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Powder Technology 145 (2004) 190 – 202 www.elsevier.

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!ilo m"sic and silo #"a$e% gran"lar &low'ind"ced vi(ration
)enson *. +"itea, !handon -. ."inna, !an$aran !"ndaresana,/, *. *esava 0ao(
a

!chool o& 1ngineering and 2 lied !cience, Princeton 3niversity, Princeton, 45 06544, 3nited !tates (7e artment o& 8hemical 1ngineering, 9ndian 9nstit"te o& !cience, )angalore, 9ndia 0eceived : ;cto(er 200<= received in revised &orm 5 +ay 2004= acce ted 21 5"ly 2004

2(stract 2cceleration and so"nd meas"rements d"ring gran"lar discharge &rom silos are "sed to show that silo m"sic is a so"nd resonance rod"ced (y silo #"a$e. 9n tall and narrow silos, the latter is rod"ced (y stic$–sli &riction (etween the wall and the gran"lar material. -or the discharge rates st"died, the occ"rrence o& &low "lsations is determined rimarily (y the s"r&ace ro erties o& the gran"lar material and the silo wall. The meas"rements show that the "lsating motion o& the gran"lar material drives the oscillatory motion o& the silo. 7 2004 1lsevier ).>. 2ll rights reserved.
*eywords% !ilo #"a$e= !ilo m"sic= !tic$–sli &low= 0esonance= 8ree = ?ran"lar discharge

1. 9ntrod"ction The discharge o& gran"lar materials &rom silos is o&ten characteri@ed (y vi(rations or "lsations o& the silo, termed dsilo #"a$eT, and a lo"d noise, termed dsilo m"sicT A1–9B. )oth o& these are "ndesira(le as silo #"a$e may ca"se str"ct"ral &ail"re, and silo m"sic is a so"rce o& noise oll"tion. 3n&ort"nately, the n"mero"s con&licting st"dies "(lished in the literat"re A1–9B do not give the silo designer a sim le model to "nderstand the hysical rocesses that ca"se the "lsations and to g"ide the silo design or modi&ication that wo"ld revent the "lsations or at least minimi@e their e&&ect. The "r ose o& this st"dy is to investigate the ca"se o& the noise and the "lsations, and the interaction (etween the motion o& the gran"lar material and the motion o& the str"ct"re. !everal st"dies o& the discharge o& gran"lar material &rom silos have noted &l"ct"ations in discharge rate and the rod"ction o& noise and vi(ration A1–9B. The to o& the gran"lar material has (een o(served to move in discrete ste s, altho"gh the discharge &rom the (ottom o& the silo was contin"o"s A1,CB. -or smooth'walled, tall, narrow

silos, "lsations occ"rred d"ring (oth mass and miEed &low. The "lsations were o(served to sto at a critical height o& gran"lar material in the silo A2,10B. +ethods s"ggested &or reventing "lsations incl"de ro"ghening the walls in the transition @one (etween the ("n$er and the ori&ice A2,4,10B and the lacement o& inserts along the silo walls A1B. 9n an early st"dy, Philli s ACB o(served the motion o& sand in a t"(e which had a glass &ace and was closed at the lower end (y a &lat (ottom having a central ori&ice. Ihen the ori&ice was o ened, the sand in the " er art o& the t"(e moved downward intermittently in Her$s. Philli s noted, (when the &low (egins, a c"rio"s rattling so"nd is heard which changes to a distinct m"sical note.. Je also did eE eriments in which the t"(e was &irst artly &illed with merc"ry and then &illed with sand. ;nce again, the &ree s"r&ace o& the sand descended intermittently when the merc"ry was allowed to &low thro"gh the ori&ice. Je o(served that the length o& the col"mn o& sand increased (y a(o"t 2K d"ring the dstic$T hase. -"rthermore , the motion o& the gran"lar material ca"sed the wall o& the t"(e to vi(rate. Th"s, (oth silo m"sic and silo #"a$e occ"rred in his eE eriments, and he s"ggested that the stic$–sli motion o& the sand may (e res onsi(le &or these henomena.

/ 8orres onding a"thor. Tel.% D1 C09 256 456<= &aE% D1 C09 256 0211. 1'mail address% s"ndarF rinceton.ed" (!. !"ndaresan). 00<2'5910/G ' see &ront matter 7 2004 1lsevier ).>. 2ll rights reserved. doi%10.101C/H. owtec.2004.0:.00<

).*. +"ite et al. / Powder Technology 145 (2004) 190–202

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!ome recent st"dies have s"ggested that the "lsations are intensi&ied (y a resonant interaction (etween the gran"lar material and the silo str"ct"re A<,5,10,11B. Jow' ever, in one o& these st"dies, TeHchman A10B also noted that the magnit"de and resence o& the &low "lsations were in&l"enced (y environmental &actors, s"ch as tem erat"re and electrostatic e&&ects, which s"ggests that while resonant interaction can intensi&y the "lsations it is not the only re#"irement &or "lsations to occ"r. ;lvare@ and 8lementL A12B have also o(served that the h"midity, an environmental &actor, can have a strong in&l"ence on the sliding motion o& a slowly "shed gran"lar col"mn. They &o"nd that article and wall &rictional ro erties are im ortant in determining stic$–sli motion in gran"lar systems. Jardow et al. A1B cond"cted eE eriments in a silo whose nat"ral &re#"encies were signi&icantly greater than the "lsation &re#"ency. 9n these eE eriments, "lsations clearly occ"rred even in the a(sence o& resonance. These a"thors ro osed that the motion o& the silo was driven (y the ra id acceleration and deceleration o& the gran"lar material in the (in section, which were ca"sed (y the stress &l"ct"ations in the gran"lar material in the ho er section. 2s the gran"lar material in the ho er region de&orms, there are eriods where the mass o& gran"lar material in the (in is not s" orted and the (ed colla ses in a downward ste creating a large im "lse which sha$es the silo str"ct"re. These a"thors o(served "lsations d"ring core &low in a silo that was C m high, 0.C m dee , and 1.2 m wide, and hence the &low $inematics were considera(ly di&&erent &rom those in tall narrow silos. Iensrich A6,9B ro osed that these "lsations are d"e to com ression and dilation waves in the gran"lar material, which are created (y stic$–sli motion (etween the gran"lar material and the silo walls. Jowever, "lsations have also (een o(served in &"nnel &low ("n$ers, where the gran"lar material at the walls does not sli d"ring discharge A1B. Iensrich A6,9B has s"ggested that the "lsation creation mechanism is entirely di&&erent in &"nnel &low, ("t does not give evidence to s" ort his conHect"re. -inally, +oriyama and 5im(oMs A4B &indings s"ggest that the magnit"de o& the "lsations is determined (y how the gran"lar material changes &rom a com ressed state in the ("n$er to a dilated state in the ho er. They also &o"nd that the li$elihood o& a silo discharging with "lsations was de endent on the method "sed to &ill the silo. They did not ro ose a hysical mechanism to eE lain their o(servations. The aim o& this st"dy, which is largely eE erimental, is to o(tain a mechanistic "nderstanding o& silo m"sic and &low "lsations. Thro"gh a com(ination o& so"nd, (ed height, and acceleration meas"rements, it is shown that silo m"sic is driven (y the stic$–sli "lsating motion o& the gran"lar material d"ring discharge and is associated with a so"nd resonance in the air col"mn a(ove the (ed. 7i&&erent wall and gran"lar materials have (een "sed to ro(e their role on &low "lsations and silo m"sic d"ring silo discharge.

