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WWF International | July 2001
The purpose of these guidelines 1 What is community-based ecotourism? 2 WWF s position !
PART A Considering whether ecotourism is an appropriate option "
1 #onsidering the potential conser$ation gain " #apacity building for ecotourism in %abah& 'alaysia ( 2 #hec)ing the preconditions for ecotourism * #ommunity #onser$ancies in +amibia , ! -dopting an integrated approach . /e$eloping tools for responsible ecotourism in 0ra1il 2
PART B Planning ecotourism with communities and other sta eholders
" Finding the best 3ay to in$ol$e the community 10 ( Wor)ing together on an agreed strategy 12 4rinciples and criteria for par)s 1! * 5nsuring en$ironmental and cultural integrity 1" -n alternati$e 3ay for the 'editerranean 1(
PART C !eveloping viable community-based ecotourism pro"ects 1*
, 5nsuring mar)et realism and effecti$e promotion 1* Joint action 3ith a tour operator 1, . 4utting for3ard 6uality products 1. #reating integrated tourist offers in 7omania 12
PART ! #trengthening benefits to the community and the environment 20
2 'anaging impacts 20 10 4ro$iding technical support 21 11 Bbtaining the support of $isitors and tour operators 22 #odes of conduct in the -rctic 2! 12 'onitoring performance and ensuring continuity 2"
4repared by /r 7ichard /enman& The Tourism #ompany& 11a 8igh %treet& 9edbury 87. 1/%& :; Tel< ="" 1(!1 *!("(1 Fa>< ="" 1(!1 *!("(! ttcled?aol@com The Tourism #ompany is a :;-based tourism consultancy 3or)ing in the field of tourism research& planning& de$elopment and mar)eting& 3ith a specialism in rural tourism& ecotourism and protected areas@ With than)s for support from the 7ufford Foundation and from the '-A- Foundation@
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$urther information 2(
They see* to pro&ide a refer' ence point for field pro$ect staff. and highlight some practical considerations for community'based ecotourism. (() is ta*ing action to reduce negati&e impacts. (()’s interest and approach in this field. %ffects can be negati&e as well as positi&e. . In total. It accounts for more than 10% of total employment. In some countries. deplete natural resources. all the issues raised by the guidelines should be considered together to obtain a comprehensi&e picture. twel&e guidelines are presented. These are1 #. but rather stand as a collection of issues and topics to be considered and addressed. and total tourist trips are predicted to increase to 1. it has a ma$or and increasing impact on both people and nature. and dem' onstrate to a wider audience. % . Inappropriate tourism de&elop' ment and practice can degrade habitats and landscapes.owe&er. and to encourage respon' sible tourism that enhances not only the +uality of life. 11% of global GD .. such as . . 5 '5+/599& WWF-:. the information contained in them complements the guidelines as a whole. responsible tourism can help to generate awareness of and support for conser&ation and local culture. Introduction Ciant 4anda in its natural habitat& %ichuan 4ro$ince& #hina@ The purpose of these guidelines These guidelines identify some general principles.ra/il. The guidelines are not intended to be a detailed -how to’ manual. #lthough this is a broadly se+uential ordering. they may also be of &alue to partner organisations and other agencies. 2. and to encourage a consistent approach. In contrast. Throughout the te0t. and create economic opportunities for countries and communities. and generate waste and pollution. 2onsidering whether ecotourism is an appropriate option3 lanning ecotourism with communities and other sta*eholders3 De&eloping &iable community'based ecotourism pro$ects3 4trengthening benefits to the community and the en&ironment. # list of helpful reference sources is also included. (() has been in&ol&ed in the de&elopment of specific policies and good practice manuals for ecotourism which relate to local circumstances and go into more detail. #lthough the guidelines are primarily intended for use within ((). and this will dictate how the guidelines are interpreted and used at a local le&el. and from published literature and case studies.Tourism is the world’s largest industry. D. information on indi&idual (() ecotourism pro$ects is pro&ided in bo0es. pre&ailing conditions and le&els of *nowledge about ecotourism &ary considerably between countries and pro$ects. Though these are only referenced where their content is rele&ant to a specific point. but also natural and cultural resources in destinations. #s such.! billion by "0"0. These ha&e been grouped into four sections that relate to different stages of community'based ecotourism initiati&es. They are based on e0perience obtained from (() pro$ects.
2ommunity'based ecotourism should therefore foster sustainable use and collecti&e responsibility. pro&iding alternati&e income and employment for local communities3 and . pro&ided that they are carefully researched and controlled within a management plan that supports conser&ation. hunting and fishing may be included as appro' priate acti&ities.WWF 07-DI9 &hat is community-based ecotourism' %cotourism is a fre+uently debated term. in&ol&ing appreciation not only of nature. there are collecti&e rights o&er lands and resources. centres on the obser&ation of nature. This *ind of sustain' able use relies on local *nowledge. it must also em' brace indi&idual initiati&es within the community. The term -community'based ecotourism’ ta*es this social dimension a stage further. resulting in net conser&ation benefits. #ppropriate recreational and special interest acti&ities. its de&elopment and management. This definition not only implies that there should be a recognition of. and in&ol&ement in.7 4ome further general characteristics of ecotourism ha&e been identified by 89% and the (orld Tourism :rganisation as1 . organised for small groups by small. generally. The processes in&ol&ed in ecotourism include all aspects of planning. Tourists at the 'arine +ational 4ar)& Fernando de +oronha& 0ra1il@ . guiding and interpretati&e ser&ices. Increasingly. such as trail wal*ing. as part of the &isitor e0perience3 . In some locations.owe&er. and encourages communities to place a high &alue on wildlife.ow the community is defined will depend on the social and institutional structures in the area concerned. howe&er. 4ometimes it is used simply to identify a form of tourism where the moti&ation of &isitors. and a ma$or proportion of the benefits remain within the community. In many places. supporting the protection of natural areas by generating economic benefits for the managers of natural areas3 . but the definition implies some *ind of collecti&e responsibility and appro&al by representati&e bodies. de&elop' ing. may also be part of ecotourism. and transport. minimising negati&e impacts on the natural and socio'cultural en&ironment3 . special' ised and locally owned businesses 5while recognising that foreign operators also mar*et and operate ecotourism73 . re+uires a proacti&e approach that see*s to mitigate the negati&e and enhance the positi&e impacts of nature tourism. but also of indigenous cultures pre&ailing in natural areas. True -ecotourism’. particularly those inhabited by indigenous peoples. but also that there is a necessary social dimension to ecotourism. both by suppliers and consumers. containing education and interpretation as part of the tourist offer3 . . what is more important is the appropriateness and +uality of action. photography and participatory conser&ation programmes. and positi&e support for. . sales of produce and handicrafts. accommodation. this general sector of the mar*et is called -nature tourism’. increasing local and &isitor awareness of conser&ation. mar*eting and managing resources and facilities for this form of tourism. but not e0clusi&ely. (hile definitions can be useful. pro&ides significant local income. The International %cotourism 4ociety defines eco' tourism as responsible tra&el to natural areas that conser&es the en&ironment and sustains the well'being of local people. and the sales pitch to them. not what it is called. the conser&ation of natural resources. catering. 5These issues are co&ered further under Guideline 6. <isitor pro&ision includes access to natural areas and cultural heritage. This is a form of ecotourism where the local community has substantial control o&er.
