pays to go through life ma!ing as many friends as possi$le 3 and !eeping one@s options open* ) friendly and optimistic attitude is valued as a $asic asset to achieve success* One tries5 %henever possi$le to communicate positive feelings a$out others 3 to $e generous in offering compliments and statements of ac!no%ledgement and appreciation for efforts that others have made* &ensitivity to feelings and social amenities is highly valued* 2umour and light touches are appreciated and utilised %henever possi$le* There is a %in7%in attitude reflected in conflicts and disagreements* One is attentive to the other person@s vie%point5 ac!no%ledges its value and tries to utilise understanding to provide convincing arguments for one@s o%n position* 9ritical and demeaning comments are rarely employed* The ma(or effort is made to $e persuasive %ithout antagonising the other person* 2umour and other tension7relieving remar!s are made to defuse tension and preserve relationships* ) %illingness to compromise and achieve mutually satisfactory agreements is demonstrated readily* In stress situations there is attentiveness to morale as %ell as resolving difficulties* &uch a person is flexi$le and open to ne% ideas5 %illing to experiment %ith any approach that could $e successful* )n optimistic outloo! is maintained and communicated to others5 $oth staff and superiors* %+pical behaviours: • expressing appreciation for efforts5 • sensing feelings and ac!no%ledging them5 • expressing empathetic remar!s5 • listening to ne% ideas in a positive %ay5 • encouraging flexi$ility and experimentation5 • $uilding harmony and friendly relationships5 • providing information ho% people are li!ely to feel if treated in a particular %ay5 • a%areness of customer needs and attitudes5 • %illingness to see the other side of the issue5 • negotiating in a positive and %in7%in %ay5 • expressing remar!s that ma!e people feel good a$out themselves5 • providing a sense of fun in %hat is $eing done5 • expressing and encouraging enthusiasm and optimism5 • %illingness to approach changes in a positive manner5 • a$ility to deal positively %ith the pu$lic and other groups5 • %illingness to try something first $efore accepting or re(ecting it5 and • tactful and diplomatic $ehaviour in dealing %ith delicate situations* Relia&ilit" and .
alidit" of the LIFO® Personal St"le Sur e" an %ibbles &" 34antab.psycho= means mind 3 its dictionary definition is .2o% relia$le is this surveyP= . #very$ody scores ?.c 3London5 ntroduction 9ommon questions from potential licensees and from participants completing a ersonal &tyle &urvey are .Is it relevant to me at %or! :or at home>P= and .metric= means measure and .t+le .50 &.Relia&ilit" and ..)re the results accurateP= These are important questions and must $e ans%ered clearly if the results of the survey are to have any credi$ility for that person* The difficulty is that the questions can $e ans%ered in a num$er of different %ays depending on the perspective of the questioner and their degree of understanding of the issues of relia$ility and validity in the design of $ehavioural surveys* This note see!s to give licensees a frame%or! for dealing %ith $oth the technical and non7technical questioner* %hat does &psychometric' mean( This term is %idely used to descri$e a$ility5 aptitude5 $ehavioural and personality surveys and questionnaires* Literally .urve+s are not tests and should never be described or used as such.6* #ach survey simply see!s to measure ho% the person completing it prefers to $ehave %hen things are going %ell :favoura$le conditions> and %hen they are experiencing stress or conflict :unfavoura$le conditions>* The surveys are not situation specific and are not a predictor of effective or ineffective $ehaviour 3 each person@s profile is capa$le of $eing effective or ineffective depending on their understanding and ?/ .the science of measuring mental capacities and processes=* This is done through the collection and interpretation of survey data* The ersonal &tyle &urvey %as designed using psychometric principles of survey construction* %he difference between a test and a surve+ ) test is designed to measure some aspect of a$ility5 aptitude5 personality or motivation against a pre7determined standard* otentially it can $e threatening to the participant5 as there is inevita$ly a sense of pass or fail in the analysis* It is therefore5 important that the use of tests is demonstrated to $e o$(ective5 fair and appropriate* Tests of personality5 for example5 commonly have measures of: • • • fa!ing good fa!ing $ad and consistency to ensure the results are not distorted* The $enefits of this process are that it is o$(ective :as far as possi$le> and usually rigorous* The potential disadvantages are that it is threatening and can $e a mystery to the participant %ho is trying to understand ho% the results %ere arrived at* %he Personal .