2. 0elated st"dies on stic$–sli &riction in gran"lar materials To eE lain the rationale in the choice o& eE erimental meas"rements, it is worth reviewing the generally "nder' stood $inematics o& the discharge o& gran"lar material &rom a (in or ho er and relating these to stic$–sli &riction in gran"lar materials. 1E eriments show that in a tall, &lat' (ottomed cylindrical (in, with walls having a lower &riction coe&&icient than the internal &riction angle o& the gran"lar material, there is a region o& l"g &low at the to o& the &"ll silo. 2s the silo em ties, the si@e o& the l"g &low region decreases, and event"ally all o& the &lowing material is in converging &low. The discharge rate &rom the (in is inde endent o& the height o& material in the (in, rovided the height is greater than a &ew m"lti les o& the diameter o& the ori&ice A1<B and scales as g 1/27 5/2, where 7 is the ori&ice diameter and g is the acceleration d"e to gravity. 0adiogra hic st"dies o& slow dense gran"lar &low in model ("n$ers show that velocity discontin"ities eEist at the transition &rom the (in to the ho er A14B. +eas"rements in a discharging ("n$er indicate that there is a dynamic arch at the transition where the nat"re o& the material &low changes &rom one witho"t de&ormation (a(ove the arch) to one where the material de&orms ((elow the arch) as it a roaches the ori&ice A15B. Press"re meas"rements A1,<,4B near the transition &rom the (in to the ho er indicate that there is also a stress discontin"ity A15B and that there can (e large "lsating stresses, which corres ond to the cyclical &or' mation and (rea$age o& the dynamic arch. This "lsating (ehavior only occ"rs &or dense assem(lies A15B and is very similar to silo #"a$e. The eE eriments that identi&ied the dynamic arch A15B were cond"cted in a ("n$er where the (in to ho er transition determined the location o& the dynamic arch. 9n a &lat'(ottomed silo (s"ch as the one "sed in o"r st"dy), the stagnant material adHacent to the ori&ice creates a ho erli$e region. Th"s, the discharge &rom a &lat'(ottomed silo can (e eE ected to show many o& the &eat"res o(served in ("n$ers. 9& the density o& the material in the l"g &low region a(ove the dynamic arch is high, it m"st dilate as it crosses the arch in order to de&orm in the ho erli$e region. 4as"no et al. A1CB have st"died stic$–sli motion in gran"lar materials "sing a sim le shear device with :0–110 2m glass (eads and 100–C00 2m sand. They o(served stic$– sli motion at low average sli rates, which (ecame contin"o"s at very large average sli rates. They also o(served that at very small driving velocities, the eriod o& stic$–sli &l"ct"ations was inversely ro ortional to the driving velocity. -or glass (eads, the system &l"ct"ated with a nearly constant eriod, while &or sand, the eriod varied stochastically. 2s the sliding velocity was increased, the eriod (ecame inde endent o& velocity, and &inally at large sliding velocities, the motion (ecame contin"o"s. 9n these sim le shear eE eriments, the s ring constant connecting the driving iston to the sliding mass was varied, and it was

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discharge o& gran"lar materials. 1Ecellent reviews on stic$– sli &riction can (e &o"nd in )owden and Ta(or A16B, *rim A19B, and )erman et al. A20B who disc"ss the vario"s ost"lated stic$–sli &riction mechanisms. The mechanism o& most relevance to this st"dy is adhesive stic$–sli &riction, which occ"rs when slowly wea$ening, time' de endent &orces eEist (etween sliding s"r&aces. The hy othesis in this st"dy is that adhesive stic$–sli &riction is the determining &actor in cyclical dynamic arch &ormation and (rea$age, which creates im "lses that drive the silo str"ct"re.

<. 1E erimental method 2l"min"m, lain steel, and acrylic t"(es, o en at the to and covered at the (ottom with a &lat acrylic late having a concentric ori&ice (see (elow &or details o& this late), were "sed as silos. 2 n"m(er o& eE eriments were cond"cted "sing silos resting on s" orting s rings (see -ig. 1), which in t"rn were attached to a steel &rame that was rigidly connected to the la(oratory walls. The silo was also e#"i ed with rollers and sliders, which were attached to the steel &rame. These allowed vertical oscillation o& the silos and restricted lateral motion. The s" orting s rings had s ring constants ranging &rom 4 to 22C5 4/mm. 1E eriments were also done "sing an al"min"m (loc$ in lace o& the s ring or sim ly (olting the silo directly to the s" orting steel &rameNthese con&ig"rations a&&orded the two largest nat"ral &re#"encies &or vertical silo oscillation re orted in this st"dy. Pro erties o& the t"(es and gran"lar materials are listed in Ta(les 1–<. Photogra hs o& the gran"lar materials, o(tained "sing a microsco e, are shown in -ig. 2a–c. The gran"lar materials did not eEhi(it s#"ea$ing or (ooming when sheared. The tem erat"re and h"midity were recorded in each eE eriment. The tem er' at"re varied (etween 20 and 25 68 (&rom one day to another), and the relative h"midity (etween 16K and 40K. 7"ring eE eriments with each t"(e and gran"lar material com(ination (which lasted a &ew ho"rs), the h"midity variation was within 5K, and the tem erat"re variation was within 2 68. The angle o& internal &riction o& each gran"lar material was estimated (y meas"ring the angle o& re ose o& the gran"lar material (etween two lane walls 1.9 cm a art. These val"es are resented in Ta(le 2. The angle o& wall &riction &or each gran"lar material and t"(e com(ination

-ig. 1. 1E erimental set" &or vertical acceleration and so"nd meas"re' ments. The n"m(ers indicate (1) s ring on ositioning slider, (2) accelerometer, (<) ositioning roller, (4) micro hone, and (5) ositioning slider.