hence a focus on community'based ecotourism. whether at a community or an international le&el. There are many reported incidents where forms of -ecotourism’. there has been growing international concern that ecotourism should be genuinely community'based. including protected areas. in&ol&e local people and cultures. +uality and promotion. 2areful planning and impro&ed *nowledge is needed.(()’s Tourism osition 4tatement 5(() International. be compatible with effecti&e conser&ation of natural ecosystems3 and . be part of a wider sustainable de&elopment strategy3 . this &ision recognises de&elopmental. (()’s interest centres on how ecotourism can best assist its mission to conser&e nature and ecological processes. many small scale community'based ecotourism initiati&es ha&e been set up which ha&e failed owing to a lac* of mar*et assessment. This is the challenge for (() and all parties in&ol&ed in ecotourism. #lthough representing a small 5albeit growing7 proportion of global tourism. such as 89% and the (orld Tourism :rganisation. =oreo&er. It presents a &ision that tourism de&elopment and practice should1 . "0017 states that (() and the tourism industry should share a common goal1 the long'term preser&ation of the natural en&ironment. (() belie&es that engaging and facilitating the acti&ities of local communities is an essential part of this. ecotourism can demonstrate the positi&e interrelationship between these aims. These guidelines attempt to assist field pro$ect staff to ma*e informed decisions in meeting this challenge. %cotourism and responsible tourism should be part of wider sustain' able de&elopment strategies. and bring useful benefits to many parts of the natural world. (() belie&es that tourism should be en&ironmentally sustainable. economically &iable and socially e+uitable. #t the same time. through this focus. and where indigenous communities are not recei&ing sufficient benefit. organisation. de&elopment and tourism organisations. which are not sufficiently community focused. #s a conser&ation organisation. &&$(s position 0aima E8omestay o3ners& Fa1he Aillage& 4ing3u #ounty& #hina@ -fter a recent logging ban it is hoped that tourism can pro$ide an alternati$e income for 0aima people@ Tourists on the 3ay to 4anda reser$es can stay in these homestays@ . (() supports the general principles of social e+uity. %cotourism is recei&ing considerable attention from international and national conser&ation. en&ironmental and social aims for tourism. %cotourism is no panacea. J WBB9FB7/& WWF-:. cultural integrity and po&erty reducing policies that guide many de&elopment programmes. are ha&ing a negati&e impact on the en&ironment. )rom the outset. ensuring that they ha&e an e+uitable share in its benefits. #t the same time. It is important not to e0aggerate the opportunities and benefits it can bring.
2onsideration of these issues at the outset should influence not only a decision about whether to proceed with the de&elopment of ecotourism but should also pro&ide a basis for the strategy adopted 5see Guideline A7. encourage communities themsel&es to be more directly in&ol&ed in conser&ation3 and . for e0ample. both within communities and also politically at a regional or national le&el.ra/il 5see p. (ith many ecotourism initiati&es it has been found that simply raising awareness that there is some realisable &alue in wildlife and attracti&e landscapes has been sufficient to ma*e a considerable difference. conser&ation measures such as protected areas. Thought should be gi&en to some simple.ow does it compare with other de&elopment options which may ha&e worse en&ironmental impacts> ? (hat additional problems for conser&ation might be brought by ecotourism. pro&ide a more sustainable form of li&elihood for local communities3 . as discussed further under Guideline ?. 1 (hat actions are currently being ta*en. The following are important issues to consider. 6 2ould alternati&e sustainable li&elihood options achie&e the same or better results with less effort or disruption> This re+uires an integrated approach to ecotourism within the conte0t of sustainable de&elopment.@7 the 4il&es pro$ect has demonstrated an alternati&e to predatory fishing. This has implications for structures for community in&ol&ement. and local benefit from. especially those supported by ((). generate more goodwill towards. " (hat type and le&el of incenti&e might be needed to change attitudes and actions in order to achie&e worthwhile conser&ation benefits> 2ould eco' tourism deli&er this> . Its role may be to1 . which are supporting or damaging the en&ironment> # challenge for community'based eco' tourism is often one of being seen to benefit sufficient numbers of people in the community to ma*e a difference. to set against possible gains> This might include not only de&elopment and &isitor pressure but also an o&er'emphasis on certain species compared with biodi&ersity as a whole. considered under Guideline 6. has sought to influence the state )orestry Department as well as the local community. The (() initiati&e in 4abah 5see ad$acent7. 2ommunity'based ecotourism should be seen and e&aluated as $ust one tool in achie&ing this. and in . The capacity of ecotourism to support a positi&e attitude towards conser&ation is not only achie&ed in proportion to direct economic benefits deli&ered. achie&able indicators and targets for conser&ation gain. a funda' mental ob$ecti&e is impro&ed conser&ation of landscapes and biodi&ersity. and by whom.PART A Considering whether ecotourism is an appropriate option The first three guidelines focus on the conditions and relationships 3ithin an area that should be considered before embar)ing on a community-based ecotourism initiati$e@ % Considering the potential conservation gain There needs to be a clear understanding of the relationship bet3een local communities and conser$ation and ho3 this might be impro$ed through their in$ol$ement in ecotourism@ In most ecotourism pro$ects. It is important to get the balance right. =any local communities ha&e a strong tradition of respect for wildlife and natural en&ironments that needs to be fostered and not undermined by too much emphasis on economic &alue. There needs to be clear initial understanding of the relationship between local communities and the use of natural resources in the area concerned. .
sometimes in&ol&ing &isitors themsel&es. The first element of the tourist offer to be established was homestay accommodation. The &illagers themsel&es recog' nised the potential for ecotourism and approached (() for guidance. :utreach has been e0panded through separate associations to co&er homestays. on a model eco' logically sustainable community tourism pro$ect 5=%42:T7. :&er C00 bednights were achie&ed in the first si0 months. # central presence for the pro$ect. in the form of a wor*shop office. 4tructures for community participation ha&e been important. #n important lesson learnt has been the time re+uired for capacity building to create a comprehensi&e and good +uality product. The model has sought to achie&e a broad in&ol&ement of &illagers in ecotourism. The time spent on internal capacity building is considered to be important in terms of the ongoing &iability of the pro$ect after the with' drawal of (() assistance. boat ser&ices and &illage handicrafts. (()'=alaysia. with assistance from (()'9orway and the 9orwegian go&ernment. =%42:T aims to create an alternati&e sustainable source of income. on the lower Binabatangan ri&er. which include hospitality. articipation in tourism has encouraged clearance of rubbish. computer s*ills and basic %nglish. articipants ha&e in' cluded young people and a good balance of men and women. =ar*eting will remain a challenge. 2areful research was also underta*en on natural and cultural resources which could be included in the offer. ha&e been de&eloped o&er time. # core planning group has shown e0treme commitment o&er a long period. so spreading benefits and awareness of conser&ation issues.atu utih. '5%#BT Aillage boat ser$ice for tourists in %abah& 'alaysia@ . )orging e0ternal lin*s with tour operators and others has been important here. #n initial period of close consultation led to identification within the community of the s*ills they would need to de&elop a successful pro$ect. which is a small but significant beginning. This area has seen considerable loss of natural habitat through the e0pansion of oil palm plantations and logging. finance.omestay De&elopment 8nit has become more acti&e in the de&elopment and promotion of the product. These s*ills. a 4tate =inistry of Tourism . The de&elopment of interpretati&e trails by the local community has raised their interest and awareness of the richness of the biodi&ersity. =%42:T has led to heightened concern about the dwindling forest resources in the area. 4timulated by =%42:T. has been wor*ing with the local community in &illage of . 2are has been ta*en to record feedbac* from &isitors and tour operators and to build on this. mar*eting.Capacity building for ecotourism in #abah) *alaysia In 4abah. with a high pro' portion of income retained in the community. local landscape impro&ements and a forest rehabilitation programme. was estab' lished at an early stage.