"oes this feel or sound accurate to themP= The licensee can encourage them to discuss and validate the findings %ith friends and colleagues* It is important to ensure that they choose someone who the+ trust to know them and to have a constructive opinion to offer* If necessary5 they should $e allo%ed to modify the findings to create a .$est fit= profile of their $ehaviour* 2o%ever5 some aspects of traditional relia$ility and validity measures are helpful* Belo% is a description of the measures and ho% they relate to the ersonal &tyle &urvey* *eliability &urvey scores vary from one measurement to another* ) range of factors may cause this: • • • • • differing degrees of effort variations in attention levels administration health circumstances etc* The precision or consistency of measurement displayed $y a survey is referred to as its relia$ility* It is normally expressed in terms of a statistic 3 the correlation coefficient5 often referred to as the relia$ility coefficient* The three most common types of relia$ility measure are: • • • Test 3 retest* This compares the results of the same survey $eing completed $y the same candidate at different points in time* ersonal &tyle &urvey 3 Tersion T%o* This compares the results of t%o or more forms of the same survey completed $y the same group of su$(ects* Internal consistency* This measures the performance of all items :questions> in a survey $y comparing the t%o halves of the survey 3 the split7half technique or using the Kuder7'ichardson relia$ility coefficient :the mean of all split7half coefficients>* ?0 .forced choice ran!ing= of four different endings to each statement* The process of forcing the person completing the survey to choose $et%een 4 $ehaviours quic!ly is designed to access the individual@s sub-conscious self-understanding and to $ring it into conscious understanding through feed$ac! and discussion of the survey results* Because the process is non7threatening it is possi$le to openly discuss and confirm the survey findings %ith the client 3 .management of their $ehavioural strengths and potential %ea!nesses* 8evertheless the results can $e very po%erful5 giving people insights into ho% to: • • • • ma!e more of their strengths5 ma!e more effective use of the strengths of others5 minimise potentially inappropriate or ineffective $ehaviour5 and get on %ell %ith people %ho are not li!e them* )nsuring the reliability and validity of the personal style survey findings The ersonal &tyle &urvey is constructed as a .
*0.*0? .*? and ?*.*/E .graduate students and then re7 administered after five %ee!s* The su$(ects %ere not given their scores or any information a$out the meaning of the survey until after the second administration* The simple product7 moment correlations are as follo%s: Orientations &upporting S Civing7in 9ontrolling S Ta!ing7over 9onserving S 2olding7on )dapting S "ealing7a%ay Fa oura&le .*4D .*0? .*/4 .*0D :nfa oura&le .*-E %est6retest stud+ 7 8+ 9r "llan :atcher The reporting of the sta$ility of test results over time is usually reported as part of the data around the performance of any psychological instrument* TestSretest data has a less clear meaning %ith regard to test relia$ility than internal consistency data* 2o%ever5 it cannot $e determined %hether the person has changed over time5 has reported him or herself from t%o different standpoints :not test7related> or %hether the survey evo!es different !inds of reporting at different times* There is also the attenuation pro$lemU on the second completion of the survey5 it is no longer really ne% 3 even though in the study reported $elo%5 meaning %as not put on the test $et%een the first and second administration* &till5 in all5 one should expect some amount of sta$ility if the test measures salient varia$les5 though apparent shortcomings are very hard to interpret* The ersonal &tyle &urvey %as administered to 0.*/4 .*/.*E.*0+ .'elia$ility coefficients are usually expressed as a num$er $et%een . .*0.*0? :nfa oura&le .*-D It is of interest to see %hether the Life Orientations® Method style descriptions change from one administration to the next* #ach pair of test profiles %as analysed to note %hether the $asic descriptions changed* The results of this analysis are as follo%s: ?E .*40 .*0* It should $e $orn in mind ho%ever that this is strictly incorrect5 as the figure is onl+ an estimate based on a particular group of people.*+ %ould suggest a much lo%er level of relia$ility than a coefficient of .* ) coefficient of . It is important for any survey to measure consistently and %ith a reasona$le degree of accuracy* The relia$ility coefficient for the ersonal &tyle &urvey %as derived using 9ron$ach@s coefficient alpha and is reported $elo% from an analysis $y "r )llan Katcher :co developer of the Life Orientations® Method> for the eight scales: Orientations &upporting S Civing7in 9ontrolling S Ta!ing7over 9onserving S 2olding7on )dapting S "ealing7a%ay Fa oura&le . t is not 1ust the statistic but the qualit+ of the stud+ from which it was derived which needs to be understood. .
t+le .6 #ven though -.favoura$le= and .unfavoura$le= styles that %ere the same5 another gross measure of strength of preference* Of the +E %ho sho%ed such a pattern on the original administration ?E5 or 0-65 sho%ed no change %ith the second administration* The expectation that those %ho have clear style preferences are less li!ely to change over time is strongly supported* Overall5 it is evident that the ersonal &tyle &urvey measures pretty much the same thing in people over time though5 as stated earlier5 the interpretation of less than perfect sta$ility is difficult* &ome anecdotal evidence suggests that changes in scores could $e due to su$(ects focusing on different parts of their lives as they too! the test at different times5 or that they could respond differently according to mood* One person reported some progress in his personal therapy $et%een the first and second administrations5 and felt the second test results reflected more %hat he %as going after and the first a rather pessimistic vie% of himself* But this sort of evidence only adds to the confidence in the survey@s relia$ility and usefulness* :e+ Points on the .8o change :favoura$le> 8o change :unfavoura$le> 8o change :considering $oth> -A of 0-0.6 -? of 0-4D6 ?D of 0--.unfavoura$le= style* +? su$(ects sho%ed a predominant style choice :/ points more than any other score> on the .favoura$le= scales and of those5 ?45 or 0E65 sho%ed the same style preference on the second administration* +.unfavoura$le= style %ith ?05 or A.eliabilit+ of the Personal . su$(ects sho%ed a predominant .6 of those tested sho%ed virtually identical scores on $oth administrations5 it %as suspected that those %ho sho%ed a clearly predominant style preference %ould $e less li!ely to changeU that is5 if the test really measures some genotype varia$les* )gain5 the test %as considered in t%o parts5 the .65 sho%ing no change on the second ta!ing* These same data %ere also examined to pic! out those su$(ects %ho had clear .favoura$le= style and .urve+ In demonstrating %hy the survey should $e considered to $e relia$le it is important to ma!e the follo%ing points: • • • • • Trac! record 3 the survey has $een in use internationally in all the ma(or developed countries for over +/ years* Our experience of using the survey5 com$ined %ith data from our licensees is used to constantly improve the product range* Translations into other languages are carefully chec!ed $y experienced survey developers from each country for accuracy in terms of the culture and linguistic nuances 3 rather than (ust literally translated* Over A million people have completed the survey* The model is $ased on %ell respected and soundly $ased psychological theories: o #rich Fromm in Man For 2imself o the strengthS%ea!ness paradox o 4 $ehavioural orientations o 9arl 'ogers the founding father of client centred therapy o client centred development o communication congruency ?A .