&o"nd that the s ring constant in&l"enced (oth the "lsation &re#"ency and the critical driving velocity at which the "lsation &re#"ency (ecame inde endent o& the driving velocity. 4as"no et al. A1CB also o(served that a lengthy eriod o& slow vertical dilation receded ra id sli events in the hori@ontal direction. This dilation was meas"red (y ?em' inard et al. A1:B, who &o"nd that in the shear @one, articles clim( slowly over each other. ;nce the article is O5K o& a article diameter over the article (elow it, sli occ"rs and the to layer H"m s &orward (e&ore slowing down again and settling into another @one o& articles A1:B. 9n the eE eri' ments o& ?eminard et al. A1:B, the article vol"me &raction was indisting"isha(le &rom the random close' ac$ed vol' "me &raction o& C<K. These st"dies show that gran"lar materials can "ndergo stic$–sli motion, and that this can co" le with the mechanical system (&or eEam le, a mass–s ring system) in a com licated &ashion, which de ends on the system arameters. Together, these st"dies s"ggest that stic$–sli motion can occ"r in tall &lat'(ottomed silos d"ring the

Ta(le 1 T"(e ro erties T"(e material C0C1'TC al"min"m alloy Plain steel 8ast acrylic Pength (m) 1.6 1.6 1.5 97 (cm) C.<:-0.01 C.<6-0.01 C.<5-0.01 Iall thic$ness (cm) 0.51-0.1 0.5:-0.01 0.C4-0.01 !"r&ace &inish !mooth 0o"gh !mooth 8alc"lated lowest nat"ral &re#"ency (J@) 2C 25 12

).*. +"ite et al. / Powder Technology 145 (2004) 190–202 Ta(le 2 ?ran"lar material ro erties +aterial !" lier Particle si@e (2m) 450-50 460-C0 400-100 Particle density (g/cm<) 2.5-0.1 2.5-0.1 2.:-0.1

19<

2ngle o& re ose (6) <4-1 2C-1 <<-1

8r"shed glass )allotini im act (eads Iashed and ignited !tandard ;ttawa sand

Potters 9nd"stries Potters 9nd"stries 1+7 !cience

-ig. 2. Photogra hs o& the gran"lar materials% (a) cr"shed glass, (() glass (eads, and (c) sand.

was estimated (y meas"ring the angle o& inclination o& the t"(e a(ove the hori@ontal at which the gran"lar material (egan to slide= these val"es are listed in Ta(le <. Ie co"ld not estimate the angle o& wall &riction &or the lain steel t"(e thro"gh s"ch eE eriments, as the gran"lar material (egan to slide over itsel& (e&ore it slid at the wall. To determine i& resonance (i.e., when the "lsation &re#"ency & is e#"al to a nat"ral &re#"ency o& the silo) was im ortant, the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency o& vertical silo oscillations, & v, was changed (y "sing di&&erent s rings (etween the silo and the steel &rame. To estimate the lowest nat"ral &re#"encies o& the em ty silo t"(e, we "sed the method o& 4aeem and !harma A21B with clam ed'&ree (o"ndary conditions. The lowest nat"ral &re#"ency esti' mates &or each t"(e are given in Ta(le 1.

2crylic lates with centrally located ori&ices (with diameters (etween 1.< and 2.5 cm) were (olted to a 1.21'$g al"min"m &lange, which was screwed on the (ottom o& the t"(es. To &ill the silo, the ori&ice at the (ottom o& the t"(e was &irst sealed with a iece o& d"ct ta e. The gran"lar material was o"red into the silo thro"gh a &"nnel laced at the to o& the t"(e. !tri ing away the d"ct ta e seal over the ori&ice initiated discharge. The mean discharge rate was meas"red "sing a sto watch. -or the acrylic t"(e, the height o& material in the silo co"ld also (e meas"red d"ring discharge to con&irm that the discharge rate was constant with time. To ens"re that the t"(es had reached a steady state o& wear, the gran"lar material was discharged several times thro"gh the same t"(e (e&ore &inal meas"rements were ta$en. !teady state wear was reached when re eata(le gran"lar material acceleration meas"rements co"ld (e ta$en. 2ccelerations were meas"red (oth in the gran"lar material and on the silo str"ct"re. >ertical accelerations inside the gran"lar material were meas"red "sing a "nidirectional *istler 6::4250 low'im edance ceramic shear accelerometer with an o"t "t sensitivity that deviated less than 1.5K &or &re#"encies (etween 10 J@ and 10 $J@. The accelerometer was em(edded a roE' imately 5 cm (elow the to s"r&ace o& the gran"lar material. This de th ens"red that d"ring discharge, the accelerometer was held " right (y the gran"lar material and was still shallow eno"gh that the acceleration co"ld (e meas"red &or the ("l$ o& the discharge. 2s the gran"lar material discharged, the accelerometer ca(le was care&"lly &ed into the silo to ens"re that the ca(le did not a&&ect the motion o& the accelerometer. This accelerometer had a range D/Q500 m/s2 and was acc"rate to within D/Q5 m/s2. 9t had a diameter o& 0.6 cm, a length o& 2.C cm, and a

Ta(le < 2ngle o& wall &riction &or vario"s silo wall and gran"lar material com(inations !ilo wall material R gran"lar material 8r"shed glass ?lass (eads !and
a

2crylica (6) 26 1: 25

2l"min"ma (6) << 1: <0

Plain steel -"lly ro"gh -"lly ro"gh -"lly ro"gh

The angles are acc"rate to within -26.

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mass o& 4 g, and hence was considera(ly larger than a sand grain. Jowever, the wide &re#"ency res onse allowed (etter time resol"tion o& the ("l$ gran"lar material acceleration than wo"ld (e ossi(le with smaller accel' erometers o& com ara(le cost. !ilo str"ct"ral vi(rations were meas"red "sing a *istler 6:6425 low'im edance ceramic shear accelerometer, which had a greater sensitivity ("t a smaller range than the accelerometer "sed to meas"re gran"lar material acceler' ations. To meas"re vertical accelerations, this accelerometer was waE'mo"nted on the &lange at the (ottom o& the silo. This accelerometer had a sensitivity that varied (y less than 0.5K &or &re#"encies (etween 10 J@ and C $J@. 9t had a range o& D/Q50 m/s2, an acc"racy o& D/Q0.5 m/s2, and a mass o& 21 g. The accelerometer o"t "t was sent thro"gh a *istler 5116)2 signal conditioner to a +eas"rement 8om "ting P89'72!1002 data'ac#"isition card on a 400'+J@ Penti"m 99 com "ter. The sam ling rate on the data ac#"isition card was 20 $J@. -or (oth accelerometers, the man"&act"rer' s" lied cali(ration was "sed to convert the accelerometer voltage o"t "t to acceleration. The accelerometers co"ld not (e "sed sim"ltaneo"sly (eca"se only one data ac#"isition system was availa(le. The ("l$ o& the so"nd meas"rements was ta$en in an a arat"s made &rom an acrylic t"(e, &or which the resonant &re#"ency &or vertical silo oscillations was not well controlled A22B. Jowever, several meas"rements were then re eated in the eE erimental set" "sed &or the acceleration meas"rements to chec$ that the same res"lts were o(tained. 9n these eE eriments, an omnidirectional ; tim"s <<'<02C la el micro hone with a constant am lit"de res onse &or a &re#"ency range (etween <0 J@ and 15 $J@ was "sed to collect the so"nd data thro"gh a so"nd card on a ersonal com "ter. 7"ring discharge, the so"nd was recorded, and a discrete -o"rier trans&orm o& 1 s o& so"nd data was "sed to determine the dominant &re#"ency as a &"nction o& time d"ring discharge. 9n the acrylic t"(e, the time at which the to o& the gran"lar material crossed a mar$ed height in the t"(e d"ring discharge was also recorded "sing a sto watch. -rom these meas"rements, the height o& the gran"lar material as a &"nction o& time since discharge started was &o"nd.

this t"(e. !ilo "lsations also did not occ"r when sand was discharged &rom the al"min"m t"(e, ("t did occ"r when sand was discharged &rom the acrylic t"(e. 2 &ew eE eri' ments with a smooth'walled galvani@ed steel t"(e A2<B showed that silo "lsations occ"rred when sand was discharge &rom this t"(e. This s"ggests that in tall and narrow silos, "lsations occ"r &or s eci&ic com(inations o& gran"lar material and wall material. This is in agreement with st"dies which show that stic$–sli &riction de ends on the com osition o& the sliding s"r&ace A16–20B.