If the preconditions are met. The concept of preconditions and fast pre'feasibility chec*s is increasingly applied among donor agencies in the tourism field.asic preconditions for community'based ecotourism1 . and these may change o&er time. has been produced by GTG 51@@@7. )or e0ample. #n initial feasibility assessment should be made before instigating a community' based strategy. practicable means of physical access and telecommunication to the area. . only that it is worth proceeding to the ne0t stage of consul' tation and assessment. this does not necessarily mean that ecotourism will be successful.+ Chec ing the preconditions for ecotourism 0efore pursuing community-based ecotourism the suitability of the local area should be chec)ed and fundamental preconditions met@ It is important to a&oid spending time pursuing ecotourism and raising e0pectations in circumstances which are highly li*ely to lead to failure. no ob&ious threats to indigenous culture and traditions3 and . and that the area is not o&er supplied with ecotourism offers 5see Guideline F7. relati&ely low health ris*s and access to basic medical ser&ices and a clean water supply3 and . Deasonable conditions for underta*ing tourism business are1 . others to conditions in the local area. national legislation which does not obstruct tourism income being earned by and retained within local communities3 . ecosystems that are at least able to absorb a managed le&el of &isitation without damage3 . high le&els of safety and security for &isitors 5both in terms of image of the countryEregion and in reality73 . . in 9amibia 5see ad$acent7 cross'border conflict in 2apri&i has seriously affected mar*et demand in that region but action is being ta*en to enable promising ecotourism initiati&es there to resume when the situation stabilises. ris*s and changes in&ol&ed. depending on the local circumstances. 4ome preconditions relate to the situation at a national le&el. an initial mar*et assessment suggesting a potential demand and an effecti&e means of accessing it. e0isting or potential structures for effecti&e community decision'ma*ing 5see Guideline 673 . and is interested in recei&ing &isitors3 . # useful guide to this process. a sufficient le&el of ownership rights within the local community 5see Guideline 673 . a local community that is aware of the potential opportunities. an economic and political framewor* which does not pre&ent effecti&e trading and security of in&estment3 . 4ome preconditions may be more rele&ant than others. 2hec*ing these preconditions will re+uire informed $udgement. landscapes or floraEfauna which ha&e inherent attracti&eness or degree of interest to appeal either to specialists or more general &isitors3 . gi&ing far more detail than can be attempted here. The main aspects to chec* are as follows.
2ases such as one farmer losing @F sheep and goats to lions in one night were reported.a. this process was strength' ened by legislation from the =inistry of %n&ironment and Tourism which ga&e residents on communal land the right and responsibility both to manage and to benefit from wildlife and tourism. for e0ample. such as camping grounds. The 9amibia 2ommunity'based Tourism #ssociation 59#2:. to gain e0perience from ecotourism &entures elsewhere. .000 p. ost independence.T#7 pro&ides a lin* between communities and with outside agencies and operators.y "001. 5 4-7. The conser&ancies comprise self'defined groups of people who want to wor* together and ma*e decisions and e+uitable deals on their land on their own terms. The generation of funds through tourism to support rural de&elopment and conser&ation is a ma$or component of this pro$ect. mar*eting.57& WWF-:. ha&e increased significantly since the community approach has been adopted. Illegal hunting escalated. 2onsiderable assistance and guidance has been gi&en to conser&ancies. business ad&ice. yet it competed significantly with their li&eli' hood. of good +uality and respects the en&ironment and cultural heritage. /amaraland #amp G an ecotourist lodge in the Torra #onser$ancy& +amibia@ J +5W0F& WWF-:. 2ommunal #rea 2onser&ancies ha&e been established which ha&e to meet stringent criteria.efore independence.Community Conservancies in -amibia In 9amibia. . 2onser&ancy Tourism :ption lans ensure tourism is mar*et dri&en. . Go&ernment retains o&erall responsibility for ensuring sustainability and that conser&ancies wor* within these bounds. They are guided by their own constitutions and manage' ment plans. including blac* rhino and elephant. ad&ocacy. 4ome conser&ancies run their own tourism facilities. in financial management and negotiating fa&ourable con' tracts. tour programmes and controlled hunting. for e0ample on the de&elopment of lodges. enabled by the legislation.57& WWF-:. #ll ha&e some in&ol&ement in tourism. (ildlife numbers. which also co&er e+uitable distribution of income to members. Aitalia and 'arcus G #ommunity Came Cuards of the Torra #onser$ancy& trac)ing rhino 3ith tourists@ 5 4-7. 8imba Cirl& +amibia@ . (() has been leading a consortium of national and international organisations in the implementation of a pro$ect 5HI)%7 which supports community'based natural resource management. These are being reflected in a Tourism olicy for 9amibia addressing responsible tourism. the greatest financial benefit to them has come from the ability. In the Torra 2onser&ancy. to enter into $oin &entures with the pri&ate sector. but se&eral communities opposed this and game guards were appointed by community leaders.owe&er. There are encouraging signs that this integrated management of tourism and conser&ation is benefiting biodi&ersity. articular benefit has been obtained from organising e0change &isits.7 which include management of wildlife resources. and supplies assistance to them through training. such &entures pay all the conser&ancy running costs 5about I1A. and funding. with assistance from 9G:s. #s a result. 1" had been registered and "A were in the process of becoming so. . communities had &irtually no rights to manage and benefit from wildlife. # central boo*ing and information system is being established.
In principle. both on nature conser&ation and on income and employment for the community as a whole. including coordination between tourism and en&ironmental ministries and policies. multiple sector acti&ity within local communities should be encouraged. the success of local ecotourism initiati&es may depend on &ertical integration with national le&el initiati&es to support and promote responsible tourism. is limited. In . %cotourism mar*ets are small.ra/il. They can be more influential and successful if they are integrated within other sustainable de&elopment initiati&es at a regional and local le&el. creating mutually supporti&e lin*ages and reducing financial lea*age away from the area. #t an early stage in wor* on ecotourism it is important to be aware of the wor* of other national and international agencies in this field and to see* mutually beneficial coordination.. for e0ample. In addition to ma*ing lin*ages with what may already e0ist. appropriate legislation and assistance towards small enterprises and community initiati&es. It can also be coordinated with agriculture. #s well as hori/ontal integration within the community. 9ational le&el support is needed in terms of lin*ing conser&ation and tourism acti&ities and responsi' bilities. in terms of the use of time and resources and in pro&iding mar*ets for local produce. ecotourism can shield against threats to other sectors. efforts should be made to influence national policies in fa&our of ecotourism. :n the other hand. %cotourism can be integrated with other sectors of the rural economy. (() has been see*ing to influence national policy as well as local capacity 5see ad$acent7. seasonal and sensiti&e to e0ternal influences such as political changes or economic instability in the host or generating country. Adopting an integrated approach 7ather than being pursued in isolation& community-based ecotourism should occur in the conte>t of other options and programmes for conser$ation& sustainable de$elopment and responsible tourism@ The small scale of most community'based ecotourism initiati&es means that their impact. and national and international promotion. 'arine +ational 4ar) of Fernando de +oronha& 0ra1il@ WWF 07-DI9 .
It is located in 4il&es.ra/il is witnessing an e0plosion of interest in and international funding for ecotourism. (()' . being one of the first community'based ecotourism initiati&es in the country. (() recognises the need to influ' ence go&ernment at federal and state le&els in . and the need for sufficient time 5two years7 for consultation and research when initiating ecotourism with a community. #n ecolodge was de&eloped and opened in 1@@!. proposing and testing a training methodology for community'based ecotourism. (ith (() support.ra/il has been to disseminate practical e0perience. with "0% of net profits being put towards the management of the reser&e. # modular approach has been adopted. run by local people. The wor*shops are participatory and the practical e0perience of trainees is used to impro&e the methodology. it also poses a threat of uncontrolled tourism with serious impact on natural habitats.!eveloping tools for community-based ecotourism in Bra/il . The 4il&es #ssociation for %n&ironmental and 2ultural reser&ation was established to manage the la*es and promote conser&ation. one of the pilot pro$ects is already well established. 2omponents of the programme include1 . based on eight pilot pro$ects which are di&ersified in terms of ecoregion and type of ecotourism3 . # *ey feature of the approach in . to promote a form of eco' tourism that is community'based and well regulated. 0 . in the time between them. #lthough this may promote conser&ation in a country where en&ironmental awareness is still &ery low. wor*ing towards the de&elopment of a certification system for eco' tourism at a national le&el. direct technical assistance to pro$ects in the field. The pro$ect was moti&ated by the concern within the local community to protect its traditional fishing resources from predatory commercial fishing. Training has been aimed at the conser&ation and business sectors.ra/il has therefore instigated a programme of capacity building and awareness raising at a local and national le&el. Hessons learnt include the need for technical staff and not $ust a manual to help grass' roots organisations. a la*eland area ?00*m from =anaus. producing a training manual and preparing trainers to multiply the methodology in different regions of the country3 and .ra/il to disseminate sound principles of ecotourism. in&ol&ing wor*shops e&ery si0 months and. #s well as de&eloping certification.