alidity -easures <e shall distinguish three types of non-technical validity %hich in a sense could $e argued not to $e validity at all: • • • face validity content7analytic validity faith validity ***and four main types of technical validity: • • • • content validity construct validity concurrent validity predictive validity Face alidit" Face validity is concerned %ith %hether an instrument appears to measure %hat it %as designed to measure* <hilst face validity has no technical or statistical $asis5 it must not $e ?D .alidity 'elia$ility has importance $ecause of its relationship to the validity of the survey* <hilst relia$ility is a$out the measurement5 validity is a$out the relevance and usefulness of %hat is measured* It is possi$le for a survey to $e relia$le i*e* to measure the same thing consistently and %ith precision and for %hat it measures to $e of no use or invalid* )n example of this %ould $e 3 !no%ledge of the person@s $ehavioural preferences is not a valid measure of their intellectual a$ility :the ersonal &tyle &urvey does not measure this>* 2o%ever5 it is not possi$le for survey results to $e valid if the data is not relia$le* .urve+ 7 <ersion %wo for use %ith individuals %ho %ish to assess ho% their $ehaviours may have changed* "uring ?DDA %e %ill $e ma!ing availa$le for the first time a range of surveys %here the sequence of the ans%ers has $een randomised* <e %ill notify licensees in the quarterly ne%sletter %hen they are availa$le to purchase* The *elationship +etween *eliability and .*0 is perfectly accepta$le* 9onclusions are easily understood $y the participants and :$ecause the process is non7threatening> can $e openly chec!ed against previous scores and reasons for differences explored (ointly to esta$lish confidence in the findings* !uture 9evelopments The technically minded %ill $e a%are that the transparent construction of the survey limits its performance in testSretest* 2aving completed the survey once completing the same survey at a later date can allo% some unconscious manipulation of data 3 if the individual has had feed$ac! on their profile :unli!e the study descri$ed a$ove> they may ans%er on the second occasion as they thin! they should* Licensees may not $e a%are that %e already have a Personal .• • The standard statistical measure of relia$ility often quoted is to achieve a correlation coefficient of .t+le .*4 3 .*E or a$ove* 2o%ever this measure is relevant for sychometric Tests5 often used in isolation from other dataG The ersonal &tyle &urvey is not a test5 its structure can $e easily explained 3 its results can therefore $e chec!ed and explored openly and fully %ith the participant* Therefore a lo%er measure of statistical relia$ility5 .
Content alidit" This is mainly in relation to attainment tests e*g* a spelling test containing only the names of politicians in )merica %ould $e a poor test of general spelling in the Lnited Kingdom* 2igh content validity should al%ays $e chec!ed %ith one of the empirical methods of validation descri$ed $elo% %hen using any survey as a test* Construct alidit" 9onstruct validity is more a$stract than the other forms of validity and is the extent to %hich a test measures some theoretical construct or trait* &uch constructs might $e mechanical5 ver$al or spatial a$ility5 emotional sta$ility or intelligence* Building up a picture of the construct validity of a test can $e a long process and involves any information that thro%s some light on the nature of the construct under investigation* The complex statistical technique %hich goes past the more visual inspection of inter7correlations $et%een different tests and %hich is often met in construct validation is !no%n as factor analysis* Other information5 %hich can lead to an understanding of the construct validity of a test5 includes internal consistency and the effect of experimentally controlled varia$les and also varia$les such as age5 sex and culture on test scores* Concurrent alidit" 9oncurrent validity is the relationship $et%een test scores and some criterion of performance o$tained at the same time* Thus5 if %e %ere to test a group of computer programmers and correlate the results %ith supervisors@ ratings of %or! performance5 %e %ould have underta!en a concurrent validity study* <here %e %ish to !no% the current status of an individual5 concurrent validity is the most appropriate form of validity* &ome organisations5 for example5 use attainment tests of (o$ !no%ledge at the end of training courses or in ma!ing decisions on staff promotion* +.anal"tic alidit" One sometimes hears test users spea! of content7analytic validity %here the item content of a test has $een analysed and related su$(ectively to a$ilities that are of assumed importance in the (o$* )s an illustration5 the argument might go: • • • <e %ish to select a good salesman* This survey as!s questions a$out selling* Therefore this is a valid survey* This is often %hat untrained people call validity $ut it has o$vious fla%s in failing to define %hat the specific characteristics of a good salesman are and ho% the survey %ill measure these* Faith alidit" This is often the most difficult to deal %ith* It is a $elief in the validity of an instrument %ithout any o$(ective data to $ac! it up5 and the evidence is not %antedG The more empiricall" &ased concepts are. .overloo!ed if a survey is to $e accepted $y participants or :psychometrically> untrained managerial staff* Content.