4.1. !o"nd meas"rements -ig. < shows the so"nd am lit"de level as a &"nction o& time &or the discharge o& sand &rom the acrylic t"(e (no "nits are given, (eca"se altho"gh the am lit"de is a direct voltage reading &rom the micro hone that is linearly related to the so"nd deci(el level, (y moving the micro hone, di&&erent a(sol"te deci(el levels can (e recorded &or the same so"nd signal). The discharge lasted &or 51 s, and as shown in the &ig"re, silo m"sic occ"rred &or a roEimately hal& o& this time. -ig. 4 shows a ty ical ower s ectr"m &or the so"nd meas"rements d"ring discharge, determined (y analy@ing data o(tained over a 1's time interval. There are three ty es o& rominent ea$s. The &irst ea$ is at a &re#"ency o& a roEimately 40 J@, and it will (e shown later that this is the "lsation &re#"ency &or this artic"lar gran"lar material and silo com(ination. The second ea$ corres onds to the resonant &re#"ency o& the air col"mn a(ove the t"(e. This resonance is well doc"mented, and a good acco"nt can (e &o"nd in 0ayleigh A24B. 2t the time the data shown in the &ig"re was collected, this &re#"ency was 200 J@. The &act that this ea$ re resents a resonance &re#"ency is demon' strated in -ig. 5, which shows the #"arter wavelength corres onding to this &re#"ency as a &"nction o& time since

4. 0es"lts 9n what &ollows, so"nd meas"rements are shown &or sand discharging &rom the acrylic t"(e, and acceleration meas"re' ments are shown &or cr"shed glass and glass (eads discharging &rom the al"min"m t"(e. 2dditional so"nd and acceleration meas"rements are re orted in ."inn A22B and +"ite A2<B, res ectively. The variation o& the "lsation &re#"ency ( & ) with the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency &or vertical oscillations ( & v) was eEamined &or all t"(e and gran"lar material com(inations, eEce t &or the lain steel t"(e, as "lsations did not occ"r in

-ig. <. >ariation o& so"nd am lit"de with time d"ring discharge o& sand &rom an acrylic t"(e o& :.C cm o"ter diameter, wall thic$ness 0.< cm, and having an ori&ice o& diameter 1.9 cm% region 9Nno &low, region 99N&low with "lsations, and region 999N&low a&ter "lsations have ended.

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4.2. 7etermination o& the nat"ral &re#"ency &or vertical oscillations o& the silo To determine the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency &or vertical oscillations, & v, the silo was &illed with gran"lar material and the ori&ice closed. The (ase o& the &illed silo was then str"c$ with a so&t mallet, and the res"lting vertical acceleration d"ring &ree oscillations recorded. The val"e o& & v was &o"nd either (y "sing the largest ea$ in the ower s ectr"m o& the acceleration or (y co"nting the n"m(er o& &ree oscillations d"ring a s eci&ied time directly &rom the acceleration meas"rements. The two meas"re' ments gave essentially the same res"lts= however, when & v(<0 J@, co"nting the n"m(er o& oscillations in a s eci&ied time gave a more acc"rate meas"rement o& the nat"ral &re#"ency than locating the center o& the (road ea$ o(tained &rom the ower s ectr"m. !imilarly, when the & v4<0 J@, the ower s ectr"m was a (etter indicator o& the nat"ral &re#"ency, (eca"se an "nam(ig"o"s shar ea$ co"ld (e located, while the acceleration vs. time trace showed ra idly decaying oscillations which were not easy to co"nt. -or s ring constants, $(1000 4/mm, & vc& nS(1/ 2 )($/m)1/2, where m is the oscillating mass, and & n is the theoretical nat"ral &re#"ency &or a s ring mass system. -or $41000 4/mm, & v was signi&icantly less than & n, ossi(ly (eca"se o& &lange and t"(e de&ormations, which red"ced the e&&ective sti&&ness o& the system. This e&&ect was im ortant &or & v425 J@.

-ig. 4. Ty ical ower s ectr"m &or 1 s o& so"nd meas"rements d"ring silo m"sic when sand is discharged &rom an acrylic t"(e o& :.C cm o"ter diameter, wall thic$ness 0.< cm, and having an ori&ice o& diameter 1.9 cm% (9) the "lsation &re#"ency, (99) the dominant so"nd &re#"ency, and (999) the higher harmonics o& the dominant so"nd &re#"ency.

the (eginning o& discharge. The wavelength, $ a, is &o"nd &rom the relationshi $ aSc/& a, where c is the s eed o& so"nd in air, and & a is the &re#"ency o& the air col"mn. 2lso shown is the height o& the air col"mn a(ove the sand in the t"(e. This &ig"re shows that the dominant #"arter wavelength and the height o& the air col"mn are the same con&irming the resonant (ehavior. 9t is clear &rom the #"arter wavelength that this resonance corres onds to a standing wave mode with a node at the gran"lar material s"r&ace and an antinode at the o en end o& the t"(e (as the o en end o& the t"(e cannot (e a node). -ig. 4 also shows a n"m(er o& other ea$s at higher &re#"encies, which are sim ly the odd harmonics o& the &"ndamental (lowest) resonance &re#"ency o& the air col"mn.

4.<. 2cceleration meas"rements d"ring discharge -ig. C shows meas"rements o& the vertical acceleration o& the silo when cr"shed glass was discharged thro"gh a 1.9' cm ori&ice. The accelerometer was mo"nted on the (ase o& the silo. ;nce the &low started, there was a eriod o&

-ig. 5. >ariation o& the dominant #"arter wavelength ($ d/4) and the height o& the air col"mn (J a) with time d"ring discharge o& sand &rom an acrylic t"(e o& :.C cm o"ter diameter, wall thic$ness 0.< cm, and with an ori&ice o& diameter 1.9 cm.

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-ig. C. >ertical acceleration meas"rements on the (ase o& the al"min"m silo d"ring discharge o& cr"shed glass thro"gh a 1.9'cm ori&ice. The silo had a dominant nat"ral &re#"ency o& vertical oscillations o& 6 J@% region 9Nno &low, region 99N&low with "lsations, and region 999N&low a&ter "lsations have ended.