It is important to remember that ecotourism is a business. There are &arious ways in which the community can relate to pri&ate enterprise. Issues of gender may also be important and ecotourism can pro&ide good opportunities for women. The degree of community in&ol&ement and benefit can de&elop o&er time. of the legal rights and responsibilities of the community o&er land. #s well as community'led initiati&es. and ha&e decision'ma*ing power o&er the le&el and nature of tourism in its area. :pportunities and solutions will &ary considerably in different areas and between communities. #n important principle is to see* to wor* with e0isting social and community structures. enabling the community to influence acti&ity and earn income from tourism. though these can create challenges as well as opportunities. and pro&ision for an employment and training programme for local people. pri&ate enterprise and in&estment should be encour' aged where appropriate. offer a concession to the community.PART B Planning ecotourism with communities and other sta eholders The ne>t three guidelines consider the )inds of structures and processes that need to be in place 3ithin a community to enable ecotourism to 3or) 3ell& and for the benefit of local people and the en$ironment@ These are not se6uential steps and should be considered together@ 2 $inding the best way to involve the community 5ffecti$e structures are re6uired to enable the community to influence& manage and benefit from ecotourism de$elopment and practice@ In&ol&ing the community is a critically important and comple0 sub$ect for successful community'based ecotourism. resources and de&elopment. The main ob$ecti&e should be to achie&e broad and e+uitable benefits throughout the community. %1 . there are some ecotourism initiati&es in the #ma/on where lodges. within a structure which enables the community to benefit. and where possible a strengthening. This should apply in particular to the tenure of community'held lands and to rights o&er tourism. 2ommunity'based ecotourism re+uires an understanding. that ha&e been built with pri&ate in&estment. It should also apply to participation in land use planning and de&elopment control o&er pri&ate property. conser&ation and other uses on these lands. It can also help to identify potential leaders and people with dri&e. an agreement to hand the business o&er to them after a specified period. )or e0ample.
simple and consistently applied deals gi&e sufficient incenti&e to pri&ate enterprises. but this can be o&ercome with time.57& WWF-:.5 4-7. in return for a fee and a share of re&enue. A 2ommunally owned and run enterprises. 1 ri&ate tourism businesses employing local people. has been a ma$or feature of (()Js wor* in support of ecotourism in 9amibia 5see p. -bo$e left< #ommunity de$elopment ad$isors at 4urus #onser$ancy& +amibia@ -bo$e< 9ocal 0aima 3omen in 4ing3u #ounty& #hina& ha$e formed groups to ma)e sou$enirs for tourists@ 8ere a young seamstress is ma)ing a traditional outfit 3orn by 0aima 3omen@ %% . including in management. This has often pro&ed to be a good way of spreading benefits within a community.F7. with lin*s to the broader community. #ction can be ta*en to strengthen relationships between the community and pri&ate partners. and to help local communication. There are many e0amples where this has wor*ed well. and mini' mise administrati&e burdens and uncertainty3 and . J WBB9FB7/& WWF-:. recognise commercial realities. running their own small tourism businesses. pri&ate operators and possibly go&ernment agencies and 9G:s. There are e0amples where communally'earned income from ecotourism has been directly di&ided between households or placed in community de&elopment funds or separate trusts for use on com' munity pro$ects such as health or education programmes. This includes1 . ad&ice and training for communities on their rights and negotiating practies3 . and of training and other support in Guideline 10. =ore detailed consideration of types of product and relationships with tour operators is gi&en in Guidelines F and C. The method of distribution of income earned by communities to indi&idual members needs careful attention. ensuring transparent. This can sometimes be co&ered in legislation relating to communal rights. ? ri&ate tourism businesses 5internally or e0ternally owned7 being granted a concession to operate by the community. to ensure understanding and smooth operation of agreements. it is &ery important to guard against poor wages and conditions and to ensure that training is offered to local people. #lthough a useful form of employment. 4ometimes these suffer from lac* of organisation and incenti&e. 6 Indi&iduals. :ptions for community in&ol&ement with enterprise include the following. 4uccess can &ary and lac* of s*ill and tourism *nowledge has often pro&ed a wea*ness. " Hocal indi&iduals selling produce and handicraft to &isitors directly or through tourism businesses. establishing committees in&ol&ing local people. De&eloping effecti&e legislation to empower local communities and helping them strengthen their relationship with pri&ate enterprise.
It is also helpful to set out a clear statement of strengths. Inputs to the strategy should include1 . concerns and le&el of interest3 . in order to a&oid frustration. not to be too ambitious in terms of targets and timing. together with an identification of aims. attention may need to be paid to action to manage tourism. which is an important issue for ecotourism. Hin*s should be made as appropriate to the regional and national go&ernment le&el. and local authorities. 4-+ 4ar)< 0ialo3ie1a +ational 4ar)& 4oland@ %+ .owe&er. In many places. :ne of the main benefits from wor*ing on a strategy is to pro&ide the community with the tools and *nowledge necessary for decision ma*ing. including policies on de&elopment control and the handling of e0isting &isitors. so that a range of complementary actions can be ta*en. including opportunities presented for ecotourism and sensiti&ities and constraints 5see Guideline !7. conser' &ation agencies including protected area managers. *nowledgeable tourism operators.-70I0& WWF . it is essential that people with e0perience and *nowledge of tourism and conser&ation are in&ol&ed in its preparation. e0isting e0perience. The actions identified may include specific de&elopment or mar*eting pro$ects. The strategy should be community'led and community'focused. opportunities and threats. careful consultation within the community co&ering attitudes and awareness of tourism. including agreed action on the le&el of any par* admission fees and their subse+uent use for conser&ation or within the community. and a way of monitoring results. a comprehensi&e mar*et assessment 5see Guideline F73 and . rele&ant 9G:s. The output of the strategy process should be an agreed &ision for ecotourism o&er a specified period. The action plan should identify practical initiati&es. In some locations at least as much. an action plan. The strategy should enable a comprehensi&e picture to be formed of needs and opportunities in an area. including a timescale and an indication of responsibility and resources re+uired. or more. local entrepreneurs.3 &or ing together on an agreed strategy #lose consultation 3ith the community and other sta)eholders should lead to an agreed $ision and strategy for ecotourism& 3hich has en$ironmental& social and economic aims and attainable obHecti$es@ #ll community'based ecotourism initiati&es should be centred on a clear strategy agreed and understood by the local community and all other sta*e' holders with an interest in tourism and conser&ation. The (() #9 ar*s initiati&e ad&ocates a strategic approach in&ol&ing all sta*eholders 5see ad$acent7. possible opportunities and pitfalls. eople in&ol&ed should include representati&es of the local community. . ob$ecti&es and strategic priorities. the relationship between the local community and a protected area may be an important element of the strategy. It is &ery important. wea*nesses. an assessment of the natural and cultural heritage.
These are concerned with1 the inherent +uality of the natural heritage3 natural resource management3 &isitor management and the +uality of the &isitor e0perience3 and the e0istence a responsible tourism de&elopment strategy. . Hessons learnt from helping indi&idual par*s wor* with local communities towards meeting the criteria emphasise the need for clarity and transparency in communication.Principles and criteria for par s The (() #9 ar*s pro$ect is an initiati&e to raise awareness and support for %urope’s protected areas through tourism. is a fundamental re+uirement. The in&ol&ement of the local community and tourism enter' prises. %. both in drawing up the strategy and in wor*ing with the par* authority on implementation. strategic approach. # set of principles and criteria has been de&eloped as a basis for recognition as a #9 par*. It pro&ides a framewor* for a comprehensi&e. within and around the par*.