alidity Of the non7empirical measures only face validity has any relevance 3 the other non7 empirical measures are seriously fla%ed and therefore inapplica$le* The %hole range of ersonal &tyle &urveys has very high face validity according to feed$ac! received from licensees and course participants over many years* The reasons for this are: The transparency of the analysis 3 clients can see ho% the results are derived* The .tyle .urvey and .*.*07.deceptive= simplicity of the model 3 it is easily understood $y participants yet also produces po%erful insights into their $ehavioural strategies* • 9omparison of the feed$ac! %ith self perception 3 the forced choice ran!ing is actually accessing su$7conscious self7understanding and $ringing it into conscious analysis 3 giving the client more choices to consider* • The a$ility to cross reference the survey findings %ith the vie%s of others %ho !no% the individual :either in discussion or from analysis of the results of the ersonal &tyle Feed$ac! &urvey>* Face validity is important for $oth the user and the administrator of the survey to have confidence in the appropriateness of the instrument in individual5 team or organisational development* • • Faith and 9ontent7)nalytic validity are unsound measures and should $e discounted* The empirical measures all presuppose some form of testing as they all require some form of standard to measure the survey against: • content validity depends on %hat purpose the survey is $eing used for to measure the content against* +? .as opposed to .*+7.2o%ever5 although a test may $e of high concurrent validity it does not necessarily mean that it %ill $e useful in predicting later performance* Predicti e alidit" This is the extent to %hich a test predicts some future outcome or criterion* This is of crucial importance in personnel selection and placement* T%o difficulties in relation to this form of study are: • • The timescales for underta!ing studies are often lengthy reducing the practical use of the findings* 'esults can $e distorted $y the tests themselvesU for example5 measuring %hether individuals assessed as high flyers achieved their potential can produce false results* &uccess may $e partly a function of $eing identified $y tests as having potential enhancing prospects rather than data on individual potential identified $y testing $eing validated $y actual performance leading to career progression* &tatistical $enchmar!s for validity studies are set at much lo%er levels than relia$ility 3 usually a correlation of $et%een .*E for relia$ility reflecting the difficulty of achieving secure findings in validity studiesG The Personal .
$lac! $ox= %hich can create unnecessary threat and provo!e caution and scepticism %hich is inhi$iting and unhelpful in a development setting* In contrast the ersonal &tyle &urvey and associated development exercises give the client o%nership of the analysis using a client-centred process5 promoting understanding and the confidence to consider ne% $ehavioural choices validated $y their self7understanding and the feed$ac! of friends and colleagues* (o% It Works.• concurrent validity and predictive validity are $oth trying to measure against a set of performance characteristics* The difficulty here is that the ersonal &tyle &urvey is not designed to measure performance or abilit+ 7 onl+ behavioural preferences* )s it is not used in isolation as a test there is no $asis for doing such studies* ) num$er of studies do exist on the use of the survey in career development and assessment centres $ut these are measuring the overall effectiveness of the process i*e* the com$ination of instruments and exercises 3 not the ersonal &tyle &urvey on its o%n* Information from licensees consistently indicates that the survey is very useful in processes %here other instruments and processes can validate its results* It provides a helpful focus5 %hich can $e explored in more depth %ith the other techniques* Conclusion The ersonal &tyle &urvey is one of the most %idely used $ehavioural surveys in the %orld* Because of the open process %hich is employed it is one of the most relia$le and meaningful insights an individual can have into their su$conscious self7understanding* The individual completing the survey can validate the findings against their self7experience and against the !no%ledge of them that others have* This information can $e used to amend and extend the analysis provided $y the survey results5 %hich ensures a refinement of measurement5 %hich is su$tler and more ro$ust than a statistical coefficient in isolation* The a$ility of the individual to understand5 explore and chec! out the survey results against real life data creates a more meaningful and valid outcome than a validity study can provide 3 the understanding and o%nership of the conclusions are %ith the client rather than the coachScounsellor* &tatistically the level of confidence achieved $y validity studies is much lo%er than that derived from relia$ility studies and there are numerous examples %here difficulties in measuring %ith confidence and fla%ed study techniques can all too often undermine the quality of the data generated* Lsing a statistical frame%or! to prove the relia$ility and validity of findings can :unintentionally> disempo%er clients as it is perceived $y many as an incomprehensi$le . • Team mem$ers or individuals can get constructive feed$ac! from up to ?+ people5 online* ++ .
