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PHOTO ELECTRIC EFFECT AND WAVE PARTICLE QUALITY

CHAPTER 42
1 = 400 nm to 2 = 780 nm
E = h =
E1 =

2.

hc

6.63 10 34 3 108
9

6.63 3
19
10 19 = 5 10 J
4

6.63 1034

27
27
J-S = 1.326 10 = 1.33 10 kg m/s.
500 10 9
9
9
1 = 500 nm = 500 10 m, 2 = 700 nm = 700 10 m
E1 E2 = Energy absorbed by the atom in the process. = hc [1/1 1/2]
6.63 3[1/5 1/7] 1019 = 1.136 1019 J
P = 10 W E in 1 sec = 10 J
% used to convert into photon = 60%
Energy used = 6 J

in

g.

4.

j - s, c = 3 10 m/s, 1 = 400 nm, 2 = 780 nm

400 10
6.63 3
19
E2 =
10 19 = 2.55 10 J
7.8
19
19
So, the range is 5 10 J to 2.55 10 J.
= h/p
P = h/ =

3.

34

h = 6.63 10

Energy used to take out 1 photon = hc/ =

Ba

1.

6.63 10 34 3 108
9

6.633
10 17
590

ol

yC

int ensity
1.9 103 5 10 9

3.5 1021
hc
6.63 10 34 3 108
b) Consider no.of two parts at a distance r and r + dr from the source.
The time interval dt in which the photon travel from one point to another = dv/e = dt.
n=

5.

le

ge

590 10
6
6 590
19
No. of photons used =

1017 176.9 1017 = 1.77 10


6.63 3

6.63
3
10 17
590
power
3
2
3
2
a) Here intensity = I = 1.4 10 /m
Intensity, I =
= 1.4 10 /m
area
Let no.of photons/sec emitted = n
Power = Energy emitted/sec = nhc/ = P
No.of photons/m2 = nhc/ = intensity

p dr
In this time the total no.of photons emitted = N = n dt =
hc C
These points will be present between two spherical shells of radii r and r+dr. It is the distance of the
st
1 point from the sources. No.of photons per volume in the shell

N
Pdr
1
p

2
2
2r2dr
hc
4r ch 4 hc 2r 2
11
9
In the case = 1.5 10 m, = 500 nm, = 500 10 m

(r + r + dr) =

P
4r 2

1.4 103 , No.of photons/m =


3

4r 2 hc 2

500 10 9

1.2 1013
6.63 10 34 3 108
2
c) No.of photons = (No.of photons/sec/m ) Area
21
2
= (3.5 10 ) 4r
21
11 2
44
= 3.5 10 4(3.14)(1.5 10 ) = 9.9 10 .
= 1.4 10

42.1

Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Quality


6.

7.

19

= 663 10 m, = 60, n = 1 10 , = h/p


P = p/ = 1027
Force exerted on the wall = n(mv cos (mv cos )) = 2n mv cos .
19
27
8
= 2 1 10 10 = 1 10 N.
P Momentum
Power = 10 W
h
h
P h
=
or, P =
or,

t t

hc

W = Pc/t
or Force

60

E hc
= Power (W)

t
t
or, P/t = W/c = force.
= 7/10 (absorbed) + 2 3/10 (reflected)

E=

or,

7 W
3 W
7
10
3
10

10 C
10 C
10 3 108
10 3 108
8
8
= 13/3 10 = 4.33 10 N.

P=

E=

in

m = 20 g
The weight of the mirror is balanced. Thus force exerted by the photons is equal to weight

hc
PC

g.

8.

E P
C
t
t
Rate of change of momentum = Power/C
30% of light passes through the lens.
Thus it exerts force. 70% is reflected.
Force exerted = 2(rate of change of momentum)
= 2 Power/C

le

ge

Ba

ol

2 Power
30%
mg
C

20 10 3 10 3 108 10
= 10 w = 100 MW.
23
Power = 100 W
Radius = 20 cm
60% is converted to light = 60 w
power
60
Now, Force =

2 10 7 N .
velocity 3 108

9.

yC

Power =

Pressure =

force
2 107
1

105
2
area 4 3.14 (0.2)
8 3.14
= 0.039 10

= 3.9 10

= 4 10

N/m .

