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CHAPTER 42

1 = 400 nm to 2 = 780 nm

E = h =

E1 =

2.

hc

6.63 10 34 3 108

9

6.63 3

19

10 19 = 5 10 J

4

6.63 1034

27

27

J-S = 1.326 10 = 1.33 10 kg m/s.

500 10 9

9

9

1 = 500 nm = 500 10 m, 2 = 700 nm = 700 10 m

E1 E2 = Energy absorbed by the atom in the process. = hc [1/1 1/2]

6.63 3[1/5 1/7] 1019 = 1.136 1019 J

P = 10 W E in 1 sec = 10 J

% used to convert into photon = 60%

Energy used = 6 J

in

g.

4.

400 10

6.63 3

19

E2 =

10 19 = 2.55 10 J

7.8

19

19

So, the range is 5 10 J to 2.55 10 J.

= h/p

P = h/ =

3.

34

h = 6.63 10

Ba

1.

6.63 10 34 3 108

9

6.633

10 17

590

ol

yC

int ensity

1.9 103 5 10 9

3.5 1021

hc

6.63 10 34 3 108

b) Consider no.of two parts at a distance r and r + dr from the source.

The time interval dt in which the photon travel from one point to another = dv/e = dt.

n=

5.

le

ge

590 10

6

6 590

19

No. of photons used =

6.63 3

6.63

3

10 17

590

power

3

2

3

2

a) Here intensity = I = 1.4 10 /m

Intensity, I =

= 1.4 10 /m

area

Let no.of photons/sec emitted = n

Power = Energy emitted/sec = nhc/ = P

No.of photons/m2 = nhc/ = intensity

p dr

In this time the total no.of photons emitted = N = n dt =

hc C

These points will be present between two spherical shells of radii r and r+dr. It is the distance of the

st

1 point from the sources. No.of photons per volume in the shell

N

Pdr

1

p

2

2

2r2dr

hc

4r ch 4 hc 2r 2

11

9

In the case = 1.5 10 m, = 500 nm, = 500 10 m

(r + r + dr) =

P

4r 2

3

4r 2 hc 2

500 10 9

1.2 1013

6.63 10 34 3 108

2

c) No.of photons = (No.of photons/sec/m ) Area

21

2

= (3.5 10 ) 4r

21

11 2

44

= 3.5 10 4(3.14)(1.5 10 ) = 9.9 10 .

= 1.4 10

42.1

6.

7.

19

P = p/ = 1027

Force exerted on the wall = n(mv cos (mv cos )) = 2n mv cos .

19

27

8

= 2 1 10 10 = 1 10 N.

P Momentum

Power = 10 W

h

h

P h

=

or, P =

or,

t t

hc

W = Pc/t

or Force

60

E hc

= Power (W)

t

t

or, P/t = W/c = force.

= 7/10 (absorbed) + 2 3/10 (reflected)

E=

or,

7 W

3 W

7

10

3

10

10 C

10 C

10 3 108

10 3 108

8

8

= 13/3 10 = 4.33 10 N.

P=

E=

in

m = 20 g

The weight of the mirror is balanced. Thus force exerted by the photons is equal to weight

hc

PC

g.

8.

E P

C

t

t

Rate of change of momentum = Power/C

30% of light passes through the lens.

Thus it exerts force. 70% is reflected.

Force exerted = 2(rate of change of momentum)

= 2 Power/C

le

ge

Ba

ol

2 Power

30%

mg

C

20 10 3 10 3 108 10

= 10 w = 100 MW.

23

Power = 100 W

Radius = 20 cm

60% is converted to light = 60 w

power

60

Now, Force =

2 10 7 N .

velocity 3 108

9.

yC

Power =

Pressure =

force

2 107

1

105

2

area 4 3.14 (0.2)

8 3.14

= 0.039 10

= 3.9 10

= 4 10

N/m .

10. We know,

If a perfectly reflecting solid sphere of radius r is kept in the path of a parallel beam of light of large

aperture if intensity is I,

r 2l

C

2

8

I = 0.5 W/m , r = 1 cm, C = 3 10 m/s

Force =

Force =

(1)2 0.5

8

3.14 0.5

3 10

3 108

8

9

= 0.523 10 = 5.2 10 N.

42.2

11. For a perfectly reflecting solid sphere of radius r kept in the path of a parallel beam of light of large

r 2I

aperture with intensity I, force exerted =

C

12. If the i undergoes an elastic collision with a photon. Then applying energy conservation to this collision.

2

2

We get, hC/ + m0c = mc

and applying conservation of momentum h/ = mv

m0

Mass of e = m =

1 v2 / c2

from above equation it can be easily shown that

V=C

or

V=0

both of these results have no physical meaning hence it is not possible for a photon to be completely

absorbed by a free electron.