• Individuals can request feed$ac! from their colleagues5 $oss5 su$ordinates5 friends or family* • Trainers or managers can ena$le all the mem$ers of a team to give online feed$ac! to one another* • 2elps each person to $ecome more effective in !ey relationships and increase their productivity* • Fits into many applications such as: Team Building5 Leadership5 9oaching5 &elf development* LIFO® Training Helps People Manage Their Strengths LIFO® Training focuses on strengths 77 on %hatJs right a$out leaders5 teams5 and individuals* It $egins $y identifying each personJs $asic orientation to life and %or!* Based on this information5 it offers po%erful learning strategies for greater personal productivity5 increased influence %ith !ey people5 and more effective team%or!* Flexible. Half-Day LIFO® Training Wor shops +- .
+4 .ended questions* and other self. Recognize other people's most preferred channels of communication. "ontrol team e#cesses to avoid wasting time and resources $. 'void overusing their most preferred strengths so they don't waste time and energy or have a negative impact on others. (et help from people with different styles and strengths to fill in their &lind spots and provide a wider perspective in planning and solving pro&lems. $reak the Producti it" $arrier articipants $uild confidence and self7esteem $y understanding and appreciating their styles5 strengths5 and uniqueness* They learn ho% to: 1. %vercome team &lind spots so the team can see all sides of pro&lems and make un&iased decisions. -* Become more versatile in their approach to people and pro$lems $y using more of the strengths of their least preferred styles* !ight "easons Why O#r Progra$s an% Materials &re So !ffe'ti(e ) * Progressi(e Mastery )earning activities are carefully sequenced so participants &uild confidence as they quickly acquire relevant skills* attitudes and insights. 2.LIFO Training is the core performance improvement technology for three essential performance improvement programs: $ridge the Communication -ap Individuals and teams $ecome more effective in getting through5 getting agreement5 and getting action %hen dealing %ith !ey people at home and at %or!* They learn ho% to: 1. Self !(al#ation Instr#$entation +urveys* checklists* open. 2. Translate their messages so they answer the key questions that are uppermost in other people's minds. 2. Inventory team strengths. tilize individual differences for greater participation !. $uild Colla&orati e Team%ork articipants develop s!ills that ena$le them to %or! together more productivity as a team* They learn ho% to: 1.evaluations ena&le participants to ascertain what they most need to learn.
up sessions. 0 1 3 4 • • & .. This ena&les them to e#plore their own feelings* gain feed&ack from others* and develop commitment to following practical action plans.!ffe'ti(e Lea%ers thro#gho#t 6o#r Organi/ation 7 Leaders Who Will.+ .on'ept#al Fra$e-or #veryday language5 a structured approach5 and the lin!ing of !ey concepts in simple patterns facilitate discussion and shorten learning time* Personali/e% Learning The learning tools are highly evocative. • . !(al#ate% an% Teste% 'fter analyzing the needs of industries and organizations* our professional staff of instructional designers and master trainers reviews the e#isting literature* develops programs* tests them in pilot groups* and revises them until we know they work well.. & "e'or% of Written "esponses articipants %rite do%n their responses $efore discussing them* They gain a sense of o%nership and clarity a$out their o%n responses and are protected from $eing unduly influenced $y the reactions of others* This also gives them a permanent record of their o%n individual learning* S$all 2ro#p Dis'#ssions 'fter writing down their responses* participants &reak into pairs or trios for discussion. Lea%ership De(elop$ent /evelop !012 )eaders with )I3%4 )eadership +kills 2ro.which allow participants to learn from their own e#periences rather than using a&stract models* simulations* or case studies. .e create programs that can &e easily transferred to in.o$$#ni'ate a -i%e-angle (ision -ith $axi$#$ appeal Inspire a'tion a$ong all types of follo-ers +/ .house trainers when that &ecomes the most practical method for facilitating learning in a wider audience or for follow.world requirements for effective training. They serve as -cognitive Rorshach tests.o$$on Lang#age an% a . O#r Progra$s &re Designe% For 5oth Parti'ipants an% Trainers %ver thirty five years of e#perience in trainer training* consulting with managers* and conducting training programs have given us great understanding and respect for the real. O#r Progra$s &re Thoro#ghly "esear'he%.