:ften it is found that the +uantity of &isitors at any one time is a more critical factor than the o&erall le&el of &isitation. It is &ery important that communities decide on the le&el of tourism they wish to see. Two important principles are1 . if possible. ? #pplication of systematic en&ironmental. )urthermore.ere scientific *nowledge may be re+uired to enable a $udgement to be made. such as the choice of products sold to them 5for e0ample a&oiding artefacts with a sacred significance7 or the use of inappropriate sources of fuel. %2 . ta*ing account of the conditions of different sites at &arious times of the year. both with respect to facility pro&ision and wildlife conser&ation measures. # common approach is to locate tourist lodges some distance away from community &illages. . There are many e0amples in the =editerranean 5see ad$acent7 where en&ironmental degradation has occurred but also places where sound planning control and community in&ol&ement ha&e pre&ented o&er'e0ploitation. . &alues and s*ills3 and . &illage communities ha&e identified specific /ones for ecotourism. " 2odes of conducts for &isitors 5see Guideline 117. culture is not static and communities may wish to see change. This should also be concerned with details of what is offered to &isitors. )or e0ample. the community should decide which aspects of their cultural traditions they wish to share with &isitors. The planning process should ensure that monitoring measures are in place so that it is possible to tell when limits of acceptable change ha&e been reached 5see Guideline 1"7. social and cultural impact assessment on all proposed de&elopment. 2onsultation during the process of drawing up an ecotourism strategy should re&eal the *inds of changes that might be &iewed positi&ely or negati&ely by local people. 8seful tools in the management of &isitors include the following. # practical approach is to identify the limits of acceptable change that could be brought by tourism and then to consider what le&el of tourism acti&ity would generate this change. products de&eloped should be based on the community’s traditional *nowledge.4 5nsuring environmental and cultural integrity The le$el and type of tourism planned and de$eloped must be appropriate for the area s natural resources and cultural heritage and consistent 3ith the community s 3ishes and e>pectations@ # fundamental characteristic of community'based ecotourism is that the +uality of the natural resources and cultural heritage of an area should not be damaged and. #d&erse impact on the natural en&ironment should be minimised and the culture of indigenous communities should not be compromised.owe&er. in one community in the #ma/on it was felt that more than eight &isitors per month would be disrupti&e. 1 #greements with tour operators o&er the number and si/e of groups to bring. %cotourism should encourage people to &alue their own cultural heritage. In some locations. when they should come and their length of stay. # similar approach can be adopted with respect to determining limits of acceptable change and of acceptable use as far as the natural en&ironment is concerned. This should co&er both the siting of facilities and the degree of access allowed. strategies for ma*ing the necessary ad$ustments to o&ercome any problems identified will need to be established. They can then be helped to consider what this might mean in terms of the numbers and types of &isitor to loo* for. should be enhanced by tourism. 6 Goning both within and outside protected areas.
owe&er.-& WWF C755#5 4 C:C9I59'I& WWF -bo$e left< -erial $ie3 of a cro3ded and resource intensi$e beach& and a cro3ded ferry boat& 9iguria& Italy@ -bo$e< /adia Forest& Creece@ %3 .ele* is an area of ecological importance which has been transformed into a mass tourism destination. It is also see*ing to support responsible tourism alternati&es. growing pollution and lac* of community in&ol&ement. # local association has been created and during the high summer season. 2ontrasting e0amples can be found in Tur*ey. locals. 9eighbouring 2irali. tourists and &olunteers monitor the many turtle nesting sites in the surrounding beaches. e+ual importance is gi&en to &isitor management and concerns o&er carrying capacity. 4 '-T%B:. Its conser&ation pro$ect in the Dadia forest reser&e is a leading e0ample. is a small coastal community where (()'Tur*ey. and in&ol&ement of conser&ationists in all aspects of ecotourism de&elopment. . In&ol&ement of the local community and pro&iding income through tourism has generated support for the reser&e. wor*ing with local sta*eholders. and a lin* made with the women’s agrotourism cooperati&e. Tourism facilities in the form of a hostel and information centre were passed on to a community' based enterprise. o&er capacity.An alternative way for the *editerranean (() is wor*ing in the =editerranean to draw attention to the en&iron' mental damage caused by many years of intensi&e tourism de&elopment. . in this area. has been successful in securing the enforcement of e0isting laws that limit the type and +uantity of coastal de&elopment. plagued by bad planning. with a clear /oning system and management plan. local guides were recruited. (()'Greece has a policy to support community'based ecotourism. 2irali demonstrates how rele&ant sta*eholders can come together to create a new &ision for en&ironmentally responsible tourism. by contrast. # new management plan for the area encourages limited and low impact de&elopment.
Incoming tour operators play a strong part in the mar*eting of the 4il&es pro$ect in . 5nsuring mar et realism and effective promotion 5cotourism proHects must be based on an understanding of mar)et demand and consumer e>pectations and ho3 to place the product offer effecti$ely in the mar)et place@ The main reason why many community'based ecotourism pro$ects ha&e failed is that they ha&e not attracted a sufficient number of &isitors. # problem has been the lac* of tourism *nowledge not only among local communities themsel&es but also among ad&isors and supporting agencies. #ttention needs to be paid to the different opportunities and re+uirements of e0perienced eco' tourists. so that the operator can ad&ise on what can be sold and ad$ustments. assump' tions made about the mar*etability of a particular location or e0perience ha&e been unrealistic and not based on research. 2ontact. should be made in the early stages. before the de&elopment of the offer has occurred. nature and performance of e0isting ecotourism products which are competitors but also potential collaborators. bac*pac*ers. and educational mar*ets.PART C !eveloping viable community-based ecotourism pro"ects Far too many community-based ecotourism proHects ha$e pro$ed not be $iable and ha$e failed@ The follo3ing t3o guidelines see) to highlight some of the potential pitfalls@ . directly or through handling agents. can be made. an initial profile of target &isitors should be drawn up. A %0isting information and promotional mechanisms in the area. it is far easier to get more out of e0isting &isitors than to attract new ones. The le&el and nature of mar*eting should also ta*e into account the en&iron' mental and cultural integrity of the area and implications for &isitor numbers 5see Guideline !7. bac*pac*ers or independent tra&ellers may %4 . This also has the ad&antage of ac+uainting the community with the e0perience of handling guests. ? The le&el. although pre'arranged groups may be easier to handle. )or e0ample. :ften.ra/il 5see p. # mar*eting plan should be prepared for all pro$ects. based on &isitor sur&eys. and the e0perience has been a &aluable learning e0perience for all parties 5see ad$acent7. In principle. " The location of the area with respect to established tourist circuits in the country. 6 The acti&ities of inbound tour operators and ground handling agents in the country and co&erage by international tour operators. promotional acti&ity has been misdirected. more general mid'mar*et &isitors who en$oy seeing nature and local culture.@7. profiles and interests of e0isting &isitors to the area. It is not sufficient for community'based ecotourism pro$ects to rely simply on tour operators to supply &isitors. (()'8B has been building relationships between field pro$ects and a specialist tour operator to de&elop tours to those pro$ects. #n initial step may be to test mar*et the programme with one or two groups. 4etting up a fully saleable programme can ta*e time. # thorough mar*et assessment should be underta*en for the destination as a whole and for the indi&idual ecotourism pro$ect. the domestic &isitor mar*et may offer more potential than international tra&ellers. #s a result. which relates mar*et research to a promotional programme. )rom *nowledge of the mar*et. # &ital ingredient for many pro$ects is to form a close wor*ing relationship with one or more specialist tour operators. ro0imity to these and opportunities for deflection ma*e a considerable difference. In some areas. 1 The patterns. This should consider the following. if necessary. These should be selected carefully to ensure they are well established and are deli&ering reliable business. The uni+ue or particular +ualities that an area might offer in comparison to other e0isting products should be identified.