10. We know,
If a perfectly reflecting solid sphere of radius r is kept in the path of a parallel beam of light of large
aperture if intensity is I,

r 2l
C
2
8
I = 0.5 W/m , r = 1 cm, C = 3 10 m/s
Force =

Force =

(1)2 0.5
8

3.14 0.5

3 10
3 108
8
9
= 0.523 10 = 5.2 10 N.
42.2

Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Quality


11. For a perfectly reflecting solid sphere of radius r kept in the path of a parallel beam of light of large
r 2I
aperture with intensity I, force exerted =
C
12. If the i undergoes an elastic collision with a photon. Then applying energy conservation to this collision.
2
2
We get, hC/ + m0c = mc
and applying conservation of momentum h/ = mv
m0
Mass of e = m =
1 v2 / c2
from above equation it can be easily shown that
V=C
or
V=0
both of these results have no physical meaning hence it is not possible for a photon to be completely
absorbed by a free electron.
13. r = 1 m

kq2
hc
=
1

in

Now,

kq2 kq2

R
1

hc

or =

kq2

g.

Energy =

9 109 (1.6 2)2 10 38

863
= 215.74 m
4

le

14. = 350 nn = 350 10


= 1.9 eV

6.63 3 10 34 108

ge

For next smaller wavelength =

Ba

For max , q should be min,


19
For minimum e = 1.6 10 C
hc
3
= 0.863 10 = 863 m.
Max =
kq2

hC
6.63 10 34 3 108

1.9

350 109 1.6 10 19


= 1.65 ev = 1.6 ev.
19
15. W 0 = 2.5 10 J
a) We know W 0 = h0

yC

ol

Max KE of electrons =

W0
2.5 1019
14
14
= 3.77 10 Hz = 3.8 10 Hz

h
6.63 1034
b) eV0 = h W 0

0 =

h W0 6.63 10 34 6 1014 2.5 10 19


= 0.91 V

e
1.6 1019
19
16. = 4 eV = 4 1.6 10 J
a) Threshold wavelength =
= hc/
or, V0 =

hC 6.63 10 34 3 108 6.63 3 10 27


=

9 3.1 107 m = 310 nm.

6.4
4 1.6 10 19
10
b) Stopping potential is 2.5 V
E = + eV
19
19
hc/ = 4 1.6 10 + 1.6 10 2.5
=

6.63 1034 3 108


1.6 10 19

6.63 3 1026
1.6 10

19

6.5

= 4 + 2.5

= 1.9125 10

= 190 nm.
42.3

Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Quality


17. Energy of photoelectron
2

mv =

hc
4.14 10 15 3 108
2.5ev = 0.605 ev.
hv 0 =

4 10 7

P2
2
P = 2m KE.
2m
2
31
19
P = 2 9.1 10 0.605 1.6 10
25
P = 4.197 10 kg m/s
18. = 400 nm = 400 109 m
V0 = 1.1 V
hc hc

ev 0

0
We know KE =

6.63 10 34 3 108
400 10

6.63 10 34 3 108
1.6 10 19 1.1
0

19.89 10 26
1.76
0

in

4.97 =

19.89 10 26
= 4.97 17.6 = 3.21
0

Ba

19.89 10 26
7
= 6.196 10 m = 620 nm.
3.21
19. a) When = 350, Vs = 1.45
and when = 400, Vs = 1

ge

0 =

g.

hc
= W + 1.45
350

(1)

le

hc
=W+1
(2)
400
Subtracting (2) from (1) and solving to get the value of h we get
h = 4.2 1015 ev-sec

ol

and

1240
1.45 = 2.15 ev.
350

c) w =

hc
= ev - s

yC

b) Now work function = w =

hc
hc
there cathod
w

1240
= 576.8 nm.
2.15
45
20. The electric field becomes 0 1.2 10 times per second.
=