"lsations d"ring which the silo eE erienced large negative accelerations towards the earth. Jal&way d"ring the "lsa' tions, the magnit"de o& the negative "lsations s"ddenly do"(led. 2&ter the height o& the gran"lar material in the silo &ell (elow a critical level, the "lsations sto ed, and the silo str"ct"re eE erienced only small accelerations "ntil the &low ended. Ihile the "lsations occ"rred reg"larly, this do"(ling o& the "lsation magnit"de was not always re eata(le. 9t is not clear what changes in the &low res"lted in these changes in the magnit"de o& the "lsations, (eca"se the (asic set" was "nchanged &rom r"n to r"n. The close" o& the acceleration meas"red d"ring "lsa' tions (-ig. :) reveals that the eriods o& large negative accelerations were short com ared to the grad"al re(o"nd a&ter each "lsation. ;n this time scale, the "lsations had a very re rod"ci(le and steady &re#"ency, ("t the a(sol"te magnit"de o& the maEim"m acceleration varied &rom "lse to

-ig. 6. >ertical acceleration meas"rements made when the accelerometer was em(edded in the gran"lar materials A(a) cr"shed glass, (() glass (eadsB and allowed to translate with it d"ring discharge &rom the al"min"m silo% region 9Nno &low, region 99N&low with "lsations, and region 999N&low a&ter "lsations have ended. 9n (a), ori&ice diameter is 1.< cm= the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency o& vertical oscillations o& the &illed silo is 6 J@. 9n ((), ori&ice diameter is 1.9 cm= the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency o& vertical oscillations o& the &illed silo is C J@.

"lse. Ie &o"nd that & O<0 J@ &or discharge o& gran"lar material thro"gh a 1.<'cm ori&ice and thro"gh a 1.9'cm ori&ice, i.e., & was ro"ghly inde endent o& the discharge rate. -ig. 6a shows meas"rements o(tained with the accel' erometer ("ried in the gran"lar material. The &low con' ditions were the same as in -ig. C, eEce t that the ori&ice diameter was 1.< cm instead o& 1.9 cm. 2lso as in -ig. C, negative accelerations are towards the earth. -ig. 6a shows that large ositive accelerations occ"rred in the gran"lar material d"ring "lsations, while -ig. C shows that the silo eE erienced large negative accelerations. The two &ig"res show that d"ring each "lsation, the gran"lar material &ell a short distance and im acted the t"(e wall and &lange (ottom. -ig. 9a shows a close" view o& the acceleration re orted in -ig. 6a. 2 com arison o& -igs. : and 9a reveals that the "lsation &re#"ency in the gran"lar material is the same as the
-ig. :. 8lose" showing individ"al "lsations meas"red (y the accel' erometer on the silo str"ct"re &or the &low in -ig. C.

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re&lected in their ower s ectra= com are -ig. 10a and (. )oth s ectra have the same high'&re#"ency decay &or &re#"encies a(ove 1000 J@= however, &or &re#"encies (elow 1000 J@, the glass (eads have a larger n"m(er o& distinct harmonics than the cr"shed glass. The cr"shed glass ower s ectr"m is ty ical o& white noise with a high'&re#"ency c"to&&, while the glass (ead ower s ectr"m is ty ical o& a signal rod"ced (y a well'correlated eriodic ("t non' sin"soidal &"nction A25B. !"r risingly, all the ower s ectra &or acceleration meas"rements inside the gran"lar material &or all t"(e and gran"lar material com(inations that "lsated decayed &or &re#"encies a(ove 1000 J@. The high'&re#"ency c"to&& o& 1000 J@ was neither d"e to any limitation o& the accelerometer (which co"ld meas"re &re#"encies " to 10 $J@) or the lowest nat"ral &re#"ency o& the t"(e (which was varied in these eE eriments and did not a&&ect the high'

-ig. 9. 8lose" showing individ"al "lsations meas"red (y the accel' erometer em(edded in the gran"lar material &or the &low in -ig. 6% (a) close" &rom -ig. 6a, and (() close" &rom -ig. 6(.

&re#"ency with which the silo moves, s"ggesting that the motion o& the gran"lar material drives the motion o& the silo. -ig. 9a also shows that each "lsation was &ollowed (y a negative acceleration within the material and then a second large ositive acceleration, a&ter which the acceleration o& the gran"lar material was close to @ero "ntil the neEt "lsation. -ig. 10a shows a ower s ectr"m &or the acceleration meas"red d"ring 1 s o& "lsations in the cr"shed glass. 9t has a ea$ at & O<0 J@ &ollowed (y a &lat'(and region (etween 200 and 1000 J@, a&ter which the ower s ectr"m decays. -igs. 6(, 9(, and 10( are similar to -igs. 6a, 9a, and 10a ("t are &or glass (eads discharging thro"gh a 1.9'cm ori&ice (the acceleration s i$e seen in -ig. 6( (e&ore the discharge was initiated came a(o"t (eca"se o& an accidental ta o& the t"(e, and its e&&ect decayed well (e&ore discharge was started). The "lsations again sto ed at a critical height, and the individ"al "lsations can (e seen in -ig. 9(. The nat"re o& each "lsation &or glass (eads (-ig. 9() is a little di&&erent than &or the cr"shed glass (-ig. 9a), and this is

-ig. 10. Power s ectra &or 1 s o& the meas"rements in -ig. 6. The ower s ectra have (een averaged over 4 oints in &re#"ency to ma$e average trends clearer% (a) 20th second o& meas"rements o& -ig. 6a, and (() 15th second o& meas"rements o& -ig. 6(.

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o& the maEim"m acceleration. The threshold was adH"sted de ending on the ty e o& acceleration time gra h to ens"re the correct eriodicity was o(tained. 9n artic"lar, (y com aring -ig. 9a and (, one o(serves that i& the threshold is too low, a higher eriodicity wo"ld (e meas"red in some eE eriments, (eca"se the (a&tershoc$. wo"ld also (e incl"ded. !imilarly, i& the threshold is set too high, some #"a$es co"ld (e missed, (eca"se as shown in -ig. 6a and (, the ea$ am lit"de co"ld vary d"ring #"a$ing. The "lsation &re#"ency was determined &or each second o& &low "lsations and an average "lsation &re#"ency d"ring "lsating discharge o(tained. The standard deviation in the average &re#"ency meas"red d"ring a single discharge was ty ically less than 10K. Ihen & v(25 J@, & had no de endence on & v as shown in -igs. 11 and 12. -ig. 12 also shows that do"(ling the ori&ice diameter and hence increasing the discharge rate (y nearly a &actor o& C had a negligi(le e&&ect on the "lsation &re#"ency (do"(ling the ori&ice diameter gives a nearly siE&old increase in discharge rate in a silo o& constant cross'sectional area, (eca"se the discharge rate is ro or' tional to the ori&ice diameter to the ower 2.5 A1<B). Ihen & v425 J@, & had a ositive correlation with & v &or all

-ig. 11. >ariation o& the "lsation &re#"ency ( & ) o& the &illed silo with the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency &or vertical oscillations o& the silo ( & v) &or gran"lar materials discharging &rom the acrylic t"(e.