• Ma e effe'ti(e %e'isions be'a#se they see all si%es of iss#es The 1e elop <=>? Leaders course goes far $eyond merely providing leaders %ith -0.V feed$ac!* It develops $readth of vision and $ehavioral versatility so leaders can provide direction to a %ider range of follo%ers and implement plans that %onJt run into pro$lems due to missing information* articipants learn ho% to: • Direct and inspire in ways that tap into the rich variety of their followers' values and goals.on'epts #ffective leaders exhi$it certain s!ills that differentiate them from people %ho do not lead as effectively* This program teaches four fundamental sets of skills that must $e mastered in order to $e effective as a leader* These s!ills include $oth leadership skills and management skills $ecause one cannot lead %ell %ithout also managing %ell* These four s!ill sets are: Leadership Skills ?* "irecting +* Inspiring +0 . • Lea%ership S ills Learne% This practical %or!shop can $e easily ad(usted to meet the varying needs of executives5 managers5 and team leaders* articipantJs learn in %ays that are appropriate to each organiMational level ho% to: • Create plans that5 Take into consideration all relevant information a&out &oth e#ternal and internal conditions.ore . Direct others &ased on5 o "lear decisions. Inspire others to work with vigor and determination to achieve organizational goals. o Incorporate diverse viewpoints so all stakeholders feel engaged and committed. Implement actions through effective systems for5 o /elegating tasks o (etting feed&ack o "orrecting errors. o • • • Lea%ership . Plan and implement in ways that factor in the widest possi&le range of e#ternal conditions* organizational factors* and personnel resources. o The confidence to commit in the face of uncertainty o The a&ility to hold others accounta&le for desired outcomes.
!anagement Skills -* lanning 4* "oing 6ffective leaders must demonstrate versatility in practicing each of these skill sets..reate a 'li$ate of tr#st "esol(e ongoing 'onfli'ts an% #npro%#'ti(e %isagree$ents • • Fill in gro#p blin% spots Sti$#late the open floof infor$ation This %or!shop utiliMes the Life Orientations® Method to help teams set priorities and maximiMe the contri$utions of all team mem$ers* It encourages real +E • . (enuine versatility ensures that they don't overlook important issues due to &lind spots or fail to take needed actions due to a personal reluctance to act in certain ways. and e#periment and e#plore possi&ilities... • Tea$ 5#il%ing 8uild Teams that . 're you aware of your special approach to leading others7 'nd are you aware of alternative approaches that could &e even more effective in certain situations7 To determine the approaches that you are most comforta&le with . and swiftly choose a clear course of action.It 8o. They need to take into account the variety of values* goals* needs* opportunities* and resources present in their organization and in their organization's environment.. and those that you need to master to &ecome even more effective .-The LIFO® Lea%ership Style S#r(ey There is no one special type of person %ho is especially effective as a leader* One can lead others in many different %ays* 2o%ever for maximum influence5 it is important to lead others the way they want to be led* &ince different people respond to different styles of leadership5 an effective leader must $e a$le to*** • • • Inspire people with a vision of possi&ilities. click the link &elow. 'nalyze situations and evaluate the options.. "olla&orate with others to ensure mutual commitment.ork with )I3%4 (roup +kills 5#il% Tea$s that Wor • ... and e#press urgency to act now. Pre(ie..
. Utilizing Differences! Incorporate the unique strengths of each team mem&er. rather than resisting it Tea$-or S ills Learne% Teams who complete this half. Utilize individual differences for greater participation of all group mem&ers* Develop total perspective for seeing all sides of pro&lems.on'epts The Life Orientations approach to $uilding team%or! utiliMes the follo%ing six $uilding $loc!s5 or competencies5 for $uilding high performing teams: • • • • • • Confirming trengths! 'cknowledge team mem&ers' strengths. Identify areas for improvement using constructive language that minimizes defensiveness. +A . Treating "egatives Positively! (ive feed&ack that promotes positive &ehavioral change. Make unbiased decisions that take into account all points of view for more relia&le results.ore .day* )ife %rientations workshop will5 • • • • • • Inventory team strengths so each mem&er can contri&ute the most.pro$lem7solving and real team%or! %ithout creating hassles5 hard feelings5 or harsh confrontation* It creates long7lasting results $y ena$ling participants to: • • +ee situations from multiple points of view Take advantage of diversity . Controlling &'cesses! Improve performance &y eliminating wasted effort. #isioning the $hole! /evelop !01 degree perspective for &etter plans and decisions. • Tea$-or . Take focused action to avoid wasting time and resources. Give helpful feedback that encourages positive changes in &ehavior. Getting %greement! 6ncouraging the e#pression of differences and using them productively to develop creative solutions.
Pre(ie.o$$#ni'ation 8ridge the "ommunication (ap with )I3%4 Interpersonal +kills Ma e .*.-.Teams identify specific strategies for moderating their e#cesses and e#tending their work styles to incorporate the productivity factors they tend to overlook.o$patibilty Strategies for High Perfor$ing Tea$s ro$lems in team dynamics usually have their origin in the conflicting vie%s and approaches of different team mem$ers* If team mem$ers donJt !no% ho% to resolve these conflicts5 team%or! $rea!s do%n and productivity can grind to a standstill* But if they can resolve these conflicts5 their differences can $e a source of tremendous creativity and dynamism* 9ompata$ility is usually thought of as a trait: eople either get along or they donJt* But compati$ility is actually a skill* The Compati&ilt" Strategies Com&ine. They then create an action plan that utilizes what they have learned to accomplish a specific* work. related goal.o$$#ni'ation Pay Off • • • Stop -asting ti$e be'a#se of $is#n%erstan%ings &(oi% errors %#e to fa#lty or in'o$plete infor$ation Ma e s#re others get yo#r $essage +D .St"le utiliMes the Life Orientations Method to sho% people three important things a$out potentially conflictful relationships: • • • • The possi&le &enefits of the relationship The pro&lems that are most likely to arise +trategies for solving those pro&lems to ensure sustained productivity .It 8o.