Frequency =

1.2 1015
15
= 0.6 10
2

h = 0 + kE
h 0 = KE

6.63 10 34 0.6 1015

2
1.6 10 19
= 0.482 ev = 0.48 ev.
7
1
21. E = E0 sin[(1.57 10 m ) (x ct)]
7
W = 1.57 10 C
KE =

42.4

Stopping
potential
1/

Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Quality

1.57 107 3 108


Hz
2
Now eV0 = h W 0

f=

W0 = 1.9 ev

1.57 3 1015
1.9 ev
2
= 3.105 1.9 = 1.205 ev
= 4.14 10

15

1.205 1.6 10 19

So, V0 =

= 1.205 V.
1.6 1019
15 1
15 1
22. E = 100 sin[(3 10 s )t] sin [6 10 s )t]
15 1
15 1
= 100 [cos[(9 10 s )t] cos [3 10 s )t]
15
15
The w are 9 10 and 3 10
for largest K.E.
fmax =

w max
9 1015
=
2
2

6.63 1034 9 1015

g.

in

E 0 = K.E.
hf 0 = K.E.

Ba

2 KE
2 1.6 10 19
KE = 3.938 ev = 3.93 ev.
23. W 0 = hv ev0
5 10 3

1.6 10 19 2 (Given V0 = 2V, No. of photons = 8 10 , Power = 5 mW)


8 1015
19
19
19
= 6.25 10 3.2 10 = 3.05 10 J

3.05 10 19

yC

ol

= 1.906 eV.
1.6 10 19
24. We have to take two cases :
Case I v0 = 1.656
14
= 5 10 Hz
Case II v0 = 0
14
= 1 10 Hz
We know ;
a) ev 0 h w 0

ge

15

le

V (in volts)
2

1.656
1

14

1.656e = h 5 10 w0
(1)
14
(2)
0 = 5h 10 5w0
1.656e = 4w0
1.656
w0 =
ev = 0.414 ev
4
b) Putting value of w0 in equation (2)
14
5w0 = 5h 10
14
5 0.414 = 5 h 10
15
h = 4.414 10 ev-s
25. w0 = 0.6 ev
For w0 to be min becomes maximum.
w0 =

v(in 1014 Hz)

hc
hc
6.63 10 34 3 108
or =
=

w0

0.6 1.6 10 19

= 20.71 107 m = 2071 nm


42.5

Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Quality


26. = 400 nm, P = 5 w

hc
1242
=
ev

400

E of 1 photon =

5
5 400

Energy of 1 photon 1.6 10 19 1242

No.of electrons =

No.of electrons = 1 per 10 photon.

5 400

No.of photoelectrons emitted =

1.6 1242 1019 106


5 400
6
Photo electric current =
1.6 1019 = 1.6 10 A = 1.6 A.
1.6 1242 106 10 19
7
27. = 200 nm = 2 10 m

No.of photons =

hc
6.63 10 34 3 108
19
=
= 9.945 10

2 107

1 10 7
9.945 10

11

19

= 1 10

no.s

in

E of one photon =

1 1011

Ba

g.

7
= 1 10
10 4
Net amount of positive charge q developed due to the outgoing electrons
7
19
12
= 1 10 1.6 10 = 1.6 10 C.
Now potential developed at the centre as well as at the surface due to these charger

Hence, No.of photo electrons =

Kq 9 109 1.6 10 12
1
= 3 10 V = 0.3 V.

r
4.8 10 2
28. 0 = 2.39 eV
1 = 400 nm, 2 = 600 nm
for B to the minimum energy should be maximum
should be minimum.

ol

le

ge

hc
0 = 3.105 2.39 = 0.715 eV.