It is important for each party to be clear about what is e0pected of it in terms of product deli&ery. )or e0ample. and promotion though national tourism campaigns.often be better suited to the product in +uestion. J WBB9FB7/& WWF-:. -bo$e left< 5colodge& Wanglang reser$e& 4ing3u #ounty& #hina@ -bo$e< 7esting for lunch in Dhugencha $alley& Wanglang 7eser$e& #hina@ . lin*ages with other pro$ects. media and guideboo* co&erage. and DI e0pects that two years will be needed for a good le&el of business to be established. www. such as those run by Disco&ery Initiati&es. Its mission statement co&ers support for conser&ation and fair trading with the communities it &isits. (()'8B is wor*ing with the 9ature and %cotourism #ccreditation rogramme 59%# 7. The tours are each limited to a ma0imum of 1" people. J WBB9FB7/& WWF-:. :ne component of promotional acti&ity is pro&ided through lin*ages between Disco&ery Initiati&es and appropriate websites. will also need to address issues such as local information deli&ery. This website publishes feedbac* from clients as a transparent method of e&aluating and promoting the products. )urther e0ternal contacts can help to strengthen the programme. pro&ision of e0perts’ time and promotional acti&ity. The first tour to 2hina presented many challenges for participants and staff ali*e1 a considerable amount of capacity building.responsibletra&el. It charges a significant premium to each &isitor in return for access to e0pert field staff who gi&e a comprehensi&e insight into the conser&ation programme. therefore. They ha&e signed a contract with the specialist operator Disco&ery Initiati&es to de&elop and promote tours to field pro$ects in 2hina and 9amibia. specifically training for guiding and interpretation. It is also crucial that what is mar*eted to tourists is actually a&ailable on location. that meet responsible tourism criteria. is re+uired if future tours are to be successful. 2are was ta*en in the selection of the operator. to monitor and 5it is hoped7 certify the tours.com gi&es e0posure to programmes. It was found that considerable time is re+uired to set up such arrangements. Disco&ery Initiati&es is well established. The mar*eting plan. an ecotourism certification programme based in #ustralia. but tend not to purchase inclusi&e pac*ages through operators in their home country. 6oint action with a tour operator (()'8B has been *een to ensure that ecotourism pro$ects it supports are well positioned in terms of the international mar*et from an early stage. internet promotion. #n agreement was signed in "000 for launch in the "001 brochure. (() started negotiations with DI in early 1@@@.
is well deli&ered. including an opportunity for local people to be trained as guides and interpreters. =any &isitors are loo*ing for a combination. ! General e0perience of &illage life. comfortable and reliable accommodation and efficient business hand' ling. Kuality products can be made and sold which reflect an area’s traditions and creati&ity without de&aluing them. is loo*ing for a rich wildlife e0per' ience. It can sometimes be difficult for communities to deli&er this. If this is high. 6 Guiding and interpretation1 a fine balance between local colour and story telling. it is &ery important to a&oid the depletion of cultural artefacts and other resources. at whate&er le&el. There are three *ey re+uirements. ? #ccommodation1 cleanliness is of primary importance. welcome and pri&ilege which a community &isit can pro&ide is something &alued by many &isitors. It can pro&ide an incenti&e to *eep local culture and pass on local *nowledge. Different re+uirements in terms of in&estment and sophistication e0ist between lodges and camping grounds. 1 The +uality of the wildlife and landscapes. #lthough lu0ury and sophistication may not be sought. %cotourists respond to genuine and traditional &alues and e0periences and they do not want this to be manufactured for them. (ithout it. attracti&eness and abundance. %7 . These. The (()'bac*ed pro$ects in 4abah 5see p. but issues such as ablution and toilet arrangements. a pro$ect has a greater chance of success. F articipation1 some &isitors &alue the opportunity to participate in acti&ities. an important section of the ecotourism mar*et. #ll &isitors in this mar*et are increasingly loo*ing for a high le&el of information pro&ision. gi&ing reassurance but also ensuring that e0pectations match reality. This may re+uire in&ol&ement of different people. " Kuality and accuracy of promotion and information. both in terms of what is offered and proper business planning. 2onser&ation participation programmes are a specific sub'sector of eco' tourism and can be community'based. 1 #ttention to detail. and scientific *nowledge and accuracy is often sought. which reinforces the need for effecti&e mar*et research. " The mi0 of natural and cultural e0periences. :n the other hand. in turn. ? #uthenticity and ambience. ensuring that what is offered.A7 and the 2arpathians 5see ad$acent7 both contain specific tourism components de&eloped with attention to detail.7 Putting forward 8uality products -ll community-based ecotourism products should offer a high 6uality of $isitor e>perience and be subHect to a rigorous business plan@ # second common reason for failure concerns the +uality of e0ecution of the pro$ect. will &ary according to the type of &isitor coming. A Hocal produce and handicrafts1 although &isitors may loo* for authenticity. general functionality. Kuality is about deli&ering an e0perience that meets or e0ceeds &isitor e0pectations. pri&acy and o&erall design and ambience can be significant. the +uality of the associated facilities and deri&ed e0periences becomes more important. often handled by tour operators. including fol*lore1 this can pro&e an e0perience highly &alued by &isitors. in terms of relati&e uni+ueness. the special sense of disco&ery. 4ome issues relate to specific components of the offer.
(ays of impro&ing the deli&ery of +uality include the following. This should de&elop the mar*et assessment and mar*eting approach. %n&ironmental impact assessments should also be underta*en as referred to under Guideline !. including mar*eting. Irrespecti&e of the type of product on offer. and often lodges7 with the community pro&iding others.1F7. with different locations pro&iding different elements. . according to a&ailability and aptitude. (or*ing with pri&ate sector operators L a model in&ol&ing pri&ate sector operators pro&iding some components 5especially mar*eting and handling arrangements. This can also lead to sa&ings on certain costs. with e0pansion based on successes achie&ed3 . 4*ills training 5co&ered under Guideline 107. . combining carni&ore conser&ation themes with mountain hi*ing and &isits to ma$or heritage sites3 . has often pro&ed successful 5see p. and include a full costing and ris* assessment. 0arsa Aalley& 3ith the bac)drop of the magnificent 4iatra #raiului mountain& Darnesti& 7omania@ %0 . Creating integrated tourist offers in Romania (()'8B and (()'4wit/erland ha&e $oined a number of en&ironmental organisations in supporting the 2arpathian Harge 2arni&ore ro$ect in Domania. address personnel and responsibilities. training local people as guides. including1 . The programme attracted 60 groups in "000 and interest from operators has risen steadily. 4ometimes communities can wor* in con$unction with other organisations such as par* authorities. initial hosting of -pilot’ tour groups to test the offer and community response3 . The pro$ect has de&eloped a tourism programme in order to demonstrate to local communities that wol&es. wor*ing with indi&iduals in the community to de&elop tourism ser&ices cautiously. establishment of a Garnesti %cotourism #ssociation to ta*e the pro$ect forward3 . see*ing funding for a carni&ore &isitor centre in Garnesti to secure economic benefit from casual &isitors and the domestic mar*et as well as international groups. bears and lyn0 ha&e an economic &alue. each component should be the sub$ect of a carefully prepared business plan. using specialists with certification by the national tourist agency3 . building contacts with a range of specialist international tour operators3 and . J WBB9FB7/& WWF-:. 2onsiderable attention to detail has been applied to the de&elopment of the programme. Hin*ages between pro$ects. which has a fragile economy and has been &ery supporti&e of the pro$ect3 . focusing on one community. co&er practical details of deli&ery. rural de&elopment and education.000 population7. Garnesti 5"F. management. . Wal)ing in the forest& #arpathian 'ountains& 7omania@ J WBB9FB7/& WWF-:. This is an integrated management pro$ect combining research.
In selecting a scheme. certification should be based on action ta*en rather than simply e0pressed intention. In some communities. with a principle of ta*ing as much waste away from the site as possible. both in the planning of programmes and in the infor' mation supplied. roducers can be assisted through the formation of local groups and networ*s. )eedbac* to them from &isitors will help.PART ! #trengthening benefits to the community and the environment The final four guidelines address measures that can be ta)en to impro$e the performance of community-based ecotourism initiati$es& in terms of the deli$ery of social& economic and en$ironmental benefits@ 0 *anaging impacts %pecific steps should be ta)en 3ithin the community to minimise the en$ironmental impact and ma>imise the local benefit of ecotourism@ #ttention to detail in a number of aspects of both the de&elopment and oper' ation of ecotourism pro$ects can significantly impro&e their deli&ery. both at the de&elopment stage and in operating facilities. The design of all new buildings should be carefully considered. Decycling should be encouraged and all forms of waste disposal should be carefully managed. mar*eting and pricing. Hocal communities should be encouraged and helped to ta*e account of these issues themsel&es without any effect on their li&ing standards. inside bac* co&er7. reduce waste and a&oid pollution. and to fa&our the employment of local people. sustainable sources. the supply of thatching. useful income has been earned through. 8se of en&ironmentally friendly transport should be positi&ely fa&oured. and this should be considered first. the criteria it uses should be carefully considered. through information. Influencing the actions ta*en by &isitors and tour operators is &ery important 5see Guideline 117. #ction should be ta*en. In particular. +1 . training and demonstration. Traditional styles and locally a&ailable materials should be used. for e0ample.1F. In order to minimise economic lea*age. and )urther information. How energy technologies appropriate to the location should be applied where possible. (()'8B has made an assess' ment of certification schemes and is in&ol&ed in pilot initiati&es in this field 5see p. # number of national and international tourism certification schemes pro' &ide formal recognition of good practice in managing impacts on the en&iron' ment and local communities. 4ome elements of good practice can be included as firm re+uirements in contracts with the pri&ate sector. This may re+uire action to identify local. and help with contacts. to reduce consumption of water and energy. e&ery effort should be made to use local produce and ser&ices. :ften it can be better to use e0isting buildings rather than engaging in new de&elopment.