(esolve differences in values* priorities* and interpretations of information for identifying mutually satisfying solutions • • To a''o$plish these goals. parti'ipants learn ho. . • .on'epts The Colden 'ule is a timeless moral precept: N"o unto others as you %ould have others do unto you*N Lnfortunately5 this doesnJt %or! very %ell as a guide to effective communication* The -. %ns.er+ 'ddress the key questions uppermost in other people's minds that must &e answered to win their support.ore . Translate+ 'd9ust their requests* proposals* and presentations to match other people's preferred ways of communicating. Translate their messages so they answer the key questions uppermost in other people's minds.to9 • • (ecognize+ Identify other people's preferred ways of communicating &y what they do* say* write* and ask. Create a non)defensive* open atmosphere in which information flows more freely* leading to more effective planning and decision making.o$$#ni'ation .The $ridge the Communication -ap course ena$les people to get through to others more easily5 o$tain agreement %ith less effort5 and get things moving quic!ly* articipants learn ho% to: • (ecognize other people's most preferred channels of communication. • .o$$#ni'ation S ills Learne% In this half7day or full7day %or!shop5 teams and individuals learn ho% to: • (educe resistance and increase acceptance &y using communication strategies tailored to the needs of their audience.
-T-o .It 8o. 6#ercises develop skills for communicating more effectively despite stylistic differences.s message to match.o$$#ni'ation Tools 2o% %ould you li!e to*** • • • • "aptivate others' attention whenever you want7 (et people e#cited a&out your proposals7 . Includes the )I3%4 "ommunications +urvey for identifying another person's communication patterns under &oth favora&le and stressful conditions. -? .in support for your initiatives7 :eep others focused on what's important to you7 <eJd li!e to offer you the opportunity to previe% t%o po%erful tools used in our $ridge the Communication -ap %or!shop that can help you to communicate more effectively %ith the !ey people in your life: Interpersonal Communication $orkbook! 8uilds skills for recognizing others.pro$lem is that not e er"&od" %ants to &e treated the same %a" 77 %e all have our o%n special patterns of giving5 receiving5 and processing information* The !ey to effective communication is ad(usting %hat %e say and ho% %e say it to fit other peopleJs communication patterns: communicating the %ay the" prefer5 not the %ay %e do* This is the essence of the 8e% Colden 'ule: 1o unto others as the" %ant to &e done unto3 Communicate %ith people the %a" the+ prefer2 not the %a" "ou prefer3 $ridge the Communication -ap gives individuals and teams the s!ills they need to recogni7e %hatJs important to other people and to translate their requests5 proposals5 and instructions so that they %ill hear5 understand5 and act on them* Pre(ie. most preferred ways of communicating and translating one. 'lso contains communication models and summary ta&les that show how to communicate in groups and with key people.
• Pro%#'ti(ity 8reak the =erformance 8arrier with )I3%4 =roductivity +kills LIFO® Pro%#'ti(ity S ills Help 6o#::: • • • • • 5#il% 'onfi%en'e an% self-estee$ .for improved communication.solving.ith greater enthusiasm and mutual regard to accomplish shared goals./0 perspective while gathering information* for more effective planning and pro&lem. rule.9o& -slide. <oving the slide indicates what people with different communication styles want to know and how &est to communicate with employees or &osses of each style.asting work ha&its &y learning how to set priorities* set limits* get focused* and get going.the.Communication trategies lide)%) tyle! 'n on. • • • -+ . $ork . Develop a -.onsistently pro%#'e yo#r (ery best -or Manage a -i%er range of sit#ations $ore effe'ti(ely &(oi% -asting ti$e in personal pro%#'ti(ity traps Fill in yo#r blin% spots for better plans an% %e'isions The $reak the Performance $arrier %ith LIFO® Producti it" Skills course empo%ers people at all organiMational levels to consistently produce their very $est %or!* articipants learn practical s!ills for managing their performance that really ma!e a difference* They learn ho% to: • &liminate time). %ccomplish tasks more 1uickly and completely* &y utilizing a wider range of talents and strengths.
!. that allow you to use your own special strengths to the fullest.ore .2oo% The degree to which the individual.Well-"e'ei(e% The degree to which the output satisfies the e#pectations of others.O8OM6 -. upplementing! (et help from people with different strengths and viewpoints to fill in your &lind spots and provide a wider perspective when planning and solving pro&lems.s or team. Confirming! 8uild confidence and self. Pro%#'ti(ity .day or full.Ho.Ho.Pro%#'ti(ity S ills Learne% In this half.s output meets or e#ceeds esta&lished standards.!PT&5ILIT6 -.Ho. !. 'esearch sho%s that there is great varia$ility in ho% people rate the relati e importance of the four productivity factors* The reason for this varia$ility is that each of us $rings to %or! -- . &'tending! /eveloping greater versatility in your approach to people and pro&lems &y using your least preferred strengths more frequently. Capitalizing! +eek situations that &ring out the &est in you .<&LIT6 -. $.Pra'ti'al The costs* &enefits* and return on the effort. 2.Ho.. >.on'epts Quality5 quantity5 economy5 and accepta$ility 77 these are the four fundamental factors in individual and team productivity* The five strategies taught in $reak the Performance $arrier %ith LIFO® Producti it" Skills give individuals and teams the s!ills they need to !eep the four productivity factors in $alance for sustained high performance* ?* . Moderating! 'void overusing your most preferred strengths so you don't waste time and energy or have a negative impact on others.M#'h = Ho..day workshop* teams and individuals learn how to apply five strategies for greater individual and team productivity5 1. +* .esteem &y understanding and appreciating your unique values* goals* and strengths.<&8TIT6 -. The amount produced in a given period of time.Fast -* 4* &.