&re#"ency c"to&&). 9t may (e related to the t"(e diameter or to the article si@e and article density, which were not varied in the eE eriments. 9n -igs. :, 9a, and (, the maEim"m downward accel' erations o& the silo and articles are ro"ghly com ara(le, whereas the maEim"m " ward acceleration o& the gran"lar material is signi&icantly greater than that o& the silo. This s"ggests that d"ring each "lsation, the gran"lar material sli s ast the silo walls and is &orced to rest over a very short time eriod. This im act creates a shoc$ wave that travels thro"gh the gran"lar material and is recorded as the large " ward acceleration. The gran"lar material and silo then move together so that the res"lting accelerations are o& similar magnit"de.

4.4. 7e endence o& the "lsation &re#"ency o& the gran"lar material on the nat"ral &re#"ency o& vertical silo oscillations -igs. 11 and 12 show the variation o& the "lsation &re#"ency ( & ) &or di&&erent gran"lar material and silo wall com(inations as a &"nction o& & v (recall that & v was changed (y changing the s ring on which the silo was mo"nted). To determine & , the n"m(er o& ea$s er "nit time a(ove a certain threshold in the acceleration time data was co"nted. The threshold was determined (y loo$ing at the acceleration time trace and ic$ing a val"e a roEimately e#"al to a hal&

-ig. 12. >ariation o& the "lsation &re#"ency ( & ) o& the &illed silo with the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency &or vertical silo oscillations ( & v) &or gran"lar materials discharging &rom the al"min"m t"(e.

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gran"lar material t"(e wall com(inations that "lsated, eEce t &or the acrylic and cr"shed glass com(ination. The &ig"res show that glass (eads have similar &re#"ency (ehavior in the acrylic and al"min"m silos. 8r"shed glass has a lower "lsation &re#"ency in the al"min"m silo as com ared to the acrylic silo. 2s sand did not "lsate d"ring discharge &rom the al"min"m silo, no data oints are shown.

4.5. 8ritical height The critical height (J c) was ta$en as the height o& the gran"lar material a(ove the (ase o& the silo at which "lsations sto . The time at which this occ"rred was recorded &rom the acceleration meas"rements, and as the discharge rate was inde endent o& time, the critical height co"ld (e calc"lated. This method gave critical heights that were in agreement with direct meas"rements made &or the trans arent acrylic silo. -or & v(25 J@, J c did not vary (y more than 0.1 m when the ori&ice diameter and s ring constant were changed. -or & v425 J@, the variation o& J c with silo and gran"lar material ro erties was not closely eEamined. -or all the gran"lar materials, the val"es o& J c &or the acrylic silo were smaller than those &or the al"min"m silo (Ta(le 4). 9n the al"min"m silo, cr"shed glass had a sig' ni&icantly smaller val"e o& J c than glass (eads. 9n the acrylic silo, all three gran"lar materials had similar val"es o& J c. 2s &rictional ro erties can de end on stress level A1CB, an eE eriment was er&ormed in the al"min"m silo, where the to o& the gran"lar material was loaded with a $nown weight a&ter the silo had (een &illed. 2s eE lained in >anel et al. A2CB and ;varle@ et al. A2:B, s"ch a test may yield di&&erent stress transmission characteristics &or di&&erent eE erimental roced"res= nevertheless, it can also increase the stress level inside a gran"lar material. The weights were laced on to o& the gran"lar material in the &illed silo and away &rom the walls o& the silo. The val"es o& J c and & were calc"lated "sing time and acceleration meas"rements d"ring discharge. The eE eriments showed that & was inde endent o& the overload. -or glass (eads, J c did not vary with overload= however, &or cr"shed glass, J c decreased linearly with as the overload increased (-ig. 1<). 1E eriments in the acrylic silo gave similar res"lts.

-ig. 1<. >ariation o& critical height with overload &or glass (eads and cr"shed glass in the al"min"m t"(e when the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency o& vertical oscillations o& the &illed silo is 6 J@ and the silo has a 1.9'cm ori&ice.

5. 7isc"ssion 9n this section, a mechanism &or the rod"ction o& "lsations is s"ggested. The res"lts are then com ared with those o(tained in revio"s wor$ on "lsating gran"lar materials, and some s"ggestions &or &"rther wor$ are made. 5.1. 2 mechanism &or rod"cing silo #"a$e 3sing the (ac$gro"nd on stic$–sli &riction in gran"lar materials disc"ssed earlier, one can com are the eE erimen' tal o(servations in this st"dy with those in revio"s st"dies to #"alitatively eE lain the hysical mechanism &or stic$–sli motion. The dynamic arch which &orms in s"ch &lows is art o& a &orce chainNthat is, a article contact networ$ thro"gh which stresses are transmitted A26B. The arch is &ragile, and conse#"ently when the material (elow it has discharged eno"gh so that the arch is "ns" orted &rom (elow, a slow cree ty ically o(served in adhesive stic$–sli &low (egins. 7"ring this cree , the adhesive &riction &orces (ecome rogressively wea$er and wea$er, and event"ally the arch will (rea$. ;nce the arch colla ses, com lete sli occ"rs, a #"a$e is o(served, and a new arch is created. This #"a$e can set " str"ct"ral vi(rations o& decaying am lit"de that then colla se the newly &ormed arch= in this manner, a series o& sel&'s"stained "lsations res"lts. This is the "lsation rocess o(served in this st"dy, where the discharge rate is &ast eno"gh ((etween 1 and 6 cm/s) that it does not a&&ect the & "nli$e in IensrichMs st"dy A6,9B.

Ta(le 4 >ariation o& critical height with silo wall and gran"lar material ro erties !ilo wall material 2l"min"m 2l"min"m 2crylic 2crylic 2crylic
a

?ran"lar material 8r"shed glass ?lass (eads 8r"shed glass ?lass (eads !and

8ritical heighta (m) 0.9 1.< 0.6 0.C 0.:

The acc"racy o& the critical height data is -0.1 m.

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9n IensrichMs eE eriments A6,9B, the entire (ottom o& a cylindrical model silo was slowly lowered. There is no region o& converging &low in s"ch an eE eriment, ("t there is a region near the (ottom where the gran"lar material dilates as the iston descends. Jere, the arch may (e regarded as the (o"ndary (etween the dense and dilated material. -or the slow discharge rates eEamined (y Iensrich, cree and eEternal ert"r(ations did not determine & . 9nstead, the arch colla sed whenever the articles (elow the arch had dro ed eno"gh to lose contact with the arch. 8onse#"ently, it is entirely reasona(le that & was inversely ro ortional to the discharge velocity. Iensrich estimated the distance that articles at the (ase o& the silo moved (etween "lsations to (e O0.0< d (where d is the article diameter), which is com ara(le to the dilation distance o& O0.05 d re#"ired &or sli to occ"r in stic$–sli &low in sim le shear eE eriments with gran"lar materials A1:B.