57& WWF-:. In general. . =any (()'supported ecotourism pro$ects ha&e considerable e0perience of training. should be encouraged. deli&er training and financial assistance and generally represent the sector in the commercial and political arena. The use of local committees to appro&e financial offers has pro&ed successful in some areas.#ommunities 3ill re6uire ongoing access to ad$ice and support in the de$elopment& management and mar)eting of responsible& good 6uality ecotourism products@ =any of the issues raised in these guidelines point to the importance of capacity building and training programmes with local communities. including content and deli&ery3 and . This should be carefully discussed with the communities themsel&es. # &ery &aluable way of pro&iding technical support is through establishing networ*s between pro$ects.ra/il 5see p. These not only raise awareness and pro&ide mar*eting support but can also promote common +uality standards. if possible bac*ed by efficient reser&ation systems. including learning by doing and on the $ob training. management s*ills. well targeted to local needs. and lin*ages to mar*eting outlets such as national tourist board promotions and websites. in order to encourage more financial assistance programmes. help with &isitor sur&eys. The importance of effecti&e mar*eting has been co&ered under Guideline F.@7. handling &isitors. may be most appropriate. gi&ing confidence and putting across *nowledge is through contacting. especially those in 9amibia 5see p. legal issues and financial control3 . it has been found that short. =ost pro$ects re+uire some form of financial support. 4ome countries ha&e associations of community' based tourism initiati&es.owe&er. #hef preparing delicious spicy %ichuan food at Wanglang ecolodge& 4ing3u #ounty& #hina@ . 5 4-7. It is important to get the le&el of deli&ery and content right. # useful way of generating ideas. ha&e pro&ed necessary. The establishment of registers of community'based ecotourism pro$ects. customer care and hospitality s*ills3 . en&ironmental management3 . including appropriate credit schemes. technical courses ha&e had little impact. guide training. 4oft loans and long'term credit. Honger courses. #s well as technical mar*eting ad&ice. basic language training. wor*ing and negotiating with commercial operators3 . &isiting or meeting other pro$ects which are already e0perienced in community'based ecotourism. pro$ects can be assisted through access to national research data. There are &arious e0amples where this has been particularly successful. product de&elopment issues3 . the nature of the financial assistance must a&oid inhibiting incenti&e and causing problems within and between communities. mar*eting and communication3 . %1 Providing technical support +ec)laces made from palm fruits by 8imba 3omen for sale in the ETraditional Aillage 4urus #onser$ancy& +amibia@ J WBB9FB7/& WWF-:. It is important to demonstrate to go&ernments and donor agencies the success of small community'based pro$ects.F7 and . Important topics to consider include1 .
purchasing decisions. This is often through a le&y applied by tour operators or through in&iting donations. and more specific instructions and regulations.responsibletra&el.com7. minimising en&ironmental impact. acti&ities to a&oid. and how it is deli&ered. #lthough some operators resist this. others are area or site specific. modifying beha&iour when &isiting.owe&er. 4ome are generic. ++ .%% 9btaining the support of visitors and tour operators 5cotourism e>periences should raise a3areness of conser$ation and community issues among $isitors and tour operators and include mechanisms for enlisting their support@ 4ignificant additional benefits can be achie&ed through impro&ing communi' cation with &isitors themsel&es and with the tour operators who bring them. respect for local cultures. selection of sites. =oney may be put into a local de&elopment fund. <isitors should be encouraged to -multiply’ their e0perience by writing and tal*ing about it. Daising finance or other forms of support from &isitors 5such as partic' ipation in research7 has become +uite a common practice in ecotourism destinations. # number of codes of conduct for &isitors ha&e been produced. creating a mar*eting ad&antage for the operator. relationship with indigenous communities. codes for tour operators co&er issues such as particular en&ironmental and cultural issues in the destination concerned. <isitors appear to applaud the opportunity to ma*e a contribution. In almost all cases. the effect on tour prices can be relati&ely small. <isitors may be in&ited to discuss beneficiary schemes and to get to *now them. These benefits include greater awareness of en&ironmental and social issues. These tend to co&er +uestions such as prior reading and understanding. and generating direct support for local communities and conser&ation causes. messages to put across to staff and clients. =echanisms for follow'up contact should be e0plored. during and after the &isit. These codes can be adapted for all ecotourism destinations. this can be made more or less meaningful depending on the information they recei&e before. These can be conser&ation initiati&es or social programmes within the community. and conser&ation issues to support. 2areful attention should be paid to the messages put out by tour operators to their clients and to the +uality of guiding and interpretation on site. . The (() #rctic rogramme has particular e0perience with codes 5see ad$acent7. 4imilarly. the e0perience of a community'based tourism pro' gramme will ha&e an impact on how people thin* in future about the area and habitats they ha&e &isited. selection of operators and destinations. =any websites now offer this opportunity 5see www.
the principles ha&e also been used by communities.4 47B. (hile the increase in #rctic tourism poses threats to the region’s sensiti&e en&ironment. =ore than a million people &isited the #rctic in "000. (() gi&es an annual award to the indi&idual. In order to publicise and encourage adherence to the codes. . a tourism pro$ect in the (estf$ords of Iceland has gained clearer direction by assessing how each element of its action programme relates to the (() principles. and increase the share of tourism re&enue that goes to #rctic communities. % WI/%T7-+/ 9ocal community members in the -rctic@ +. relationships with communities. (()’s #rctic rogramme started an #rctic tourism pro$ect in 1@@A. The codes co&er issues such as minimising resource use and other impacts. the 4tate of #las*a and the #las*a (ilderness Decreation and Tourism #ssociation 5#(DT#7 initiated an #rctic tour operator accreditation programme. create greater global awareness of the region. hoping to influence the de&elopment of tourism in the region. conser&ation organisations. it also presents opportunities to educate &isitors about the #rctic. business or organisation wor*' ing in tourism whose inno&ati&e and successful efforts result in the most benefit to the #rctic. They ha&e been translated into a &ariety of languages and widely distributed. #lthough the codes are aimed at industry. Together the group drafted Ten rinciples for #rctic Tourism and practical codes of conduct for tour operators and tourists 5see )urther information. support of conser&ation. researchers and community representati&es.B%#8& WWF Codes of conduct in the Arctic The #rctic’s large wilderness areas and uni+ue communities are attract' ing increasing numbers of tourists. (() assembled a broad group of tour operators. and safety guidance. ((). Decently. The 10 principles are used as criteria for the award. nature managers. also based on the 10 principles and codes of conduct. awareness'raising. inside bac* co&er7. )or e0ample.