oa'h 5rea thro#gh Perfor$an'e .It 8o.our o%n unique mix of values5 goals5 and priorities* In the %or!shop $reak the Performance $arrier %ith LIFO® Producti it" Skills5 participants articulate the values5 goals5 and priorities that shape their approach to %or!* They learn ho% to manage their $ehavior to !eep the four productivity factors in $alance* Pre(ie.#i' ly Diagnose De(elop$ental 8ee%s .oa'hing S ills Learne% Our Performance Coaching Training Program quic!ly $uilds coaching s!ills you can use to help clients manage their $ehavior more effectively* )s a result of completing this program5 you %ill $e a$le to: -4 .-The Pro%#'ti(ity Wor boo The Producti it" Work&ook ena$les participants to apply LIFO® productivity strategies to develop their o%n unique strengths and create individualiMed performance improvement plans* It includes the LIFO® &urvey5 illustrative charts and summary ta$les5 and step7$y7step exercises for s!ill practice* It confirms personal strengths5 areas of potential excess5 and techniques for developing greater versatility and overcoming $lind7 spots in planning5 pro$lem solving5 and decision ma!ing* • Perfor$an'e .oa'hing 3acilitate 8reakthrough =erformance with )I3%4 =erformance <anagement +kills . . ?ou will &e a&le to provide effectiveness* valua&le advice a&out how to handle challenging situations as well as difficult relationships.#t Thro#gh "esistan'e to .hange De(elop !asy-toI$ple$ent I$pro(e$ent Plans Deli(er in Person or by 2#i%e% Self-St#%y The LIFO® Method provides a set of po%erful learning strategies and tools you can use to The skills and understanding you will develop in our enhance coaching sessions %ith executives5 =erformance "oaching Training =rogram managers5 team leaders5 and individuals %ho will ena&le you to identify core performance issues* set goals for change* and %ant to improve their interpersonal effectively monitor progress.
Doing less of the &ehaviors that they tend to overuse* so they stop wasting time and alienating others. LtiliMing a quantitative approach to managing strengths %ill increase your clientsJ acceptance of your recommendations and increase their confidence that they can succeed* Pre(ie.ore .It 8o. Pinpoint ho.oa'hing .on'epts Many people vie% $ehavior in terms of $asic categories 77 right or %rong5 good or $ad5 strong or %ea!5 my %ay vs* your %ay* This %ay of seeing things can ma!e it more difficult to change our patterns of $ehavior $ecause %e assume %e have to stop doing the N%rongN things and start doing the NrightN things* In fact5 our $ehavior exists along a continuum5 %ith Ntoo littleN on one end and Ntoo muchN on the other* #ither extreme undermines our productivity and can $e seen $y others as irritating %ea!ness* &ome%here $et%een these t%o extremes lies a place of $alance %here %e display (ust enough of the appropriate strengths to accomplish %hat %e %ant most efficiently* In our erformance 9oaching Training rogram5 you %ill learn ho% to help clients formulate and implement realistic performance improvement plans $ased on t%o fundamental strategies: • • Doing more of the &ehaviors that they tend to overlook or neglect* so they can achieve their goals more easily.& Po-erf#l . they may alienate others* making it more difficult for them to gain agreement and support for their plans and pro9ects. .ork habits that limit their productivity.• • • • • Identify the values* goals* and strengths that drive your clients to produce their &est work.-. Uncover the blind spots that are likely to cause them to make faulty decisions.asting . Diagnose the time).oa'hing -/ . Monitor their progress and give them constructive feed&ack to ensure sustained success.
Tool Once you complete our erformance 9oaching Training rogram5 you %ill $e a$le to generate &trength Management® 'eports for your clients* This comprehensive developmental report: • • • • • "reates a more open coaching climate 'nchors learning in your clients' personal e#perience @ighlights key performance issues =rovides recommendations for improving performance 6#tends learning &eyond your coaching sessions <e %ould li!e to offer you the opportunity to receive your o%n &trength Management 'eport* The report is $ased on the LIFO® Sur e"5 %hich you can complete online in less than t%enty minutes* Lsed $y more than eight million people in +A countries5 it clarifies the goals5 values5 and strengths that shape your $ehavior 77 $oth %hen things are going %ell and %hen you are encountering stress or conflict* -0 .
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