5.2. 8om arison with revio"s wor$ Iensrich A6,9B o(served that the acceleration rod"ced (y each #"a$ing im "lse grew with distance traveled (y the wave carrying the in&ormation o& the im "lse &rom the dynamic arch to the to o& the silo. 9n contrast, the gran"lar material accelerations recorded in o"r eE eriments with the accelerometer at a &iEed de th (elow the &ree s"r&ace did not change a recia(ly as the (ed height decreased d"ring discharge. The gran"lar material accelerations meas"red (y Iens' rich A6,9B were less than 15 m/s2, while those meas"red in this st"dy were ty ically more than 100 m/s2. TeHchman A10B also o(served silo wall acceleration levels greater than 100 m/s2. 4onlinear e&&ects may (e res onsi(le &or the height inde endence o& the acceleration at the large accelerations seen in this st"dy. 9t is interesting to contrast the acceleration ower s ectra o(tained with cr"shed glass and glass (eads to see the e&&ect o& article sha e on gran"lar dynamics. The ower s ectra &or acceleration meas"rements in the glass (eads (-ig. 10() showed many harmonics o& & (e&ore the high'&re#"ency decay region was a roached. The ower s ectra &or cr"shed glass (-ig. 10a) showed only a &ew harmonics, &ollowed (y a (and'limited white noise region, and then a high'&re#"ency decay. This s"ggests that the glass (eads showed a highly correlated distri("ted res onse to sli which originated at the arch. 8r"shed glass had a signi&icantly less correlated res onse, #"ite ossi(ly (eca"se o& the heterogeneity in article sha e and article contacts (etween them. This is consistent with the s"ggestions (y +air et al. A29B that smooth ro"nd articles have &orce chains that are sta(le over a narrow range o& orientations, whereas ro"gh articles s"ch as the cr"shed glass have &orce chains that are sta(le over a wider range o& orientations. 8onse#"ently, the &orce chains in the glass (eads (rea$ in a highly correlated manner d"ring a "lsation, whereas those in the cr"shed glass (rea$ in a less'correlated manner.

2crylic s"r&aces are rone to stic$–sli motion A<0B. 2s acrylic is so&ter than all the articles "sed in this st"dy, the acrylic s"r&ace can (e eE ected to (e the dominant &actor in determining the adhesive relaEation time &or the stic$–sli motion, and indeed it was &o"nd that the "lsation &re#"encies &or all gran"lar materials are similar in the acrylic silo. The hy othesi@ed di&&erence in stress chain (ehavior (etween smooth and ro"gh articles s"ggested (y +air et al. A29B can also eE lain the di&&erence in the val"e o& the critical height when an overload is im osed on the gran"lar material. -or ro"gh articles, the critical height decreased linearly with im osed overload, whereas &or smooth articles, the critical height was inde endent o& the im osed overload. 2s the &orce chains in a gran"lar material com osed o& smooth s heres will have narrow direction' ality, the e&&ects o& the im osed overload will (e transmitted to the side walls o& the silo ra idly and will not a&&ect stress levels (etween the silo wall and the gran"lar material a signi&icant distance away &rom the overload. These &orce chains &orm a (ridge so that the ("l$ o& the overload is transmitted to the silo walls. -or ro"gh articles, the &orce chains will have a m"ch (roader directionality, as &riction and as erity interloc$ing allows ro"gh articles to transmit &orces in a variety o& directions witho"t &ail"re. )eca"se (ridging in the gran"lar material is less e&&ective, the im osed overload is not screened, and its e&&ects on the stress &ield can (e transmitted &"rther in to the gran"lar material. 8onse#"ently, the critical height decreases, (eca"se stresses at the arch are large and allow "lsations to occ"r &or a longer time d"ring discharge, in agreement with st"dies that sli –stic$ &riction is de endent on the local stress level A1CB. The 5anssen sol"tion &or the e&&ect o& an overload on the stress &ield in a gran"lar medi"m in a silo A1<B redicts that the e&&ect o& the overload on the stress &ield inside the gran"lar material decays &aster as the angle o& wall &riction is increased. 8r"shed glass has a larger angle o& wall &riction than the glass (eads, and so the &inding that an overload has more e&&ect on the cr"shed glass than the glass (eads does not agree with the redictions &rom the 5anssen sol"tion. 4edderman A1<B has s"ggested that the 5anssen sol"tion is not a good method &or redicting stress levels inside a gran"lar material when an overload is im osed. -"rther wor$ eEamining the shear and wall normal stresses in silos &or di&&erent sha es and distri("tions o& article si@es with varying overloads wo"ld hel in o(taining a ro riate constit"tive relations to descri(e gran"lar material stress &ields macrosco ically, an area which is the s"(Hect o& c"rrent de(ate A2C,2:B. +air et al. A29B &o"nd that article sha e in&l"ences gran"lar material sliding characteristics. This st"dy con&irms this &inding, (eca"se gran"lar materials made o& the same glass with similar si@es ("t di&&erent sha es had di&&erent "lsation &re#"encies in the al"min"m t"(e. 9n artic"lar, s"r&aces that are ro"gh are less li$ely to have stic$–sli

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&riction, (eca"se the as erities can loc$ and revent sli occ"rring at all contact oints. This arg"ment is consistent with o"r &inding that no "lsations occ"rred in the &"lly ro"gh lain steel t"(e. These res"lts are also in accord with &indings (y TeHchman A10B, +oriyama and 5im(o A4B, and 5ahagirdar A2B that to revent silo #"a$e, mass &low silos sho"ld have ro"gh walls. Jardow et al. A1B, whose st"dy did not eEamine a variety o& gran"lar materials, s"ggested that wall &riction was not the ca"se o& silo #"a$e, a &inding that this st"dy has shown is not always correct. 2s their st"dy was &or a core &low silo, they did not consider the ossi(ility that stic$–sli &riction can occ"r at sliding s"r&aces inside the gran"lar material, as shown in the st"dy (y 4as"no et al. A1CB, and not H"st (etween the gran"lar material and the silo wall. -inally, Jardow et al. A1B s"ggested that resonance is not always re#"ired &or silo #"a$e, while other st"dies have s"ggested that it is an im ortant &actor in am li&ying the am lit"de o& the "lsations A<,5,10,11B. ;"r st"dy does not give a concl"sive answer to this #"estion, as we have meas"red only the dominant nat"ral &re#"ency o& vertical oscillations o& the silo= care&"l meas"rements o& the nat"ral &re#"encies associated with radial vi(ration o& the &illed silo t"(e are re#"ired to ma$e a more de&initive statement, ("t these were not meas"red.

ac$nowledges &inancial s" ort rovided (y the 7ere$ Pidow senior thesis &"nd. This wor$ was s" orted (y the 3.!. 7e artment o& 1nergy 871'-82C'004T409:1.