These should co&er economic performance. &isitor satisfaction and en&ironmental changes. ro$ects will be considerably strengthened by regular monitoring and feedbac* to assess success and identify wea*nesses that may need to be ad$usted. tour operators and local people. all bodies pro&iding assistance ta*e care to impart *now'how to local indi&iduals and organisations throughout the course of the pro$ect3 .A7 and in (()'8B’s tour operator wor* 5see p. a strategy of long'term local ownership is maintained3 and . an -e0it strategy’ is wor*ed out at an early stage3 . local community reaction and wellbeing. 2ertifi' cation and award schemes can play a role in maintaining as well as establish' ing good practice. has been a tendency not to continue satisfactorily after the life of the aid pro' gramme.1F7.%+ *onitoring performance and ensuring continuity 5cotourism proHects should be designed and managed for long-term $iability and success@ # recurring problem with many community'based ecotourism pro$ects that ha&e been established as part of e0ternally funded and assisted initiati&es. a reasonable time span is allotted to the pro$ect so that withdrawal of assistance does not occur too early3 . +2 . )eedbac* and other monitoring processes ha&e been addressed in the pro$ect in 4abah 5see p. Training of local participants in monitoring processes may be re+uired. use is made of national or local authority and pri&ate sector support that may be ongoing. 4imple indicators should be agreed and made *nown to the community. =onitoring should be *ept simple and feedbac* should be obtained from &isitors. It is &ery important that1 .
www.tourismconcern. (() International. December 1@@C. (() International 5"0017.org 2onser&ation International. (()'8B 5"0007.$urther information WWF contacts International coordination on tourism issues :&erall tourism coordination1 Menny . Tourism Issue apers. 2ultural 4ur&i&al Kuarterly.orgEtourism (orld Tourism :rganisation 5(T:7.org O ?@ 0! C66@ F??@ 2arpathian Harge 2arni&ore ro$ect1 2hristoph christophNclcp. Trine =athisen. (() International 51@@!7. www.org O61 "" ?!6 @A 6" Tourism and the 2on&ention on . canottNiafrica. rinciples and 2odes of 2onduct for tourists and tour operators. $heapNwwfint.org Bther information on specific topics TI%4 51@@?7. 2ambridgeE84#. (T: 5(orld Tourism :rganisation7 5"00071 Sustainable Development of Tourism ' & Compilation of !ood ractices.studien*reis. www. (() International 5"0017. trmathisenNwwf.conser&ation.no3ledge Folder on Tourism Ihttp<JJintranet@panda@orgK and on the WWF capacity building 3ebsite& The E.on: principles for sustainable tourism.org %co'tip database.na O"!6 !1 ""C A0!E@ (()'=alaysia1 #ndrew 9g.org. =adridE4pain.ecotourism.eap. es&oronouNwwfnet. #rlingtonE84#.org O?! @! 6? ?@ "A (() =editerranean rogramme1 eter de . Tourism and 2onser&ation rogramme1 4ergio 4ala/ar 4al&ati.DesponsibleTra&el. www. /*unNpanpar*s. IDD92 P HI)% rogramme1 2olin 9ott. #cciRn. TI%4 5"0007. www.no O6F "" 0? !A 1F (() in 9amibia.com (()'Greece1 %leni 4&oronou.org #omprehensi$e commentaries and manuals on ecotourism #shley. %schbornEGermany. ". Hatin #merica and 2aribbean Di&ision. rotecting Indigenous Culture and "and through Ecotourism. #mTrica <erde. Sustainable Tourism as a Development Option: ractical !uide for "ocal lanners# Developers and Decision $a%ers.org. HondonE8B www.ra/il. =adridE4pain.net. (or*ing aper 9o. Ecotourism !uidelines for /ature Tour Operators. (()'8B 5"0007.ungary. 9orth .uneptie. 2. Tourism Certification. (()'84. 2ertification 2limate 2hange G#T4 Tourism osition Statement.org. = 51@@C7. )ederal =inistry for %conomic 2o'operation and De&elopmentEGTG 5Deutsche Gesellschaft fQr Technische Gusammenarbeit Gmb. (() #rctic rogramme 51@@F7.iological Di&ersity1 Gordon 4hepherd.org. TI%4 51@@? P 1@@C7. 9orth .11.br OAA !1 ?!6 F6 00 #9 ar*s1 Goltan Bun. (() International 5"0017.eco'tip. (() International.my (()'. Indigenous eoples and Conservation: WW2 Statement of rinciples.rine.com. Brganisations pro$iding ad$ice and contacts on ecotourism The International %cotourism 4ociety 5TI%47. Tourism 2oncern.org O61 "" ?!6 @A ?" =ainstream tourism1 Mustin (oolford. The Community Tourism !uide ' E0citing 1olidays for +esponsible Travellers. www. 4upplementary <olumes on1 #sia and the acific3 Hatin #merica and the 2aribbean3 4ub'4aharan #frica. P (esche. www. Di&ision of Technology. www.no O6F "" 0? !A 00 Further information on tourism 3ithin WWF can also be accessed $ia the WWF Intranet .oo. Germany L To Do awards. Tourism -ac%ground aper. Enhancing Community Involvement in Wildlife Tourism: Issues and Challenges. (()'8B $woolfordNwwf.enningtonE84#. Tourism and Carnivores# The Challenge &head. .-ased Ecotourism in the Ecuadorian &ma. #ase study material Drumm. www.org Tourism 2oncern 5"0007. pdebrineNwwfmedpo.on. ssmithNwwf. &/ ar%s Courier 34uarterly 5ournal6. . angNwwf. +esponsible Tourism in the $editerranean# current threats and opportunities. go&iedoNwwfint. The -usiness of Ecolodges. Ecotourism: & guide for planners and managers ' (ols ) and *. II%D 5International Institute for %n&ironment and De&elopment7 (ildlife and De&elopment 4eries 9o. General and specific information on community and e+uity issues in tourism.ro O60 @6'A?" F@C romberger. $eeting the !lobal Challenge of Community articipation in Ecotourism ' Case Studies and "essons from Ecuador. Desponsible tourism membership organisation offering free promotion to community initiati&es. (() International. tin$auNtm.org O?0 1 ??1 6C @? (()'9orway. Done I333@33f)no3ledge@orgK WWF documents and reports -eyond the !reen 1ori. Tourism 2oncern P (()'8B 51@@"7.org. 4ummer 1@@@. sergioNwwf. !uide for "ocal &uthorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism. The 9ature 2onser&ancy.org O61 "" ?!6 @" 0F 2ommunity'based ecotourism1 Gon/alo :&iedo. (T: 5(orld Tourism :rganisation7 51@@@7. 4tudien*reis fQr Tourismus. Ecotourism: The otentials and itfalls.toinitiati&e. #.u* Information on tour operators and products 89% Tour :perators Initiati&e.7.enningtonE84#. P Doe.enningtonE84#. % 51@@07. GTG 51@@@7. 9orth .org 8nited 9ations %n&ironment rogramme 589% 7. D 51@@@7. D 51@@C7. %pler (ood.world'tourism. gshepherdNwwfint. #ma/onSaE%cuador. Defending our +ainforest: & !uide to Community. (() =editerranean rogramme :ffice 5"0007.u* O66 16C? 61" A0C #ountry& 4rogramme& and 4roHect contacts (() #rctic rogramme1 4amantha 4mith. (() International. Industry and %conomics. "in%ing Tourism and Conservation in the &rctic.tourismconcern. . TI%4 5eds7 51@@@7.u* Desponsible Tra&el.my O!0 ? F0? ?F F" 4abah pro$ect1 =artin aul <ogel.
registered charity number 10. www:panda:org WWF-:. 5nsuring mar)et realism and effecti$e promotion .2( 4anda symbol L 12. 4utting for3ard 6uality products ! #trengthening benefits to the community and the environment 2 'anaging impacts 10 4ro$iding technical support 11 Bbtaining the support of $isitors and tour operators 12 'onitoring performance and ensuring continuity The mission of WWF G the global en$ironment net3or) G is to stop the degradation of the planet s natural en$ironment and to build a future in 3hich humans li$e in harmony 3ith nature& by< N conser$ing the 3orld s biological di$ersity N ensuring that the use of rene3able resources is sustainable N promoting the reduction of pollution and 3asteful consumption Ta ing action for a living planet &&$ International -$enue du 'ont 0lanc 112* Cland& %3it1erland t< 00 "1 22 !*" 2111 f< 00 "1 22 !*" "2!.company limited by guarantee number "01*. .12".Guidelines summary flowchart A Considering whether ecotourism is an appropriate option 1 #onsidering the potential conser$ation gain 2 #hec)ing the preconditions for ecotourism ! -dopting an integrated approach " Finding the best 3ay to in$ol$e the community ( Wor)ing together on an agreed strategy * 5nsuring en$ironmental and cultural integrity C !eveloping viable community-based ecotourism pro"ects .* WWF M WWF registered trademar) 4rinted on recycled paper made from 100 per cent post consumer 3aste 4roHect number 1!2.JJuly 2001 B Planning ecotourism with communities and other sta eholders .