13. r = 1 m

kq2

hc

=

1

in

Now,

kq2 kq2

R

1

hc

or =

kq2

g.

Energy =

863

= 215.74 m

4

le

= 1.9 eV

6.63 3 10 34 108

ge

Ba

19

For minimum e = 1.6 10 C

hc

3

= 0.863 10 = 863 m.

Max =

kq2

hC

6.63 10 34 3 108

1.9

= 1.65 ev = 1.6 ev.

19

15. W 0 = 2.5 10 J

a) We know W 0 = h0

yC

ol

Max KE of electrons =

W0

2.5 1019

14

14

= 3.77 10 Hz = 3.8 10 Hz

h

6.63 1034

b) eV0 = h W 0

0 =

= 0.91 V

e

1.6 1019

19

16. = 4 eV = 4 1.6 10 J

a) Threshold wavelength =

= hc/

or, V0 =

=

6.4

4 1.6 10 19

10

b) Stopping potential is 2.5 V

E = + eV

19

19

hc/ = 4 1.6 10 + 1.6 10 2.5

=

1.6 10 19

6.63 3 1026

1.6 10

19

6.5

= 4 + 2.5

= 1.9125 10

= 190 nm.

42.3

17. Energy of photoelectron

2

mv =

hc

4.14 10 15 3 108

2.5ev = 0.605 ev.

hv 0 =

4 10 7

P2

2

P = 2m KE.

2m

2

31

19

P = 2 9.1 10 0.605 1.6 10

25

P = 4.197 10 kg m/s

18. = 400 nm = 400 109 m

V0 = 1.1 V

hc hc

ev 0

0

We know KE =

6.63 10 34 3 108

400 10

6.63 10 34 3 108

1.6 10 19 1.1

0

19.89 10 26

1.76

0

in

4.97 =

19.89 10 26

= 4.97 17.6 = 3.21

0

Ba

19.89 10 26

7

= 6.196 10 m = 620 nm.

3.21

19. a) When = 350, Vs = 1.45

and when = 400, Vs = 1

ge

0 =

g.

hc

= W + 1.45

350

(1)

le

hc

=W+1

(2)

400

Subtracting (2) from (1) and solving to get the value of h we get

h = 4.2 1015 ev-sec

ol

and

1240

1.45 = 2.15 ev.

350

c) w =

hc

= ev - s

yC

hc

hc

there cathod

w

1240

= 576.8 nm.

2.15

45

20. The electric field becomes 0 1.2 10 times per second.

=

Frequency =

1.2 1015

15

= 0.6 10

2

h = 0 + kE

h 0 = KE

2

1.6 10 19

= 0.482 ev = 0.48 ev.

7

1

21. E = E0 sin[(1.57 10 m ) (x ct)]

7

W = 1.57 10 C

KE =

42.4

Stopping

potential

1/

Hz

2

Now eV0 = h W 0

f=

W0 = 1.9 ev

1.57 3 1015

1.9 ev

2

= 3.105 1.9 = 1.205 ev

= 4.14 10

15

1.205 1.6 10 19

So, V0 =

= 1.205 V.

1.6 1019

15 1

15 1

22. E = 100 sin[(3 10 s )t] sin [6 10 s )t]

15 1

15 1

= 100 [cos[(9 10 s )t] cos [3 10 s )t]

15

15

The w are 9 10 and 3 10

for largest K.E.

fmax =

w max

9 1015

=

2

2

g.

in

E 0 = K.E.

hf 0 = K.E.

Ba

2 KE

2 1.6 10 19

KE = 3.938 ev = 3.93 ev.

23. W 0 = hv ev0

5 10 3

8 1015

19

19

19

= 6.25 10 3.2 10 = 3.05 10 J

3.05 10 19

yC

ol

= 1.906 eV.

1.6 10 19

24. We have to take two cases :

Case I v0 = 1.656

14

= 5 10 Hz

Case II v0 = 0

14

= 1 10 Hz

We know ;

a) ev 0 h w 0

ge

15

le

V (in volts)

2

1.656

1

14

1.656e = h 5 10 w0

(1)

14

(2)

0 = 5h 10 5w0

1.656e = 4w0

1.656

w0 =

ev = 0.414 ev

4

b) Putting value of w0 in equation (2)

14

5w0 = 5h 10

14

5 0.414 = 5 h 10

15

h = 4.414 10 ev-s

25. w0 = 0.6 ev

For w0 to be min becomes maximum.

w0 =

hc

hc

6.63 10 34 3 108

or =

=

w0

0.6 1.6 10 19

42.5

26. = 400 nm, P = 5 w

hc

1242

=

ev

400

E of 1 photon =

5

5 400

No.of electrons =

5 400

5 400

6

Photo electric current =

1.6 1019 = 1.6 10 A = 1.6 A.