0e&erences
A1B ). Jardow, 7. !ch"l@e, 5. !chwedes, 2n eE erimental analysis o& the dsilo #"a$ingT henomenon, Proc. ;& the <rd Iorld 8ongress on Particle Technology, )righton, 1ngland, 1996. A2B !. 5ahagirdar, 2n eE erimental st"dy o& so"nd emission d"ring gran"lar &low, 7e artment o& 8hemical 1ngineering, 9ndian 9nstit"te o& !cience, )angalore, 9ndia, 1999. A<B 5. *mita, !ilo as a system o& sel&'ind"ced vi(ration, 2!81 5. !tr"ct. 1ng. 111 (1965) 190. A4B 0. +oriyama, ?. 5im(o, 0ed"ction o& "lsating wall ress"re near the transition oint in a (in, )"l$ !olids Jandl. 6 (1966) 421. A5B +. 4iedostat$iewic@, 5. TeHchman, 1E erimental and theoretical st"dies on resonance dynamic e&&ects d"ring silo &low, Powder Jandl. Proc. 15 (1) (200<) <C. ACB 8.1.!. Philli s, 1lectrical and other ro erties o& sand, Proc. 0. 9nst. ?. ). 19 (1910) :42. A:B 5. TeHchman, ?. ?"deh"s, !ilo'm"sic and silo'#"a$e, eE eriments and a n"merical cosserat a roach, Powder Technol. :C (199<) 201. A6B 8.+. Iensrich, 1E erimental (ehavio"r o& #"a$ing in tall silos, Powder Technol. 12: (2002) 6:. A9B 8.+. Iensrich, 2nalytical and 4"merical +odeling o& ."a$ing in Tall !ilos, Ph7 thesis, 3niversity o& 4ewcastle, 2"stralia (2002). A10B 5. TeHchman, Technical conce t to revent the silo hon$ing, Powder Technol. 10C (1999) :. A11B 5. TeHchman, +. 4iedostat$iewic@, 0esonance e&&ects d"ring gran"lar &lows in silos, Proc. 9nternational 8ongress &or Particle Technology, 4"rem("rg, ?ermany, 2001. A12B ?. ;varle@, 1. 8lement, !low dynamics and aging in a con&inedL gran"lar &low, Phys. 0ev., 1 C6 (200<) 0<1<02. A1<B 0.+. 4edderman, !tatics and *inematics o& ?ran"lar +aterials, 8am(ridge 3niversity Press, 1992. A14B ?.I. )aEter, 0.P. )ehringer, T. -agert, ?.2. 5ohnson, Pattern &ormation in &lowing sand, Phys. 0ev. Pett. C2 (24) (1969) 2625. A15B +.?. Perry, +.-. Jandley, The dynamic arch in &ree &lowing gran"lar material discharging &rom a model ho er, Trans. 9nst. 8hem. 1ng. 45 (19C:) T<C:. A1CB !. 4as"no, 2. *"drolli, 2. )a$, 5.P. ?oll"(, Time'resolved st"dies o& stic$–sli &riction in sheared gran"lar layers, Phys. 0ev., 1 56 (2) (1996) 21C1. A1:B 5.8. ?eminard, I. Posert, 5.P. ?oll"(, -rictional mechanics o& wetL gran"lar material, Phys. 0ev., 1 59 (5) (1999) 5661. A16B -.P. )owden, 7. Ta(or, The -riction and P"(rication o& !olids, ;E&ord 3niversity Press, 1950. A19B 5. *rim, -riction at macrosco ic and microsco ic length scales, 2m. 5. Phys. :0 (9) (2002) 690. A20B 2.7. )erman, I.2. 7"c$er, 5.4. 9sraelachivili, 1E erimental and theoretical investigation o& stic$–sli &riction mechanisms, in% ).4.5. Persson, 1. Tosatti (1ds.), Physics o& !liding -riction, *"lwer 2cademic P"(lishers, 199C. A21B +.4. 4aeem, 8.). !harma, Prediction o& nat"ral &re#"encies &or thin circ"lar cylindrical shells, Proc. 9nst. +ech. 1ng. 8214 (2000) 1<1<. A22B !.-. ."inn, !ilo +"sic, )! thesis, Princeton 3niversity, Princeton, 4ew 5ersey, 3!2 (2002). A2<B ).*. +"ite, The e&&ects o& (o"ndaries on gran"lar and &l"id mechanics, +!1 thesis, Princeton 3niversity, Princeton, 4ew 5ersey, 3!2 (200<). A24B 5.I.!. 0ayleigh, The Theory o& !o"nd, vol. 99, 7over P"(lications, 1945.

C. 8oncl"sion This st"dy has shown that stic$–sli motion generates silo m"sic and silo #"a$e. !ilo m"sic is driven (y the stic$– sli "lsating motion o& the gran"lar material d"ring discharge and is associated with a resonance in the air col"mn a(ove the (ed. Ihen the "lsating motion disa ears, so does the silo m"sic. ;ver the range o& discharge rates st"died here (e#"ivalent to average velocities o& descent thro"gh the t"(e o& 1–6 cm/s), the "lsation &re#"ency was inde endent o& discharge velocity. )oth silo m"sic and &low "lsations sto ed a(r" tly when the (ed height &ell (elow a critical val"e. The critical height co"ld (e changed (y lacing an overload in the case o& cr"shed glass, ("t not in the case o& the smooth glass (eads. This may (e rationali@ed, altho"gh only s ec"latively at this oint, (y di&&erences in stress chain (ehavior.

2c$nowledgements Ie are grate&"l to Pro&essors 5. TeHchman and 2. !mits &or many hel &"l disc"ssions. The a"thors also wish to than$ 8. Iensrich &or roviding a co y o& his thesis in advance o& "(lication. **0 is very grate&"l to +r. P.T. 0agh"ram &or directing his attention to this ro(lem (y demonstrating the silo m"sic eE eriment in 199C. )*+ was s" orted (y a Princeton 3niversity -rancis 3 ton grad"ate &ellowshi and (y the 2&rican 9nstit"te &or +athematical !ciences. !-.

202

).*. +"ite et al. / Powder Technology 145 (2004) 190–202 A29B *. +air, *.+. -rye, 8. +arone, 9n&l"ence o& grain characteristics on the &riction o& gran"lar shear @ones, 5. ?eo hys. 0es. 10: ()10) (2002) 2219. A<0B !. )o"isso", 5.P. Petit, +. )ar#"ins, 4ormal load, sli rate and ro"ghness in&l"ence on the olymethylmethacrylate dynamics o& sliding% 1. !ta(le sliding to stic$–sli transition, Iear 214 (1996) 15C.

A25B P. )erge, R. Pomea", 8. >idal, ;rder Iithin 8haos, Iiley, 1964.L A2CB P. >anel, Ph. 8la"din, 5.'Ph. )o"cha"d, +.1. 8ates, 1. 8lement, 5.P.L Iittmer, !tresses in silos% com arison (etween theoretical models and new eE eriments, Phys. 0ev. Pett. 64 (:) (2000) 14<9. A2:B ?. ;varle@, 8. -ond, 1. 8lement, 2 giant overshoot e&&ect in theL 5anssen gran"lar col"mn, Phys. 0ev., 1 C: (200<) C0<02. A26B +.1. 8ates, 5.P. Iittmer, 5.P. )o"cha"d, P. 8la"din, 5amming, &orce chains, and &ragile matter, Phys. 0ev. Pett. 61 (9) (1996) 1641.