The presence of magnetic field will bend the beam there will be no current if
the electron does not reach the other plates.
mv
r=
qB

10 cm

X
X

X
X

X
X

yC

E=

2mE
qB

r=
0.1 =

2 9.1 10 31 1.6 10 19 0.715

1.6 10 19 B
B = 2.85 10 T
29. Given : fringe width,
y = 1.0 mm 2 = 2.0 mm, D = 0.24 mm, W 0 = 2.2 ev, D = 1.2 m
5

D
y=
d
or, =

yd 2 10 3 0.24 10 3
7

= 4 10 m
D
1.2

B
A
B
A
B

hc 4.14 10 15 3 108
= 3.105 ev

4 10
Stopping potential eV0 = 3.105 2.2 = 0.905 V
E=

42.6

Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Quality


30. = 4.5 eV, = 200 nm

WC

Minimum 1.7 V is necessary to stop the electron


The minimum K.E. = 2eV
[Since the electric potential of 2 V is reqd. to accelerate the electron to reach the plates]
the maximum K.E. = (2+1, 7)ev = 3.7 ev.
31. Given
= 1 109 cm2, W 0 (Cs) = 1.9 eV, d = 20 cm = 0.20 m, = 400 nm
we know Electric potential due to a charged plate = V = E d
Where E elelctric field due to the charged plate =/E0
d Separation between the plates.
Stopping potential or energy = E =

V=

1 10 9 20
d
= 22.598 V = 22.6
E0
8.85 10 12 100

in

hc
4.14 10 15 3 108
w0
1.9

4 10 7
= 3.105 1.9 = 1.205 ev
or, V0 = 1.205 V
As V0 is much less than V
Hence the minimum energy required to reach the charged plate must be = 22.6 eV
For maximum KE, the V must be an accelerating one.
Hence max KE = V0 + V = 1.205 + 22.6 = 23.8005 ev
32. Here electric field of metal plate = E = P/E0
1 10 19

1.6 10 19 113
9.1 10 31

le

= 113 v/m
8.85 10 12
accl. de = = qE / m

= 19.87 10

Metal plate

12

ol

ge

Ba

g.

V0e = h w0 =

y = 20 cm

yC

2y
2 20 10 2
7
t=
= 1.41 10 sec

a
19.87 10 31
hc
K.E. =
w = 1.2 eV

19
= 1.2 1.6 10 J [because in previous problem i.e. in problem 31 : KE = 1.2 ev]
2KE

2 1.2 1.6 10 19

= 0.665 10
4.1 10 31
Horizontal displacement = Vt t
= 0.655 106 1.4 107 = 0.092 m = 9.2 cm.
33. When = 250 nm
V=

Energy of photon =

hc 1240
= 4.96 ev

250

hc
w = 4.96 1.9 ev = 3.06 ev.

Velocity to be non positive for each photo electron


The minimum value of velocity of plate should be = velocity of photo electron

K.E. =

Velocity of photo electron =

2KE / m

42.7

Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Quality


=

3.06
9.1 10 31

3.06 1.6 10 19

9.1 10 31

= 1.04 10 m/sec.

34. Work function = , distance = d


The particle will move in a circle
When the stopping potential is equal to the potential due to the singly charged ion at that point.
eV0 =

hc

ke hc
hc
1
1
V0 =


2d

e
e

Ke2 hc
hc Ke2
Ke2 2d

2d
2d
2d

hc 2d
2

Ke 2d

8 hcd
2hcd
.
2 0
1
e 80 d

2d

40 e2

in

ion
d

35. a) When = 400 nm

hc 1240
= 3.1 eV

400

This energy given to electron


But for the first collision energy lost = 3.1 ev 10% = 0.31 ev
for second collision energy lost = 3.1 ev 10% = 0.31 ev
Total energy lost the two collision = 0.31 + 0.31 = 0.62 ev
K.E. of photon electron when it comes out of metal
= hc/ work function Energy lost due to collision
= 3.1 ev 2.2 0.62 = 0.31 ev
b) For the 3rd collision the energy lost = 0.31 ev
Which just equative the KE lost in the 3rd collision electron. It just comes out of the metal
Hence in the fourth collision electron becomes unable to come out of the metal
Hence maximum number of collision = 4.

yC

ol

le

ge

Ba

g.

Energy of photon =

42.8