1.6 1242 106 10 19

7

27. = 200 nm = 2 10 m

No.of photons =

hc

6.63 10 34 3 108

19

=

= 9.945 10

2 107

1 10 7

9.945 10

11

19

= 1 10

no.s

in

E of one photon =

1 1011

Ba

g.

7

= 1 10

10 4

Net amount of positive charge q developed due to the outgoing electrons

7

19

12

= 1 10 1.6 10 = 1.6 10 C.

Now potential developed at the centre as well as at the surface due to these charger

Kq 9 109 1.6 10 12

1

= 3 10 V = 0.3 V.

r

4.8 10 2

28. 0 = 2.39 eV

1 = 400 nm, 2 = 600 nm

for B to the minimum energy should be maximum

should be minimum.

ol

le

ge

hc

0 = 3.105 2.39 = 0.715 eV.

The presence of magnetic field will bend the beam there will be no current if

the electron does not reach the other plates.

mv

r=

qB

10 cm

X

X

X

X

X

X

yC

E=

2mE

qB

r=

0.1 =

1.6 10 19 B

B = 2.85 10 T

29. Given : fringe width,

y = 1.0 mm 2 = 2.0 mm, D = 0.24 mm, W 0 = 2.2 ev, D = 1.2 m

5

D

y=

d

or, =

yd 2 10 3 0.24 10 3

7

= 4 10 m

D

1.2

B

A

B

A

B

hc 4.14 10 15 3 108

= 3.105 ev

4 10

Stopping potential eV0 = 3.105 2.2 = 0.905 V

E=

42.6

30. = 4.5 eV, = 200 nm

WC

The minimum K.E. = 2eV

[Since the electric potential of 2 V is reqd. to accelerate the electron to reach the plates]

the maximum K.E. = (2+1, 7)ev = 3.7 ev.

31. Given

= 1 109 cm2, W 0 (Cs) = 1.9 eV, d = 20 cm = 0.20 m, = 400 nm

we know Electric potential due to a charged plate = V = E d

Where E elelctric field due to the charged plate =/E0

d Separation between the plates.

Stopping potential or energy = E =

V=

1 10 9 20

d

= 22.598 V = 22.6

E0

8.85 10 12 100

in

hc

4.14 10 15 3 108

w0

1.9

4 10 7

= 3.105 1.9 = 1.205 ev

or, V0 = 1.205 V

As V0 is much less than V

Hence the minimum energy required to reach the charged plate must be = 22.6 eV

For maximum KE, the V must be an accelerating one.

Hence max KE = V0 + V = 1.205 + 22.6 = 23.8005 ev

32. Here electric field of metal plate = E = P/E0

1 10 19

1.6 10 19 113

9.1 10 31

le

= 113 v/m

8.85 10 12

accl. de = = qE / m

= 19.87 10

Metal plate

12

ol

ge

Ba

g.

V0e = h w0 =

y = 20 cm

yC

2y

2 20 10 2

7

t=

= 1.41 10 sec

a

19.87 10 31

hc

K.E. =

w = 1.2 eV

19

= 1.2 1.6 10 J [because in previous problem i.e. in problem 31 : KE = 1.2 ev]

2KE

2 1.2 1.6 10 19

= 0.665 10

4.1 10 31

Horizontal displacement = Vt t

= 0.655 106 1.4 107 = 0.092 m = 9.2 cm.

33. When = 250 nm

V=

Energy of photon =

hc 1240

= 4.96 ev

250

hc

w = 4.96 1.9 ev = 3.06 ev.

The minimum value of velocity of plate should be = velocity of photo electron

K.E. =

2KE / m

42.7

=

3.06

9.1 10 31

3.06 1.6 10 19

9.1 10 31

= 1.04 10 m/sec.

The particle will move in a circle

When the stopping potential is equal to the potential due to the singly charged ion at that point.

eV0 =

hc

ke hc

hc

1

1

V0 =

2d

e

e

Ke2 hc

hc Ke2

Ke2 2d

2d

2d

2d

hc 2d

2

Ke 2d

8 hcd

2hcd

.

2 0

1

e 80 d

2d

40 e2

in

ion

d

hc 1240

= 3.1 eV

400

But for the first collision energy lost = 3.1 ev 10% = 0.31 ev

for second collision energy lost = 3.1 ev 10% = 0.31 ev

Total energy lost the two collision = 0.31 + 0.31 = 0.62 ev

K.E. of photon electron when it comes out of metal

= hc/ work function Energy lost due to collision

= 3.1 ev 2.2 0.62 = 0.31 ev

b) For the 3rd collision the energy lost = 0.31 ev

Which just equative the KE lost in the 3rd collision electron. It just comes out of the metal

Hence in the fourth collision electron becomes unable to come out of the metal

Hence maximum number of collision = 4.

yC

ol

le

ge

Ba

g.

Energy of photon =

42.8

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